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Sample records for age waist circumference

  1. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  2. [Relationship between hypertension and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y Q; Liu, Y; Zheng, S L; Yang, Y; Fan, S; Yang, C; Zhang, J H; Ye, Y L

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To assess the relationship between hypertension and BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents in Luzhou, Sichuan province. Methods: A total of 2 033 middle-aged and elderly local residents aged 35-69 years were enrolled from Luzhou through stratified cluster sampling from March 27 to April 20, 2015. A face-to-face questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted by trained investigators. Results: The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 43.48%. The overweight rate, obesity rate, centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist-hip ratio) were 42.5%, 14.6%, 48.4% and 74.0%, respectively. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that gender and age were related to the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with age group <40 years, the OR values were 2.066 and 4.756 respectively in age groups 45-60 and ≥60 years. After control the confounding effect of gender and age, overweight, obesity and centrality obesity (calculated according to waist circumference) were risk factors for hypertension, waist-hip ratio was not used in the regression equation. BMI and waist circumference or waist-hip ratio had combined effect on the prevalence of hypertension. Compared with the normal adults, the risk for hypertension increased as the increase of the level of overweight and obesity [OR from 1.524 (95%CI: 1.044-2.226) to 4.461 (95%CI: 3.405-6.326) and OR from 1.569 (95%CI: 1.134-2.171) to 5.468 (95%CI: 3.797-7.876)]. Conclusions: The influences of BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio on the prevalence of hypertension were significant, but the influence of waist circumference on hypertension was greater than waist-hip ratio. Keeping normal bodyweight might be one of the effective hypertension prevention measures.

  3. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference.

  4. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  5. Conflicting effects of BMI and waist circumference on iron status.

    PubMed

    Choma, Solomon Simon Ramphai; Alberts, Marianne; Modjadji, Sewela Elizabeth Perpetua

    2015-10-01

    The association between obesity and iron status has a long history and is still receiving attention. However comparative analysis of the association between general obesity (BMI) and visceral obesity (waist circumference) with iron status has not been extensively researched. The aim of the present study is thus to determine if body mass index and waist circumference have the same correlation with iron status. One thousand one hundred and thirty people (225 men and 905 women) aged 30 years and above participated in this study. Anthropometric parameters, haemoglobin, iron and total iron binding capacity concentrations were measured using standard methods. Percentage transferrin saturation was calculated and ferritin concentrations were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Obese or overweight women had significantly lower iron and transferrin saturation concentration when compared to non-obese women. In contrast, women with high waist circumference had comparable plasma iron and transferrin saturation to women with normal waist circumference. Partial correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that BMI is negatively and significantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration, whilst waist circumference is positively but insignificantly associated with plasma iron, transferrin saturation, Hb and ferritin concentration. Binary regression analysis showed that obese or overweight people are more likely to have iron deficiency, whilst those with raised waist circumference are more likely to have iron overload. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index is negatively and significantly associated with low iron status, while waist circumference is positively and insignificantly associated with iron status. This is supported by a comparison of plasma iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin concentrations in participants with high body mass index and normal waist circumference and participants with

  6. Measuring Waist Circumference in Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; Ligthart, K. A. M.; Kramer, J.; Hoeve, S.; van der Schans, C. P.; Haisma, H. H.

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to determine the validity…

  7. Body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xin; Song, Zhen-ya; Zhao, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged Chinese women. Methods: A total of 3011 women (1938 young women, 1073 middle-aged women), who visited our health care center for a related health checkup, were eligible for study. BMI and WC were measured. The subjects were divided into normal and overweight/obesity groups based on BMI, and normal and abdominal obesity groups based on WC. Cardiometabolic variables included triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in middle-aged women (32.4%) than in young women (12.0%). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was also higher in middle-aged women (60.3%) than in young women (36.2%). There were significant differences in the comparison of all related cardiometabolic variables between different BMI (or WC) categories in young and middle-aged women groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, partial correlation analysis indicated that both BMI and WC were correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables. After adjustment for age and WC, although the correlation coefficient r′ was attenuated, BMI was still correlated significantly with all related cardiometabolic variables in young and middle-aged women. After adjustment for age and BMI, partial correlation analysis showed that WC was correlated significantly with TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in young women and significantly with TG, HOMA-IR, and HDL-C in middle-aged women. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was high in Chinese young and middle-aged women. BMI was a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than WC in young and middle-aged women, and moreover, measurement of both WC and BMI

  8. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  9. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P < 0.001). Over 4.3 years, the prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from

  10. Neck circumference as an effective measure for identifying cardio-metabolic syndrome: a comparison with waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Shen, Yun; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Zhang, Xueli; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-03-01

    Neck circumference is a new anthropometric index for estimating obesity. We aimed to determine the relationship between neck circumference and body fat content and distribution as well as the efficacy of neck circumference for identifying visceral adiposity and metabolic disorders. A total of 1943 subjects (783 men, 1160 women) with a mean age of 58 ± 7 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the standard in the 2013 China Guideline. Analyses were conducted to determine optimal neck circumference cutoff points for visceral adiposity quantified by magnetic resonance imaging, and to compare the performance of neck circumference with that of waist circumference in identifying abdominal obesity and metabolic disorders. Visceral fat content was independently correlated with neck circumference. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve for the ability of neck circumference to determine visceral adiposity was 0.781 for men and 0.777 for women. Moreover, in men a neck circumference value of 38.5 cm had a sensitivity of 56.1 % and specificity of 83.5 %, and in women, a neck circumference value of 34.5 cm had a sensitivity of 58.1 % and specificity of 82.5 %. These values were the optimal cutoffs for identifying visceral obesity. There were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of metabolic syndrome and its components identified by an increased neck circumference and waist circumference. Neck circumference has the same power as waist circumference for identifying metabolic disorders in a Chinese population.

  11. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19 years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further.

  12. The relationship of age, body mass index and waist circumference with blood pressure in Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arnab; Roy, Sabyasachi; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers of Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to study the relationship of age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure. The mean age and the BMI of the subjects were 40.7 years (S.D. = 15.2) and 23.2 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.2), respectively. The mean SBP, DBP and MAP were 124.7 mmHg (S.D. = 7.8), 81.5 mmHg (S.D. = 5.7) and 95.9 mmHg (S.D. = 6.1), respectively. Age had similar significant (p < 0.001) correlations with BMI and WC. Age and WC were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with all the three blood pressure variables. In general, the correlations of BMI with SBP (r = 0.24, p < 0.01), DBP (r = 0.15, n.s.) and MAP (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) were weaker. Age controlled multiple regression analyses demonstrated that BMI did not have a significant effect of any blood pressure variable. However, WC had a significant impact (p < 0.0001) on SBP (t = 7.068), DBP (t = 5.190) and MAP (t = 6.387), even after adjusting for the effect of age. Moreover, even after age adjustment, percent variations in SBP (20.7%), DBP (12.5%) and MAP (17.2%) explained by WC were high. This significant impact (p < 0.0001) of WC on SBP (t = 9.426), DBP (t = 8.349) and MAP (t = 9.642) remained even after controlling for the combined effects of age and BMI.

  13. Coronary heart disease incidence in women by waist circumference within categories of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Canoy, Dexter; Cairns, Benjamin J; Balkwill, Angela; Wright, F Lucy; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian; Beral, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and large waist circumference are separately associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk but these measures are highly correlated. Their separate associations with incident CHD, cross-classifying one variable by the other, are less investigated in large-scale studies. We examined these associations in a large UK cohort (the Million Women Study), which is a prospective population-based study. We followed 496,225 women (mean age 60 years) with both waist circumference and BMI measurements who had no vascular disease or cancer. Adjusted relative risk and 20-year cumulative CHD incidence (first coronary hospitalization or death) from age 55 to 74 years were calculated using Cox regression. Plasma apolipoproteins were assayed in 6295 randomly selected participants. There were 10,998 incident coronary events after mean follow up of 5.1 years. Within each BMI category (<25, 25-29.9, ≥30 kg/m(2)), CHD risk increased with increasing waist circumference; within each waist circumference category (<70, 70-79.9, ≥79 cm), CHD risk increased with increasing BMI. The cumulative CHD incidence was lowest in women with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference <70 cm, with 1 in 14 (95% confidence interval 1 in 12 to 16) women developing CHD in the 20 years from age 55 to 74 years, and highest in women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and waist circumference ≥80 cm, with 1 in 8 (95% confidence interval 1 in 7 to 9) women developing CHD over the same period. Similar associations for apolipoprotein B to A1 ratio across adiposity categories were observed, particularly in non-obese women. Our conclusions were that both waist circumference and BMI are independently associated with incident CHD.

  14. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus; Halkjaer, Jytte; Holst, Claus; Forouhi, Nita G; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5·5 years. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Among all participants, the average annual change in waist circumference was - 0·01 cm/10 g higher total fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·01, 0·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became slightly wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by sex, age or waist circumference at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference.

  15. [Relation between waist circumference and risk of male lung cancer incidence: a prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Xie, S H; Wang, G; Guo, L W; Chen, S H; Su, K; Li, F; Chang, S; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Chen, Y H; Ren, J S; Cui, H; Li, N; Wu, S L; Dai, M; He, J

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between waist circumference and risk of male lung cancer incidence. Methods: Since May 1, 2006, all the male employees including the retirees in Kailuan Group had been recruited into a Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort study. Information on anthropometries including body weight, height and waist circumference were collected at the baseline investigation, as well as information on newly-diagnosed lung cancer cases during the follow-up period. Waist circumference was grouped by quintiles of the population waist circumference distribution and categorized into the following five groups: <80, 80-, 85-, 90- and ≥95 cm, with the relevant normal group, the second quintile group (80-cm), serving as the referent category. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between levels of waist circumference and risk of lung cancer. Results: A total of 105 386 males were recruited in the study, with 739 651.13 person-years of follow-up and an average follow-up period of 7.00 years. By the end of 2014, a total of 707 lung cancer cases were identified in the cohort study. Compared with males having the 80-cm of waist circumference, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer were 1.17(0.90-1.52), 0.96(0.74-1.23), 0.94(0.72-1.21) and 0.80(0.63-1.03) for the <80, 85-, 90- and ≥95 cm of waist circumference, after adjustment for potential confounding factors including age, education level, smoking status and pack-year amount, alcohol consumption, physical activities, environment for working place and the prevalence on diabetes. The inverse association existed in smokers (≥95 cm compared to 80-cm of waist circumference: HR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.48-0.99) and alcohol drinkers (≥95 cm compared to 80-cm of waist circumference: HR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.45-0.94) when analysis was conducted in subgroups stratified by smoking or alcohol drinking status. Conclusion: Waist circumference

  16. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  17. Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference in men and women: The Scottish MONICA surveys 1989--1995.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoling; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Socioeconomic deprivation and waist circumference were measured in three Scottish MONICA cross-sectional surveys of 2233 men and 2516 women aged 25-64 years in 1989-1995. Means of waist circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) increased with level of deprivation (measured by the Carstairs index) more significantly in women than in men, and more significantly in non-smokers than in current-smokers. Their obesity cases defined by conventional cut-points showed similar patterns of relation to deprivation. There appeared to be more obviously consistent and significant increases in the prevalence of large waist circumference with deprivation for both sexes than in the prevalence of WHR and BMI above the 90th centile. Also there was a more significant trend of increase in waist circumference over time than there was in WHR and BMI for both sexes. Residual case-control analysis, controlling for height, showed a 'dose-response' relationship between deprivation and waist circumference. Compared to the most affluent (the first tertile of the Carstairs score), odds ratio for men in the middle group (the second tertile) adjusted for age, survey year and smoking status was 1.37 (95%CI 1.10-1.70) and in the most deprived (the third tertile) 1.46 (1.17-1.82); and for women 1.22 (0.99-1.50) and 1.81 (1.47-2.23). The study suggests that large waist circumference, increasingly prevalent, is directly related to socioeconomic deprivation, and greater attention should be paid to increasing girth in the socially deprived.

  18. Body mass index, waist circumference and employment: evidence from older Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Irene

    2013-12-01

    Data from the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing are used to examine the relationship between fatness and obesity and employment status among older Irish adults. Employment status is regressed on one of the following measures of fatness: BMI and waist circumference entered linearly as continuous variables and obesity as a categorical variable defined using both BMI and waist circumference. Controls for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics in childhood and physical, mental and behavioural health are also included. The regression results for women indicate that all measures of fatness are negatively associated with the probability of being employed and that the employment elasticity associated with waist circumference is larger than the elasticity associated with BMI. The results for men indicate that employment is not significantly associated with BMI and waist circumference when these are entered linearly in the regression, but it is significantly and negatively associated with obesity defined either using BMI or waist circumference as categorical variables. The results also indicate that the negative association between obesity and employment status is larger among women. For example, the probability of being employed for the obese category defined using BMI is around 8 percentage points lower for women and 5 percentage points lower for men.

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, N; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, R; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people. PMID:9196645

  20. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M.; Hsiung, Chao A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index. We used baseline measurements (2009–2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years). In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35–0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33–0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA. A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly. PMID:28178143

  1. Preliminary data on the association between waist circumference and insulin resistance in children without a previous diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Palmeros-Exsome, Carolina; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ortega, Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the association between different anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance (IR) in Spanish schoolchildren without a previous diagnosis. A total of 443 Spanish schoolchildren (9-11 years of age) were studied in this cross-sectional study. The anthropometric measurements collected were weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds. Body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, percentage body fat and fat-free body mass were determined. Overnight-fasted blood lipids, insulin and glucose levels were analysed, and estimation of IR, taking into account the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was calculated. The children with IR had higher serum triglycerides and insulin levels, were heavier and taller, and had a higher BMI, a larger waist circumference, a larger hip circumference, a larger waist/hip ratio and thicker bicipital and tricipital skinfolds than those who did not have IR. Age, sex, BMI and waist circumference explained 32.0% of the variance in the HOMA values; only sex, triglycerides and waist circumference independently influenced this variable. A 1-cm increase in waist circumference was associated with approximately a 3.8% increase in the mean HOMA value. The children with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex were at greater risk of showing IR as measured by the HOMA: odds ratio = 6.94 (2.01-23.91; P < 0.001). In conclusion, according to these results, waist circumference is the best anthropometric parameter associated with IR in children, and those with a waist circumference of over the p90 for their age and sex would appear to be at particular risk.

  2. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers.

    PubMed

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance.

  3. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance. PMID:27134346

  4. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Leonardo G.O.; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P.; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D.D.; Carmo, Bruno C.M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. PMID:26972616

  5. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Height Ratio Distributions in Polish and German Schoolchildren: Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Schwandt, Peter; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between Polish (PL) and German (GE) children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL (n = 11,326) GE (n = 8,218) participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity) corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m) for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI) prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower (P < 0.05) than those from Germany (boys: 4.4% (3.6-5.2) vs. 8.9% (7.3-10.5); girls: 10.7% (9.0-12.3) vs. 26.4% (23.2-29.6)), whereas, using the WHtR > 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5) vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9); they were significantly (P < 0.05) lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6) vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4). The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4) vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0), P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7) vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0), P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects. PMID:24049597

  6. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence), PA (physical activity), smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), CHOL (cholesterol), FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes). Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population. PMID:26770218

  7. Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; Levitt, Jennifer G; Phillips, Owen R; Luders, Eileen; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are often defined by the body mass index (BMI), which associates with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and possibly with dementia as well as variations in brain volume. However, body fat distribution and abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk than is BMI. While prior studies have revealed negative associations between gray matter tissue volumes and BMI, the relationship with respect to waist circumference remains largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effects of both BMI and waist circumference on local gray matter volumes in a group of 115 healthy subjects screened to exclude physical or mental disorders that might affect the central nervous system. Results revealed significant negative correlations for both BMI and waist circumference where regional gray matter effects were largest within the hypothalamus and further encompassed prefrontal, anterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum. However, associations were more widespread and pronounced for waist circumference than BMI. Follow-up analyses showed that these relationships differed significantly across gender. While associations were similar for both BMI and waist circumference for males, females showed more extensive correlations for waist circumference. Our observations suggest that waist circumference is a more sensitive indicator than BMI, particularly in females, for potentially determining the adverse effects of obesity and overweight on the brain and associated risks to health.

  8. A comparison of the clinical usefulness of neck circumference and waist circumference in individuals with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Assyov, Yavor; Gateva, Antoaneta; Tsakova, Adelina; Kamenov, Zdravko

    2017-02-01

    Purpose/Aim: Neck circumference (NC) is an emerging anthropometric parameter that has been proposed to reflect metabolic health. The aim of the current study was to compare its clinical usefulness to waist circumference (WC) in the assessment of individuals with severe obesity.

  9. Waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in relation to all-cause mortality, cancer and sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Seidell, J C

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal obesity assessed by waist or waist/hip ratio are both related to increased risk of all-cause mortality throughout the range of body mass index (BMI). The relative risks (RRs) seem to be relatively stronger in younger than in older adults and in those with relatively low BMI compared with those with high BMI. Absolute risks and risk differences are preferable measures of risk in a public health context but these are rarely presented. There is a great lack of studies in ethnic groups (groups of African and Asian descent particularly). Current cut-points as recommended by the World Health Organization seem appropriate, although it may be that BMI-specific and ethnic-specific waist cut-points may be warranted. Waist alone could replace both waist-hip ratio and BMI as a single risk factor for all-cause mortality. There is much less evidence for waist to replace BMI for cancer risk mainly because of the relative lack of prospective cohort studies on waist and cancer risk. Obesity is also a risk factor for sleep apnoea where neck circumference seems to give the strongest association, and waist-hip ratio is a risk factor especially in severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. The waist circumference and waist-hip ratio seem to be better indicators of all-cause mortality than BMI.

  10. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  11. Waist circumference threshold values for type 2 diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E

    2009-07-01

    Adult gains in body weight, excess adiposity, and intra-abdominal fat have each been associated with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), forming the basis for preventive medicine guidelines and actuarial predictions using practical indices of weight (e.g., body mass index [BMI]) and waist circumference (WC). As obesity-related disease spreads beyond affluent western countries, application of WC thresholds to other populations has highlighted issues of their generalizability. For example, U.S. national health goals based on BMI < 25 kg/m(2) and WC < 89 cm (women) and <102 cm (men) differ considerably with a recent law in Japan mandating intervention for older adults with WC exceeding 90 cm (women) and 85 cm (men). The U.S. military has also faced issues of generalizability of WC-based adiposity standards that are fair and achievable. Data from many studies indicate that WC is a reliable biomarker for T2DM risk, suggesting that, for adult men and women, action thresholds should be more stringent than current U.S. guidelines, and it would not be harmful to set worldwide targets somewhere below 90 cm for men and women, regardless of weight status. Medical technology has provided many great insights into disease, including modern imaging technologies that have differentiated fat depots that have the greatest influence on T2DM, but ultimately, an inexpensive measuring tape provides the most useful and cost-effective preventive measure for T2DM today. At some point in the future, a Star Trek-like abdominal body fat "tricorder" noninvasive assessment of tissue composition may provide an advantage over abdominal girth.

  12. Association of waist circumference with impaired six-minute walk in type 2 diabetes mellitus is independent of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Hong; Nolan, Mark; Negishi, Kazuaki; Burgess, John; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction has been associated with impaired exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this community-based study of 274 asymptomatic T2DM patients (71±4 years, 55% men) with preserved ejection fraction, a comprehensive resting echocardiogram was performed to gather sensitive systolic and diastolic function parameters (including speckle tracking echocardiography), and a standard six-minute walk test was performed. Tertiles of increasing waist circumference were associated with worsening walk distance. In this community-based study, we found an association of waist circumference with impaired exercise capacity, independent of age, gender, diabetes duration, insulin and angiotensin blockade, LV mass, systolic and diastolic function.

  13. Waist:height ratio, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome abnormalities in Colombian schooled adolescents: a multivariate analysis considering located adiposity.

    PubMed

    Agredo-Zúñiga, Ricardo Antonio; Aguilar-de Plata, Cecilia; Suárez-Ortegón, Milton Fabian

    2015-09-14

    Very few large studies in Latin America have evaluated the association between waist:height ratio (W-HtR) and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents. Further, multivariable analyses verifying the independence of located subcutaneous fat have not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of W-HtR and waist circumference (WC) with metabolic syndrome abnormalities and high LDL-cholesterol levels in schooled adolescents before and after adjusting for trunk skinfolds and BMI. The sample consisted of 831 boys and 841 girls aged 10-17 years. Biochemical, blood pressure and anthropometrical variables were measured. Age- and sex-specific quartiles of W-HtR and WC were used in Poisson regression models to evaluate the associations. High WC values (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) were associated with high TAG levels in both sexes (prevalence ratio, boys: 2·57 (95 % CI 1·91, 3·44); girls: 1·92 (95 % CI 1·49, 2·47); P0·05). High W-HtR (highest quartile v. quartiles 1-3) was only independently associated with high TAG in female adolescents (1·99 (95 % CI 1·55, 2·56); P<0·05). In conclusion, WC showed better association with cardiometabolic risk than W-HtR in the children of this study. This observation does not support W-HtR as a relevant adiposity marker for cardiovascular and metabolic risk in adolescence.

  14. Should waist circumference be replaced by index of central obesity (ICO) in definition of metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Parikh, R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S

    2012-01-01

    Waist circumference has been widely used as the parameter of central obesity in defining metabolic syndrome. Global consensus definition of metabolic syndrome has suggested various race- and gender-specific cutoffs of waist circumference for quantifying central obesity. We have earlier proposed that using index of central obesity (ICO), the need for race- and gender-specific cutoffs may be obviated. We propose that waist circumference be supplanted with index of central obesity in all definitions of metabolic syndrome. Using index of central obesity a common cutoff of 0.5 applicable across races and genders might be obtained. Moreover, it will enhance the sensitivity of definition by diagnosing subjects who are shorter than general population. Among 258 male and 242 female diabetic patients, subjects with metabolic syndrome (defined as per gender-specific waist circumference cutoffs), were found to have a common lower range of index of central obesity suggesting that a common cutoff of waist circumference may be obtained. In another study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database, replacing index of central obesity with waist circumference was found to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of definition of metabolic syndrome.

  15. Neck and waist circumference biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in a cohort of predominantly African-American college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Thaddeus J; Schweitzer, Amy; Hoffman, Heather J; Onyewu, Chiatogu; Hurtado, Maria Eugenia; Hoffman, Eric P; Klein, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the value of measuring neck and waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in college students (18 to 25 years of age). Participants (n=109) were 92% black, 62.4% female, 45.9% overweight or obese, and 20.2% prehypertensive or hypertensive. Overall, 41 (37.6%) students had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Percent body fat, assessed using whole-body air-displacement plethysmography, was positively correlated (P<0.0001) with neck and waist circumference (as measured at the midpoint between the right lower rib and suprailiac crest; hereafter "midpoint"). Neck circumference correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P ≤ 0.02) and both neck circumference and waist circumference-midpoint correlated with insulin (P ≤ 0.001) and triglycerides (P ≤ 0.002). The best-fit cutoffs were ≥ 83 cm waist circumference-midpoint and ≥ 88 cm waist circumference measured at the suprailiac crest for percent body fat in men and ≥ 75 cm waist circumference-midpoint for metabolic syndrome in women. The proportion of overweight and prehypertensive individuals among self-described healthy students underscores the need for screening tools that identify those who might benefit most from health interventions. Waist circumference-midpoint provides a simple yet sensitive method for the estimation of percent body fat and metabolic syndrome risk in primarily African-American college students. The novel use of neck circumference should be further investigated.

  16. Predictors of metabolic syndrome in the Iranian population: waist circumference, body mass index, or waist to hip ratio?

    PubMed

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Andalib, Elham; Talaie, Mohammad; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaie, Esmaiel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to hip ratio (WHR) could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome and, if so, what would be the cutoff points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate metabolic syndrome in different age and sex subgroups. Methods. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS). In total, 468 individuals (194 with and 274 subjects without metabolic syndrome) according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were measured and plotted using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. According to ROC curve analysis, WC and WHR parameters were better indicators of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI in women, whereas in men WHR had a lower discriminating value compared to the other two parameters. Among these three anthropometric parameters, BMI had a lower sensitivity and WC and WHR both had a higher sensitivity for predicting metabolic syndrome in women compared with in men. The cut points for WC were nearly equal in men and women, 90.3 versus 90.0, respectively. Women had higher cut points for BMI (28.5 kg/m(2)) compared to men (26.0 kg/m(2)). Our results showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for WC cut points specially in women. To predict metabolic syndrome, we looked into optimal age-specific cut points for BMI, WC, and WHR. The results indicated that WC had the highest discriminating value compared to other indicators in the different age subgroups. The optimal cut points for all three parameters gradually increased with age. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that regardless of gender and age variables, WC could be a preferred parameter for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WHR in Iranian population.

  17. Is waist circumference ≥102/88cm better than body mass index ≥30 to predict hypertension and diabetes development regardless of gender, age group, and race/ethnicity? Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Choe, Siyoung; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2017-04-01

    Between body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and waist circumference (WC) ≥102/88cm, we investigated which of the two measures is a better predictor of two of the most common chronic diseases - diabetes mellitus and hypertension while also examining differential association by gender, age group, and race/ethnicity. Meta-analysis was conducted for all longitudinal studies with at least 12months of follow-up published up to April 2015. Ratio of relative risk (rRR) and relative risk of diseases were computed and compared by baseline obesity measurement. The final sample included 23 longitudinal observation studies involving 62 study arms with 259,200 individuals. WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor than BMI≥30 for development of diabetes (rRR=0.81, 95% CI=0.68-0.96), but not for hypertension (rRR=0.92, 95% CI=0.80-1.06). Subgroup analyses showed WC≥102/88cm was a better predictor for diabetes in women than men, and for ages 60 and older than other ages. Only WC≥102/88cm, not BMI≥30, predicted development of hypertension among Hispanic/Latinos. Neither BMI≥30 nor WC≥102/88cm were significant predictors of hypertension when age group was controlled. Central obesity may be a more serious risk factor for diabetes development in women and for older ages. The predictive power of BMI≥30 or WC≥102/88cm in hypertension development should not be emphasized as either could mask the effect of age.

  18. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Ewertowska, Marlena; Arndt, Adam; Junik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension. According to the 2005 IDF criteria, subsequently revised in 2009, abdominal obesity is identified as the waist circumference of ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men. It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with hypertension, lipid disorders, and carbohydrate disorders. A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. The study group consisted of 839 patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome: 345 men (41.1%) and 494 women (58.9%) aged 32-80. In the study group, WC was found to be significantly correlated with BMI (R = 0.78, P < 0.01). The presence of overweight in men (BMI 25, 84 kg/m(2)) and even normal body weight in women (BMI 21,62 kg/m(2)) corresponds to an increased volume of visceral tissue in the abdomen. Introduction of primary prophylaxis in those people to limit the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases should be considered.

  19. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Ewertowska, Marlena; Arndt, Adam; Junik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of coexisting metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, lipid disorders, carbohydrate disorders, and arterial hypertension. According to the 2005 IDF criteria, subsequently revised in 2009, abdominal obesity is identified as the waist circumference of ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men. It is responsible for the development of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate a correlation between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation with hypertension, lipid disorders, and carbohydrate disorders. A cross-sectional two-site study was conducted in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship for 24 months. The study group consisted of 839 patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome: 345 men (41.1%) and 494 women (58.9%) aged 32–80. In the study group, WC was found to be significantly correlated with BMI (R = 0.78, P < 0.01). The presence of overweight in men (BMI 25, 84 kg/m2) and even normal body weight in women (BMI 21,62 kg/m2) corresponds to an increased volume of visceral tissue in the abdomen. Introduction of primary prophylaxis in those people to limit the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases should be considered. PMID:24729884

  20. Blood pressure and waist circumference: an empirical study of the effects of waist circumference on blood pressure among Bengalee male jute mill workers of Belur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Ghosh, Arnab; Roy, Sabyasachi; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2003-07-01

    An investigation of 150 adult Bengalee Hindu male jute mill workers in Belur, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, was conducted to study the relationship between central obesity and blood pressure. In accordance with their waist circumference measurement, the subjects were divided into two categories: centrally non-obese (CNO) and centrally obese (CO). The participants were classified as the CO group if they had a WC of 80 cm or more. Results showed that none of the CNO subjects was mild hypertensive (SBP>/=140 mmHg and/or DBP>/=90 mmHg) while 85 of the CO subjects (82.5%) were mild hypertensives, the difference being statistically significant (chi-square=9.33; p<0.0025). Moreover, the data also revealed that the CO subjects had much (p<0.001) greater mean weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressure than the CNO group members. The significant difference in blood pressure was found even after correcting the confounding effects of age and BMI variables. The results of this study showed that, the Bengalee male jute mill workers in the CO group had significantly higher blood pressure irrespective of age and overall adiposity (BMI). Therefore, the presence of central obesity is deemed a risk factor, for hypertension regardless of age and BMI. Thus, a WC cut-off point of 80 cm could be employed for health promotion among Bengalee men so as to prevent and manage hypertension effectively.

  1. The relationship between body mass index, waist circumference and psoriatic arthritis in the Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Onsun, Nahide; Topukçu, Bugce; Su, Ozlem; Bahalı, Anil Gulsel; Dizman, Didem; Rezvani, Aylin; Uysal, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disease predominantly affecting the skin, with a complex aetiology. Recently it has been suggested that the chronic inflammation of psoriasis may cause metabolic and vascular disorders. The relationship between obesity and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is not clear, and there are insufficient prospective studies addressing this subject. Aim To investigate the relationship between psoriatic arthritis, severity of psoriasis and obesity in the Turkish population. Material and methods Patient data from psoriasis outpatient clinics from February 2007 to July 2013 were reviewed retrospectively using the Psoriasis-Turkey (PSR-TR) registration system. Patients’ age, onset age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and arthritis information were reviewed. In the outpatient clinics, patients who had joint pain consulted rheumatology clinics. The CASPAR criteria were used for the diagnosis of arthritis. Results A total of 443 males and 495 females enrolled in this study. The mean age of females was 43.9 years (18–93 years) and the mean age of males was 44.6 years (18–89 years). A total of 231 (25%) patients had psoriatic arthritis. Investigation of the relationship between PASI, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and arthritis revealed a statistically significant relationship between each variable. Conclusions In this study we observed a relationship between PsA and high BMI, high WC and high PASI. Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder and a chronic inflammatory state induced by adiposity may lead to PsA. PMID:27512358

  2. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  3. Amerindians normalized waist circumference and obesity diagnosis standarized by biochemical and HLA data.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Areces, Cristina; Arribas, Ignacio; Coca, Carmen; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Abd-El-Fatah, Sedeka; Rey, Diego

    2012-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity are principal causes of morbidity all over the World, particularly for their association to cardiovascular risk. Amerindians are often living in countries and remote areas with unavailable sophisticated diagnoses methodologies. However, waist-circumference is a reliable and easy to record parameter of visceral obesity and MS. Waist circumference normal values are not yet established in Amerindians: South Asian and Japanese values have been recommended for Amerindian use. The purpose of this study is to objectively define for the first time the waist circumference measure cut-off points for Amerindians. A total of 303 unrelated Amerindian adults recently immigrated to Madrid were studied; they were healthy, since they were questioned and tested as appropriate for blood donation. Waist-circumference was measured in these voluntary blood donors after written consent. Chosen subjects for study had HLA quasi-specific Amerindian genes and not gained weight since their relatively short time living in Spain. Amerindians with Type I or II diabetes or family antecedents were removed from the study. The biochemical parameter used to define normality for MS was the reliable serum HDL-cholesterol levels, whose values are diet independent. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to find out the optimal cut-off points of waist circumference normal values. Cut-off points were ≤88.5 cm in males and ≤82.5 cm in females; these values were close to the median values (88 and 82.2 cm, respectively). Obtained waist circumference values recorded here in normal Amerindians are different to those previously recommended indirectly (those of South Asian/Japanese populations). These parameters may be of great value for American countries health care in order to predict and control MS and its cardiovascular complications. Other countries having a heavy Amerindian immigration (i.e.: USA, Spain) may

  4. Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation.

  5. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John C; Elliott, Paul; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Yun; Froguel, Philippe; Balding, David; Scott, James; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2008-06-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (318,237 SNPs) for insulin resistance and related phenotypes in 2,684 Indian Asians, with further testing in 11,955 individuals of Indian Asian or European ancestry. We found associations of rs12970134 near MC4R with waist circumference (P = 1.7 x 10(-9)) and, independently, with insulin resistance. Homozygotes for the risk allele of rs12970134 have approximately 2 cm increased waist circumference. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with risk of adiposity and insulin resistance.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of waist circumference as a single screening tool for identification of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M

    2011-12-01

    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low

  7. Height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference references for 7- to 17-year-old children from rural Portugal.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R; Baxter-Jones, A; Souza, M; Santos, D; Maia, J

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to develop references of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat for rural Portuguese children and adolescents and (2) to compare these results with other international references. The sample comprised 3094 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from Vouzela, a central region in Portugal. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and body fat were measured. Centile curves were constructed using the LMS method. The Vouzela sample showed similar height median values compared to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) percentile curves but greater values for weight and BMI. Percent body fat 50th percentile was greater in Vouzela children and adolescents compared to their international peers, except for boys aged 8-12 years. Boys' waist circumference median values were similar to those from the USA, whilst girls were similar until 12 years of age, after which the differences increased with age. The percentile curves constructed provide population specific references for growth and body composition of children and adolescents from rural Portugal. It is expected that they will be a useful tool for clinical and public health settings in rural Portugal.

  8. Waist circumference and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Marijnissen, Radboud M; Naudé, Petrus J W; Comijs, Hannie C; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-03-01

    Both visceral obesity and depression are associated with impaired health and excess mortality, possibly through overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms like adipose tissue derived inflammatory markers. These results, however, are primarily based on population-based surveys, often restricted to a young population and depression severity scales instead of patients with established diagnosis of depressive disorder. We examined the relation between waist circumference and late-life depression using the baseline data of The Netherlands Study of Depression in Older people (NESDO). Psychopathology has been assessed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 2.1. Adjusted for age, sex, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, physical activity), drug use, cognition and chronic diseases as well as adjusted for body mass index (BMI), analysis of covariance showed that depressed older patients (n=376) had a significantly lower waist circumference (WC) compared to their non-depressed comparisons (n=130): estimated marginal mean (SE)=93.9 (0.5) versus 97.8 (0.8) cm (F=15.9; df=1467; p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses within the depressed group showed that both, depression severity (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms) as well as duration-related depression characteristics (age of onset, duration of illness, life-time comorbid dysthymia), were associated with the WC. Only the severity of depressive symptoms remained significant after further adjusted for the BMI. Interestingly, a recently discovered adipokine, Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), was associated with late-life depression, but only in the subgroup of patients with a pathologically increased WC. Population-based findings on the positive association between obesity and depressive symptoms can thus not be generalised to a clinical sample of depressed older patients. The impact of the WC on course and treatment outcome of late-life depression should be examined in clinical samples

  9. Comparisons of Waist Circumference Measurements at Five Different Anatomical Sites in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the waist circumference (WC) measurements of Chinese children at different sites to determine the relationship between WC measurements and body fat. WC was measured at five sites in 255 subjects aged 9–19 years: immediately below the lowest rib (WC1), at the narrowest waist (WC2), the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WC3), 1 cm above the umbilicus (WC4), and immediately above the iliac crest (WC5). Body fat mass (FM), body fat percentage (% BF), body fat mass in the trunk (FM in the trunk), and fat percentage in the trunk (% BF in the trunk) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WCs were then compared through ANOVA with repeated measurement. The relationship of WC of each site with FM, % BF, FM in the trunk, and % BF in the trunk was examined through partial correlation. The WCs exhibited the following pattern: WC2 < WC1 < WC3 < WC4 < WC5 (p < 0.001) in males and WC2 < WC1 < WC4, WC3 < WC5 (p < 0.001) in females. The measured WCs were strongly correlated with FM, % BF, FM in the trunk, and % BF in the trunk. The WC measurements at five commonly used sites among Chinese children are different from one another. Results indicate that standardizing the anatomic point for the WC measurements is necessary. PMID:28261614

  10. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  11. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  12. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  13. The effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly. The present study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight elderly individuals residing in J city were divided into 2 groups: 34 in the experimental group, who received Tai Chi training for 6 weeks, and 34 in the control group, who did not receive Tai Chi training. Simplified Yang style 24-form Tai Chi was used as the intervention, which was conducted for 60 minutes per session, 5 sessions per week, for a total of 6 weeks. In each session, subjects in the experimental group conducted 10 minutes of warm-up exercises, 45 minutes of Tai Chi, and 5 minutes of cool-down exercises. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Waist circumference and blood pressure decreased significantly after the 6-week intervention in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Tai Chi can be used as an effective intervention to improve waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly.

  14. Waist Circumference, Pedometer Placement, and Step-Counting Accuracy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Mark G.; Hannon, James C.; Eisenman, Patricia A.; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Pett, Marjorie; Williams, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in waist circumference (WC) and pedometer placement (anterior vs. midaxillary vs. posterior) affect the agreement between pedometer and observed steps during treadmill and self-paced walking. Participants included 19 pairs of youth (9-15 years old) who were matched for sex, race, and height and stratified by…

  15. The effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai Chi on waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly. The present study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight elderly individuals residing in J city were divided into 2 groups: 34 in the experimental group, who received Tai Chi training for 6 weeks, and 34 in the control group, who did not receive Tai Chi training. Simplified Yang style 24-form Tai Chi was used as the intervention, which was conducted for 60 minutes per session, 5 sessions per week, for a total of 6 weeks. In each session, subjects in the experimental group conducted 10 minutes of warm-up exercises, 45 minutes of Tai Chi, and 5 minutes of cool-down exercises. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured before and after the 6-week intervention. [Results] Waist circumference and blood pressure decreased significantly after the 6-week intervention in the experimental group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Tai Chi can be used as an effective intervention to improve waist circumference and blood pressure in the elderly. PMID:28210067

  16. Optimal cut-off values and population means of waist circumference in different populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Si, Damin

    2010-12-01

    Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, and has become a major public health problem in the world. Waist circumference is generally used as a simple surrogate marker to define abdominal obesity for population screening. An increasing number of publications solely rely on the method that maximises sensitivity and specificity to define 'optimal' cut-off values. It is well documented that the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference vary across different ethnicities. However, it is not clear if the variation in cut-off values is a true biological phenomenon or an artifact of the method for identifying optimal cut-off points. The objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between optimal cut-offs and population waist circumference levels. Among sixty-one research papers, optimal cut-off values ranged from 65·5 to 101·2 cm for women and 72·5 to 103·0 cm for men. Reported optimal cut-off values were highly correlated with population means (correlation coefficient: 0·91 for men and 0·93 for women). Such a strong association was independent of waist circumference measurement techniques or the health outcomes (dyslipidaemia, hypertension or hyperglycaemia), and existed in some homogeneous populations such as the Chinese and Japanese. Our findings raised some concerns about applying the sensitivity and specificity approach to determine cut-off values. Further research is needed to understand whether the differences among populations in waist circumference were genetically or environmentally determined, and to understand whether using region-specific cut-off points can identify individuals with the same absolute risk levels of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes among different populations.

  17. Waist circumference as a vital sign in cardiology 20 years after its initial publication in the American Journal of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-15

    In 1994, we reported in The American Journal of Cardiology that a simple anthropometric measurement, waist circumference, was related to the amount of abdominal visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography. An elevated waist circumference was also found to be associated with several features of the cardiometabolic risk profile such as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and an atherogenic dyslipidemic profile that included hypertriglyceridemia and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Although a linear relation was found between waist circumference and these metabolic alterations, we reported that a waist circumference value of about 100 cm was associated with a high probability of finding diabetogenic and atherogenic abnormalities. The present short report provides a brief update of issues that have been raised regarding the measurement of waist circumference and its clinical use over a period of 20 years since the original publication.

  18. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity.

  19. Waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference for screening paediatric cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo, K; Wong, M; Khalechelvam, P; Tam, W

    2016-12-01

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is superior to body mass index and waist circumference for measuring adult cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, there is no meta-analysis to evaluate its discriminatory power in children and adolescents. A meta-analysis was conducted using multiple databases, including Embase and Medline. Studies were included that utilized receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis and published area under the receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC) for adiposity indicators with hyperglycaemia, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and other cardio-metabolic outcomes. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. AUC values were extracted and pooled using a random-effects model and were weighted using the inverse variance method. The mean AUC values for each index were greater than 0.6 for most outcomes including hypertension. The values were the highest when screening for metabolic syndrome (AUC > 0.8). WHtR did not have significantly better screening power than other two indexes in most outcomes, except for elevated triglycerides when compared with body mass index and high metabolic risk score when compared with waist circumference. Although not being superior in discriminatory power, WHtR is convenient in terms of measurement and interpretation, which is advantageous in practice and allows for the quick identification of children with cardio-metabolic risk factors at an early age.

  20. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Jia, Chongqi; Ye, Weimin; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2010-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference were measured in 14,585 men and 26,144 women who participated in the Swedish National March. Their effects on all-cause mortality were analyzed with a follow-up time of almost 10 years. Sedentary men with a BMI ≥ 30 had a 98% (95% CI: 30-201%) increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight men with a high level of total PA. The same trend was observed for sedentary men with high WHR or waist circumference, compared to lean and highly active men. Sedentary women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more had almost doubled, i.e. 97% (95% CI: 35-189%) increased mortality risk compared to physically active women with a waist circumference below 80 cm. BMI in men, but waist circumference in women better forecast all-cause mortality. We found no substantial effect modification between different measures of adiposity and physical activity-physical inactivity and obesity seem to increase total mortality risk independently and additively.

  1. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  2. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference.

  3. Waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in the Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    So, Eun Sun; Yoo, Kwang Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim is to determine the appropriate cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean elderly population. We analyzed the WC cutoff values of four groups divided according to sex and age with a total of 2,224 elderly participants aged 65 years old and above from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using the receiver operating characteristic curve and multiple logistic regression. The WC cutoff values associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome were 89.6 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women for those who were 65 to 74 years old, and 89.9 cm for men and 87.9 cm for women for those who were 75 years old or older. WC cutoff points for estimating metabolic risk are similar in elderly men and women. Age-specific optimal WC cutoff points should be considered especially for elderly women in screening for metabolic syndrome.

  4. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  5. Attendance, weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lisa; O'Shea, Marie-Claire; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation and weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. A prospective observational study was conducted between January and September 2011 involving three private practice dietitians who provided services at 11 medical centres in south-east Queensland. All patients with T2D who were referred by their general practitioner (GP) to one of the dietitians as part of their team care arrangements were asked to participate. Participants' attendance at consultations was recorded for the study duration. The dietitian collected weight and waist circumference measures at each consultation. In all, 129 participants (mean age 58.9 ± 15.7 years; mean body mass index 32.2 ± 5.6 kgm⁻²) were included in the study. The most frequent number of consultations allocated to a dietitian was two. Small, but significant reductions in bodyweight (1.9 ± 2.9 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and waist circumference (2.0 ± 4.8 cm; P ≤ 0.05) were observed from the initial to final consultation. Participants who attended more than two consultations lost significantly more weight than those who attended two consultations only (3.7 ± 4.2 vs 1.1 ± 1.6 kg, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). Almost one-third of participants (n=38; 29%) did not complete the allocated number of consultations available through their referral. Modest weight and waist circumference reductions are achievable for patients with T2D receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. The clinical significance of these reductions requires further investigation. Patients who attend more consultations with a dietitian may experience further improvements in weight and waist circumference outcomes. However, many patients do not complete the number of consultations allocated. Further research is required to explore the determinants of attendance at consultations in order to maximise potential improvements in

  6. Homocysteine levels in morbidly obese patients: its association with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; de la Fuente, Miguel; Solá, Eva; Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, R; Laiz, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The association between morbid obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia (HH) remains controversial and the nature of this relationship needs to be clarified as several metabolic, lipidic, inflammatory and anthropometric alterations that accompany morbid obesity may be involved. In 66 morbidly obese patients, 47 women and 19 men aged 41 ± 12 years and 66 normo-weight subjects, 43 women and 23 men, aged 45 ± 11 years, we determined homocysteine (Hcy) levels along with lipidic, anthropometric, inflammatory and insulin resistance markers. In addition, we investigated the effect of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and its components on Hcy levels. Obese patients had statistically higher Hcy levels than controls: 12.76 ± 5.30 μM vs. 10.67 ± 2.50 μM; p = 0.006. Moreover, morbidly obese subjects showed higher waist circumference, glucose, insulin, HOMA, leptin, triglycerides, fibrinogen, C reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001, respectively), and lower vitamin B12 (p = 0.002), folic acid and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate regression analysis, waist circumference, glucose, leptin and folic acid levels were independent predictors for Hcy values (p < 0.050). When obese patients were classified as having MS or not, no differences in Hcy levels were found between the two groups (p = 0.752). Yet when we analysed separately each MS component, only abdominal obesity was associated with Hcy levels (p = 0.031). Moreover when considering glucose >110 mg/dL (NCEP-ATPIII criteria) instead of glucose intolerance >100 mg/dl (updated ATPIII criteria), it also was associated with HH (p = 0.042). These results were confirmed in the logistic regression analysis where abdominal obesity and glucose >115 mg/dL constitute independent predictors for HH (OR = 3.2; CI: 1.23-13.2; p = 0.032, OR: 4.6; CI: 1.7-22.2; p = 0.016, respectively). The results of our study indicate that increased Hcy levels are related mostly with abdominal obesity and with insulin resistance. Thus, HH may

  7. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p < 0.001) correlation was found between blood mercury concentration and BMI or waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p < 0.001) associated with BMI and waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  8. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  9. Waist-to-Hip Ratio is Related to Body Fat Content and Distribution Regardless of the Waist Circumference Measurement Protocol in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Nuno M; Santa-Clara, Helena; Melo, Xavier; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Silva-Nunes, José; Sardinha, Luís B

    2016-08-01

    Central accumulation and distribution of body fat (BF) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), commonly elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, has been endorsed as a risk related marker of central BF content and distribution, but no standardized waist circumference measurement protocol (WCmp) has been proposed. We aimed to investigate whether using different WCmp affects the strength of association between WHR and BF content and distribution in NAFLD patients. BF was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 28 NAFLD patients (19 males, 51 ± 13 years, and 9 females, 47 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC) was measured using four different WCmp (WC1: minimal waist; WC2: iliac crest; WC3: mid-distance between iliac crest and lowest rib; WC4: at the umbilicus) and WHR was calculated accordingly (WHR1, WHR2, WHR3 and WHR4, respectively). High WHR was found in up to 84.6% of subjects, depending on the WHR considered. With the exception of WHR1, all WHR correlated well with abdominal BF (r = .47 for WHR1; r = .59 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .58 for WHR4) and BF distribution (r = .45 for WHR1; r = .56 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .51 for WHR4), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). WHR2 and WHR3 diagnosed exactly the same prevalence of high WHR (76.9%). The present study confirms the strong relation between WHR and central BF, regardless of WCmp used, in NAFLD patients. WHR2 and WHR3 seemed preferable for use in clinical practice, interchangeably, for the diagnosis of high WHR in NAFLD patients.

  10. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  11. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight.

    PubMed

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars; Holst, Claus; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Halkjær, Jytte; Masala, Giovanna; Ostergaard, Jane N; Mortensen, Lotte M; van der A, Daphne L; Tjønneland, Anne; Palli, Domenico; Overvad, Kim; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-03-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.

  12. Head Circumference Charts for Turkish Children Aged Five to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    KARA, Bülent; ETİLER, Nilay; AYDOĞAN UNCUOĞLU, Ayşen; MARAŞ GENÇ, Hülya; ULAK GÜMÜŞLÜ, Esen; GÖKÇAY, Gülbin; FURMAN, Andrezej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most head circumference growth references are useful during the first years of life, but they are also useful for older children when screening for developmental, neurological, and genetic disorders. We aimed to develop head circumference growth reference charts for age, height, and waist circumference for Turkish children aged 5–18 years. Methods Head circumference, height, and waist circumference measurements were obtained from 5079 students aged 5–18 years from İzmit, Kocaeli Province, Turkey. The LMS method was used to construct reference centile curves. Results Head circumference measurements were strongly correlated with height (r=0.74), weight (r=0.76), and waist circumference (r=0.68). The mean head circumference values for boys were larger than those for girls at all ages. Compared with data from the United States, the World Health Organization, and other studies from Turkey, our data showed a decrease in head circumference at all ages for both sexes. Conclusion Local growth charts can be used to evaluate head circumference growth in older Turkish children and adolescents. PMID:28360767

  13. The Effect of Obesity and Increased Waist Circumference on the Outcome of Laparoscopic Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, E. M.; Thomas, A. Z.; Manecksha, R. P.; Lynch, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity can be determined by body mass index (BMI); however waist circumference (WC) is a better measure of central obesity. This study evaluates the outcome of laparoscopic nephrectomy on patients with an abnormal WC. Methods. A WC of >88 cm for women and >102 cm for men was defined as obese. Data collected included age, gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score, renal function, anaesthetic duration, surgery duration, blood loss, complications, and duration of hospital stay. Results. 144 patients were assessed; 73 (50.7%) of the patients had abnormal WC for their gender. There was no difference between the groups for conversion to open surgery, number of ports used, blood loss, and complications. Abnormal WC was associated with a longer median anaesthetic duration, 233 min, IQR (215–265) versus 204 min, IQR (190–210), p = 0.0022, and operative duration, 178 min, IQR (160–190) versus 137 min, IQR (128–162), p < 0.0001. Patients with an abnormal WC also had a longer inpatient stay, p = 0.0436. Conclusion. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is safe in obese patients. However, obese patients should be informed that their obesity prolongs the anaesthetic duration and duration of the surgery and is associated with a prolonged recovery. PMID:28210271

  14. Waist circumference percentile thresholds for identifying adolescents with insulin resistance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Woolford, Susan J; Gurney, James G

    2009-08-01

    We formally evaluated waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs for predicting insulin resistance (IR) and whether different cutoffs should be used for adolescents of different race/ethnicities. Analysis was performed for 1575 adolescents aged 12-18 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Adolescents were classified as having IR if they had a homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, a validated measure of IR, of >4.39, and WC percentile was classified according to previously published universal (all races combined) and race/ethnicity-specific WC percentile cutoffs. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting IR were constructed comparing the race/ethnicity-specific vs. universal WC percentile cutoffs, and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Comparing universal with race/ethnicity-specific WC percentiles, there were no significant differences in AUC for Black, Mexican-American, or White adolescents. Because race/ethnicity-specific thresholds did not discriminate better than universal WC thresholds, universal WC thresholds may be used effectively to identify adolescents with IR in primary care practices. A WC > or =75th or > or =90th percentile for all race/ethnicities combined would be appropriate to apply in clinical practice for identification of adolescents with IR, a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Determining the waist circumference in african americans which best predicts insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E; Sen, Sabyasachi; Ricks, Madia; Frempong, Barbara A; Sebring, Nancy G; Kushner, Harvey

    2008-04-01

    Total body size and central fat distribution are important determinants of insulin resistance. The BMI and waist circumference (WC) thresholds in African Americans that best predict insulin resistance are unknown. Our goal was to determine the BMI and WC values in African Americans, which optimally predict insulin resistance. The subjects were African Americans (68 men, 63 women), aged 35 +/- 8 years (mean +/- s.d.), with a BMI of 30.9 +/- 7.5, in the range of 18.5-54.7 kg/m(2), and with a WC of 98 +/- 18, in the range of 69-173 cm. Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)). The Youden index was calculated to determine the WC and BMI thresholds that predict insulin resistance with an optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity. In men the thresholds that optimally predicted insulin resistance were a BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =102 cm. For women, insulin resistance was best predicted by a BMI > or =32 kg/m(2) or a WC > or =98 cm. In African Americans, insulin resistance (in men) was best predicted by a WC > or =102 cm, and in women by a WC > or =98 cm, or by a BMI value that fell in the obese category (men: > or =30 kg/m(2), women: > or =32 kg/m(2)).

  16. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hexing; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 8–15 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. Results The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. Conclusions Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations. PMID:23437242

  17. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  18. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

  19. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  20. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  1. Waist circumference is superior to weight and BMI in predicting sexual symptoms, voiding symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms in men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A A; Nettleship, J E; Salman, M; Almehmadi, Y

    2017-05-01

    Waist circumference is considered a useful predictor of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk, but its use as an indicator of sexual health status and quality of life (QoL) in hypogonadal men is unknown. We investigated whether three measurements of obesity, weight, body mass index and waist circumference, correlate with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. A total of 261 patients were enrolled in a prospective study on hypogonadism treatment with intramuscular long-acting testosterone undecanoate. Patients with total testosterone ≤3.5 ng ml(-1) were enrolled, and baseline demographic data were recorded. Patient's response to IIEF, IPSS and AMS standardised questionnaires was recorded to evaluate health-related QoL. The mean length of treatment and follow-up was 4.7 years (max 6 years). ANOVA regression analysis showed that waist circumference was significantly inversely proportional to IIEF-5 and directly proportional to AMS and IPSS. Weight was inversely proportional to IIEF and directly proportional to IPSS but not associated with AMS. BMI had no proportionality to measurements of sexual function and quality of life. These results suggest that among weight, BMI and waist circumference, the latter is the best predictor of health-related QoL in men with hypogonadism.

  2. Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference change in midlife women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Segawa, Eisuke; Janssen, Imke; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Changes in employment status have shown inconsistent associations with adiposity. This study tested whether the presence of elevated depressive symptoms explains variability in the time-varying association between employment status and central adiposity. Method Employment status, depressive symptoms, and waist circumference were assessed annually over 10 years in a multi-ethnic sample of 3220 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Linear mixed-effects models tested time-varying associations of employment status, depressive symptoms, and their interaction with waist circumference. Results Waist circumference increases were greatest during years of combined nonemployment and elevated depressive symptoms (1.00 cm/year), and lowest in years of full-time employment and elevated depressive symptoms (0.25 cm/year), compared to years of full-time employment and non-elevated depressive symptoms (0.51 cm/year). Employment status was unrelated to waist circumference in years without elevated depressive symptoms. The pattern of results was unchanged when analyses were restricted to pre-retirement observations, and did not vary according to waist circumference at baseline or ethnicity/race. Conclusions Identifying and managing depressive symptoms in midlife women who are not working may help prevent increases in central adiposity. PMID:24462272

  3. The relationship between the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Maria Clara Eugênia; Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse melo; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to evaluate the pressure of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) according to waist circumference (WC) and correlate the presence of urinary tract symptoms (UTS) with WC. Patients and methods The study was observational and cross-sectional. One-hundred and sixty-four females between 45 and 65 years of age were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups, according to WC: Group ≤80 (G≤80) was composed of females in whom WC was up to 80 cm; and Group >80 (G>80) was composed of females with WC above 80 cm. The subjects were assessed in terms of sociodemographic data, pre-existing conditions, urogynecological and obstetric history, and the presence of lower UTS (LUTS), as well as physical examination, measurement of WC, height, and weight. The PFM assessment was made by perineometry. To compare the mean between groups, the independent samples t-test was applied, and to correlate the WC with perineometry and LUTS, the Pearson’s correlation test was used. Results The final sample was composed of 156 patients. The average age of participants was 55.21 (±24.5) years in G≤80 and 57.23 (±6.12) years in G>80. There were significant differences regarding the presence of LUTS between the groups (P<0.05); as to the perineometry, there was a significant difference (P=0.03) between the groups: 38.68±13.63 cmH2O for G≤80 and 30.11±11.20 cmH2O for G>80. There was a correlation between the presence of urinary urgency (r=0.7; P=0.00), nocturia (r=0.7; P=0.00), and urinary incontinence (r=0.9; P=0.00) with WC. Conclusion Females with larger abdominal diameter have a higher prevalence of LUTS such as urinary incontinence, nocturia, and urinary urgency, as well as a lower PFM pressure. Furthermore, a relationship between LUTS with WC was also observed. PMID:27468244

  4. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA consortium

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Elvestad Gabrielsen, Maiken; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Korhonen, Tellervo; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan G; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. Participants 148 731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. Results The data included up to 66 809 never-smokers, 43 009 former smokers and 38 913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by −0.40% (95% CI −0.57% to −0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being −0.31% (95% CI −0.42% to −0.19), −0.08% (−0.19% to 0.03%) and −0.74% (−0.96% to −0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (−0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (−0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. Conclusions For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity. PMID:26264275

  5. Residential proximity to urban centres, local-area walkability and change in waist circumference among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Niyonsenga, Theo; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Paquet, Catherine; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8cm over approximately 4years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. Participants living in distal areas (20km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9km or less, mean increase: 1.2cm). Counterintuitively, living in the vicinity of a suburban centre was associated with a greater increase in adiposity. Local-area walkability was not significantly associated with the outcome. Residential proximity to city centre appears to be protective against excessive increases in waist circumference. Controlled development and targeted interventions in the urban fringe may be needed to tackle obesity. Additional research needs to assess behaviours that mediate relationships between sprawl and obesity.

  6. Impact of weight loss on waist circumference and the components of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Amy E; Kraftson, Andrew T; Ajluni, Nevin; Fowler, Christine E; Nay, Catherine K; Miller, Nicole M; Burant, Charles F; Herman, William H

    2017-01-01

    Objective Central adiposity is a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Little is known about the impact of medical weight loss and decreased waist circumference (WC) on the MetS. Our objective was to assess the impact of changes in WC on blood pressure, lipids and glycemia. Research design and methods We studied 430 obese patients enrolled in a 2-year, intensive, behavioral, weight management program. We report results for participants who completed 6-month and 2-year follow-up. Results Participants were 49±9 years of age (mean±SD), 56% were women and 85% were white. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was 41±6 kg/m2 and baseline WC was 120±14 cm. At 6 months, BMI decreased by 6±3 kg/m2 and WC by 14±9 cm. Relative change in WC was defined as the 6-month or 2-year WC minus the baseline WC divided by the baseline WC. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 8 mm Hg for the tertile of participants with the largest relative decrease in WC and by 2 mm Hg for those with the smallest relative decrease in WC (p=0.025). Similar patterns of improvement were observed in total cholesterol (−29 vs −12 mg/dL, p=0.017), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (−19 vs −4 mg/dL, p=0.033), and glycated hemoglobin (−1.2 vs −0.3%, p=0.006). At 2 years, BMI decreased by 5±4 kg/m2 and WC by 11±11 cm and similar patterns of improvements were seen in components of the MetS. At both 6 months and 2 years, larger relative decreases in WC were associated with greater improvements in lipids and glycemia independent of sex. Conclusions In obese people, greater relative decreases in WC with medical weight loss are associated with greater improvements in components of the MetS independent of sex. PMID:28316795

  7. Differentiating the associations of waist circumference and body mass index with cardiovascular disease risk in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Shi, Liang; Jia, Jian; Li, Yanyun; Yang, Qundi; Ruan, Ye; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2015-03-01

    It is not known which obesity index best explains variations in cardiovascular disease risk across populations. The objective of this study was to differentiate the associations of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular disease risk in a Chinese population. Cardiovascular risk factors, WC, and BMI were measured in 13 817 adults aged more than 18 years in Shanghai. Higher WC tertiles were associated with higher blood pressure and higher cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose concentrations within each tertile of BMI and vice versa. The odds ratios (ORs) of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome increased with successive WC (or BMI) tertiles after adjustment for BMI (or WC) and several covariates. However, BMI tertiles were not associated with the ORs of diabetes after adjustment for WC. WC may be better than BMI as an alternative measure of body fatness or fat distribution for predicting diabetic risks in Chinese adults.

  8. Yeast β-Glucan Modulates Inflammation and Waist Circumference in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Mosikanon, Krittiya; Arthan, Dumrongkiet; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Prangthip, Pattaneeya

    2017-03-04

    Increased inflammation occurs with excessive adiposity and yeast β-glucan modulates immune responses. This study investigated the potential effect of yeast β-glucan on inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese people. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial design enrolled 44 overweight/obese participants with body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2), randomized to two groups receiving β-glucan 477 mg/capsule (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) orally for six weeks. At weeks one to two, participants received 1 β-glucan or placebo capsule/day and at four weeks two tablets/day. Anthropometric changes, lipid profiles, liver and renal functions, and inflammatory cytokines were measured. β-glucan reduced waist circumference (p = 0.037) and blood pressure (p = 0.006) compared with controls after six weeks of intervention. No statistical significance between groups was observed for triglyceride, cholesterol, lipid profile, liver and renal function, or energy and nutrient intake compared with controls at week six. β-glucan increased interlukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, by 23.97% from baseline at week two (p < 0.001) and 31.12% at week six (p < 0.001) and was significantly increased compared with controls at week two (p < 0.001) until week six (p < 0.001). β-glucan reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 at week six (p = 0.005) and tumor necrosis factor-α at week two (p = 0.037) compared with controls. Supplementation of yeast β-glucan for six weeks modulated pro-cytokines that accelerate overweight/obese comorbidities and reduced blood pressure as well as waist circumference, the strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in overweight/obese subjects. Thus, β-glucan might have the potential to decrease comorbid conditions associated with overweight/ obesity.

  9. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n = 120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n = 30). These patients were significantly older (p = 0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.036), cholesterol (p < 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (p < 0.01) as well as body mass index (p = 0.004), waist circumference (p = 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.01) than the group without metabolic syndrome. Also their c-HDL is lower (p < 0.01). A value of 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist

  10. A systematic review of the impact of including both waist and hip circumference in risk models for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and mortality.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A J; Magliano, D J; Söderberg, S

    2013-01-01

    Both a larger waist and narrow hips are associated with heightened risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and premature mortality. We review the risk of these outcomes for levels of waist and hip circumferences when terms for both anthropometric measures were included in regression models. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched (last updated July 2012) for studies reporting the association with the outcomes mentioned earlier for both waist and hip circumferences (unadjusted and with both terms included in the model). Ten studies reported the association between hip circumference and death and/or disease outcomes both unadjusted and adjusted for waist circumference. Five studies reported the risk associated with waist circumference both unadjusted and adjusted for hip circumference. With the exception of one study of venous thromboembolism, the full strength of the association between either waist circumference or hip circumference with morbidity and/or mortality was only apparent when terms for both anthropometric measures were included in regression models. Without accounting for the protective effect of hip circumference, the effect of obesity on risk of death and disease may be seriously underestimated. Considered together (but not as a ratio measure), waist and hip circumference may improve risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease and other outcomes.

  11. Concentric and eccentric exercise, glycemic responses to a postexercise meal, and inflammation in women with high versus low waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Miles, Mary P; Horrigan, Laura C; Jay, Sara E; Brown, Karen M; Porter, Jay W; Steward, Andrea N

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion and level of concentric versus eccentric muscle activity may alter exercise-induced health benefits for individuals who have high waist circumference as a metabolic risk factor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic and inflammation responses to an exercise recovery meal differ between women with lower (Lo-WC, <80 cm) compared with higher (Hi-WC) waist circumference when the exercise is primarily concentric (uphill walking; UPHILL) versus primarily eccentric (downhill walking; DOWNHILL). Recreationally active women (age, 18-39 years; body mass index, 19-35.4 m·kg(-2); Lo-WC, n = 13; Hi-WC, n = 10) completed UPHILL, DOWNHILL, and resting (CONTROL) conditions followed 30 min later by a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) with carbohydrates to protein ratio of 4:1, and blood glucose, insulin, and inflammation markers were compared across conditions. Compared with Lo-WC, the Hi-WC group had higher (p < 0.05) (i) insulin during the MMTT in CONTROL (mean ± SE; 48.5 ± 8.2 vs 22.9 ± 2.8 pmol·L(-1)), (ii) baseline (0.7 ± 0.4 vs 2.0 ± 1.7 pg·mL(-1)) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and (iii) IL-6 responses 8 h after UPHILL and CONTROL. Both groups had (i) increases in IL-6 at 0 h after UPHILL and at 8 h after DOWNHILL, and (ii) lower glycemic responses in UPHILL. Women with Hi-WC had higher IL-6 at rest and delayed increases in IL-6 after a high-carbohydrate meal in all conditions. This is consistent with an inflammation response to the meal and or uphill walking exercise. However, both concentrically and eccentrically biased exercises offered benefits to insulin responses to a high carbohydrate meal for Hi-WC.

  12. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  13. Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods are nutrient dense and may be protective against long-term weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between dairy consumption and annualized changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort who participa...

  14. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  15. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-09

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  16. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  17. The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Michael L.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between body size, physical activity and semen parameters among male partners of couples attempting to become pregnant? SUMMARY ANSWER Overweight and obesity are associated with a higher prevalence of low ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Higher BMI is associated with impaired semen parameters, while increasing waist circumference (WC) is also associated with impaired semen parameters in infertile men. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study were utilized. The LIFE study is a population-based prospective cohort of 501 couples attempting to conceive in two geographic areas (Texas and Michigan, USA) recruited in 2005–2009. Couples were recruited from four counties in Michigan and 12 counties in Texas to ensure a range of environmental exposures and lifestyle characteristics. In person interviews were conducted to ascertain demographic, health and reproductive histories followed by anthropometric assessment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We categorized BMI (kg/m2) as <25.0 (underweight and normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight) 30.0–34.9 (obese, class I) and ≥35 (obese, class II) for analysis. Data were available for analysis in 468 men (93% participation), with a mean ± SD age of 31.8 ± 4.8 years, BMI of 29.8 ± 5.6 kg/m2 and WC of 100.8 ± 14.2 cm. The majority of the cohort (82%) was overweight or obese with 58% reporting physical activity <1 time/week. The median sperm concentration for the men in the cohort was 60.2 M/ml with 8.6% having oligospermia (<15 M/ml). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE When examining semen parameters, ejaculate volume showed a linear decline with increasing BMI and WC (P < 0.01). Similarly, the total sperm count showed a negative linear association with WC (P < 0.01). No significant relationship was seen between body size (i.e. BMI or WC) and semen

  18. LMS tables for waist circumference and waist–height ratio in Colombian adults: analysis of nationwide data 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, R; Correa-Bautista, J E; Martínez-Torres, J; Méneses-Echavez, J F; González-Ruiz, K; González-Jiménez, E; Schmidt-RioValle, J; Lobelo, F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). These data are lacking for Colombian adults. This study aims at establishing smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WC and WHtR; appropriate cutoffs were selected using receiver-operating characteristic analysis based on data from the representative sample. Subjects/Methods: We used data from the cross-sectional, national representative nutrition survey (ENSIN, 2010). A total of 83 220 participants (aged 20–64) were enroled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC and WHtR were measured and percentiles calculated using the LMS method (L (curve Box-Cox), M (curve median), and S (curve coefficient of variation)). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cutoff point of WC and WHtR for overweight and obesity based on WHO definitions. Results: Reference values for WC and WHtR are presented. Mean WC and WHtR increased with age for both genders. We found a strong positive correlation between WC and BMI (r=0.847, P< 0.01) and WHtR and BMI (r=0.878, P<0.01). In obese men, the cutoff point value is 96.6 cm for the WC. In women, the cutoff point value is 91.0 cm for the WC. Receiver operating characteristic curve for WHtR was also obtained and the cutoff point value of 0.579 in men, and in women the cutoff point value was 0.587. A high sensitivity and specificity were obtained. Conclusions: This study presents first reference values of WC and WHtR for Colombians aged 20–64. Through LMS tables for adults, we hope to provide quantitative tools to study obesity and its complications. PMID:27026425

  19. Optimal waist circumference cutoff values for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity in korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-12-29

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches.

  20. BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

    2015-02-01

    Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population.

  1. A study of serum cholesterol level in young adults and its relation to body mass index and waist-circumference.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumitra; Jahan, Wasima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) level in young adults of Dibrugarh town of Assam and to find the association of serum cholesterol level with body mass index (BMI) and waist-circumference (WC). A cross-sectional study was done among 150 healthy young adults aged 20-30 years. TC was estimated by the enzymatic method. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 200 mg/dl. Cases were classified into different categories of BMI and WC according to the recommendations of WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000). The range of TC level in the study group was found to be (146-212) mg/dl. Mean cholesterol level in males and females were 169.5±3.6 and 172.3±15.09 mg/dl respectively. 7% of the cases had hypercholesterolemia. TC was significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.90, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.73, p<0.001 in males and r=0.86, p<0.001 in females). We conclude that young adults ≥20 years of age and especially who are overweight should be advised routine cholesterol testing so that preventive measures can be adopted to avoid hypercholesterolemia and it's complications in future life.

  2. Association of long-term change in waist circumference with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyong; Lee, Duk-Hee; Erickson, Darin J; Himes, John H; Shikany, James M; Jacobs, David R

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that fat accumulation is associated with insulin resistance; however, the risks associated with long-term changes and fluctuations in central fatness are less clear. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between waist circumference (WC) and insulin resistance using three dimensions of WC: baseline WC, slope of linear changes in WC, and fluctuation of WC around the slope during 20 years of follow-up. Anthropometry, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment (HOMA(IR))), and lifestyle factors were obtained in a population-based, prospective observational study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)) during 1985-2006, excluding participants who had been diagnosed with diabetes at any examination. After adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, the evolution of HOMA(IR) from CARDIA year 15 to 20 was 6.9% higher per standard deviation of year 0 WC (P trend <0.0001) and 6.3% higher per standard deviation increase in the change in WC over the long term (P trend <0.0001). However, WC fluctuations around the linear change were not associated with insulin resistance or its evolution. The level of HOMA(IR) increased substantially with steeper linear WC slope among initially thinner participants at baseline, whereas this association tended to be weaker in those with higher initial WC (P interaction <0.0001). We conclude that year 0 WC and long-term increment in WC are associated with worsening insulin resistance. However, the association of HOMA(IR) with slope of WC change may vary across the range of initial WC.

  3. Short-term nutritional counseling reduces body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold and triglycerides in women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is recognized that the growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome is related to dietary and lifestyle changes. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term application of nutritional counseling in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This follow-up study was conducted from September to November 2008 with thirty three women ≥35 years old screened clinically for nutritional counseling. Dietary intake was reported, and biochemical and body composition measures were taken at baseline and after three months of follow-up. Results Of the 33 women evaluated, 29 patients completed the study. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity was high at 38%, 72.4%, 55.2%, and 75.8%, respectively. At the end of three-months of follow-up, a significant decline in body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and triglycerides was observed, as was an increase in calcium and vitamin D intake. The multiple regression analysis showed that changes in body mass index, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and triglyceride levels after nutritional intervention were positively associated with changes in anthropometric (loss of body weight) and biochemical (decrease of TG/HDL-c ratio) parameters. Moreover, waist circumference changes were negatively associated with changes in calcium and vitamin D intake. Conclusion Short-term nutritional counseling improved some factors of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the increases in calcium and vitamin D consumption can be associated with the improvement in markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20181143

  4. Gender-related personality traits, self-efficacy, and social support: how do they relate to women's waist circumference change?

    PubMed

    Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes.

  5. In non-obese girls waist circumference predicts insulin resistance is comparably to MRI fat measures and superior to BMI

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgram, Peter M.; Connor, Ellen L.; Rehm, Jennifer L.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Zha, Wei; Reeder, Scott B.; Allen, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree to which waist circumference (WC), BMI, and MRI measured abdominal fat deposition predict insulin resistance (IR) in non-obese girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Methods Fifty-seven non-obese girls (12 African-American, 16 Hispanic White and 29 non-Hispanic White girls), aged 11–14 years old were assessed for WC, MRI hepatic proton density fat fraction, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, BMI Z-score, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, sex hormone binding globulin, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses adjusted for race and ethnicity indicated that only WC and visceral adipose tissue volume were independent predictors of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, while dependent predictors were hepatic proton density fat fraction, BMI Z-score, and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume. Hispanic White girls showed significantly higher mean fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower sex hormone binding globulin than non-Hispanic White girls (p-value <0.01). Conclusions In non-obese girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, WC, particularly when adjusted for race or ethnicity, is an independent predictor of IR comparable to MRI-derived measurements of fat and superior to BMI Z-score. PMID:26352642

  6. Long-Term Aircraft Noise Exposure and Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilding, Agneta; Pyko, Andrei; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but no study has investigated chronic effects on the metabolic system. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of long-term aircraft noise exposure on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we explored the modifying effects of sleep disturbance. Methods: This prospective cohort study of residents of Stockholm County, Sweden, followed 5,156 participants with normal baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) for up to 10 years. Exposure to aircraft noise was estimated based on residential history. Information on outcomes and confounders was obtained from baseline and follow-up surveys and examinations, and participants who developed prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis or OGTT at follow-up. Adjusted associations were assessed by linear, logistic, and random-effects models. Results: The mean (± SD) increases in BMI and waist circumference during follow-up were 1.09 ± 1.97 kg/m2 and 4.39 ± 6.39 cm, respectively. The cumulative incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 8% and 3%, respectively. Based on an ordinal noise variable, a 5-dB(A) increase in aircraft noise was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference of 1.51 cm (95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), fully adjusted. This association appeared particularly strong among those who did not change their home address during the study period, which may be a result of lower exposure misclassification. However, no clear associations were found for BMI or type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, sleep disturbances did not appear to modify the associations with aircraft noise. Conclusions: Long-term aircraft noise exposure may be linked to metabolic outcomes, in particular increased waist circumference. Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and

  7. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, M; Gunn, P; Gibson, S

    2012-03-01

    Our aim was to differentiate the screening potential of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) for adult cardiometabolic risk in people of different nationalities and to compare both with body mass index (BMI). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for assessing the discriminatory power of anthropometric indices in distinguishing adults with hypertension, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and general cardiovascular outcomes (CVD). Thirty one papers met the inclusion criteria. Using data on all outcomes, averaged within study group, WHtR had significantly greater discriminatory power compared with BMI. Compared with BMI, WC improved discrimination of adverse outcomes by 3% (P < 0.05) and WHtR improved discrimination by 4-5% over BMI (P < 0.01). Most importantly, statistical analysis of the within-study difference in AUC showed WHtR to be significantly better than WC for diabetes, hypertension, CVD and all outcomes (P < 0.005) in men and women. For the first time, robust statistical evidence from studies involving more than 300 000 adults in several ethnic groups, shows the superiority of WHtR over WC and BMI for detecting cardiometabolic risk factors in both sexes. Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool.

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Spain using regional cutoff points for waist circumference: the di@bet.es study.

    PubMed

    Marcuello, Clara; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L; Fuentes, Manuel; Runkle, Isabelle; Rubio, Miguel A; Montañez, Carmen; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Bordiu, Elena; Goday, Albert; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Carmena, Rafael; Casamitjana, Roser; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Juan; Gomis, Ramon; Urrutia, Ines; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; Menéndez, Eldelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Ortega, Emilio; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Valdés, Sergio; Vázquez, Jose A; Vendrell, Joan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Spain using specific cutoff points for waist circumference (WC) (>94.5 cm for men and >89.5 cm for women) and evaluating the influence of several socio-demographic and economic factors. Data on MetS were obtained from a national study of 4,727 subjects from 18 to 90 years of age, conducted in Spain between 2009 and 2010 (The di@bet.es study). MetS was defined applying the new Harmonized definition (evaluating the use of abdominal obesity (AO) as a obligatory criterion for MetS or not) as well as with other widely used criteria. Results were then compared with data from previous studies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of different social factors. The age-standardized MetS prevalence was 38.37 % (CI 35.74-40.99) in men and 29.62 % (CI 27.56-31.69) in women, when AO was required as a diagnostic criterion; 42.13 % (CI 39.37-44.89) and 32.31 % (CI 30.15-34.47) in men and women, respectively, if AO was not considered mandatory. Prevalence of MetS increased with age (p < 0.001 for trend). Women with a lower educational level were more likely to have MetS (OR 4.4; 95 % CI: 2.84-6.7) as compared with those with a higher educational level. Subjects with MetS had a worse physical quality of life. The combination of AO, hypertension and carbohydrate alterations was the most common MetS' pattern. A high prevalence of MetS was detected in the Spanish population especially in men, the elderly and women with a low educational level.

  9. Optimal cut points of waist circumference (WC) and visceral fat area (VFA) predicting for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly population in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Kim, Jung Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; Kang, Seon Mee; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Ki Woong; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Hayley; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2012-01-01

    Optimal cut points of central obesity identifying subjects at risk for MetS were proposed ethnic-specifically, but have not been established yet. Of particular interest are the values for elderly persons, which have not been identified previously. We investigated the appropriate cut points of WC and VFA for elderly in a community-based cohort in Korea. We recruited 294 men and 313 women aged 65 or over who participated in the KLoSHA. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut points of WC and VFA indicative of MetS. The optimal cut points for predicting MetS were 87 cm for WC, 140 cm(2) for VFA in men, and 85 cm for WC, 100 cm(2) for VFA in women with the Youden index. Similar cut points were obtained with the closest-to-(0, 1) criterion except for VFA in men, which was 122 cm(2). When adjusted for age, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption, men with ≥122 cm(2) and women with ≥100 cm(2) of VFA had a higher risk of MetS than subjects with lower values. The cut points of VFA and WC at risk for MetS were higher in men than women. In this community-based elderly cohort, the optimal cut points of WC at risk for MetS were lower than the Western criteria. Compared with the cut points in middle-aged Koreans, the cut points for elderly were lower in men and similar in women.

  10. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  11. The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.

    PubMed

    Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI.

  12. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  13. Waist circumference is the best index for obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ravensbergen, Henrike Rianne Joanna Cornelie; Lear, Scott Alexander; Claydon, Victoria Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is an important identifier of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but is challenging to determine accurately in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Body mass index (BMI) is used worldwide as a simple indicator of obesity, but is difficult to measure in individuals with SCI. Furthermore, standard BMI cutoffs underestimate obesity in this population. Therefore, we aimed to identify the best marker of obesity in individuals with SCI, considering both practicality, and ability to detect adiposity and CVD risk. Five anthropometric measures were evaluated: BMI; waist circumference (WC); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); waist-to-hip ratio; and neck circumference. We evaluated relationships between these measures and abdominal and total body-fat percentage, seven cardiovascular metabolic risk factors (fasting insulin, glucose, glucose tolerance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol), and the Framingham risk score. BMI, WC, and WHtR were correlated with abdominal fat percentage. WC and WHtR were correlated with five metabolic risk factors as well as the Framingham risk score. WC is a more practical measure for an SCI population. The optimal cutoff for identifying adverse CVD risk in individuals with SCI was identified as WC ≥94 cm, with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity. We propose that WC is a simple, more sensitive alternative to BMI in this population that is easy to use in multiple settings. The cutoff provides a simple tool to predict adverse CVD risk profiles that can be used to guide risk management, as well as as a practical aid for individuals with SCI to maintain a healthy body composition.

  14. Waist Circumference Is the Best Index for Obesity-Related Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ravensbergen, Henrike (Rianne) Joanna Cornelie; Lear, Scott Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is an important identifier of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but is challenging to determine accurately in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Body mass index (BMI) is used worldwide as a simple indicator of obesity, but is difficult to measure in individuals with SCI. Furthermore, standard BMI cutoffs underestimate obesity in this population. Therefore, we aimed to identify the best marker of obesity in individuals with SCI, considering both practicality, and ability to detect adiposity and CVD risk. Five anthropometric measures were evaluated: BMI; waist circumference (WC); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); waist-to-hip ratio; and neck circumference. We evaluated relationships between these measures and abdominal and total body-fat percentage, seven cardiovascular metabolic risk factors (fasting insulin, glucose, glucose tolerance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol), and the Framingham risk score. BMI, WC, and WHtR were correlated with abdominal fat percentage. WC and WHtR were correlated with five metabolic risk factors as well as the Framingham risk score. WC is a more practical measure for an SCI population. The optimal cutoff for identifying adverse CVD risk in individuals with SCI was identified as WC ≥94 cm, with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity. We propose that WC is a simple, more sensitive alternative to BMI in this population that is easy to use in multiple settings. The cutoff provides a simple tool to predict adverse CVD risk profiles that can be used to guide risk management, as well as as a practical aid for individuals with SCI to maintain a healthy body composition. PMID:24070685

  15. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  16. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoff for Overweight and Central Obesity among Adults in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    An, Yom; Yi, Siyan; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gupta, Vinay; Prak, Piseth Raingsey; Oum, Sophal; LoGerfo, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786) were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229) were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years) and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years) for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001) when BMI of 23.0 kg/m2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001) when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥94.0 cm in men). Conclusion Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years. PMID:24205019

  17. Body mass index, waist-circumference and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Iranian adults: Isfahan healthy heart program.

    PubMed

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardio-metabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC

  18. Association of body mass index, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome with serum cystatin C in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xin; Jiang, Yan; Qin, Guangming; Qian, Yafang; Shen, Xiaoru; Jiang, Zhenyan; Zheng, Shu; Song, Zhenya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) with serum cystatin C (CysC) in a Chinese population. Methods: The population was composed of 5866 subjects. MetS was diagnosed using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2005 (NCEP-R) criteria. Covariates were analyzed using logistic regression and Spearman partial correlation. Results: In this population, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum creatinine (Scr), and CysC were significantly higher, and HDL-C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) (eGFRCKD-EPI) were significantly lower in the MetS than in the non-MetS group. TG, LDL-C, FPG, hs-CRP, BMI, WC, SBP, DBP, and Scr were significantly higher, and HDL-C and eGFRCKD-EPI were significantly lower in the 4th quartile than in the 1st quartile of CysC. Logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, hs-CRP, and CysC were independently associated with the presence of MetS (OR = 3.732, 1.028, 1.051, and 3.334, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant association between the presence of MetS and either Scr or eGFRCKD-EPI was observed. After adjustment for age and sex, BMI, WC, hs-CRP, and Scr were all positively correlated, whereas eGFRCKD-EPI was negatively correlated with CysC (r = 0.029, 0.061, 0.189, 0.227, and −0.210, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that the CysC was more closely associated with the presence of MetS, as compared Scr or eGFRCKD-EPI. CysC was positively correlated with BMI, and more strongly, positively correlated with WC and inflammation. PMID:28272253

  19. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Body Adiposity Index, and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Two Populations in Brazil: General and Amerindian

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Mourao-Junior, Carlos Alberto; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, José E.; Mill, José G.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design and methods A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor. Conclusion Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations. PMID:24937307

  20. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n = 110) Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC) of 0.651 (P = 0.008), cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P < 0.001), cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P = 0.008), cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P = 0.006) and AUC of 0.717 (P = 0.014) for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6) could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents. PMID:25574166

  1. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC) following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after) was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in WC, the other variables

  2. Measurement of waist circumference at different sites affects the detection of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Yu, Shun-Chieh; Wu, Bo-Jian; Chang, Da-Jen

    2012-05-30

    There is a lack of understanding about the impact of different waist circumference (WC) measurements on the detection of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients. This cross-sectional study included a total of 382 inpatients with schizophrenia-related disorders to assess each component of metabolic syndrome. WC was measured at the lowest rib, midpoint between the iliac crest and lowest rib, iliac crest, minimal waist, and umbilicus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the ability of WC at each site to predict the presence of metabolic risk clustering. The mean WC values for all sites were significantly different from each other. The measurement site had an influence on the prevalence of abdominal obesity (30-38.2% in men and 53.9-86.3% in women). The influence on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria (19.3-23.9% in men and 29.4-43.1% in women) than with the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria (26.1-28.6% in men and 37.3-44.1% in women). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for metabolic risk clustering were highest at the umbilicus and midpoint. Given that the WC measurement protocol has substantial influence on the prevalence of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, a predefined measurement site is required for all psychiatric studies.

  3. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82,864 participants from nine cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Czernichow, Sébastien; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined both the relative magnitude of association and the discriminative capability of multiple indicators of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. We conducted an individual-participant meta-analysis of 9 cohort studies of men and women drawn from the British general population resulted in sample of 82,864 individuals. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured directly. There were 6,641 deaths (1,998 CVD) during a mean of 8.1 years of follow-up. After adjustment, a one SD higher in WHR and WC was related to a higher risk of CVD mortality (HR (95% CI)): 1.15 (1.05-1.25) and 1.15 (1.04-1.27), respectively. The risk of CVD also increased linearly across quintiles of both these abdominal obesity markers with a 66% increased risk in the highest quintile of WHR. In age- and sex-adjusted models only, BMI was related to CVD mortality but not in any other analyses. No major differences were revealed in the discrimination capabilities of models with BMI, WC or WHR for cardiovascular or total mortality outcomes. In conclusion, measures of abdominal adiposity, but not BMI, were related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. No difference was observed in discrimination capacities between adiposity markers. PMID:21521449

  4. Physical Environment May Modify The Association Between Depressive Symptoms And Change In Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Roux, Ana V Diez; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Schreiner, Pamela; Carnethon, Mercedes; Nettleton, Jennifer; Mujahid, Mahasin; Michos, Erin D.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Golden, Sherita H

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and adiposity has been recognized, the contribution of neighborhood factors to this relationship has not been assessed. This study evaluates whether physical and social neighborhood environment modify the bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and adiposity (measured by waist circumference and BMI). Methods Using data on 5,122 men and women (age 45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) we investigated whether neighborhood physical (i.e. walking environment, availability of healthy food) and social (i.e. safety, aesthetics, social coherence) environments modified the association between: (1) baseline elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale score ≥ 16) and change in adiposity (as measured by waist circumference [WC] and body mass index [BMI]); and (2) baseline overweight/obesity (WC > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women, or BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and change in depressive symptoms using multilevel models. Neighborhood-level factors were obtained from the MESA Neighborhood Study. Results A greater increase in WC in participants with versus without EDS was observed in those living in poorly-rated physical environment, but not in those living in better-rated environments (interaction p-value=0.045). No associations were observed with BMI. Baseline overweight/obesity was not associated with change in depressive symptoms and there was no modification by neighborhood-level factors. Conclusions EDS were associated with greater increase in WC among individuals living in poor than in better-rated physical environments. No association was found between overweight/obesity and change in depressive symptoms. PMID:24388121

  5. Determining the optimal cutoff points for waist circumference and body mass index for identification of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in urban Thai population.

    PubMed

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Dansethakul, Prabhop; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Pidetcha, Phannee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the prevalence and optimal waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) cutoff point for metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MS) from urban Thai population. The optimal BMI/WC cutoff has been used for identifying and evaluating metabolic abnormalities for screening individuals having risk factor of MS.

  6. Urinary Triclosan Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in the US General Population: Experience in NHANES 2003-2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jinying; Wang, Guangdi; Zhu, Yun; Rabito, Felicia; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Chen, Wei; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Background Humans are extensively exposed to triclosan, an antibacterial and antifungal agent. Triclosan’s effects on human health, however, have not been carefully investigated. Objective To examine whether triclosan exposure is associated with obesity traits. Methods This study included 2,898 children (6-19 years old) and 5,066 adults (20 years or older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2010 and had a detectable level of urinary triclosan. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between urinary triclosan and both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Results Each standard deviation increase in urinary triclosan was associated with a 0.34 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.05, 0.64) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (p=0.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.09, 1.74) cm smaller waist circumference (p=0.03) in boys, and a 0.62 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.94) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (p=0.0002) and 1.32 (95% CI: 0.54, 2.09) cm smaller waist circumference in girls (P=0.001); a 0.42 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.77) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 1.35 (95% CI: 0.48, 2.22) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.003) in men, and a 0.71 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.07) kg/m2 lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.50) cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.0001) in women. In both children and adults, there was a consistent trend for lower levels of BMI and smaller waist circumference with increasing levels of urinary triclosan, from the lowest to the highest quartile of urinary triclosan (P≤0.001 in all cases). Conclusion Triclosan exposure is inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to obesity await further investigation. PMID:25823951

  7. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  8. Serum Chemerin Levels are Associated with Visceral Adiposity, Independent of Waist Circumference, in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Dae Young; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Seong Jin; Ihm, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Jig; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemerin has been suggested to be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between visceral adiposity and chemerin levels remains unclear in subjects with T2DM. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and visceral adiposity. Materials and Methods This study included 102 subjects newly diagnosed with T2DM. The relationships between serum chemerin levels and clinical and biochemical parameters were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictable factors of serum chemerin levels. Results Serum chemerin levels showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat thickness (VFT), insulin levels, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and levels of triglycerides (log-transformed) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, while showing significant negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for BMI and WC, VFT showed a significant relationship with serum chemerin levels (r=0.222, p=0.027). Moreover, VFT was an independent predictive factor of serum chemerin levels (β=0.242, p=0.041). Conclusion We demonstrated that chemerin is linked to metabolic syndrome components. Moreover, serum chemerin levels were associated significantly with obesity, especially visceral adipose tissue, in subjects with T2DM. PMID:28120562

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity Improvement in Abdominal Obesity Diagnosis Using Cluster Analysis during Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Añez, Roberto; Toledo, Alexandra; Bello, Luis; Apruzzese, Vanessa; González, Robys; Chacín, Maricarmen; Cabrera, Mayela; Cano, Clímaco; Velasco, Manuel; López-Miranda, José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of metabolic phenotypes during the construction of ROC curves for waist circumference (WC) cutpoint selection. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,902 subjects of both genders were selected from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study database. Two-Step Cluster Analysis (TSCA) was applied to select metabolically healthy and sick men and women. ROC curves were constructed to determine WC cutoff points by gender. Results. Through TSCA, metabolic phenotype predictive variables were selected: HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-βcell for women and HOMA2-IR, HOMA2-βcell, and TAG for men. Subjects were classified as healthy normal weight, metabolically obese normal weight, healthy and metabolically disturbed overweight, and healthy and metabolically disturbed obese. Final WC cutpoints were 91.50 cm for women (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity) and 98.15 cm for men (96% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity). Conclusions. TSCA in the selection of the groups used in ROC curves construction proved to be an important tool, aiding in the detection of MOWN and MHO which cannot be identified with WC alone. The resulting WC cutpoints were <91.00 cm for women and <98.00 cm for men. Furthermore, anthropometry is insufficient to determine healthiness, and, biochemical analysis is needed to properly filter subjects during classification. PMID:25945356

  10. Effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on waist circumference among type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Wu, Shanshan; Guo, Shuxia; Yu, Kai; Yang, Zhirong; Li, Lishi; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Linong; Zhan, Siyan

    2015-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are increasingly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the effect on abdominal obesity has not yet been confirmed. The study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of GLP-1RAs on waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and www.clinicaltrialgov were searched through October 31, 2013. Randomized controlled trials with available data were selected if they compared GLP-1 RAs with placebo and traditional anti-diabetic drugs with a duration≥8 weeks. Weighted mean difference was estimated using random-effect model. Network meta-analysis was performed to supplement direct comparisons. Seventeen trials with 12 treatments were included. Overall, significant reductions on waist circumference following treatment of liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily (-5.24 cm, 95% CI -7.68, -2.93), liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily (-4.73 cm, 95% CI -6.68, -2.65) and exenatide--10 μg twice daily (-1.34 cm, 95 % CI -2.00, -0.75) were detected versus placebo. The reduction effect was more evident when compared with insulin and thiazolidinediones (range -1.71 to -8.03 cm). Compared with exenatide, liraglutide--0.6 mg once daily, taspoglutide, liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily and liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily significantly decreased waist circumference from -3.32 to -6.01 cm. Besides, liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily significantly decreased waist circumference by -1.73 cm (95 % CI -3.04, -0.55) versus sitagliptin, whereas no significant difference following liraglutide--1.2-mg-once-daily treatment was detected compared with liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily and sitagliptin. Reduction was observed with statistical significance for exenatide--10 μg twice daily compared with exenatide--5 μg twice daily (-1.21 cm, 95% CI -2.43, -0.06). Ranking probability analysis indicated liraglutide--1.8 mg once daily and liraglutide--1.2 mg once daily decreased waist circumference most among all 12

  11. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Singh Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25(OH)D interactions were examined, and results from the individual cohorts were meta-analyzed. In the meta-analyses, we found no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and ΔBW (-9.4 gram/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -23.0, +4.3; P = 0.18]) or ΔWC (-0.06 mm/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -0.17, +0.06; P = 0.33]). Furthermore, we found no statistically significant interactions between the four SNP-scores and 25(OH)D in relation to ΔBW or ΔWC. Thus, in view of the narrow CIs, our results suggest that an association between 25(OH)D and changes in measures of adiposity is absent or marginal. Similarly, the study provided evidence that there is either no or very limited dependence on genetic predisposition to adiposity. PMID:27077659

  12. Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988–2008

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Aiello, Allison E.; Schulz, Amy J.; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods Mexican-Americans aged 20–64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994), and NHANES (1999–2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among women, education modified secular trends in nativity differentials: notably, in less-educated women, nativity gradients widened over time due to alarming increases in BMI among the US-born and little increase in the foreign-born. Conclusions Associations between nativity/length of US residence and BMI/WC did not vary over this 20-year period, but we noted important modifications by education in women. Understanding these trends is important for identifying vulnerable subpopulations among Mexican-Americans and for the development of effective health promotion strategies in this fast-growing segment of the population. PMID:23052250

  13. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and determination of optimal cut-off values of waist circumference in university employees from Angola

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Pedro; Capingana, Daniel P; Mill, José G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Estimates of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Africans may be inconsistent due to lack of African-specific cut-off values of waist circumference (WC). This study determined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and defined optimal values of WC in Africans. Methods This cross-sectional study collected demographic, anthropometric and clinical data of 615 Universitary employees, in Luanda, Angola. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to assess cut-off values of WC. Results The crude prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher with the JIS definition (27.8%, age-standardised 14.1%) than with the ATP III definition (17.6%, age-standardised 8.7%). Optimal cut-off values of WC were 87.5 and 80.5 cm in men and women, respectively. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among our African subjects. Our data suggest different WC cut-off values for Africans in relation to other populations. PMID:24626517

  14. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  15. The current waist circumference cut point used for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African women is not appropriate.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Nigel J; Norris, Shane A

    2012-01-01

    The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured in a cohort of 1251 African females participating in the Birth to Twenty cohort study in Soweto, Johannesburg. The waist circumference cut points for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (as defined using the new harmonised guidelines), insulin resistance, dysglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were obtained using receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome were 50.1%, 14.3% and 42.1%, respectively. The appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing metabolic syndrome was found to be 91.5 cm and was similar to the cuts points obtained for detecting increased risk of insulin resistance (89.0 cm), dysglycaemia (88.4 cm), hypertension (90.1 cm), hypo-high density lipoproteinaemia (87.6 cm) and hyper-low density lipoproteinaemia (90.5 cm). The present data demonstrates that urban, African females have a high prevalence of obesity and related disorders and the waist cut point currently recommended for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (80.0 cm) in this population should be increased to 91.5 cm. This latter finding demonstrates a clear ethnic difference in the relationship between abdominal adiposity and metabolic disease risk. The similar waist cut points identified for the detection of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors demonstrates that the risk for different metabolic diseases increases at the same level of abdominal adiposity suggesting a

  16. Nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring: a file audit of risk factor prevalence and impact of an intervention to enhance measurement of waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Nijjar, Sukh; Watkins, Andrew; Garwood, Natasha; Sherrington, Catherine; Tiedemann, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to: (i) document the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among mental health consumers (inpatients) with various diagnoses; and (ii) audit the frequency of waist circumference (WC) documentation before and after an intervention that involved a single nurse-education session, and change in assessment-form design. The study was undertaken in a private psychiatric hospital in Sydney, Australia. Twenty-five nurses participated in the educational intervention. File audits were performed prior to intervention delivery (n = 60), and 3 months' (n = 60), and 9 months' (n = 60) post-intervention. Files were randomly selected, and demographic (age, diagnosis) and risk factor (WC, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, blood pressure) data were extracted. WC was higher in this cohort compared to published general population means, and only 19% of patients had a BMI within the healthy range. In total, 37% of patients smoked, while 31% were hypertensive. At baseline, none of the audited files reported WC, which increased to 35 of the 60 (58%) files audited at the 3-month follow up. At the 9-month follow up, 25 of the 60 (42%) files audited reported a WC. In the 120 post-intervention files audited, only two patients refused measurement. These results illustrate the poor physical health of inpatients, and suggest that nurse-assessed metabolic monitoring can be enhanced with minimal training.

  17. Estimation of truncal adiposity using waist circumference or the sum of trunk skinfolds: a pilot study for insulin resistance screening in hirsute patients with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Mariana; Migliavacca, Raphaella; Sisson de Castro, José Augusto; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2007-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a prevalent metabolic disturbance among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Central adiposity, a marker of IR and an accurate anthropometric method to estimate truncal adiposity, may represent a key clinical tool for IR screening in subpopulations at higher metabolic and cardiovascular risk, such as women with PCOS. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the influence of androgens on IR and central obesity in overweight or obese hirsute women with or without PCOS and (2) to test the reliability of the sum of trunk skinfolds (subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal) to estimate truncal adiposity. This observational, cross-sectional study included 37 hirsute patients with body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or greater and aged between 14 and 41 years. Twenty-four had PCOS, and 13 had ovulatory cycles, normal androgen levels, and isolated hirsutism, named idiopathic hirsutism (IH). Nutritional, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory evaluations were performed. Body composition was assessed by measurement of waist circumference and skinfold thickness and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Both groups presented similar ages, body mass index, and hirsutism score. The PCOS group had higher androgen levels, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, and fasting insulin levels. Free androgen index was positively associated with HOMA, independent of truncal adiposity (r = 0.441, P = .009). Strong correlations were also observed between truncal adiposity measured by DXA and both the sum of trunk skinfolds (r = 0.863, P = .0001) and waist circumference in hirsute patients (r = 0.947, P = .0001). In our study, IR (HOMA index >/=3.8) was associated with truncal obesity, with a more androgenic profile, and with an unfavorable lipid profile. In conclusion, hirsutism per se appears not to be a risk for IR and related cardiovascular disease unless there is presence of

  18. Relationship between obesity and several cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Korean individuals: comparison of body mass index and waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Reaven, Gerald M

    2007-03-01

    Recent versions of the criteria for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome have emphasized the superiority of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), in identifying individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, there is evidence that body mass index (BMI), an estimate of overall obesity, fulfills this function as effectively as does WC. The present analysis was performed to compare the relative use of these 2 indices of obesity to identify multiple CVD risk factors. The study population consisted of 19584 apparently healthy men and women of Korean ethnicity, and the CVD risk factors measured included fasting plasma concentrations of the following variables: glucose, insulin, total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The univariate relationships between the 2 indices of obesity and the 9 CVD risk factors were relatively modest (the highest r value was 0.45), but they were all statistically significant, and the magnitude of the relationships between the CVD risk factors and BMI and WC were comparable. When multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age and either BMI or WC, each index of obesity continued to have an independent relationship, albeit reduced in magnitude, with the CVD risk factors. These findings suggest that measurements of BMI provide as much clinical insight as do determinations of WC in identifying multiple CVD risk factors in a large population of apparently healthy Korean men and women, and that the use of both indices would provide the most information.

  19. Waist Circumference Is the Best Anthropometric Predictor for Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine But Not Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, David C.; Fan, Xiaoduo; Sharma, Bikash; Copeland, Paul M.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corey; Evins, A. Eden; Goff, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate which anthropometric measure (human body measurement) best predicts insulin resistance measured by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of nondiabetic subjects with schizophrenia being treated with olanzapine or clozapine using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, nutritional assessment, and anthropometric measures to assess the relationship between anthropometric measures and insulin resistance. Results No difference was found between the groups treated with clozapine and olanzapine in age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lipid levels, HOMA-IR, or SI. The disposition index (SI × the acute insulin response to glucose), which measures how the body compensates for insulin resistance to maintain a normal glucose level, was significantly lower in the group treated with clozapine than in the group treated with olanzapine (1067 ± 1390 vs. 2521 ± 2805; p = 0.013), suggesting that the subjects treated with clozapine had a reduced compensatory response to IR compared with the subjects treated with olanzapine. In the clozapine group, both higher WC and BMI were significantly associated with elevated HOMA-IR and lower SI; however, WC was a stronger correlate of IR than BMI, as measured by SI (−0.50 vs. −0.40). In the olanzapine group, neither WC nor BMI was significantly associated with any measure of glucose metabolism. Conclusions In this study, WC was the single best anthropometric surrogate for predicting IR in patients treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. The results suggest that WC may be a valuable screening tool for predicting IR in patients with schizophrenia being treated with clozapine who are at relatively higher risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, type 2

  20. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  1. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. Results When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Conclusion Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI. PMID:28029026

  2. Early insulin resistance predicts weight gain and waist circumference increase in first-episode psychosis--A one year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mäntylä, Teemu; Torniainen, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Sundvall, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with weight gain during the first year of treatment, and risk of abdominal obesity is particularly increased. To identify early risk markers of weight gain and abdominal obesity, we investigated baseline metabolic differences in 60 FEP patients and 27 controls, and longitudinal changes during the first year of treatment in patients. Compared to controls at baseline, patients had higher low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I but no difference in body mass index or waist circumference. At 12-month follow-up, 60.6% of patients were overweight or obese and 58.8% had abdominal obesity. No significant increase during follow-up was seen in markers of glucose and lipid metabolism or blood pressure, but increase in C-reactive protein between baseline and 12-month follow-up was statistically significant. Weight increase was predicted by baseline insulin resistance and olanzapine use, while increase in waist circumference was predicted by baseline insulin resistance only. In conclusion, insulin resistance may be an early marker of increased vulnerability to weight gain and abdominal obesity in young adults with FEP. Olanzapine should be avoided as a first-line treatment in FEP due to the substantial weight increase it causes. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was accompanied by the emergence of low-grade systemic inflammation.

  3. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a more independent measure compared with waist circumference to predict arterial stiffness in subjects with type 2 diabetes - a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measurements are useful in clinical practice since they are non-invasive and cheap. Previous studies suggest that sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) may be a better measure of visceral fat depots. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore and compare how laboratory and anthropometric risk markers predicted subclinical organ damage in 255 patients, with type 2 diabetes, after four years. Methods Baseline investigations were performed in 2006 and were repeated at follow-up in 2010. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was evaluated by ultrasonography and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and at follow-up in a cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes aged 55–65 years old. Results There were significant correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB) (r = 0.144, p = 0.03), C - reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.172, p = 0.009) at baseline and IMT measured at follow-up. After adjustment for sex, age, treatment with statins and Hba1c, the associations remained statistically significant. HbA1c, total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol did not correlate to IMT at follow-up. Baseline body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.130, p = 0.049), waist circumference (WC) (r = 0.147, p = 0.027) and sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) (r = 0.184, p = 0.007) correlated to PWV at follow-up. Challenged with sex, SBP and HbA1c, the association between SAD, not WC nor BMI, and PWV remained statistically significant (p = 0.036). In a stepwise linear regression, entering both SAD and WC, the association between SAD and PWV was stronger than the association between WC and PWV. Conclusions We conclude that apoB and CRP, but not LDL-cholesterol predicted subclinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, SAD was more independent in predicting arterial stiffness over time, compared with WC, in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23536999

  4. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMI<25 kg/m(2), waist ≥85 cm; n=31), a group with normal BMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist <85 cm; n=68), and a group with low normal BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMI<22 kg/m(2) and waist<85 cm; n=68). We measured the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels before glucose loading and after 30 and 120 minutes and calculated several indexes of insulin secretion and sensitivity. Results Subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.005) among the clinical variables and with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.0001) among the anthropometric variables but not with WC in either analysis. Conclusion Decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR were observed in subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors.

  5. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  6. Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk. PMID:23520466

  7. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaofei; Liu, Xinyu; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the HW phenotype and risk for CKD in a community population aged 40 years and older. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1, Waist circumference >90 cm in men or >85 cm in women and triglycerides ≥2 mmol/l; Group 3, Waist circumference ≤90 cm in men or ≤85 cm in women and triglycerides <2 mmol/l; Group 2, The remaining participants. The prevalence of the three subgroups and CKD were determined. The association between HW phenotype and CKD was then analyzed using SPSS (version 13.0). Results After adjusting for age and sex, Group 1 was associated with CKD (OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.01, 4.73, P<0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders and unlikely to be in the causal pathway between the HW phenotype and CKD, Group 1 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 2.65 (95% CI 1.65, 4.26, P<0.001). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association of Group 1 and CKD was still significant (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26, 3.45, P = 0.004). Group 2 was associated with CKD (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.29, 2.53, P = 0.001), when compared with Group 3. Further adjustment for factors which were potential confounders, Group 2 was still significantly associated with CKD. The OR for CKD was 1.75 (95% CI 1.22, 2.51, P = 0.002). When adjusted for diabetes and hypertension, the association between Group 2 and CKD still existed. The OR for CKD was 1.48 (95% CI 1.01, 2.16, P = 0.046). Conclusion Our results showed that HW phenotype was associated with CKD in the population aged 40 years and older. PMID:24663403

  8. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40-65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71-3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48-2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43-13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80-3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66-4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90-3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference.

  9. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  10. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and other cardiovascular disease risk markers in subjects with elevated waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Rubin, Martyn R; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Jensen, Christopher D; Lawless, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present trial was to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in subjects with high waist circumference. Subjects were randomly assigned a daily multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplement or a MVM supplement plus vitamin D 1,200 IU/day (MVM+D) for 8 weeks. There was a significant difference in mean change for 25(OH)D between the MVM and MVM+D treatment groups ( - 1.2 ± 2.5 nmol/l vs. 11.7 ± 3.0 nmol/l, respectively; P = 0.003). Vitamin D 1,200 IU/day did not increase 25(OH)D to a desirable level ( ≥ 75 nmol/l) in 61% of participants. There were no significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Thus, vitamin D supplementation with 1,200 IU/day was insufficient to achieve desirable serum 25(OH)D in most participants and did not affect cardiovascular disease risk markers.

  11. Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: should obese patients have their own "normal values?".

    PubMed

    Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George

    2014-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly.

  12. Increased waist circumference is the main driver for the development of the metabolic syndrome in South African Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Prakaschandra, Rosaley; Naidoo, Datshana P

    2016-12-15

    There is no current evidence available on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in South African Asian Indians, who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of the MetS in this group, between males and females, as well as in the different age-groups, using the harmonised criteria and determined the main components driving the development of MetS.

  13. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    PubMed Central

    EL Mabchour, Asma; Delisle, Hélène; Vilgrain, Colette; Larco, Philippe; Sodjinou, Roger; Batal, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in groups of African (Benin) and African ancestry (Haiti) Black subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin) and Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men); insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR); and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Youden’s index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results High atherogenicity index (59.5%), high blood pressure (23.2%), and insulin resistance (25% by definition) were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly the reverse of the generic cut-offs. The standard 0.50 cut-off of WHtR appeared valid for men, but it had to be increased to 0.59 in women. Conclusion CMR was widespread in these population groups. The present study suggests that in order to identify Africans with high CMR, WC thresholds will have to be increased in women and lowered in men. Data on larger samples are needed. PMID:26604808

  14. Epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of BMI, BMI change and waist circumference in African American adults identifies multiple replicated loci.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Guan, Weihua; Grove, Megan L; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Hedman, Åsa K; Sandling, Johanna K; Li, Li-An; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Deloukas, Panos; Liang, Liming; Liu, Chunyu; Bressler, Jan; Spector, Tim D; North, Kari; Li, Yun; Absher, Devin M; Levy, Daniel; Arnett, Donna K; Fornage, Myriam; Pankow, James S; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is an important component of the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Identifying epigenetic modifications associated with elevated adiposity, including DNA methylation variation, may point to genomic pathways that are dysregulated in numerous conditions. The Illumina 450K Bead Chip array was used to assay DNA methylation in leukocyte DNA obtained from 2097 African American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test the association of methylation beta value with concurrent body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and BMI change, adjusting for batch effects and potential confounders. Replication using whole-blood DNA from 2377 White adults in the Framingham Heart Study and CD4+ T cell DNA from 991 Whites in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study was followed by testing using adipose tissue DNA from 648 women in the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort. Seventy-six BMI-related probes, 164 WC-related probes and 8 BMI change-related probes passed the threshold for significance in ARIC (P < 1 × 10(-7); Bonferroni), including probes in the recently reported HIF3A, CPT1A and ABCG1 regions. Replication using blood DNA was achieved for 37 BMI probes and 1 additional WC probe. Sixteen of these also replicated in adipose tissue, including 15 novel methylation findings near genes involved in lipid metabolism, immune response/cytokine signaling and other diverse pathways, including LGALS3BP, KDM2B, PBX1 and BBS2, among others. Adiposity traits are associated with DNA methylation at numerous CpG sites that replicate across studies despite variation in tissue type, ethnicity and analytic approaches.

  15. The effects of fat and protein on glycemic responses in nondiabetic humans vary with waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin, and dietary fiber intake.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Elham; Vogt, Janet A; Wolever, Thomas M S

    2006-10-01

    The effects of protein and fat on glycemic responses have not been studied systematically. Therefore, our aim was to determine the dose-response effects of protein and fat on the glycemic response elicited by 50 g glucose in humans and whether subjects' fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and diet influenced the results. Nondiabetic humans, 10 with FPI < [corrected] or =40 pmol/L and 10 with FPI >40 pmol/L, were studied on 18 occasions after 10 14-h overnight fasts. Subjects consumed 50 g glucose dissolved in 250 mL water plus 0, 5, 10, or 30 g fat and/or 0, 5, 10, or 30 g protein. Each level of fat was tested with each level of protein. Dietary intake was measured using a 3-d food record. Gram per gram, protein reduced glucose responses approximately 2 times more than fat (P < 0.001) with no significant fat x protein interaction (P = 0.051). The effect of protein on glycemic responses was related to waist circumference (WC) (r = -0.56, P = 0.011) and intake of dietary fiber (r = -0.60, P = 0.005) but was unrelated to FPI or other nutrient intakes. The effect of fat on glycemic responses was related to FPI (r = 0.49, P = 0.029) but was unrelated to WC or diet. We conclude that, across the range of 0-30 g, protein and fat reduced glycemic responses independently from each other in a linear, dose-dependent fashion, with protein having approximately 3-times the effect of fat. A large protein effect was associated with high WC and high dietary-fiber intake, whereas a large fat effect was associated with low FPI. These conclusions may not apply to solid meals. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms for these effects.

  16. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Results: Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. Conclusion: We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases. PMID:27990384

  17. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players.

    PubMed

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A W; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost-effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  18. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  19. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both P< 0.05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0.10 (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) points (P= 0.001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (P< 0.001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL

  20. Waist-to-height ratio as a predictor of serum testosterone in ageing men with symptoms of androgen deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Carolyn A; Peverill, Roger E; Strauss, Boyd JG; Forbes, Elise A; McLachlan, Robert I

    2011-01-01

    The decline in serum testosterone in ageing men may be mediated in part by obesity; however, it is uncertain which measure of adiposity is most closely associated with testosterone levels. We have examined the relationships of age, adiposity and testosterone levels in ageing men with symptoms consistent with hypoandrogenism but who were otherwise in good health. We conducted a cross-sectional study of non-smoking men aged ≥54 years recruited from the community and who were free of cancer or serious medical illness. Height (Ht), weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height (WHt) ratio were calculated. Two morning blood samples were collected for measurement of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess their relationship with measures of adiposity. Two hundred and seven men aged 54–86 years were studied. On univariate analysis WHt ratio was more strongly correlated with TT and cFT than either WC or BMI. Furthermore, in models of TT and cFT, the addition of Ht to WC resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the regression coefficients for both WC (inverse correlate) and Ht (positive correlate), with the contributions of both WC and Ht both being significant (P<0.05 for all). In conclusion, WHt ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of both TT and cFT in this group of healthy but symptomatic ageing men. PMID:21478893

  1. Feasibility of body roundness index for identifying a clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities compared to BMI, waist circumference and other anthropometric indices: the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2008 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Xu, Yang; Dong, Huimin

    2016-08-01

    The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used anthropometric measures for predicting cardiovascular diseases risk factors, but it is uncertain which specific measure might be the most appropriate predictor of a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities (CMA) in Chinese adults. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been recently developed as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. The main aims of this study were to investigate the predictive capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying various CMA compared to BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and to determine whether there exists a best single predictor of all CMA.We used data from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the final analysis included 8126 adults aged 18 to 85 years with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the best anthropometric indices to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CMA according to anthropometric indices.In women, the ROC analysis showed that BRI and WHtR had the best predictive capability in identifying all of CMA (area under the curves [AUCs] ranged from 0.658 to 0.721). In men, BRI and WHtR were better predictor of hypertension, diabetes, and at least 1 CMA (AUC: 0.668, 0.708, and 0.698, respectively), whereas BMI and WC were more sensitive predictor of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and MetS. Furthermore, the ABSI showed the lowest AUCs for each CMA. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRI and WHtR were superior in discriminating hyperuricemia and at least 1 CMA while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension, diabetes, and MetS in women. In men, WC and BRI were the 2 best predictor of all CMA

  2. Evaluation of American Wagyu sires for scrotal circumference by age and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sosa, J M; Senger, P L; Reeves, J J

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-six percent of American Wagyu bulls do not meet the current minimum standards set by the Society of Theriogenology for the breeding soundness exam. In contrast, only 15% of bulls of domestic breeds do not meet the minimum standards. Scrotal circumference measurements of Wagyu are smaller than those of other breeds. The objective of this research was to describe scrotal circumference of Wagyu bulls as it relates to age and BW. The data set consisted of 190 Wagyu bulls housed at two locations. One hundred forty-one bulls constituted the first set of data (location 1); scrotal circumference was measured one to six times per bull aged between 13 and 70 mo. Ninety-four of the bulls underwent semen evaluation for motility and morphology. Forty-nine bulls constituted the data set for which scrotal circumference and BW was measured one to nine times per bull between 5 and 21 mo of age (location 2). Mean scrotal circumference of bulls within each age group was as follows: 12 to 14 mo, 29.8 0.2 cm (mean +/- SE); 15 to 17 mo, 31.8 +/- 0.2 cm; 18 to 20 mo, 32.9 +/- 0.3 cm; 21 to 24 mo, 31.8 +/- 0.5 cm; and > 24 mo, 35.5 +/- 0.2 cm. Both age and BW were highly correlated to scrotal circumference (r = 0.81 and 0.82, respectively). Within each age group, there were a percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum standard for scrotal circumference set by the Society of Theriogenology. The percentages were as follows: 12 to 14 mo, 46%; 15 to 17 mo, 25%; 18 to 20 mo, 33%; 21 to 24 mo, 42%; and > 24 mo, 32%. Morphology and motility were > 50% each in 91% of the bulls between ages 12 and 20 mo at location 1. Based on these data, it is recommended that Wagyu bulls be evaluated with the breed-specific minimum standards for scrotal circumference of 26 cm from 12 to 14 mo, 29 cm from 15 to 17 mo, and 30 cm from 18 to 20 mo of age.

  3. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e

  4. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations. PMID:27656259

  5. Neck Circumference May Be a Better Alternative to Standard Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Joshipura, Kaumudi; Muñoz-Torres, Francisco; Vergara, José; Palacios, Cristina; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates neck circumference as a metabolic risk marker. Overweight/obese, nondiabetic Hispanics, 40–65 years old, who are free of major cardiovascular diseases, were recruited for the San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS). Baseline exams were completed by 1,206 participants. Partial correlation coefficients (r) and logistic models adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, and physical activity were computed. Neck circumference was significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.64), BMI (r = 0.66), and body fat % (r = 0.45). Neck circumference, highest (compared to lowest) tertile, had higher association with prediabetes: multivariable OR = 2.30 (95% CI: 1.71–3.06) compared to waist circumference OR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.48–2.66) and other anthropometric measures. Neck circumference showed higher associations with HOMA, low HDL-C, and triglycerides, multivariable OR = 8.42 (95% CI: 5.43–13.06), 2.41 (95% CI: 1.80–3.21), and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14–2.03), but weaker associations with hs-CRP and hypertension, OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.66–4.90) and OR = 2.58 (95% CI: 1.90–3.49), compared to waist circumference. AIC for model fit was generally similar for neck or waist circumference. Neck circumference showed similar or better associations with metabolic factors and is more practicable than waist circumference. Hence, neck circumference may be a better alternative to waist circumference. PMID:26981543

  6. The association between waist circumference and risk of mortality considering body mass index in 65- to 74-year-olds: a meta-analysis of 29 cohorts involving more than 58 000 elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    de Hollander, Ellen L; Bemelmans, Wanda JE; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Friedrich, Nele; Wallaschofski, Henri; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Walter, Stefan; Zillikens, M Carola; Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren; Bassett, Julie K; Giles, Graham G; Orsini, Nicola; Heim, Noor; Visser, Marjolein; de Groot, Lisette CPGM; Rosengren, A.; Sundh, V.; Blair, S.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Woodward, M.; Welborn, T.; Dhaliwal, S.; Wannamethee, G.; Roure, E.; Castell, C.; Biggs, M.L.; Wolk, A.; Orsini, N.; Ducimetiere, P.; Verschuren, M.; Kaprio, J.; Menotti, A.; Lee, I.M.; Sesso, H.; Knekt, P.; Sääksjärvi, K.; Dekker, J.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.; Bandinelli, S.; Corsi, A.M.; Lauretani, F.; Visser, M.; Heim, N.; Seeman, T.; Ishii, S.; Giles, G.; Bassett, J.; Spiro, A.; Phillips, C.; Blazer, D.; Lind, L.; Zillikens, M.C.; Uitterlinden, A.; Hofman, A.; Walter, S.; Tiemeier, H.; de Groot, L.; Wallaschofski, H.; Friedrich, N.; Baumeister, S.; Guallar-Castillón, P.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F.; Lissner, L.; Sundh, V.; Skoog, I.; Wolk, A.; Orsini, N.; Woodward, M.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.; Shipley, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background For the elderly, the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality considering body mass index (BMI) remains unclear, and thereby also the evidence base for using these anthropometric measures in clinical practice. This meta-analysis examined the association between WC categories and (cause-specific) mortality within BMI categories. Furthermore, the association of continuous WC with lowest and increased mortality risks was examined. Methods Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risks (RRs) of mortality associated with WC–BMI categories and continuous WC (including WC and WC2) were calculated by the investigators and pooled by means of random-effects models. Results During a 5-year-follow-up of 32 678 men and 25 931 women, we ascertained 3318 and 1480 deaths, respectively. A large WC (men: ≥102 cm, women: ≥88 cm) was associated with increased all-cause mortality RRs for those in the ‘healthy’ weight {1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–2.2], 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3)}, overweight [1.1(95% CI: 1.0–1.3), 1.4 (95%: 1.1–1.7)] and obese [1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3–1.9)] BMI category compared with the ‘healthy’ weight (20–24.9 kg/m2) and a small WC (<94 cm, men; <80 cm, women) category. Underweight was associated with highest all-cause mortality RRs in men [2.2 (95% CI: 1.8–2.8)] and women [2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.1]. We found a J-shaped association for continuous WC with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) and cancer, and a U-shaped association with respiratory disease mortality (P < 0.05). An all-cause (CVD) mortality RR of 2.0 was associated with a WC of 132 cm (123 cm) in men and 116 cm (105 cm) in women. Conclusions Our results showed increased mortality risks for elderly people with an increased WC—even across BMI categories— and for those who were classified as ‘underweight’ using BMI. The results provide a solid basis for re-evaluation of WC cut-points in ageing populations

  7. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-03-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47-0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43-0.50 in boys and 0.43-0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant difference between

  8. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Yang-Im; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Cho, Young Gyu; Hong, Soo-Min; Cho, Eun Byul

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10–19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010–2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013–2014). Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoff value and accuracy of WHtR for predicting individual obesity indicators or more than two non-WC components of MS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of the diagnostic power of a test. A perfect test will have an AUC of 1.0, and an AUC equal to 0.5 means that the test performs no better than chance. The optimal WHtR cutoff for the evaluation of general obesity and central obesity was 0.50 in boys and 0.47–0.48 in girls, and the AUC was 0.9. Regarding the assessment of each MS risk factor, the optimal WHtR cutoff was 0.43–0.50 in boys and 0.43–0.49 in girls, and these cutoffs were statistically significant only for the detection of high triglyceride and low High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When a pairwise comparison of the AUCs was conducted between WHtR and BMI/WC percentiles to quantify the differences in power for MS screening, the WHtR AUC values (boys, 0.691; girls, 0.684) were higher than those of other indices; however, these differences were not statistically significant (boys, p = 0.467; girls, p = 0.51). The WHtR cutoff value was 0.44 (sensitivity, 67.7%; specificity, 64.6%) for boys and 0.43 (sensitivity, 66.4%; specificity, 66.9%) for girls. There was no significant

  9. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18–24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25–36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37–48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters. PMID:27351012

  10. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls.

    PubMed

    Perumal, P

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18-24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25-36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37-48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters.

  11. Wrist circumference as a novel predictor of hypertension and cardiovascular disease: results of a decade follow up in a West Asian cohort.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Reza; Mohebi, Ahmad; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-11-01

    No study has yet evaluated the effect of wrist circumference on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult population. The present study included 3642 women, aged ≥30 years, free of CVD at baseline, who had undergone health examinations between January 1999 and 2001 and were followed up until March 2010. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) of wrist circumference for CVD and hypertension events. During 10 years of follow-up, 284 cases of first CVD and 615 cases of incident hypertension occurred. In a model adjusted for conventional CVD risk factors, the HR of 1 cm increase in wrist circumference was 1.15 (1.06-1.25) for hypertension and was marginally significant for CVD (HR, 1.12 [1.00-1.25]; P-value 0.052). After considering body mass index and waist circumference in the model, we found significant interaction between waist circumference and wrist circumference in risk prediction of hypertension and CVD (P < .001). In non-centrally obese women (waist circumference <95 cm), in multivariable model plus body mass index and waist circumference, increase in wrist circumference was independently associated with both hypertension (HR, 1.17 [1.02-1.35]) and CVD (HR, 1.29 [1.03-1.61]). However, among centrally obese women (waist circumference ≥95 cm), wrist circumference increase could not predict either hypertension (HR, 0.97 [0.84-1.18]) or CVD events (HR, 0.90 [0.75-1.07]). Wrist circumference as a novel anthropometric measure was an independent predictor for incident hypertension and CVD events among non-centrally obese women.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights, scrotal circumference, and testicular volume measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silva, J A V; Sesana, R C; Sesana, J C; Junqueira, J B; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-04-01

    Data from 129,575 Nellore cattle born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to the Jacarezinho cattle-raising farm, were used to estimate genetic parameters for scrotal circumference measured at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12), and 18 (SC18) mo of age and testicular volume measured at the same ages (TV9, TV12, and TV18) and to determine their correlation with weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW), to provide information for the definition of selection criteria in beef cattle. Estimates of (co)variance components were calculated by the REML method applying an animal model in single- and multiple-trait analysis. The following heritability estimates and their respective SE were obtained for WW, YW, SC9, SC12, SC18, TV9, TV12, and TV18: 0.33 +/- 0.02, 0.37 +/- 0.03, 0.29 +/- 0.03, 0.39 +/- 0.04, 0.42 +/- 0.03, 0.19 +/- 0.04, 0.26 +/- 0.05, and 0.39 +/- 0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation between WW and YW was positive and high (0.80 +/- 0.04), indicating that these traits are mainly determined by the same genes. Genetic correlations between the growth traits and scrotal circumference measures were positive and of low to moderate magnitude, ranging from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.38 +/- 0.04. On the other hand, increased genetic associations were estimated between scrotal circumference and testicular volume at different ages (0.61 +/- 0.04 to 0.86 +/- 0.04). Selection for greater scrotal circumference in males should result in greater WW, YW, and testicular volume. In conclusion, in view of the difficulty in measuring testicular volume, there is no need to change the selection criterion from scrotal circumference to testicular volume in genetic breeding programs of Zebu breeds.

  13. Correlation between Age, Gender, Waist-Hip Ratio and Intra Ocular Pressure in Adult North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surjit; Manjhi, Prafulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular pressure (IOP) is affected by various systemic and local factors. The significance of studying the factors affecting IOP is because of its association with potentially blinding condition known as glaucoma. Aim Present study was conducted with the aim to find out the correlation between gender, age, Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and IOP. Materials and Methods The study included 300 healthy individuals between 40-79years of age. The subjects were divided into 2 categories according to gender i.e., male and female. The subjects were divided into 4 categories according to age i.e., 40-49years, 50-59years, 60-69years and 70-79years. The subjects were divided into two groups according to Waist-hip ratio (WHR) as per WHO guidelines: WHR <0.9 and WHR >0.9 in males and WHR <0.85 and WHR >0.85 in females. IOP was recorded in each group using Goldmann Applanation tonometer and statistical comparisons were made to find correlation between gender, age, Waist-hip ratio and IOP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between IOP of males and females (p=0.235). The age and IOP were positively correlated with each other i.e., IOP increases with increasing age (r=0.511, p<0.001). Higher WHR is associated with significantly higher IOP in both the genders (males r =0.644, p<0.001; females r=0.794, p<0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in IOP amongst males and females. Increasing age and higher WHR are risk factors for raised IOP. PMID:28208848

  14. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  15. Effects of whole and refined grains in a weight-loss diet on markers of metabolic syndrome in individuals with increased waist circumference: a randomized controlled-feeding trial123

    PubMed Central

    Harris Jackson, Kristina; West, Sheila G; Vanden Heuvel, John P; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Ross, Alastair B; Hill, Alison M; Grieger, Jessica A; Lemieux, Susan K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Higher whole-grain (WG) intake is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, there is inconsistent clinical evidence with regard to the benefit of WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on MetS. Objective: We hypothesized that consuming WGs in the place of RGs would improve MetS criteria in individuals with or at risk of MetS. Design: A randomized, controlled, open-label parallel study was conducted in 50 overweight and obese individuals with increased waist circumference and one or more other MetS criteria. Participants consumed a controlled weight-loss diet containing either WG or RG (control) products for 12 wk. Body composition, MetS criteria and related markers, and plasma alkylresorcinols (compliance marker of WG intake) were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. A subgroup (n = 28) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT). Results: Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups; however, the RG group tended to have higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.06). Alkylresorcinols increased with consumption of the WG diet and did not change with consumption of the RG diet (time × treatment, P < 0.0001), which showed dietary compliance. There were no differences in anthropometric changes between groups; however, weight, body mass index, and percentage of body AT decreased at both 6 and 12 wk (P < 0.05), and reductions in percentage of abdominal AT occurred by 6 wk and did not change between 6 and 12 wk (P = 0.09). Both glucose (P = 0.02) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) were lower with the consumption of the WG compared with the RG diet. However, when noncompliant individuals (n = 3) were removed, the glucose effect was stronger (P = 0.01) and the HDL-cholesterol effect was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions: Replacing RGs with WGs within a weight-loss diet does not beneficially affect abdominal

  16. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    PubMed

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  17. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-01-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index. PMID:21734821

  18. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-04-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index.

  19. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (P<.001) and positively with MUAC (P=.007). Stepwise regressions showed that waist circumference, MUAC, weight, and handgrip were important nutritional status indicators in the models using hemoglobin, serum albumin, ferritin, zinc, and plasma retinol concentrations as dependent variables. MUAC could be a valuable anthropometric marker of the overall nutritional status of adolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status.

  20. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  1. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  2. Waist to height ratio is correlated with height in US children and adolescents age 2-18y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...

  3. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  4. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  5. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  6. Neck circumference and prehypertension: the cardiometabolic risk in Chinese study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Yu; Dou, Lianjun; Li, Hongyan; Liu, Xuekui; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Background We have previously found that neck circumference was related to insulin resistance, a risk factor for hypertension in Chinese. Little is known about whether high neck circumference is associated with elevated blood pressure. Method The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total, 1709 men and women with neck circumference measurement were included. We analysed the associations between neck circumference and the risk of prehypertension. Results Although neck circumference was strongly associated with SBP/DBP in a univariate analysis, it was no longer associated with SBP and the association was much weaker with DBP when the association was adjusted for BMI or waist circumference. Similarly, high neck circumference was significantly related to an increased risk of prehypertension [odds ratio 1.254; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.171–1.343] in a univariate analysis, and the association became marginal in models further adjusting for BMI or waist. Conclusion Our data suggest that neck circumference as predictor for prehypertension is not obvious given the moderate improvement of disease prediction. PMID:25545838

  7. [Influence of smoking and abdominal obesity on lung age].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kyoko; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Ayako; Tanaka, Hiromi; Hino, Yumiko; Takahuta, Keisuke; Ikeda, Taeko; Habara, Toshiyuki

    2011-09-01

    Smoking is the riskiest factor for impairment of pulmonary function. Recent researches have indicated that abdominal obesity is also associated with the impairment. 'Lung age' is a novel index to evaluate respiratory function, and it is calculated from the data of the height, sex, and forced expiratory volume in 1-second. Using 'lung age' as an index, we studied on the relationship of 'lung age' to smoking, waist circumference, BMI, or metabolic syndrome. The study population included 1,681 persons who visited our Medical Checkup Office, and the population consisted of smoker group (n = 279) and non-smoker group (n = 1,402). In both men and women, 'lung age' was significantly higher in the smoker group than in non-smoker group (p < 0.05). In addition, the smoker group and non-smoker group were classified by waist circumference, BMI, and the presence of metabolic syndrome, respectively. As a result, 'lung age' of smoker with abdominal obesity group, smoker with obesity group, and smoker with metabolic syndrome group were significantly high. Furthermore, in multivariate linear regression analysis, we examined relation between 'lung age' and the following factors including gender, smoking, waist circumference, BMI and metabolic syndrome. There was closely related to 'lung age' in order of gender, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and waist circumference. Both smoking and abdominal obesity should be significant risk factors in increasing 'lung age'.

  8. The association of waist hip ratio and angiographically determined coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hartz, A; Grubb, B; Wild, R; Van Nort, J J; Kuhn, E; Freedman, D; Rimm, A

    1990-08-01

    Body fat distribution as measured by the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference (WHR) is now accepted as an important risk factor for a number of diseases. This study evaluated the association of WHR and coronary artery disease (CAD). Measurements included the subjects' height, weight, waist girth, hip girth, significant CAD on coronary angiography, and cholesterol levels. A history of myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes or hypertension was obtained from subject interviews. The subjects were analyzed in two age groups: younger than age 60 (88 men and 39 women) and age 60 or older (85 men and 63 women). For older women the relative odds of CAD comparing women at the 75th percentile of WHR to women at the 25th percentile was 3.67 (P = 0.003), with a 95 percent confidence interval of 1.57-8.57. The relative odds was reduced to 2.80 after adjusting for all other risk factors. WHR was significantly associated with angiographic evidence of CAD in all women combined after adjusting for age (P = 0.0004), but it was not significantly associated with CAD in younger women or in men. The results suggest that in older women the risk of CAD increases with a greater percentage of body fat in the abdomen.

  9. Programming DNA tube circumferences.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Hariadi, Rizal F; Sahu, Sudheer; Choi, Harry M T; Park, Sung Ha; Labean, Thomas H; Reif, John H

    2008-08-08

    Synthesizing molecular tubes with monodisperse, programmable circumferences is an important goal shared by nanotechnology, materials science, and supermolecular chemistry. We program molecular tube circumferences by specifying the complementarity relationships between modular domains in a 42-base single-stranded DNA motif. Single-step annealing results in the self-assembly of long tubes displaying monodisperse circumferences of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, or 20 DNA helices.

  10. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Guozhe; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 5919 hypertensive adults (2892 men and 3027 women) aged 35 years or older, was recruited from rural areas of China. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. The self-reported information was collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. The logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had significantly higher prevalences of all cardiometabolic risk factors than those without the HTGW phenotype (P < 0.001). Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had much higher possibilities to have all cardiometabolic risk factors, especially for 8.35 times more likely of having ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.92–11.79], 6.14 times more likely of having low HDL cholesterol (95% CI 4.98–7.58), 5.49 times more likely of having hyperuricemia (95% CI 4.40–6.86), and 4.32 times more likely of having 1 to 2 cardiometabolic risk factors (95% CI 3.68–5.07) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities (P < 0.05). This study concluded that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. The HTGW phenotype showed to be an important tool for monitoring of hypertensive adults with metabolic abnormalities, which is low cost, simple, and useful in clinical practice, especially in primary health care in the rural area of China. PMID:27930589

  11. Association of Neck Circumference with Obesity in Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. AIM: The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p < 0.001), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, only NC (Beta: 1.627, 95 %CI: 0.370, 2.846, p < 0.001) and WC (Beta: 0.464, 95 %CI: 0.135, 0.664, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students. PMID:27275290

  12. Head Circumference and Height in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lainhart, Janet E.; Bigler, Erin D.; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Volkmar, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081

  13. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Dayse Christina Rodrigues; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006). As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001). Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001) presented higher values of neck circumference. CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students. PMID:25591092

  14. The Association of Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype with Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Sex Difference: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Urban Chinese Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan; Yao, Yao; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of this study was to explore the association of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its sex difference in an urban Chinese elderly population. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 2102 participants aged 60–95 years were recruited and classified into four phenotypes: normal waist-normal triglyceride (NWNT), normal waist-elevated triglycerides (NWET), elevated waist-normal triglycerides (EWNT), and HTGW. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations of interest. Results: Total prevalence of CKD was 12.6%, and the CKD prevalence in participants with EWNT and HTGW was higher than with NWNT and NWET without regard to sex. Compared to NWNT phenotype, the adjusted OR for CKD was 1.95 (95% CI: 1.32–2.88) in HTGW groups. In contrast with the null findings (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 0.94–2.94) in women after additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, the OR with HTGW remained strong (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.04–3.39) in men. Similar findings appeared with the EWNT phenotype. Conclusions: The HTGW phenotype is positively associated with CKD among Chinese community elderly and may have a greater impact on men. More attention should be paid to the association between triglycerides and waist circumference in clinical practice and to the further identification this uncertain sex-related association. PMID:27983610

  15. Association of pasta consumption with body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: results from Moli-sani and INHES studies

    PubMed Central

    Pounis, G; Castelnuovo, A Di; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Bonaccio, M; Bonanni, A; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pasta as a traditional component of Mediterranean diet (MeD) in Italy has not been studied in detail in the management of body weight. This study aimed at evaluating the association of pasta intake with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio, in two large epidemiological datasets. Subjects/Methods: A total of 14 402 participants aged ⩾35 years randomly recruited from the general population of the Molise region (Moli-sani cohort) and 8964 participants aged >18 years from all over Italy (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) were separately analyzed. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-food frequency questionnaire and one 24-h dietary recall were used for dietary assessment. Weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured in Moli-sani or self-reported in INHES. Residuals methodology corrected for either total energy intake or body weight was used for the analysis of pasta intake. Results: Higher pasta intake was associated with better adhesion to MeD in both genders (P for both<0.001). In the Moli-sani study, after multivariable analysis, pasta-energy residuals were negatively associated with BMI in women but not in men (β-coef=−0.007, P=0.003 for women and β-coef=−0.001, P=0.58 for men). When pasta intake-body weight residuals were used, pasta intake was significantly and negatively associated with BMI in crude and multi-adjusted models (including adhesion to MeD) in both genders and Moli-sani and INHES studies (for all β-coef<0, P<0.05). In the Moli-sani study, pasta-body weight residuals were significantly and negatively associated with waist and hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (for all β-coef<0, P<0.05). Conclusions: As a traditional component of MeD, pasta consumption was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio and with a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:27376700

  16. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Urinary albumin (UAlb) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the relationship between NC and other measurements. Furthermore, the best cutoff values of NC for central obesity identification were determined by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: NC correlated positively with BMI, SBP and WC In both sexes. Both WC and NC correlated significantly positively with IR. A positive correlation between NC and FPG as well as a negative correlation between NC and HDL were found in obese men. NC≥38.5 cm for men and ≥34.5 cm for women were determined to be the best cutoff levels for identifying subjects with central obesity, with 82.9% accuracy for men and 79.9% accuracy for women. Conclusions: NC correlated positively with BMI and WC in both genders, indicating that NC could be used as a valid marker for both overall obesity and central obesity. In addition, measuring NC was shown to be a useful test for IR identification. Large number of NC is suggested to be associated with high risk of developing metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:26770540

  17. Waist-to-height ratio is an effective indicator for comprehensive cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Qi, Huajin; Li, Feng; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Yang, Chengjian; Wang, Ling; Shui, Kedong; Yao, Weifeng; Qiang, Dongchang; Yun, Jingting; Zhou, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between cardiovascular health and the waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). A cross-sectional study was performed recruiting 26701 middle-aged Chinese men. Of the seven ideal cardiovascular health metrics, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were found to increase with an elevation of the mean WC and WHtR. The mean WC and WHtR were significantly lower in the subjects with intermediate or ideal cardiovascular health than those with poor or intermediate health. After adjustment for age, the mean WC and WHtR decreased by 1.486 cm and 0.009 per 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score, and 2.242 cm and 0.013 per 1-point increase in the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics, respectively. The cardiovascular health score was negatively correlated with the WC (r = −0.387) and WHtR (r = −0.400), while the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics was negatively associated with the WC (r = −0.384) and WHtR (r = −0.395). The cardiovascular health is correlated negatively with the WC and WHtR, and a stronger correlation existed between the cardiovascular health and WHtR than WC. PMID:28220844

  18. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  19. Neck circumference has possibility as a predictor for metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Satomi; Miyake, Takashi; Harada, Toshihide; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nitta, Yumiko; Iida, Tadayuki; Chikamura, Chiho; Tamura, Noriko; Nitta, Kohsaku; Miyaguchi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat depots play an important role in regulating metabolic profile in Japanese postmenopausal women. We investigated the possibility of neck circumference (NC) as a surrogate marker for metabolic disease risk estimates in Japanese postmenopausal women. We examined the association of NC with several markers of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in 64 healthy postmenopausal women aged 63.6 ± 7.1 years in community-based samples in Japan. As a result, NC was significantly associated with indices of whole body obesity and visceral fat accumulation, such as body mass index (BMI) and Waist circumference (WC). In the analysis of biomarkers for insulin resistance, NC was positively correlated to HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) and leptin. In addition, an increase in triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were also associated with NC. Interestingly, NC was also associated with atherosclerosis-related indices. The measurement of NC is an easy, inexpensive and reproducible method for assessment of obesity, and a possible predictor to identify the risk for future metabolic diseases in Japanese postmenopausal women.

  20. Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), calculated by dividing the waist circumference (WC) by height, has recently gained attention as an anthropometric index for central adiposity. It is an easy-to-use and less age-dependent index to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. A WHtR cutoff of 0.5 can be used in different sex and ethnic groups and is generally accepted as a universal cutoff for central obesity in children (aged ≥6 years) and adults. However, the WHtR has not been validated in preschool children, and the routine use of WHtR in children under age 6 is not recommended. Prospective studies and meta-analysis in adults revealed that the WHtR is equivalent to or slightly better than WC and superior to body mass index (BMI) in predicting higher cardiometabolic risk. In children and adolescents, studies have shown that the WHtR is similar to both BMI and WC in identifying those at an increased cardiometabolic risk. Additional use of WHtR with BMI or WC may be helpful because WHtR considers both height and central obesity. WHtR may be preferred because of its simplicity and because it does not require sex- and age-dependent cutoffs; additionally, the simple message 'keep your WC to less than half your height' may be particularly useful. This review article summarizes recent publications on the usefulness of using WHtR especially when compared to BMI and WC as a screening tool for obesity and related cardiometabolic risks, and recommends the use of WHtR in clinical practice for obesity screening in children and adolescents. PMID:27895689

  1. Waist cancer: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Girish D; Borisa, Ashok; Tayade, Mukund B

    2011-11-01

    Saree is a type of female costume unique to Indian subcontinent. This includes a superficial cloth and a skirt underneath which is fastened securely to the waist by a cord. Persistent and long-term wearing of this costume has resulted in waist dermatoses. This waist dermatoses giving rise to malignancy is being reported here and 'saree cancer' is the term used to this entity of waist cancer. Here two cases of waist cancer are reported.

  2. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  3. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  4. Preliminary assessment of neck circumference in benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Yigit; Gulmez, Hakan; Ates, Erhan; Gulum, Mehmet; Savas, Murat

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the impact of neck circumference (NC) in the treatment of bening prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with metabolic syndrome (MtS). Additionally, we determined dose response to alpha-blockers and cut-off values for NC and waist circumference (WC), in these patients. Materials and Methods Non-randomized, open-labelled, and multi-centre study was conducted between March 2014 and September 2015. The BPH patients were enrolled and were divided into 2 groups: with MtS (Group 1; n=94) and without MtS (Group 2; n=103). Demographic data, anthropometric measurements, blood analyses, uroflowmetric parameters, post voiding residual urine (PVR), prostate volume, quality of life (QoL) index, NC and WC were recorded. Both groups were administered oral alpha-blockers and response to treatment was evaluated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained and significant p was p<0.05 . Results In total, 197 patients were enrolled with mean age of 60.5±8.1 years. Mean NC and WC were higher in MtS patients (p<0.001). Uroflowmetry parameters and QoL indexes were comparable between groups before treatment. International prostate symptom score, uroflowmetry parameters, and QoL significant improved in Group 2 than Group 1, at 1 st and 6 th months of treatment with alpha-blockers. Success rate of treatment was significant higher in Group 2 than Group 1 (p<0.001). Cut-off values were 42.5cm and 113.5cm for NC and WC respectively, for response to alpha-blockers in BPH patients with MtS. Conclusions MtS can be related with BPH and can negatively affect the response to alpha-blocker treatment. NC can be used for predicting response to alpha-blocker treatment in BPH patients with MtS.

  5. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E.; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5–19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  6. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  7. Cut-off values of waist circumference to predict metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Caranti, Danielle; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El síndrome metabólico es una constelación de alteraciones metabólicas relacionadas con la obesidad abdominal, la inflamación y la resistencia a la insulina, lo que aumenta las enfermedades cardiovasculares y la mortalidad. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia de comorbilidades y parámetros alterados en adolescentes obesos con y sin SM, y determinar los puntos de corte de la circunferencia de cintura para predecir SM. Métodos: 195 adolescentes obesos y se los dividió según síndrome metabólico diagnóstico basado en criterios de la IDF. Los análisis de sangre se midieron de glucosa, lípidos, enzimas hepáticas, la adiponectina y leptina. Resistencia a la insulina se evaluó mediante HOMA-IR, QUICKI y HOMA-AD. Se obtuvieron ecografía visceral, subcutánea y grasa hepática. La composición corporal se calcula por el sistema BOD POD. Resultados: Se observó una prevalencia del 25% de síndrome metabólico Mets (n = 50). El grupo grupo con síndrome metabólico presentó mayor masa corporal, índice de masa corporal, grasa corporal (kg), sin grasa masa significativa (kg), circunferencia de la cintura, la grasa visceral, la glucosa, la insulina, resistencia a la insulina, colesterol total, LDL-c, VLDL-c, triglicéridos, enzimas hepáticas, enfermedad no alcohólica del hígado graso (EHNA) y la presión arterial. Se observaron QUICKI significativamente menor y la adiponectina en el grupo con síndrome metabólico. El grupo con síndrome metabólico presentaron significativa proporción de leptina / adiponectina mayor en comparación con los que no tienen síndrome metabólico. Puntos de corte de 111,5 cm para los niños y 104,6 cm para las niñas de la circunferencia de cintura se sugirieron para predecir el síndrome metabólico. Además, la circunferencia de la cintura fue positivamente correlacionada con la grasa visceral y el número de parámetros del síndrome metabólico. Conclusión: El grupo con síndrome metabólico presentan alteraciones metabólicas significativas superiores e inflamación en comparación con el grupo sin síndrome metabólico. La circunferencia de cintura se considera un predictor medida antropométrica del síndrome metabólico en adolescentes obesos, siendo útil en la práctica clínica.

  8. Preferred women's waist-to-hip ratio variation over the last 2,500 years.

    PubMed

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men's mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men's preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed.

  9. Specific Metabolic Markers Are Associated with Future Waist-Gaining Phenotype in Women

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Benedikt; Nöthlings, Ute; Wahl, Simone; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Adamski, Jerzy; Suhre, Karsten; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Pischon, Tobias; Bachlechner, Ursula; Floegel, Anna; Peters, Annette; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our study aims to identify metabolic markers associated with either a gain in abdominal (measured by waist circumference) or peripheral (measured by hip circumference) body fat mass. Methods Data of 4 126 weight-gaining adults (18–75 years) from three population-based, prospective German cohort studies (EPIC, KORA, DEGS) were analysed regarding a waist-gaining (WG) or hip-gaining phenotype (HG). The phenotypes were obtained by calculating the differences of annual changes in waist minus hip circumference. The difference was displayed for all cohorts. The highest 10% of this difference were defined as WG whereas the lowest 10% were defined as HG. A total of 121 concordant metabolite measurements were conducted using Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® kits in EPIC and KORA. Sex-specific associations with metabolite concentration as independent and phenotype as the dependent variable adjusted for confounders were calculated. The Benjamini-Hochberg method was used to correct for multiple testing. Results Across studies both sexes gained on average more waist than hip circumference. We could identify 12 metabolites as being associated with the WG (n = 8) or HG (n = 4) in men, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing; 45 metabolites were associated with the WG (n = 41) or HG (n = 4) in women. For WG, n = 21 metabolites remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Respective odds ratios (OR) ranged from 0.66 to 0.73 for tryptophan, the diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (PC) C32:3, C36:0, C38:0, C38:1, C42:2, C42:5, the acyl-alkyl-PCs C32:2, C34:0, C36:0, C36:1, C36:2, C38:0, C38:2, C40:1, C40:2, C40:5, C40:6, 42:2, C42:3 and lyso-PC C17:0. Conclusion Both weight-gaining men and women showed a clear tendency to gain more abdominal than peripheral fat. Gain of abdominal fat seems to be related to an initial metabolic state reflected by low concentrations of specific metabolites, at least in women. Thus, higher levels of specific PCs may play

  10. [Nutrictional behaviours of men at the age 20-60 with regard to anthropometric indicators of nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse eating behaviours of men in regard to selected anthropometric indicators of nutritional status (BMI and waist circumference). The test sample for this research were men aged 20-40 (n = 592) and 40-60 (n = 802) employees of Tadeusz Sendzimir Steel Mill in Cracow. The indices of nutritional status were established on the basis of anthropometric measurements, whereas eating behaviours were described on the basis of an authorial questionnaire. Statistical analysis of data was conducted by means of chi2 independence test. The research corroborated the existence of a correlation between BMI and waist circumference indices and certain male eating behaviours. Having 1-2 meals per day was to be observed among men with a higher BMI, whereas having 4-5 meals per day among men with a healthy BMI (p < 0.01). Younger men with proper body weight declare a higher regularity of having meals than obese ones (p < 0.05). This research has not found any correlation between BMI and waist circumference indices and the frequency of eating vegetables, fruit, fish and "fast-food" products. However a tendency among obese men to cut down on eating sweets has been discovered (according to BMI), irrespective of their age, as compared to men with proper body mass (p < 0.05). The same phenomenon was also confirmed in the group of younger men in the waist circumference category (p < 0.05). Hence, correlations exist between psychosomatic indices and certain eating behaviours of men aged 20-60, which explain the development of obesity. At the same time obese men tend to rationalise certain eating behaviours, whose purpose is to reduce excessive body weight.

  11. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomyagkov, A.; Levichev, E.; Piminov, P.

    2016-12-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA Φ NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA Φ NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  12. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  13. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  14. Head circumference and body growth in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Mori, Kenji; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that there is a relationship between increased head circumference and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this relationship during the first year of life in subjects with ASD. We compared 280 children with ASD and 609 controls. In the ASD-male group, increases were observed in head circumference from 3 to 12months, in height from 3 to 9months, and in body weight from 3 to 6 and 12months. On the other hand, in the ASD-female group increases in head circumference, in body height, and in body weight were only observed at 3months. After adjusting for height, weight, and age, only the head circumference in the male ASD group was significantly increased from 6 to 9months after birth, reaching a peak at 6months after birth. No difference was found in the female ASD group. Although body overgrowth in the ASD group also started early after birth, the increase in head circumference was more marked than that in body growth. The values of physical measurements in the first year may be useful, minimally invasive parameters for the early detection of autism in combination with observing the timing of certain behaviors such as smiling, eye contact, crawling, pointing, and joint attention.

  15. Lipid and lipoprotein profile in menopausal transition. Effects of hormones, age and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Mesch, V; Boero, L; Sayegh, F; Prada, M; Royer, M; Muzzio, M L; Schreier, L; Siseles, N; Benencia, H

    2004-04-01

    The behavior of lipoproteins during the menopausal transition and their relationship with sex hormones and body fat distribution is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate atherogenic IDL, LDL, Lp(a) and antiatherogenic HDL lipoproteins in four groups of women: premenopausal (n = 20), menopausal transition women with menstrual bleeding (n = 31), menopausal transition women with 3 to 6 months amenorrhea (n = 36), and postmenopausal women (n = 30). We also measured their FSH, LH and estradiol levels along with BMI and waist circumference. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal women showed higher values of waist circumference (p < 0.0032), LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.002), IDL-cholesterol (p < 0.002) and apoprotein B (p < 0.0001) than premenopausal women. Total-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), triglycerides (p < 0.004), IDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) were higher in menopausal transition women with amenorrhea and in postmenopausal women in comparison with premenopausal women. After adjustment according to age and waist circumference, multiple regression analysis showed the increase in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to be linearly associated to menopausal status and estradiol concentration, whereas Lp(a) was only related to menopausal status. Age was found to be an independent variable in relation to apoprotein B concentration changes. The effect of menopausal status on TG levels did not remain in the model when age, waist and BMI were included (beta = 0.05, p = 0.356). HDL-cholesterol levels were the same in all the groups. Menopause, age and the increase in abdominal fat distribution were three independent and significant factors impairing lipoprotein profiles from the beginning of the menopausal transition.

  16. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  17. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

  18. Establishing Waist-to-Height Ratio Standards from Criterion-Referenced BMI Using ROC Curves in Low-Income Children.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine WHtR cut-points that associated with a child meeting FITNESSGRAM's age- and sex-specific criterion-referenced standards for BMI. The derived WHtR cut-point was 0.50 (AUC = 0.89, p < 0.001; sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 0.82, and accuracy = 84.3%). Classification agreement using the derived WHtR cut-point with various blood marker standards was statistically significant but considered weak to fair (kappa 0.14-0.34, agreement = 59%-67%, and p < 0.01). The WHtR cut-point of 0.50 can be used with strong accuracy to distinguish low-income children who met FITNESSGRAM's criterion-referenced standards for body composition; however, the evidence was weaker for its use in distinguishing low-income children meeting specific cardiometabolic blood marker recommendations.

  19. Establishing Waist-to-Height Ratio Standards from Criterion-Referenced BMI Using ROC Curves in Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi; Fu, You

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish health-related waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-points associating with FITNESSGRAM's body mass index (BMI) criterion-referenced standards in low-income children. A secondary aim was to examine the classification agreement between the derived WHtR cut-points and various cardiometabolic blood markers using current recommendations. Participants were 219 children from low-income schools (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Waist circumference, height, weight, and cardiometabolic blood markers were collected in a fasting state before school hours. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine WHtR cut-points that associated with a child meeting FITNESSGRAM's age- and sex-specific criterion-referenced standards for BMI. The derived WHtR cut-point was 0.50 (AUC = 0.89, p < 0.001; sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 0.82, and accuracy = 84.3%). Classification agreement using the derived WHtR cut-point with various blood marker standards was statistically significant but considered weak to fair (kappa 0.14–0.34, agreement = 59%–67%, and p < 0.01). The WHtR cut-point of 0.50 can be used with strong accuracy to distinguish low-income children who met FITNESSGRAM's criterion-referenced standards for body composition; however, the evidence was weaker for its use in distinguishing low-income children meeting specific cardiometabolic blood marker recommendations. PMID:27885339

  20. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  1. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleliani de Cassia; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Camilo, Daniella Fernandes; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. de G. M.; Cassani, Roberta Soares L.; Geloneze, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services. PMID:25119754

  2. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference.

    PubMed

    Anglim, B; O'Higgins, A; Daly, N; Farren, M; Turner, M J

    2015-06-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obese women compared with 31.5cm (SD 1.6) in women with a normal BMI (p < 0.001) at 18-22 weeks gestation. In the obese women it increased on average by 1.5cm by 36-40 weeks compared with an increase of 1.6 cm in women with a normal BMI. The antenatal measurement of NC is a simple, inexpensive tool that is potentially useful for screening obese women who may benefit from an antenatal anaesthetic assessment.

  3. Grip strength and forearm circumference in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Anakwe, R E; Huntley, J S; McEachan, J E

    2007-04-01

    Two hundred and fifty subjects were recruited. Age, sex, hand preference and anthropometric measurements were recorded for each subject. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar hydraulic dynamometer. Multiple regression analyses were performed. One hundred and seventy two subjects were men and 78 were women. Twenty-six subjects were left hand dominant. Hand grip strength was greatest for the 35 to 44 year old group for both sexes. Grip strength was consistently greater for men than women. Contralateral grip strength predicted maximum grip strength for both sexes. Forearm circumference predicted maximum hand grip strength for men. Although there was a large range of forearm circumferences in the population, there was little difference between sides for each subject (100% less than 2 cm). The demonstrated relationships between: (i) contralateral grip strengths and (ii) grip strength and forearm circumference lead us to suggest that for certain pathologies, a difference in forearm circumference greater than 2 cm may lend credence to a measurement of diminished grip strength.

  4. Analysis of factors affecting birthweight, birth length and head circumference: study of Japanese triplets.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sugimoto, Masako; Ooki, Syuichi

    2005-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify factors associated with birthweight, birth length and head circumference for triplets, and analyze these body size parameters at birth, especially head circumference, according to gestational age. The subjects of this study were 370 mothers and their 1109 triplet children (excluding one stillborn infant) who were born between 1978 and 2002. The gestational age proved to be the strongest contributing factor to birthweight, birth length and head circumference of the triplets. Moreover, sex was a significant factor affecting birthweight, birth length and head circumference. Male neonates had a higher birthweight, longer birth length and greater head circumference than female neonates. Birth order in triplets also had a significant effect on birthweight and head circumference. Lower birth-order neonates had a higher birthweight and greater head circumference. An effect of maternal pregravid body mass index (BMI) on both birthweight and birth length was observed. The birthweights of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were more than 26.0 kg/m2 weighed an average of 150 g more than those of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were less than 19.8 kg/m2, and the birth length of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were more than 26.0 kg/m2 averaged 1.5 cm longer than those of triplets born to women whose pregravid BMIs were less than 19.8 kg/m2. Concerning head circumference, the median head circumference of male neonates was approximately 0.5 cm longer than female neonates. Compared to singleton neonates, the median head circumference of triplets was almost the same.

  5. Comparing Two Waist-to-Height Ratio Measurements with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Youth with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lenna L.; Kahn, Henry S.; Pettitt, David J.; Fino, Nora F.; Morgan, Tim; Maahs, David M.; Crimmins, Nancy A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liese, Angela D.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Bell, Ronny A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Waist circumference (WC) is commonly measured by either the World Health Organization (WHO) or National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocol. Objective Compare the associations of WHO vs. NHANES WC-to-height ratio (WHtR) protocols with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in a sample of youth with diabetes. Methods For youth (10–19 years old with type 1 [N=3082] or type 2 [N=533] diabetes) in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, measurements were obtained of WC (by two protocols), weight, height, fasting lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, Non-HDL cholesterol) and blood pressures. Associations of CMRFs with WHO and NHANES WHtR were modeled stratified by body mass index (BMI) percentiles for age/sex: lower BMI (<85th BMI percentile; N=2071) vs. higher BMI (≥85th percentile; N=1594). Results Among lower-BMI participants, both NHANES and WHO WHtR were associated (p<0.005) with all CMRFs except blood pressure. Among higher-BMI participants, both NHANES and WHO WHtR were associated (p<0.05) with all CMRFs. WHO WHtR was more strongly associated (p<0.05) than NHANES WHtR with triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in lower-BMI participants. Among high-BMI participants, WHO WHtR was more strongly associated (p<0.05) than NHANES WHtR with triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Among youth with diabetes, WHtR calculated from either WC protocol captures cardiometabolic risk. The WHO WC protocol may be preferable to NHANES WC. PMID:28232855

  6. Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity.

  7. Preferred Women’s Waist-to-Hip Ratio Variation over the Last 2,500 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Jeanne; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the body circumference at the waist and the hips (or WHR) is a secondary sexual trait that is unique to humans and is well known to influence men’s mate preferences. Because a woman's WHR also provides information about her age, health and fertility, men's preference concerning this physical feature may possibly be a cognitive adaptation selected in the human lineage. However, it is unclear whether the preferred WHR in western countries reflects a universal ideal, as geographic variation in non-western areas has been found, and discordances about its temporal consistency remain in the literature. We analyzed the WHR of women considered as ideally beautiful who were depicted in western artworks from 500 BCE to the present. These vestiges of the past feminine ideal were then compared to more recent symbols of beauty: Playboy models and winners of several Miss pageants from 1920 to 2014. We found that the ideal WHR has changed over time in western societies: it was constant during almost a millennium in antiquity (from 500 BCE to 400 CE) and has decreased from the 15th century to the present. Then, based on Playboy models and Miss pageants winners, this decrease appears to slow down or even reverse during the second half of the 20th century. The universality of an ideal WHR is thus challenged, and historical changes in western societies could have caused these variations in men’s preferences. The potential adaptive explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:25886537

  8. Whether age of menarche is influenced by body mass index and lipoproteins profile? a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Maryam; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Menarche, a milestone in the reproductive life span of a woman, is influenced by several genetics and environmental factors. There is no consensus regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles on the age of menarche, as the results of various studies demonstrate. Objective: To investigate the correlation between age of menarche and BMI/lipoprotein profile in a community sample of Iranian girls. Materials and Methods: In the study, 370 girls, aged 10-16 years, who began their menarche within six months prior to the study, were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. Information was documented regarding their body composition, including height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were collected and their lipid profiles were assessed after a 12-hour fast. Results: In this study, the mean±SD of age of menarche and BMI were 12.6±1.1 years and 21.7±3.9 kg/m2, respectively. There were statistically significant relationships between age of menarche and height, BMI, waist circumference, and the maternal educational level. The relationship between age of menarche and the weight and lipid profiles of subjects was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Age at menarche is not influenced by lipid profiles but it is influenced by BMI. PMID:25246895

  9. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. Objectives To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5th and 8th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Methods Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5th to the 8th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. Results The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). Conclusion We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition. PMID:24676224

  10. Anthropometric indices to identify metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: a comparison between the three stages of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HW) in a representative adolescent sample; as well as to establish which anthropometric indicator better identifies MS and HW, according to gender and adolescent age. METHODS: This cross sectional study had the participation of 800 adolescents (414 girls) from 10-19 years old. Anthropometric indicators (body mass index, waist perimeter, waist/stature ratio, waist/hip ratio, and central/peripheral skinfolds) were determined by standard protocols. For diagnosis of MS, the criteria proposed by de Ferranti et al. (2004) were used. HW was defined by the simultaneous presence of increased waist perimeter (>75th percentile for age and sex) and high triglycerides (>100 mg/dL). The ability of anthropometric indicators was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS was identical to HW (6.4%), without differences between genders and the adolescence phases. The waist perimeter showed higher area under the curve for the diagnosis of MS, except for boys with 17-19 years old, for whom the waist/stature ratio exhibited better performance. For diagnosing HW, waist perimeter also showed higher area under the curve, except for boys in initial and final phases, in which the waist/stature ratio obtained larger area under the curve. The central/peripheral skinfolds had the lowest area under the curve for the presence of both MS and HW phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The waist perimeter and the waist/stature showed a better performance to identify MS and HW in both genders and in all three phases of adolescence. PMID:25913494

  11. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  12. Head circumference and height in autism: a study by the Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism.

    PubMed

    Lainhart, Janet E; Bigler, Erin D; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J; Volkmar, Fred

    2006-11-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research.

  13. Performance of the waist-to-height ratio in identifying obesity and predicting non-communicable diseases in the elderly population: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Thumé, Elaine; De Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Tomasi, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out aiming to collect evidence on the use of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on the elderly population, focusing on validity measures to identify the best anthropometric indicator in assessing obesity associated with non-communicable diseases. The review consisted in a search of papers published on the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Lilacs, with no restriction regarding period of publication, using the following combinations: abdominal fat or overweight or obesity and waist-to-height ratio or waist height or waist ht or WHtR or waist to stature ratio or wst stature or WSR or stature and girth. Sixteen papers were selected, most of which with high methodological quality. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was the validity measure explored in 13 papers, followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. In all studies, the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) received special attention for analysis along with WHtR. Five manuscripts showed evidence of WHtR being the best anthropometric index when used alone, four showed that both WHtR and WC had the best discriminatory power in predicting cardiovascular risk factors compared to the other indices, and two ranked WHtR at the same performance level as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. An association was shown of the obesity assessed by WHtR in predicting risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes compared to other anthropometric parameters.

  14. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Various Definitions and Hypertriglyceridemic-Waist in Malaysian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Isa, NurFirdaus; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed according to several different criteria such as the latest International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Program III (NCEP ATPIII), and World Health Organization (WHO). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the concordance between the above mentioned definition, and hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria. Methods: This cross sectional study was done in Bachok, Malaysia and involved 298 respondents aged between 18 to 70 years. Multistage random sampling method was used to identify study locations while convenient random sampling method was applied to select individuals. Hypertriglyceridemic waist was defined from an internationally acceptable cut-off criterion. Kappa statistic (κ test) was used to determine the concordance between various definitions and hypertriglyceridemic-waist. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on different definitions was 32.2% (IDF), 28.5% (NCEP ATP III) and 12.4% (modified WHO). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic-waist was 19.7% and based on the IDF criteria a total of 97.5% participants with hypertriglyceridemic-waist had metabolic syndrome. The IDF criteria showed the highest concordance with NCEP ATPIII criteria (κ = 0.63), followed by hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria (κ = 0.62) and WHO criteria (κ = 0.26). Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest using the IDF criteria compared to NCEP ATPIII, modified WHO and hypertriglyceridemic-waist. There was a good concordance of IDF criteria with NCEP ATP III and hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria. PMID:22174962

  15. Low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, Calf Circumference, and Body Mass Index and Mortality in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Heymans, Martijn W.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Kruizenga, Hinke M.; Twisk, Jos W.; Visser, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index is a general measure of thinness. However, its measurement can be cumbersome in older persons and other simple anthropometric measures may be more strongly associated with mortality. Therefore, associations of low mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and body mass index with mortality were examined in older persons. Methods. Data of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, were used. The present study included community-dwelling persons 65 years and older in 1992–1993 (n = 1,667), who were followed until 2007 for their vital status. Associations between anthropometric measures and 15-year mortality were examined by spline regression models and, below the nadir, Cox regression models, transforming all measures to sex-specific Z scores. Results. Mortality rates were 599 of 826 (73%) in men and 479 of 841 (57%) in women. Below the nadir, the hazard ratio of mortality per 1 standard deviation lower mid-upper arm circumference was 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.48–2.16) in men and 2.26 (1.71–3.00) in women. For calf circumference, the hazard ratio was 1.45 (1.22–1.71) in men and 1.30 (1.15–1.48) in women and for body mass index 1.38 (1.17–1.61) in men and 1.56 (1.10–2.21) in women. Excluding deaths within the first 3 years after baseline did not change these associations. Excluding those with a smoking history, obstructive lung disease, or cancer attenuated the associations of calf circumference (men) and body mass index (women). Conclusions. Based on the stronger association with mortality and given a more easy assessment in older persons, mid-upper arm circumference seems a more feasible and valid anthropometric measure of thinness than body mass index in older men and women. PMID:20547497

  16. Relationship between dietary sodium, potassium, and calcium, anthropometric indexes, and blood pressure in young and middle aged Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Kim, Jeongseon

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of the effects of dietary sodium, calcium, and potassium, and anthropometric indexes on blood pressure is still inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between dietary factors or anthropometric indexes and hypertension risk, we examined the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with sodium, calcium, and potassium intakes and anthropometric indexes in 19~49-year-olds using data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) III. Total of 2,761 young and middle aged adults (574 aged 19~29 years and 2,187 aged 30~49 years) were selected from KNHANES III. General information, nutritional status, and anthropometric data were compared between two age groups (19~29 years old and 30~49 years old). The relevance of blood pressure and risk factors such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and the intakes of sodium, potassium, and calcium was determined by multiple regression analysis. Multiple regression models showed that waist circumference, weight, and BMI were positively associated with SBP and DBP in both age groups. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with either SBP or DBP. Among 30~49-year-olds, calcium was inversely associated with both SBP and DBP (P = 0.012 and 0.010, respectively). Our findings suggest that encouraging calcium consumption and weight control may play an important role in the primary prevention and management of hypertension in early adulthood.

  17. Estimating Earth's Circumference with an App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda; Dennis, Emily

    2016-01-01

    More than 2,200 years ago, Eratosthenes, who was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician, used a simple proportion involving the distance between two ancient cities and measures of shadows cast in those cities during a summer solstice to estimate the circumference of Earth (Nicastro 2008, 25-28). Today, middle school students can use…

  18. Predicting maximal grip strength using hand circumference.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hewson, David J; Duchêne, Jacques; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between anthropometric data and maximal grip strength (MGS) in order to establish a simple model to predict "normal" MGS. Randomized bilateral measurement of MGS was performed on a homogeneous population of 100 subjects. MGS was measured according to a standardized protocol with three dynamometers (Jamar, Myogrip and Martin Vigorimeter) for both dominant and non-dominant sides. Several anthropometric data were also measured: height; weight; hand, wrist and forearm circumference; hand and palm length. Among these data, hand circumference had the strongest correlation with MGS for all three dynamometers and for both hands (0.789 and 0.782 for Jamar; 0.829 and 0.824 for Myogrip; 0.663 and 0.730 for Vigorimeter). In addition, the only anthropometric variable systematically selected by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was also hand circumference. Based on this parameter alone, a predictive regression model presented good results (r(2) = 0.624 for Jamar; r(2) = 0.683 for Myogrip and r(2) = 0.473 for Vigorimeter; all adjusted r(2)). Moreover a single equation was predictive of MGS for both men and women and for both non-dominant and dominant hands. "Normal" MGS can be predicted using hand circumference alone.

  19. Effect of secular trends on age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors: the Whitehall II longitudinal study 1985–2009

    PubMed Central

    Hulmán, Adam; Tabák, Adam G; Nyári, Tibor A; Vistisen, Dorte; Kivimäki, Mika; Brunner, Eric J; Witte, Daniel R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors have been described, but few studies have examined simultaneously the effects of both ageing and secular trends within the same cohort. Methods: Development of cardiovascular risk factors over the past three decades was analysed using serial measurements from 10 308 participants aged from 35 to 80 years over 25 years of follow-up from five clinical examination phases of the Whitehall II study. Changes of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol distribution characteristics were analysed with quantile regression models in the 57–61 age group. Age-related trajectories of risk factors were assessed by fitting mixed-effects models with adjustment for year of birth to reveal secular trends. Results: Average body mass index and waist circumference increased faster with age in women than in men, but the unfavourable secular trend was more marked in men. Distributions showed a fattening of the right tail in each consecutive phase, meaning a stronger increase in higher percentiles. Despite the higher obesity levels in younger birth cohorts, total cholesterol decreased markedly in the 57–61 age group along the entire distribution rather than in higher extremes only. Conclusion: The past three decades brought strong and heterogeneous changes in cardiovascular risk factor distributions. Secular trends appear to modify age-related trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors, which may be a source of bias in longitudinal analyses. PMID:24464190

  20. Characterizing the Size of the Encumbered Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    47 Waist (Omphalion) Circumference ...76 Maximum Waist Circumference ...48 Figure 37: Waist (Omphalion) Circumference measurement ....................................................... 49 Figure 38: Percent

  1. Use of glycated hemoglobin and waist circumference for diabetic screening in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Véronique; Tchernof, André; Weisnagel, S John; Robitaille, Julie

    2013-09-01

    Objectif : Bien que leur risque de présenter un diabète de type 2 connaisse une hausse considérable, les femmes ayant déjà connu un diabète sucré gestationnel (DSG) ne bénéficient pas de services de dépistage adéquats à la suite de leur grossesse. L’identification d’une méthode de dépistage moins lourde pourrait accroître les taux de dépistage postpartum. Nous avions pour objectif d’examiner le caractère adéquat des mesures du taux d’hémoglobine glyquée (A1C) et du tour de taille (TT) pour ce qui est de la détection de l’altération du métabolisme du glucose chez les femmes ayant déjà connu un DSG. Méthodes : L’analyse portait sur 178 femmes ayant connu un DSG entre 2003 et 2010. Le TT et le taux d’A1C ont été mesurés, et une épreuve d’hyperglycémie provoquée par voie orale (75 g, 2 h) a été menée. Le prédiabète a été défini comme étant une glycémie à jeun (GJ) ≥ 5,6 et < 7,0 mmol/l ou une glycémie à 2 heures (G-2 h) ≥ 7,8 et < 11,0 mmol/l, tandis que le diabète de type 2 a été défini comme étant une GJ ≥ 7,0 mmol/l et/ou une G-2 h ≥ 11,1 mmol/l. Des analyses de sensibilité et de spécificité ont été menées. Résultats : L’âge moyen des sujets était de 36,4 ± 4,8 ans et le dépistage s’est déroulé, en moyenne, 3,5 ± 1,9 ans à la suite de l’accouchement. La combinaison d’un taux de A1C ≥ 5,7 % et d’un TT ≥ 88 cm pour détecter le prédiabète comptait une sensibilité de 76 % et une spécificité de 62 %; pour ce qui est de la détection du diabète de type 2, cette combinaison comptait une sensibilité de 91 % et une spécificité de 34 %. Par comparaison avec les femmes qui présentaient un taux d’A1C et un TT se situant dans la plage normale, les femmes qui présentaient un taux d’A1C ≥ 5,7 % et un TT ≥ 88 cm étaient plus susceptibles de connaître un diabète de type 2 (RC, 4,4; IC à 95 %, 2,0 - 9,9). Conclusion : Ces analyses semblent indiquer que la combinaison du taux d’A1C et de la mesure du TT pourrait constituer un test sensible pour le dépistage du prédiabète et du diabète de type 2 au cours des années qui suivent une grossesse ayant été compliquée par la présence d’un DSG. La tenue d’autres études permettant de valider cette méthode de dépistage s’avère requise.

  2. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  3. Hair cortisol and adiposity in a population‐based sample of 2,527 men and women aged 54 to 87 years

    PubMed Central

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cortisol exposure is hypothesized to contribute to obesity. This study examined associations between hair cortisol concentrations, a novel indicator of long‐term cortisol exposure, and adiposity in a large population‐based sample. Methods Data were from 2,527 men and women aged 54 and older (98% white British) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp‐nearest 2 cm hair segment, and height, weight, and waist circumference were objectively measured. Covariates included age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, diabetes, and arthritis. Results In cross‐sectional analyses, hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated with weight (r = 0.102, P < 0.001), BMI (r = 0.101, P < 0.001), and waist circumference (r = 0.082, P = 0.001) and were significantly elevated in participants with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) (F = 6.58, P = 0.001) and raised waist circumference (≥102 cm in men, ≥88 cm in women) (F = 4.87, P = 0.027). Hair cortisol levels were also positively associated with the persistence of obesity (F = 12.70, P < 0.001), evaluated in retrospect over 4 years. Conclusions Chronic exposure to elevated cortisol concentrations, assessed in hair, is associated with markers of adiposity and with the persistence of obesity over time. PMID:28229550

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children; systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  5. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  6. Head circumference of children with sickle cell disease in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Senbanjo, Idowu Odunayo; Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Salisu, Mohammed; Diaku-Akinwumi, Ijeoma Nnenna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Growth retardation and under-nutrition are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study was to compare the head circumference (HC) of SCD children and non-SCD children and to determine the effect of malnutrition on head circumference of children with SCD. Methods This was a prospective case-control study conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, involving SCD children (subject, n = 118) and non-SCD children (control, n = 118) matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Weight, height and HC were measured using standard techniques. Results The mean ages of children with and without SCD were 7.46 ± 3.69 years and 7.01 ± 3.58 years, respectively. The HC increased significantly with age in both males and females (r = 0.75, p = < 0.001; r = 0.70, p < 0.001 respectively). There was no significant difference in HC between males and females (p > 0.05). At all ages, the mean head circumference of SCD children was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from non-SCD children. The In the age group 11-15 years, the prevalence of stunting was significantly higher among SCD children than non-SCD children. The mean HC of SCD children with stunting was significantly lower than those not stunted (51.7 vs. 53.5; P= 0.006) in age group 11.15 years. Conclusion The head circumference of children with SCD is not significantly different from that of non-SCD children. Therefore, the HC chart for the general population is also applicable for monitoring head growth in children with SCD. The effect of malnutrition on head circumference of SCD children is most marked in age group 11-15 years. PMID:28154697

  7. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposure and Body Mass Index in Children Up To 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, epidemiologic studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are limited despite animal studies indicating PBDEs’ potential role as an obesogen. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal concentrations of BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and ΣPBDEs during pregnancy were associated with anthropometric measures in children aged 1–8 years. Methods: We examined 318 mother–child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort enrolled from 2003 through 2006 (Cincinnati, OH). Serum PBDEs were measured at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation. We measured child height (1–8 years), weight (1–8 years), body mass index (BMI) (2–8 years), waist circumference (4–8 years), and body fat (8 years). To account for repeated measures, we used linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between maternal PBDEs and child anthropometric measures. Results: We found no statistically significant associations between prenatal PBDEs and height or weight z-score. A 10-fold increase in maternal serum BDE-153 was associated with lower BMI z-score (β = –0.36; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.13) at 2–8 years, smaller waist circumference (β = –1.81 cm; 95% CI: –3.13, –0.50) at 4–8 years, and lower percent body fat (β = –2.37%; 95% CI: –4.21, –0.53) at 8 years. A decrease in waist circumference at 4–8 years was observed with a 10-fold increase in BDE-100 (β = –1.50 cm; 95% CI: –2.93, –0.08) and ΣPBDEs (β = –1.57 cm; 95% CI: –3.11, –0.02). Conclusions: Reverse causality may have resulted in prenatal PBDEs, particularly BDE-153, and decreased BMI, waist circumference, and body fat. Citation: Vuong AM, Braun JM, Sjödin A, Webster GM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Chen A. 2016. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and body mass index in children up to 8 years of age

  8. Associations of Upper Arm and Thigh Circumferences with Dementia and Depression in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported an association between weight loss and cognitive impairment. Changes in anthropometric measurements, such as arm and thigh circumferences, are associated with body mass changes and physical activity. Our aim was to investigate the association of upper arm and thigh circumferences with dementia and depression in the community-dwelling elderly population. Methods In total, 2,498 community residents aged 65 years or over were clinically assessed for dementia using the Korean version of the Community Screening Interview for Dementia. Depression was also assessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3. Arm and thigh circumferences were measured. Complex sample logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations of changes in anthropometric measurements with dementia/depression after controlling for other covariates. Results In the adjusted analyses, there was an independent association between dementia and arm circumference (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.06–1.19). This association was significant in the females (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.05–1.19) but not in males (OR=1.07; 95% CI=0.93–1.28). The association between dementia and thigh circumference was not significant in the adjusted analysis (OR=1.03; 95% CI=0.99–1.07). No significant association was found between either upper arm or thigh circumference and depression. Conclusion In the older female Korean population, decreased upper arm circumference was associated with dementia and may represent a biological marker for this condition. This association may be explained by nutritional deficits or decreased physical activity. PMID:28326112

  9. Waist-to-height ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Caminha, Tainá C.S.; Ferreira, Haroldo S.; Costa, Narithania S.; Nakano, Ricardo P.; Carvalho, Renata Elyonara S.; Xavier, Antônio F.S.; Assunção, Monica L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20–49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out. Hypertension was identified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or regular use of antihypertensive drugs. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage, and conicity index. The accuracy definition of the indicators and the identification of best cut-off points were carried out on the basis of ROC curve analysis and Youden index, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.8%. All indicators used in hypertension identification had area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.5. The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 was the best performance indicator (AUC = 0.72; P < 0.05; sensitivity = 67%, specificity = 66%). The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 has constituted the most accurate indicator in the screening of women with hypertension. In the absence of specific studies and considering the largest ethnic proximity and environmental/epidemiological similarity, the findings now obtained can be extended to women of other Brazilian states, especially those in the Northeastern region. PMID:28079826

  10. Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A268 695 DTIC ELECTE AUG 3 0 1993 dI I Public . MILITARY MEDICINE, 158, 1:026, 1993 A Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements LT...are required to meet percent Introduction body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF...or 31-35.9% body fat (%BF), and with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Val- obese as 26 or 36%BF or greater for men and women, respec

  11. Comparison of body fat estimation using waist:height ratio using different 'waist' measurements in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine differences in predicting total and regional adiposity using the waist:height ratio (WHtR) calculated using different 'waist' measurements. Body composition of ninety-five males and 121 female Australian adults (aged 20 years and above) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The WHtR was calculated using: (1) the narrowest point between the lower costal border and the top of the iliac crest (WHtR-W), and (2) at the level of the umbilicus (WHtR-A). Relationships between calculated WHtR and measured body composition, such as percentage body fat (%BF) and percentage trunk fat (%TF) were determined. Values obtained from WHtR-A were significantly greater than WHtR-W in both groups (P < 0.05). While no correlation differences between WHtR-W and WHtR-A in relation to body composition variables were observed, females showed significantly lower correlation with lean mass compared with BMI. Regression analyses showed that neither WHtR had an age influence on %TF estimation. Estimated %BF and %TF were comparable for both WHtR and also with estimated values using a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Sensitivity of excess %BF and %TF increased by using WHtR-A, particularly in females. In conclusion, the umbilicus measurement may be better than using the narrowest site in the WHtR calculation, particularly in females. To improve the screening ability of the WHtR and make comparisons between studies easier there may be a need to standardise the measurement location. Further studies are recommended to confirm the findings across different ethnic groups.

  12. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  13. Usage of neck circumference as novel indicator of erectile dysfunction: a pilot study in Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Akin, Y; Gulmez, H; Bozkurt, A; Nuhoglu, B; Usta, M F

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual problem worldwide. The association between ED and components of metabolic syndrome (MtS) is well established. This study examined neck circumference (NC) as a possible indicator of MtS and also of ED. Ninety-two patients were included and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients with ED and Group 2 consisted of 45 healthy volunteers. Questionnaires, differences in anthropometric and laboratory measurements between patients with ED and the control group, and a cut-off value for NC were investigated. The mean NC in ED patients was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P = 0.001), and Group 1 also demonstrated more MtS criteria than Group 2 (P < 0.001). The cut-off point of NC was defined as 34.75 cm for ED and MtS. The cut-off values of waist circumference for ED and MtS were 105.5 and 102.5 cm respectively. In the light of these findings, NC may be a new component of MtS in ED patients. Additionally, NC may be a novel indicator of central obesity and ED. We suggest that NC values of 35 cm and over may predict ED in patients with MtS.

  14. A matched-pair longitudinal study on the relationship between maternal smoking and head circumference of newborns.

    PubMed

    Miyao, M; Furuta, M; Matsushita, Y; Ogiso, M; Ishihara, S; Teo, P C

    1995-02-01

    The relationship between maternal smoking and the head circumference of newborns were analyzed using a matched-pair longitudinal method. For the study, data was collected from Japanese primiparas in Aichi, Japan. Forty-seven smoking and nonsmoking mothers were matched using multivariate caliper matching for birth weight and gender for their newborns, and gestational period and age for the gravidas. Significantly smaller head circumferences of the newborns from the smoking mothers were observed.

  15. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  16. Head circumferences in twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-09-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20 % of males and 27 % of females with an ASD had macrocephaly. Unaffected co-twins showed similar rates (16 % of males and 22 % of females). Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in HCs between affected and unaffected twins. Twins with ASDs and unaffected co-twins have similar HCs and increased rates of macrocephaly. Correlations demonstrated partial inheritance of HCs. Thus, macrocephaly may represent an endophenotype in ASDs.

  17. Effect of parental head circumference on that of the newborn child.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, J; Havalad, S; Hudson, B; Hughes, A

    1980-01-01

    The head circumferences of 74 term, normal babies were measured, together with the head circumferences of their parents. Maternal head circumference had a significant effect on that of the newborn infant but paternal head circumference had not. An equation is given for estimating the expected head circumference of a newborn infant, provided the birthweight and maternal head circumference are known. PMID:7436491

  18. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Conclusion: Topical AE ointment

  19. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  20. In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Wetmur, James G; Birman-Deych, Elena; Obel, Josephine; Lapinski, Robert H; Godbold, James H; Holzman, Ian R; Wolff, Mary S

    2004-03-01

    Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are conducting a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of mothers and infants delivered at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Pesticide exposure was assessed by a prenatal questionnaire administered to the mothers during the early third trimester as well as by analysis of maternal urinary pentachlorophenol levels and maternal metabolites of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. Neither the questionnaire data nor the pesticide metabolite levels were associated with any of the fetal growth indices or gestational age. However, when the level of maternal PON1 activity was taken into account, maternal levels of chlorpyrifos above the limit of detection coupled with low maternal PON1 activity were associated with a significant but small reduction in head circumference. In addition, maternal PON1 levels alone, but not PON1 genetic polymorphisms, were associated with reduced head size. Because small head size has been found to be predictive of subsequent cognitive ability, these data suggest that chlorpyrifos may have a detrimental effect on fetal neurodevelopment among mothers who exhibit low PON1 activity.

  1. Crabbed Waist Collisions in DAFNE and Super-B Design

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Bossi, F.; Buonomo, B.; Clozza, A.; Delle Monache, G.O.; Demma, T.; Di Pasquale, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, C.; /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /CERN /Rome III U. /Rome U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /KEK, Tsukuba /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Cosenza /SLAC /Frascati

    2011-11-02

    The new idea of increasing the luminosity of a collider with crab waist collisions and first experimental results from the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF, Frascati, using this concept are presented. Consequences for the design of future factories will be discussed. An outlook to the performance reach with crab waist collisions is given, with emphasis on future B Factories.

  2. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  3. Heart-Health Screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... old, your healthcare provider may ask for your waist circumference or use your body weight to calculate your ... BMI) During your regular healthcare visit Age 20 Waist circumference As needed to help evaluate cardiovascular risk. This ...

  4. Screening for malnutrition with arm circumference.

    PubMed

    Acciarri, G; Eckroad, J C; Fajardo, L F; Muñoz, R; de Mercado, R; Pradilla, A; Quintero, G; de Ramírez, B; Victoria, F; Wilson, D H

    1977-09-01

    The opinions on the performance characteristics of the mid arm circumference as anthropometric measurement for malnutrition screening are quite contradictory. In this paper we analyze the specificity and sensitivity of the arm tape under different conditions and conclude that the design of the tape characteristics should aim at an instrument which can satisfy specific needs instead of a general purpose one. We also give some measurements for the practical design of the instrument. 1. This investigation has been carried out under the Contract AID/ta-C-1121 and the Fundación para la Educación Superior. 2. Universidad del Valle. 3. Fundación para la Educación Superior. 4. Community Systems Foundation.

  5. The effectiveness of BMI, calf circumference and mid-arm circumference in predicting subsequent mortality risk in elderly Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2011-01-01

    BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) are anthropometric indicators often included in geriatric health measurement scales. However, their relative effectiveness in predicting long-term mortality risk has not been extensively examined. The present study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of these anthropometrics in predicting long-term mortality risk in older adults. The study prospectively analysed the ability of these indicators in predicting 4-year follow-up mortality risk of a population-representative sample of 4191 men and women, 53 years of age or older in the 'Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan'. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of follow-up mortality risk with low ( < 21 kg/m2) or high ( ≥ 27 kg/m2) BMI, low MAC ( < 23·5/22 cm for men/women) and low CC ( < 30/27 cm) respectively, according to Taiwanese-specific cut-off points. Results showed that low CC and low MAC were more effective than low BMI in predicting follow-up mortality risk in 65-74-year-old elderly. But low CC and low BMI were more effective than low MAC in ≥ 75-year-old elderly, and low BMI was more effective than low MAC or low CC in 53-64-year-old persons. High BMI was not effective in predicting mortality risk in any of these age ranges. These results suggest that in elderly adults, CC is more effective than BMI in predicting long-term mortality risk. Thus, more consideration to CC and MAC in designing geriatric health or nutritional measurement scales is recommended.

  6. Measuring chest circumference change during respiration with an electromagnetic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an off-the-shelf DC motor is modified into a chest belt and used to successfully measure circumference change on a mechanical chest model, while simultaneously harvesting significant power. Chest circumference change can provide information on tidal volume, which is vital in assessing lung function. The chest circumference change is calculated from the motor's voltage output. Calculated values are within 0.95mm of measured circumference changes, with a standard deviation of 0.37mm. The wearable motor can also harvest at least 29.4µW during normal breathing.

  7. Aging, obesity, and post-therapy cognitive recovery in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhezhou; Zheng, Ying; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi

    2016-10-11

    Therapy-induced cognitive impairment is prevalent and long-lasting in cancer survivors, but factors affecting post-therapy cognitive recovery are unclear. We conducted this study to evaluate the associations of age, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and physical activity (PA) with post-therapy cognitive changes in a population-based breast cancer (BC) survivor cohort. We collected information on PA, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences of 1286 BC survivors aged 20-75. We assessed their cognitive functions, including immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency, and attention, at 18 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations of age, BMI, WHR and PA with mean changes in cognitive scores from 18- to 36-month follow-up interview. We found that the post-therapy cognitive changes differed by age and obesity status. Verbal fluency and attention improved in younger patients aged <60 and non-abdominally obese patients, but deteriorated in older patients aged ≥60 (i.e. verbal fluency and attention) and abdominally obese patients (i.e. verbal fluency). Memory improved in all patients, with a smaller improvement in obese patients compared with normal-weight patients. No significant association was found between PA and post-therapy cognitive change. Due to the novelty of our findings and the limitations of our study, further research, including intervention trials, is warranted to confirm the causal relationship between obesity and cognitive impairments.

  8. Modern Replication of Eratosthenes' Measurement of the Circumference of Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes' experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38,874?km, measured at Rosebud,…

  9. A Prospective Study of LINE-1DNA Methylation and Development of Adiposity in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Rozek, Laura S.; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5–12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. Results There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P = 0.04) and 0.07 Z/year (P = 0.03), respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend = 0.02). DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. Conclusions Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys. PMID:23638120

  10. Association of older women's limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745-0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480-0.628). The Cronbach's alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass.

  11. Mid-arm and chest circumferences at birth as predictors of low birth weight and neonatal mortality in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, S K; Ramji, S; Kumar, A; Mohan, M; Marwah, J; Sachdev, H P

    1985-01-01

    In developing countries, where about three quarters of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. A study was performed to see whether other simpler measurements could be substituted for weight to identify neonates of low birth weight and those at risk. A study of 520 hospital births showed a strong correlation (p less than 0.001) between other anthropometric variables and birth weight, but the correlation was maximum for chest circumference (r = 0.8696) and mid-arm circumference (r = 0.8110). A mid-arm circumference of less than or equal to 8.7 cm and a chest circumference of less than or equal to 30 cm had the best sensitivity and specificity for identifying neonates with a birth weight of 2500 g or less. Measurements on 501 consecutive live births in the community were recorded and the infants followed up at specified ages. Mid-arm circumference was again significantly correlated to birth weight (r = 0.6918). Neonatal mortality showed an inverse relation but postneonatal mortality an inconsistent relation with mid-arm circumference. A mid-arm circumference of less than or equal to 8.7 cm and a birth weight of less than or equal to 2500 g were equally useful in predicting neonatal outcome. Mid-arm and chest circumferences are simple, practicable, quick, and reliable indicators for predicting low birth weight and neonatal outcome in the community and can be easily measured by paramedical workers in developing nations. PMID:3935212

  12. [DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND IN PHYSICAL CONDITION BETWEEN SCHOOL AGE STUDENTS OF TWO PUBLIC CURRICULUM PROGRAMS IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Cubides, Raúl; Aldana Alarcón, Luis Gonzalo; Gutiérrez Galvis, Adriana Rocío

    2015-11-01

    During the past five decades there has been an increased in the prevalence of obesity and over weight, also in physical inactivity and /or low cardiorespiratory fitness within the population in school age from diverse regions of the planet, including Bogota-Colombia. The general objective of this study was to compare the physical condition and the levels of physical activity from students who belonged to two curriculum programs of the Public Schools Network from Bogota, one of which includes two sessions per week, each session of 90 minutes of physical activity. We developed a research of unlike cross-sectional groups. There were 178 children evaluated from the regular curriculum and 170 kids belonging to the program 40 x 40. The physical condition was evaluated applying the protocol of high priority from the ALPHA -Fitness test Battery. The weight, height, body mass index, the waist circumference, the standing long jump, the handgrip in both hands and the motor fitness 20 meter shuttle run test were developed under standardized conditions. The Global School Health Survey (GSHS) was used to evaluate the levels of AF. No significant statistical differences were founded between P-40x40 and the regular curriculum regarding: weight, height, the body mass index, the waist circumference, the handgrip in both hands and the explosive strength in lower limbs. Nevertheless the cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly lower within de P-40x40. In conclusion the participation in the curricular program 40 x 40 was not associated with better levels of physical condition.

  13. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  14. Australian Tri-Service Anthropometric Survey, 1977. Part 3. Survey Results: Air Force TRANSPORT and CATERING Group,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Waist Circumference 12 Head Breadth 32 I Is ... ... , . . . .n l i I I ,, . . - TABLE 1 Age (year) Number of Subjects :312 Mean 34.4 Standard Deviation...alignment checked, and the Waist Circumference measured. 1 TABLE 12 Waist Circumference (mm) Number of Subjects 312 Mean : 913.9 Standard Deviation

  15. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    BMI, waist circumference , history of enlarged prostate, education and current smoking status, were all considered as possible confounders. Results: We...interviewers during in person computer assisted interviews and with self-administered 18 questionnaires. Heights, weight, and waist circumference were measured...logistic models were run including as potential confounders age, race, BMI, waist circumference , current smoking status, history of enlarged prostate and

  16. Relationships between Neonatal Weight, Limb Lengths, Skinfold Thicknesses, Body Breadths and Circumferences in an Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T.; Cole, Tim J.; O'Callaghan, Michael; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. Methods We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male) from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia). We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. Results Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg) were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference), this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. Conclusions Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length

  17. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  18. Rate of head circumference growth as a function of autism diagnosis and history of autistic regression.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sara Jane; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine

    2007-10-01

    Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder is associated with increased rate of head growth in early childhood. Increased rate of growth may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined rate of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with autism spectrum disorder and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 months. Only children who had more than 3 occipitofrontal circumference measurements available during this age period were included. All data were converted to z scores based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention norms. Rate of growth from birth to age 36 months was statistically significantly higher for the autism spectrum disorder group than the developmental delay group, with children with autism spectrum disorder showing a statistically significant increase in occipitofrontal circumference relative to norms between 7 and 10 months; this group difference in rate of growth was more robust when height was used as a covariate. Rate of growth was not found to be different for children with autism spectrum disorder whose parents reported a history of loss of skills (regression) vs those whose parents reported early onset of autism symptoms. Findings from this study suggest that the aberrant growth is present in the first year of life and precedes the onset and diagnosis in children with autism spectrum disorder with and without a history of autistic regression.

  19. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  20. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease.

  1. Fit-To-Fight: Waist vs Waist/Height Measurements to Determine an Individual’s Fitness Level - A Study in Statistical Regression and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Doll 0.3600 Female College Swimmer 0.4240 Male College Swimmer 0.4280 Body Builder 0.4580 Female at increased risk 0.4920 General... Female WAIST/HT Histogram ..................................................................... 49 Figure 13 – Male WAIST/HT Histogram...51 Figure 15 – (AFI 10-248) Female Waist Points Graph..................................................... 52 Figure 16

  2. An Anthropometric Risk Index Based on Combining Height, Weight, Waist, and Hip Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) can be considered an application of a power law model to express body weight independently of height. Based on the same power law principle, we previously introduced a body shape index (ABSI) to be independent of BMI and height. Here, we develop a new hip index (HI) whose normalized value is independent of height, BMI, and ABSI. Similar to BMI, HI demonstrates a U-shaped relationship to mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) population. We further develop a new anthropometric risk index (ARI) by adding log hazard ratios from separate nonlinear regressions of the four indicators, height, BMI, ABSI, and HI, against NHANES III mortality hazard. ARI far outperforms any of the individual indicators as a linear mortality predictor in NHANES III. The superior performance of ARI also holds for predicting mortality hazard in the independent Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. Thus, HI, along with BMI and ABSI, can capture the risk profile associated with body size and shape. These can be combined in a risk indicator that utilizes complementary information from height, weight, and waist and hip circumference. The combined ARI is promising for further research and clinical applications. PMID:27830087

  3. Waist Gain Is Associated with a Higher Incidence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon; Chang, Yoosoo; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Ko, Byung-Joon; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between changes in waist circumference (WC) and the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods A cohort study of 37,130 men and women were followed-up annually or biennially. Differences in WC between baseline and subsequent measurements were categorized in quartiles: first (WC loss), second (no change in WC as the reference), third and highest quartiles (WC gain). The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasound. Parametric Cox modeling was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidence of NAFLD. Results During 127,324.4 person-years of follow-up, 6249 participants developed NAFLD. Despite adjusting for possible confounders, the risk of development of NAFLD increased with increasing quartiles of WC change in a dose-response manner (p for trend < 0.001). Compared with the reference, WC loss was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD (men: aHR 0.79 [95% CI: 0.73–0.87]; women: 0.72 [0.63–0.81]), and the highest quartile (WC gain) was associated with a higher risk of NAFLD (men: 1.30 [1.19–1.42]; women: 1.48 [1.31–1.67]). Conclusion Waist gain appears to increase the risk of developing NAFLD, independently of the baseline body mass index and WC. PMID:27420035

  4. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  5. Pedestrian Navigation Based on a Waist-Worn Inertial Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications. PMID:23112614

  6. Pedestrian navigation based on a waist-worn inertial sensor.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio; González, Rafael C

    2012-01-01

    We present a waist-worn personal navigation system based on inertial measurement units. The device makes use of the human bipedal pattern to reduce position errors. We describe improved algorithms, based on detailed description of the heel strike biomechanics and its translation to accelerations of the body waist to estimate the periods of zero velocity, the step length, and the heading estimation. The experimental results show that we are able to support pedestrian navigation with the high-resolution positioning required for most applications.

  7. CEPC partial double ring scheme and crab-waist parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dou; Gao, Jie; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhai, Jiyuan; Wang, Yiwei; Bai, Sha; Geng, Huiping; Bian, Tianjian; Cui, Xiaohao; Wang, Na; Duan, Zhe; Guo, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qing

    2016-11-01

    In order to avoid the pretzel orbit, CEPC is proposed to use partial double ring scheme in CDR. In this paper, a general method of how to make an consistent machine parameter design of CEPC with crab-waist by using analytical expression of maximum beam-beam tune shift and beamstrahlung beam lifetime started from given IP vertical beta, beam power and other technical limitations were developed. FFS with crab sextupoles will be developed and the arc lattice will be redesigned to acheive the lower emittance for crab-waist scheme.

  8. Instrument development, study design implementation, and survey conduct for the national social life, health, and aging project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen; Jaszczak, Angela; Graber, Jessica; Lundeen, Katie; Leitsch, Sara; Wargo, Erin; O'Muircheartaigh, Colm

    2009-11-01

    The National Opinion Research Center, led by a team of investigators at the University of Chicago, conducted more than 3,000 in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 57-85 years. Data collection included in-person questionnaire items, an extensive array of biomeasures, and a postinterview self-administered questionnaire. The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) interview included the collection of 13 biomeasures: weight, waist circumference, height, blood pressure, smell, saliva collection, taste, a self-administered vaginal swab for female respondents, "Get Up and Go," distance vision, touch, oral mucosal transudate (Orasure) human immunodeficiency virus test, and blood spots. This article discusses the development of NSHAP's instruments and implementation of the study design. Measures, such as response and cooperation rates, are also provided to evaluate the effectiveness of the design and implementation.

  9. Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Golley, Rebecca K; Smithers, Lisa G; Mittinty, Murthy N; Emmett, Pauline; Northstone, Kate; Lynch, John W

    2013-10-01

    Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on children's health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (β = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P < 0.001) but positively associated with a "health conscious" dietary pattern [β = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P < 0.001]. A higher index score was also positively associated with total, verbal, and performance IQ scores at 8 y of age [β = 1.92 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.47); P < 0.001 for total IQ). The index score was weakly associated with waist circumference [β = -0.15 (95%CI: -0.31, -0.002); P = 0.046] and diastolic blood pressure [β = -0.24 (95%CI: -0.47, -0.01); P = 0.043] at 7 y of age but was not associated with BMI or other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that adherence to current complementary feeding guidelines may have implications for some, but not all, health and development outcomes in childhood.

  10. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  11. Modern replication of Eratosthenes’ measurement of the circumference of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhorn, Morgana; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two hundred years ago, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth. This paper describes an experiment to replicate Eratosthenes’ experiment with observers located in Australia and New Zealand. The most accurate circumference produced in the experiment described in this paper is 38 874 km, measured at Rosebud, Victoria, Australia, and Jimboomba, Queensland, Australia with an error of 2.9%. This exceeds the accuracy of Eratosthenes, although not of the modern recreation of his experiment between Syene and Alexandria. The experiment described in this paper might form a useful model for cooperation between schools in different countries.

  12. Factors associated with arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Milena Santos; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Fernandes, Carolina Dadalto Rocha; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with stiffness of the great arteries in prepubertal children. METHODS This study with convenience sample of 231 schoolchildren aged 9-10 years enrolled in public and private schools in Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010-2011. Anthropometric and hemodynamic data, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in the carotid-femoral segment were obtained. Data on current and previous health conditions were obtained by questionnaire and notes on the child’s health card. Multiple linear regression was applied to identify the partial and total contribution of the factors in determining the pulse wave velocity values. RESULTS Among the students, 50.2% were female and 55.4% were 10 years old. Among those classified in the last tertile of pulse wave velocity, 60.0% were overweight, with higher mean blood pressure, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. Birth weight was not associated with pulse wave velocity. After multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) and diastolic blood pressure remained in the model. CONCLUSIONS BMI was the most important factor in determining arterial stiffness in children aged 9-10 years. PMID:25902563

  13. Relationships between active school transport and adiposity indicators in school-age children from low-, middle- and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, O L; Lemoine, P; Gonzalez, S A; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Larouche, R; Onywera, V; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Within the global context of the nutrition and physical activity transition it is important to determine the relationship between adiposity and active school transport (AST) across different environmental and socio-cultural settings. The present study assessed the association between adiposity (that is, body mass index z-score (BMIz), obesity, percentage body fat (PBF), waist circumference) and AST in 12 country sites, in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample included 6797 children aged 9–11 years. Adiposity indicators included, BMIz calculated using reference data from the World Health Organization, obesity (BMIz ⩾+2 s.d.), PBF measured using bioelectrical impedance and waist circumference. School travel mode was assessed by questionnaire and categorized as active travel versus motorized travel. Multilevel linear and non-linear models were used to estimate the magnitude of the associations between adiposity indicators and AST by country site and sex. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, parental education and motorized vehicle availability, children who reported AST were less likely to be obese (odds ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval (0.60–0.87), P<0.001) and had a lower BMIz (−0.09, s.e.m.=0.04, P=0.013), PBF (least square means (LSM) 20.57 versus 21.23% difference −0.66, s.e.m.=0.22, P=0.002) and waist circumference (LSM 63.73 cm versus 64.63 cm difference −0.90, s.e.m.=0.26, P=0.001) compared with those who reported motorized travel. Overall, associations between obesity and AST did not differ by country (P=0.279) or by sex (P=0.571). Conclusions: AST was associated with lower measures of adiposity in this multinational sample of children. Such findings could inform global efforts to prevent obesity among school-age children. PMID:27152178

  14. Determining the waist radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam using a millimeter-scale ruler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pao-Keng; Liu, Jian-You

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive method for determining the waist radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam. This method is motivated by the fact that if you focus the laser beam using a lens, the distance from the lens to the waist will vary slightly as the lens is moved along the beam-propagating direction. We show how the waist radius can be calculated from four large longitudinal lengths, measurable using a conventional millimeter-scale ruler. Analyzing the dependence of the calculated waist radius on these four measured lengths numerically shows that the accuracy of the calculated waist radius is mainly affected by the error in the relative shift in the distance from the lens to the waist position. The calculated waist radius for a real HeNe laser is close to the one measured directly using a commercial beam profiler with an error within 7%.

  15. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  16. [VARIATION ON SOMATOTYPE AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN A SAMPLE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BETWEEN YEARS 2012 AND 2014 IN THE TEMUCO, CHILE].

    PubMed

    Carrasco Alarcón, Vanessa; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Álvarez Lepín, Cristian; Jorquera Aguilera, Carlos; Aguilar Farías, Nicolás

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: determinar la variación del somatotipo y la circunferencia de la cintura (CC) en estudiantes universitarios en un periodo de tres años. Método: se seleccionó una muestra de 36 estudiantes de primer año en 2012, en los cuales se evaluó el somatotipo de Heath-Carter y la circunferencia de cintura en los años 2012 y 2014. Resultados: en los hombres, el componente dominante en el año 2012 fue la mesomorfia (3,7-5,3-1,8), mientras que en el año 2014 la endomorfia y la mesomorfia son iguales (4,1-4,5-1,6). En las mujeres, en el año 2012 (5,4- 4,6-1,7) y en el año 2014 (5,3-3,2-1,6) dominó la endomorfia. De los componentes del somatotipo, en ambos sexos, la endomorfia es el único que presenta diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los años estudiados (p = 0,00) El somatotipo dominante en los hombres fue del tipo endo-mesomorfo, con un 61,9% en el año 2012 y con un 38,1% en el 2014. En las mujeres, el somatotipo meso-endomorfo es el que presenta mayor porcentaje en el año 2012, con un 60%, y en el año 2014, con un 80%. La CC en los hombres entre el año 2012 y 2014 tuvo un aumento estadísticamente significativo de 4,8% (p = 0,00). En las mujeres, el aumento presentado de 13,3% no fue estadísticamente significativo (p = 0,10). Conclusiones: en este estudio se observó una modificación del somatotipo con una tendencia al aumento de la endomorfia en ambos sexos. Con respecto a la CC, si bien los valores son cercanos a la media nacional, entre ambos años aumentaron los casos que presentaban riesgo cardiometabólico de acuerdo a esta medición.

  17. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el aceite de coco (Cocos nucifera L.) virgen extra contiene una alta proporción de ácidos grasos de cadena media que parecen contribuir a la reducción del peso y podría ayudar en la prevención secundaria de la enfermedad arterial coronaria (EAC). Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del tratamiento nutricional asociado con el consumo de aceite de coco virgen extra en los parámetros antropométricos y el perfil lipídico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio longitudinal de 116 adultos de ambos sexos que presentan CAD. Los pacientes fueron seguidos en dos etapas: en la primera etapa (basal-3 meses), se llevo a cabo un tratamiento nutricional intensivo. En la segunda etapa (3-6 días), los sujetos fueron divididos en dos grupos: grupo asociado con el consumo de aceite extra virgen de coco (GDOC) y el grupo de dieta (GD). Se realizaron mediciones mensuales antropométricas: peso, circunferencia de la cintura (CC), circunferencia del cuello (PP) e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se tomó la presión arterial y muestras de sangre recogidas en ayunas durante 12 horas para el análisis de colesterol total y lipoproteínas, apoproteínas (Apo A-1 y B), glucosa, hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c) e insulina (I). Se compararon los promedios al principio y al final del estudio mediante el test t de Student-independiente. Se ajustó la presión arterial diastólica por el IMC mediante ANOVA. Los análisis se realizaron con el paquete estadístico SPSS, siendo significativa p < 0.05. Resultados: la edad media de la población fue de 62,4 ± 7,7 años, el 63,2% hombres, 70% mayores, el 77,6% con infarto de miocardio, el 52,6% con angina de pecho y el 100% con hipertensión arterial y dislipidemia. En la primera etapa del tratamiento nutricional se redujeron las concentraciones de insulina, peso, WC, IMC y PP, HbA1C, HOMA-IR y rápido, sin cambiar otros parámetros. En la segunda etapa del estudio se observó que la GDOC mantiene la reducción del peso, BMI, WC, con una diferencia significativa entre los grupos para DC (-2,1 ± 2,7 cm; p < 0,01). Además, se produjo un aumento en las concentraciones de HDL-C, Apo A, con una diferencia significativa en GD, solo para HDL-C (3,1 ± 7,4 mg/dl; p = 0,02). Conclusión: se observó que el tratamiento nutricional asociado con el consumo de aceite de coco virgen extra redujo la CC e incrementó los niveles de HDL-C en pacientes con CAD.

  18. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  19. Genetic contribution to variation in body configuration in Belgian nuclear families: a closer look at body lengths and circumferences.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Alaitz; Jelenkovic, Aline; Susanne, Charles; Rebato, Esther

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the contribution of genetic factors on body configuration related phenotypes. The sample consisted of 119 Belgian nuclear families including 231 males and 229 females. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to analyse 13 length and circumference measures and the resulting two synthetic traits (LF and CF; linear and circumference factors, respectively) were used as summary variables. Univariate quantitative genetic analysis indicated that variation in anthropometric as well as in synthetic traits was significantly dependent on additive genetic effects, with heritabilities ranging from 0.55 to 0.88. Narrow sense heritability estimates were higher for measurements principally characterizing skeletal mass than in variables that also involve soft-tissues. Sex, age and their interactions explained 11-67% of the total phenotypic variance. This report also examined the covariations between pairs of anthropometric and synthetic traits (length measurements and LF vs. height; circumference measures and CF vs. weight and BMI; LF vs. CF). Significant genetic correlations among all the studied traits (except for middle finger length vs. height) confirmed the influence of pleiotropy on genetic determination of these phenotypes. Bivariate analysis showed that pleiotropic effects had a great influence in determining body traits variation within body length measurements, as well as between body circumferences and weight or BMI. In relation to the two synthetic traits, even the variation of body lengths and circumferences was highly determined by genetic factors, shared genetic influences were unlikely to explain much of the observed variation between LF and CF. The results of the present study allow us to conclude that in this population body configuration related traits are subject to a strong genetic control and that shared genes also contribute to this genetic structure.

  20. Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Kevin; Eldridge, Alison; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Manson, Andrew; Murphy, James; Porter, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking.

  1. Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek, J.; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

    2006-08-16

    The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

  2. Measurement of Gastric Circumference in Foetuses with Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, M.; Kagan, K. O.; Borgmeier, F.; Seitz, G.; Arand, J.; Wagner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The specific recognition of oesophageal atresia (OA) with or without a tracheal fistula in a foetus is a diagnostic challenge for prenatal medicine. The aim of the present work is to analyse the value of the measurement of gastric size in the diagnosis of this significant malformation. Materials and Methods: Altogether, the examinations of 433 pregnancies between the 18.4 and 39.1 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analysed. 59 of these foetuses exhibited an OA. By means of a linear regression analysis with normal foetuses, significant parameters influencing gastric size were examined. Subsequently the gastric sizes were transformed into z values and a comparison was made between OA with and without fistulae with the help of t tests. Results: In the normal foetuses there was a significant association between the gastric circumference and the abdominal circumference (circumference = 6.809 + 0.179 × abdominal circumference, r = 0.686, p < 0.0001). In the normal group the average was 43.0 (standard deviation [SD] 13.7) mm and those in foetuses with and without fistuale were 33.8 (SD 22.7) and 0.9 (SD 3.7) mm. In 34 (57.6 %) foetuses with an OA, the gastric circumference was below the 5th percentile. In detail, there were 13 (34.2 %) foetuses with a fistula and 21 (100 %) without a fistula. The average z values in the normal group and in the groups of OA with fistula and without fistula amounted to 0.0 (SD 1.0), −1.3 (SD 2.2) and −4.5 (SD 1.0). Conclusion: Measurements of the gastric circumference below the 5th percentile should lead to further diagnostic measures, especially when associated with polyhydramnios. Although OA without a fistula is always conspicuous, only about one in three OAs with fistula are associated with a significantly smaller stomach. PMID:26719598

  3. Measurement of Gastric Circumference in Foetuses with Oesophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Hoopmann, M; Kagan, K O; Borgmeier, F; Seitz, G; Arand, J; Wagner, P

    2015-11-01

    Background: The specific recognition of oesophageal atresia (OA) with or without a tracheal fistula in a foetus is a diagnostic challenge for prenatal medicine. The aim of the present work is to analyse the value of the measurement of gastric size in the diagnosis of this significant malformation. Materials and Methods: Altogether, the examinations of 433 pregnancies between the 18.4 and 39.1 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analysed. 59 of these foetuses exhibited an OA. By means of a linear regression analysis with normal foetuses, significant parameters influencing gastric size were examined. Subsequently the gastric sizes were transformed into z values and a comparison was made between OA with and without fistulae with the help of t tests. Results: In the normal foetuses there was a significant association between the gastric circumference and the abdominal circumference (circumference = 6.809 + 0.179 × abdominal circumference, r = 0.686, p < 0.0001). In the normal group the average was 43.0 (standard deviation [SD] 13.7) mm and those in foetuses with and without fistuale were 33.8 (SD 22.7) and 0.9 (SD 3.7) mm. In 34 (57.6 %) foetuses with an OA, the gastric circumference was below the 5th percentile. In detail, there were 13 (34.2 %) foetuses with a fistula and 21 (100 %) without a fistula. The average z values in the normal group and in the groups of OA with fistula and without fistula amounted to 0.0 (SD 1.0), -1.3 (SD 2.2) and -4.5 (SD 1.0). Conclusion: Measurements of the gastric circumference below the 5th percentile should lead to further diagnostic measures, especially when associated with polyhydramnios. Although OA without a fistula is always conspicuous, only about one in three OAs with fistula are associated with a significantly smaller stomach.

  4. Positioning Commercial Pedometers to Measure Activity of Older Adults with Slow Gait: At the Wrist or at the Waist?

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Weber, Chloe; Lovis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality in aging. Measuring people activity through devices such as pedometers is a recognized intervention to motivate them for more physical activity. However, the feedback provided by these devices must be accurate in order to avoid overtraining and keep users' motivation alive. If the accuracy of pedometers has been validated for healthy people, their lack of accuracy for elderly people walking at slower pace has been reported in several studies. The emergence on the consumer's market of new devices that can be worn indifferently at the wrist or at the waist raises once more this concern. In order to evaluate whether pedometers' location influences their accuracy, we have tested three pedometers at different locations, and for several paces in a comparative study. Beyond confirming the decrease of pedometers' accuracy with speed reduction, our study reveals that pedometers should be worn at the waist rather than at the wrist. This leads us to recommend wearing pedometers at the waist when monitoring population with reduced mobility.

  5. Performance of laser inter-satellite links with dynamic beam waist adjustment.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianyu; Wang, Qian; Wu, Ming-Wei; Kam, Pooi-Yuen

    2016-05-30

    In this paper, we propose the idea of dynamic beam waist adjustment for laser inter-satellite communications, and study the performance of this dynamic-beam scheme. The beam waist adjustment is based on continuous detection of the instantaneous pointing error angle, which is performed at the transmitter side. Using a square to approximate the circular detector region, we obtain a closed-form expression for calculating the proportion of power that can be collected by the receiver aperture, and derive a simple algebraic solution for the optimum dynamic beam waist. Due to its simple form, the dynamic beam waist value can be computed in real time at the transmitter, and therefore, the adjustment is practically implementable. It is shown that the performance of laser inter-satellite links with dynamic beam waist is better than that with fixed beam waist.

  6. The Gender-Dependent Association between Obesity and Age-Related Cataracts in Middle-Aged Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Sae-Young; Park, Young-Hoon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kang-Sook; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of central and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of cataracts in a middle-aged Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, in which 4,914 subjects were examined. Ophthalmological examinations were performed to determine the presence of a nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular cataract. Both general obesity (a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (a waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.69; and aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85, respectively], while abdominal obesity was significantly inversely associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged men (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01; and aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.89, respectively). We report a difference in the association between obesity and the prevalence of cataracts based on gender. PMID:25974257

  7. Association of body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis with metabolic risk factor clustering among middle-aged Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linfeng; Wang, Zengwu; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Manlu

    2017-06-01

    Body composition monitor (BCM) based on the bioelectric impedance analysis is very convenient to use. However, whether percentage body fat (PBF) and visceral fat index (VFI) that acquired by BCM are superior to anthropometric measures is unknown. The study explored whether PBF and VFI are better than anthropometric indexes [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio(WHtR)] in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in a representive sample across China which included 9574 Chinese men and women that were investigated in 2009-2010. PBF and VFI were compared with the BMI, WC, and WHtR through the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression. The results showed that the AUC for VFI was higher than BMI and PBF but lower than WHtR and WC in both men and Women. The AUC for WHtR, WC, VFI, BMI and PBF was 0.710, 0.706, 0.700, 0.693, 0.656 in men and 0.705, 0.699, 0.698, 0.675, 0.657 in women, respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) tended to increase with all the indexes. The curve of ORs for WHtR was steepest and the curve for PBF was flattest in both men and women; the curve for VFI was similar to WC in women, but flatter than WC in men. From the data we concluded that VFI seems better than BMI and PBF, but not superior to WC and WHtR in predicating metabolic risk factor clustering in the middle-aged Chinese.

  8. Genetic parameters for scrotal circumference, breeding soundness examination and sperm defects in young Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Silva, M R; Pedrosa, V B; Borges-Silva, J C; Eler, J P; Guimarães, J D; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-10-01

    A total of 51,161 records of scrotal circumference measurements at 18 mo of age (SC18) and 17,648 records of sperm defects and breeding soundness of Nellore bulls (mean age of 22.5 mo), raised under extensive conditions, were analyzed to estimate coefficients of heritability and genetic correlations of morphological semen traits by Bayesian inference. The observed semen traits were classified as minor (MID), major (MAD), and total sperm defects (TD). The animals were classified according to breeding soundness as satisfactory and unsatisfactory potential breeders. The (co)variance components and breeding values were estimated by Gibbs sampling using the GIBBS2F90 program under an animal model that included contemporary group as fixed effect, age of animal as linear covariate, and direct additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritabilities of 0.40 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.02, 0.04 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.01, and 0.10 ± 0.01 were obtained for SC18, MID, MAD, TD, and breeding soundness, respectively. The SC18 showed a positive and moderate correlation with breeding soundness (0.56 ± 0.04) and a negative and low correlation with MID (-0.23 ± 0.03), MAD (-0.16 ± 0.02), and TD (-0.24 ± 0.02). In conclusion, scrotal circumference showed the best response to selection among the traits studied and was favorably correlated with breeding soundness and sperm morphology in young Nellore bulls.

  9. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  10. On the relationship between head circumference, brain size, prenatal long-chain PUFA/5-methyltetrahydrofolate supplementation and cognitive abilities during childhood.

    PubMed

    Catena, Andrés; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Torres-Espínola, Francisco J; Brandi, Pilar; Pérez-García, Miguel; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-29

    Head circumference in infants has been reported to predict brain size, total grey matter volume (GMV) and neurocognitive development. However, it is unknown whether it has predictive value on regional and subcortical brain volumes. We aimed to explore the relationship between several head circumference measurements since birth and distributions of GMV and subcortical volumes at later childhood. We examined seventy-four, Caucasian, singleton, term-born infants born to mothers randomised to receive fish oil and/or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate or placebo prenatal supplementation. We assessed head circumference at birth and at 4 and 10 years of age and cognitive abilities at 7 years of age. We obtained brain MRI at 10 years of age, on which we performed voxel-based morphometry, cortical surface extraction and subcortical segmentation. Analyses were controlled for sex, age, height, weight, family status, laterality and total intracranial volume. Prenatal supplementation did not affect head circumference at any age, cognitive abilities or total brain volumes. Head circumference at 4 years presented the highest correlation with total GMV, white matter volume and brain surface area, and was also strongly associated with GMV of frontal, temporal and occipital areas, as well as with caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus volumes. As relationships between brain volumes in childhood and several outcomes extend into adulthood, we have found that ages between 0 and 4 years as the optimal time for brain growth; postnatal factors might have the most relevant impact on structural maturation of certain cortical areas and subcortical nuclei, independent of prenatal supplementation.

  11. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement.

  12. Carotid Intima Media Thickness Is Independently Associated with Male Gender, Middle Age, and IGF-1 in Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hafez, Hala; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M.; El-Baiomy, Azza A.; El-Eshmawy, Mervat M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. The effect of benign obesity on subclinical cardiovascular disease is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and to evaluate its relation to age, sex, and IGF-1 in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects. Methods. A total of 75 MHO subjects and 80 age, and sex matched healthy nonobese control subjects were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and CIMT were assessed in all subjects. Results. MHO subjects had significantly higher CIMT and lower IGF-1 than healthy nonobese controls. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in MHO men age subgroup range from 30 to 50 years than in their age range matched (premenopausal) MHO women subgroup. In MHO subjects, CIMT was positively correlated with age, BMI, WC, SBP, HOMA-IR, TG, and LDL-C, and negatively correlated with IGF-1. Regression analysis revealed that middle age, male sex and IGF-1 remained independently associated with CIMT in MHO subjects. Conclusion. CIMT is elevated and IGF-1 is reduced in MHO subjects, and CIMT is independently associated with male gender, middle age, and IGF-1. Definition of healthy obesity may be broadened to include IMT measurement. PMID:24616825

  13. Extractions of Garment Manufacturing Data from 3D Whole Body Scans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    To Point Point To Point Height Seat Circumference Seat Height Shoulder Circumference Shoulder Height Waist Circumference Waist Height Waist...Height = 53.390 Waist Circumference = 31.084 Waist Height = 37.993 Waist Height Back = 39.457 Waist Height Front = 37.993 [Coat Measurements] Back...Circumference = 39.158 Seat Height = 35.354 Shoulder Circumference = 42.768 Shoulder Height = 55.715 Waist Circumference = 33.732 Waist Height

  14. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam H; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-12-18

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 3521, age range = 42-71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1-Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with β-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for most risk factors related with DM, the relative risks of DM development were 0.989 (95% confidence interval, 0.638-1.578), 1.660 (1.025-2.687), and 1.746 (1.037-2.942) in men and 0.939 (0.540-1.769), 1.518 (0.808-2.853), and 2.077 (1.068-4.038) in women in Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively when compared to Q1. This finding indicates negative impact from large neck circumference in the development of DM.

  15. Is Casting for Non-Displaced Simple Scaphoid Waist Fracture Effective? A CT Based Assessment of Union

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Ruby; Suh, Nina; MacDermid, Joy C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to report the union rate and time to union for acute non-displaced scaphoid waist fractures treated with a short arm thumb spica cast. Methods: A database was searched (2006-2013) to identify acute undisplaced scaphoid waist fractures. Cases that were not given a trial of casting were excluded (n=33). X-rays, CT scans and health records for each patient were reviewed to extract data. Results: 172 patients met inclusion criteria. There were 138 males, 34 females, the mean age was 30 ± 16 years. The union rate was 99.4% (1 nonunion/172 subjects). The mean time to union was approximately 7.5 weeks (53 ± 37 days). Energy of injury, age or gender did not affect union rates or time to union. Cysts did not affect the union rate (p=0.73) but patients with cystic resorption along the fracture line required approximately 10 weeks for union (69 ± 60 days) compared to 7 weeks (51 ± 34 days) for those without cysts (p=0.05). Diabetes did not affect the union rate (p=0.81) but was found to increase the risk of delayed union (p=0.05). There was a weak, but statistically significant correlation between the number of days before the fracture was casted and the length of time needed to achieve union (r=0.27, p=0.001). Conclusion: Non-displaced scaphoid waist fractures have a high healing rate with appropriate identification and immobilization. Follow-up CT scans to assess healing can identify union within a shorter time frame (~7 weeks) than previously reported in the literature. PMID:27708739

  16. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  17. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Australian Tri-Service Anthropometric Survey, 1977. Part 1. Survey Planning, Conduct, Data Handling and Methods of Analysis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    TRI-SERVICE SURVEY tIn TABLE I Test Procedures for Dsta Validatiom No. Test function Lower Upper I Age 17 50 2 Mass 50 115 3 Waist Circumference 675...for Waist Circumference ) the remaining groups show weak trends only. Hence, Groups I, 2 and 3 were combined as they show no significant intergroup...and 6 separate despite the lack of significant (at 0.01) D values on any dimension. Group 5 showed a consistent difference in Waist Circumference when

  19. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ≤ 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ≥ 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (≥ 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ≤ 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ≤ 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (≥ 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ≤ 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (≤ 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  20. Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Metabolites in Urine Show Age-Related Changes and Associations with Adiposity and Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smerieri, Arianna; Testa, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Nuti, Francesca; Grossi, Enzo; Cesari, Silvia; Montanini, Luisa; Latini, Giuseppe; Bernasconi, Sergio; Papini, Anna Maria; Street, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Phthalates might be implicated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the levels of primary and secondary metabolites of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine in obese and normal-weight subjects both before and during puberty, and investigated their relationships with auxological parameters and indexes of insulin sensitivity. Design and Methods DEHP metabolites (MEHP, 6-OH-MEHP, 5-oxo-MEHP, 5-OH-MEHP, and 5-CX-MEHP), were measured in urine by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Traditional statistical analysis and a data mining analysis using the Auto-CM analysis were able to offer an insight into the complex biological connections between the studied variables. Results The data showed changes in DEHP metabolites in urine related with obesity, puberty, and presence of insulin resistance. Changes in urine metabolites were related with age, height and weight, waist circumference and waist to height ratio, thus to fat distribution. In addition, clear relationships in both obese and normal-weight subjects were detected among MEHP, its products of oxidation and measurements of insulin sensitivity. Conclusion It remains to be elucidated whether exposure to phthalates per se is actually the risk factor or if the ability of the body to metabolize phthalates is actually the key point. Further studies that span from conception to elderly subjects besides further understanding of DEHP metabolism are warranted to clarify these aspects. PMID:25706863

  1. Crab Waist collision scheme: a novel approach for particle colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, M.; DAΦNE Team

    2016-09-01

    A new concept of nonlinear focusing of colliding bunches, called Crab Waist (CW) collision scheme, has been proposed at LNF INFN. It has been successfully tested at the Italian lepton collider DAΦNE in operational conditions providing luminosity for two different experimental detectors, SIDDHARTA and KLOE-2. Considering a high efficiency of the scheme for increasing collision luminosity and its relative simplicity for implementation several new collider projects have been proposed and are under development at present. These are the SuperKEKB B-factory ready to start commissioning in 2016 in Japan, the SuperC-Tau factory proposed in Novosibirsk and entered in the short list of Russian mega-science projects, the new 100-km electron-positron Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) under design study at CERN and some others. In this paper we describe the CW collision scheme, discuss its advantages and report principal results achieved at the electron-positron Φ-factory DAΦNE.

  2. Common INSIG2 polymorphisms are associated with age-related changes in body size and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol from young adulthood to middle age.

    PubMed

    Fornage, Myriam; Papanicolaou, George; Lewis, Cora E; Boerwinkle, Eric; Siscovick, David S

    2010-08-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acids synthesis. A polymorphism, rs7566605, located 10 kilobases upstream of the INSIG2 gene, was identified in a genomewide association study of obesity. We conducted an association study of 12 INSIG2 tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms with longitudinal measures of body size (body mass index and waist circumference) and lipid metabolism (plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels). We investigated their interaction with age in 4304 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults participants (49.5% blacks, 50.5% whites) followed prospectively for 20 years. rs7566605 was not associated with variation in body size or lipid metabolism at any age in either racial group. However, rs1352083 and rs10185316 were associated with age-related decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in whites (P = .0005 and .04, respectively). A similar trend was observed in blacks who consistently maintained a body mass index less than 25 kg/m(2) over the study period. These data support a role of INSIG2 sequence variation in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  3. The sensitivity of waist-to-height ratio in identifying children with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Motswagole, B S; Kruger, H S; Faber, M; van Rooyen, J M; de Ridder, J H

    2011-01-01

    We determined the sensitivity of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as a marker for high blood pressure in children aged nine to 15 years (n = 1 131), from schools in the North West province, South Africa. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHtR to identify children with high blood pressure were evaluated. At a cut-off value of 0.5, 7.9% of the girls and 3.4% of the boys had central adiposity. Thirteen per cent of the children were hypertensive. The optimal WHtR cut-off value to identify children with hypertension was 0.41 in both boys and girls. Positive correlations were observed between anthropometric indices. Using linear regression analyses, age and body mass index were significant predictors of high blood pressure in boys, while for girls it was height and weight. Results suggest that adopting a WHtR cut-off value < 0.5 could enhance the use of WHtR as a marker for high blood pressure in children.

  4. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  5. Anthropometry of the Human Scaphoid Waist by Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer; Hofmeister, Eric P; Renninger, Christopher; Kroonen, Leo T

    2015-01-01

    Published measurements for the scaphoid are scarce. The purpose of this study is to define anthropometric norms for the waist of the scaphoid to assist in optimizing bone graft quantity and implant use. Computed tomography images of the wrist were reviewed by three surgeons. Anthropometric data were gathered, including the scaphoid waist diameter in two dimensions and the scaphoid waist volume. Each study was measured twice, allowing for determination of inter- and intraobserver reliability. Forty-three studies were examined (23 female and 20 male). Average measurements of the scaphoid waist were 11.28 ± 0.26 mm in the sagittal plane and 8.70 ± 0.17 mm in the coronal plane, and the waist volume was 715 ± 33.0 mm3. Specific measures of the narrowest portion of the scaphoid are provided by this study. Measurements of the scaphoid waist through the use of three-dimensional imaging are an accurate method with good inter- and intraobserver reliability. The measurements obtained from this study can be applied to guide graft and implant selection for treatment of scaphoid waist fractures and nonunions.

  6. Protocol variations in arm position influence the magnitude of waist girth.

    PubMed

    Lennie, Susan C; Amofa-Diatuo, Tracy; Nevill, Alan; Stewart, Arthur D

    2013-01-01

    Waist girth is recognised as a better predictor of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, compared to other measures. Although several protocols for waist girth exist, arm position is either ignored, or not specified in unambiguous terms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if arm position influenced anthropometric waist girth measurement. Waist girth was measured in 92 adults (19 males, 73 females) with arms relaxed, abducted, horizontal, folded across the chest (three variations) and raised vertically. Duplicate measures, in all positions, were recorded by a single International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK)-trained technician to a precision of 0.2% technical error of measurement (TEM). Arm position had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on waist girth. Male participants had greater waist girth than females (P < 0.001) and the waist girth differences across the varying arm positions exhibited a significant position-by-gender interaction (P < 0.001). The arm position-by-body mass index (BMI) category interaction was also significant (P = 0.016) with greater differences observed at higher BMI. These findings suggest caution in comparing results of different studies where arm position is not specified and indicate that the arm position corresponding to the ISAK protocol has the lowest error and is therefore recommended.

  7. Head circumference in autism, Asperger syndrome, and ADHD: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, Christopher; de Souza, Linda

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that children with autistic spectrum disorders often have macrocephalus, and that those without comorbid learning disability are most frequently affected. Fifty consecutive children with Asperger syndrome (45 males, five females; mean age 9 years, range 1 year 6 months to 16 years) without indications of underlying medical disorders were matched for birth year and sex with 50 children (45 males, five females; mean age 6 years 4 months, range 1 year 4 months to 13 years 11 months) who met criteria for autistic disorder (a lower-functioning disorder within the autism spectrum) and with 50 children (45 males, five females; mean age 8 years 4 months, range 1 year 6 months to 15 years 5 months) who met criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Birth and neuropsychiatric follow-up records were examined and data relating to occipitofrontal circumference, weight, and height were detailed. The group with Asperger syndrome included a subset of individuals with macrocephalus recorded both at birth and at follow-up after the first year of life. Another subgroup developed macrocephalus during early childhood. Autistic spectrum disorders include a subgroup with macrocephalus characterized by a relatively high level of functioning and a clinical presentation most often consistent with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome.

  8. Birth month associations with height, head circumference, and limb lengths among Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2014-05-01

    Associations between season of birth and body size, morbidity, and mortality have been widely documented, but it is unclear whether different parts of the body are differentially sensitive, and if such effects persist through childhood. This may be relevant to understanding the relationship between early life environment and body size and proportions. We investigated associations between birth month and anthropometry among rural highland (n = 162) and urban lowland (n = 184) Peruvian children aged 6 months to 8 years. Stature; head-trunk height; total limb, ulna, tibia, hand, and foot lengths; head circumference; and limb measurements relative to head-trunk height were converted to internal age-sex-specific z scores. Lowland and highland datasets were then analyzed separately for birth month trends using cosinor analysis, as urban conditions likely provide a more consistent environment compared with anticipated seasonal variation in the rural highlands. Among highland children birth month associations were significant most strongly for tibia length, followed by total lower limb length and stature, with a peak among November births. Results were not significant for other measurements or among lowland children. The results suggest a prenatal or early postnatal environmental effect on growth that is more marked in limb lengths than trunk length or head size, and persists across the age range studied. We suggest that the results may reflect seasonal variation in maternal nutrition in the rural highlands, but other hypotheses such as variation in maternal vitamin D levels cannot be excluded.

  9. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible.

  10. Centenarians’ offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  11. Changes of plasma concentrations of insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone, and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in male goats.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Kawate, N; Fukami, Y; Weerakoon, W W P N; Büllesbach, E E; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) has been used as a testis-specific biomarker for puberty in several species, but the secretory profile of INSL3 during pubertal development in small ruminants is unknown. Here we sought to determine the age-related changes in the plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in five male Shiba goats. Blood samples and scrotal circumference measurement were taken every 2 weeks from week 10 to week 52 of each goat's lifespan. Based on the changes in scrotal circumference, data were grouped into early pubertal (10-22 weeks), late pubertal (22-34 weeks) and post-pubertal (34-52 weeks) categories. The plasma concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by enzyme-immunoassays (EIAs), and we used a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure plasma INSL3. The biweekly sampling showed that the plasma INSL3 secretions maintained a moderate increase during and after puberty, whereas the plasma testosterone secretions fluctuated over the same period. The comparison of the three age categories revealed a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the mean plasma INSL3 concentrations during the late and post-pubertal periods compared to the early pubertal period. There was no difference in the mean plasma testosterone concentrations between the early and late pubertal periods, but a significant increase (p < 0.01) was observed during the post-pubertal period compared to early and late pubertal periods. The mean plasma LH concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.05) from the early pubertal to late pubertal and from the late pubertal to post-pubertal periods. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in the mean scrotal circumference from the early pubertal to late pubertal and from the late pubertal to post-pubertal periods was observed. The R(2) value of the best regression curves between scrotal circumference and INSL3 (0.513; p

  12. The effect of waist twisting on walking speed of an amphibious salamander like robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin-Yan; Jia, Li-Chao; Wang, Chen; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Amphibious salamanders often swing their waist to coordinate quadruped walking in order to improve their crawling speed. A robot with a swing waist joint, like an amphibious salamander, is used to mimic this locomotion. A control method is designed to allow the robot to maintain the rotational speed of its legs continuous and avoid impact between its legs and the ground. An analytical expression is established between the amplitude of the waist joint and the step length. Further, an optimization amplitude is obtained corresponding to the maximum stride. The simulation results based on automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS) and physical experiments verify the rationality and validity of this expression.

  13. Childhood wrist circumference is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ashley N; Kelly, Aaron S; Prineas, Ronald J; Marlatt, Kara L; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan R; Moran, Antoinette; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether childhood wrist circumference predicts insulin resistance in adulthood. Measures were taken in prepubertal children and then approximately 30 years later in the same subjects as adults. Our findings suggest that wrist circumference in childhood is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

  14. Supine Length, Weight and Head Circumference at Birth in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Supine length, weight and head circumferences of 10,241 neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in Arak (central Iran) in 2004 are reported. The mean plus or minus standard deviation of boys' and girls' (p value for sex difference) supine length (mm), weight (g) and head circumference (mm) were estimated as 501 plus or minus 30 and…

  15. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Common Variants Associated with Brachial Circumference: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Day-Williams, Aaron; Franklin, Christopher S.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Albrecht, Eva; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Bochud, Murielle; Cadby, Gemma; Ernst, Florian; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Hicks, Andrew A.; Huffman, Jennifer; Huth, Cornelia; James, Alan L.; Klopp, Norman; Kolcic, Ivana; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Musk, Arthur W.; Pehlic, Marina; Pennell, Craig E.; Perry, John R. B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pourcain, Beate St; Ring, Susan M.; Salvi, Erika; Schipf, Sabine; Staessen, Jan A.; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas; Vitart, Veronique; Warrington, Nicole M.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; An, Ping; Anttila, Verneri; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Holmen, Jostein; Ntalla, Ioanna; Palotie, Aarno; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Wedenoja, Juho; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Province, Michael A.; Zwart, John-Anker; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Cusi, Daniele; Davey Smith, George; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rudan, Igor; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wright, Alan F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-01-01

    Brachial circumference (BC), also known as upper arm or mid arm circumference, can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and fat tissue, which are distributed differently in men and women. Analysis of anthropometric measures of peripheral fat distribution such as BC could help in understanding the complex pathophysiology behind overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with BC through a large-scale genome-wide association scan (GWAS) meta-analysis. We used fixed-effects meta-analysis to synthesise summary results across 14 GWAS discovery and 4 replication cohorts comprising overall 22,376 individuals (12,031 women and 10,345 men) of European ancestry. Individual analyses were carried out for men, women, and combined across sexes using linear regression and an additive genetic model: adjusted for age and adjusted for age and BMI. We prioritised signals for follow-up in two-stages. We did not detect any signals reaching genome-wide significance. The FTO rs9939609 SNP showed nominal evidence for association (p<0.05) in the age-adjusted strata for men and across both sexes. In this first GWAS meta-analysis for BC to date, we have not identified any genome-wide significant signals and do not observe robust association of previously established obesity loci with BC. Large-scale collaborations will be necessary to achieve higher power to detect loci underlying BC. PMID:22479309

  17. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Methods We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Results Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36–2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07–2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41–4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06–2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45–0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41–0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57–0.97). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:26872919

  18. Relationship Between Adiposity and Pulmonary Function in School-Aged Canadian Children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sara; Little, Julian; Chen, Yue

    2014-09-01

    Reduced lung function has been observed in adults with excess adiposity; however, in children, the relationship between adiposity and lung function is not clearly understood. A sample of 1,583 children, less than 18 years of age, from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was used to examine the associations of various anthropometric and skinfold measures with lung function parameters. The mean age of the sample was 12.15 (0.096). In normal weight boys, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV0.75 and FEV1; while in overweight or obese boys, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio showed inverse correlations with pulmonary function measures. Similarly, in normal weight girls, BMI and WC had positive associations with lung function measures but no inverse effect of adiposity was observed in overweight or obese girls. Skinfold analysis showed that only triceps skinfold had a significant inverse association with FVC and borderline significant associations with FEV0.75 and FEV1 in normal weight boys; while in overweight or obese boys, all the skinfold indicators displayed inverse correlations with lung function. The best predictor of lung function was triceps skinfold with βstd=-0.3869 for FVC, -0.3496 for FEV0.75 and -0.3668 for FEV1. No inverse correlations between skinfolds and lung function were observed in girls. Adiposity had differing effects on respiratory function that were dependent on sex and BMI group with the most significant effect on the overweight or obese boys. The most important indicator of adiposity in boys with BMI <30 kg/m(2) was triceps skinfold. In girls, adiposity was not associated with poor lung function.

  19. Sardine cycles, krill declines, and locust plagues: revisiting 'wasp-waist' food webs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Angus; Hill, Simeon L; Barange, Manuel; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Raubenheimer, David; Schmidt, Katrin; Simpson, Stephen J; Reiss, Christian

    2014-06-01

    'Wasp-waist' systems are dominated by a mid trophic-level species that is thought to exert top-down control on its food and bottom-up control on its predators. Sardines, anchovy, and Antarctic krill are suggested examples, and here we use locusts to explore whether the wasp-waist concept also applies on land. These examples also display the traits of mobile aggregations and dietary diversity, which help to reduce the foraging footprint from their large, localised biomasses. This suggests that top-down control on their food operates at local aggregation scales and not at wider scales suggested by the original definition of wasp-waist. With this modification, the wasp-waist framework can cross-fertilise marine and terrestrial approaches, revealing how seemingly disparate but economically important systems operate.

  20. Neck circumference and early stage atherosclerosis: the cardiometabolic risk in Chinese (CRC) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neck circumference (NC) has been previously related to cardiometabolic risk factors. In this study we examined the association between NC and early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. Methods The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 2,318 men and women (18-64 y) were included in the final analyses. Carotid radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV), carotid femoral PWV (cfPWV), carotid artery dorsalis pedis PWV (cdPWV) and NC were measured. Results After adjustment for age, sex, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index (BMI), high NC was significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV, cdPWV and crPWV (P = 0.001, 0.049, and 0.038; respectively). In addition, we found significant interaction between hypertension status and NC level in relation to cfPWV, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, fasting glucose, lipids and heart rate(P for interaction = 0.034). The associations between NC and cfPWV were significant (P = 0.02) among those with hypertension, but not significant among those without hypertension. Conclusions Our data showed that high NC was associated with an increased risk of early stage atherosclerosis in Chinese adults, independent of other metabolic risk factors. Hypertension might modify the association between NC and cfPWV. PMID:25001365

  1. Apparatus for precision focussing and positioning of a beam waist on a target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Dana H. (Inventor); Gunter, William D. (Inventor); Mcalister, Kenneth W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to optical focussing apparatus and, more particularly, to optical apparatus for focussing a highly collimated Gaussian beam which provides independent and fine control over the focus waist diameter, the focus position both along the beam axis and transverse to the beam, and the focus angle. A beam focussing and positioning apparatus provides focussing and positioning for the waist of a waisted beam at a desired location on a target such as an optical fiber. The apparatus includes a first lens, having a focal plane f sub 1, disposed in the path of an incoming beam and a second lens, having a focal plane f sub 2 and being spaced downstream from the first lens by a distance at least equal to f sub 1 + 10 f sub 2, which cooperates with the first lens to focus the waist of the beam on the target. A rotatable optical device, disposed upstream of the first lens, adjusts the angular orientation of the beam waist. The transverse position of the first lens relative to the axis of the beam is varied to control the transverse position of the beam waist relative to the target (a fiber optic as shown) while the relative axial positions of the lenses are varied to control the diameter of the beam waist and to control the axial position of the beam waist. Mechanical controllers C sub 1, C sub 2, C sub 3, C sub 4, and C sub 5 control the elements of the optical system. How seven adjustments can be made to correctly couple a laser beam into an optical fiber is illustrated. Prior art systems employing optical techniques to couple a laser beam into an optical fiber or other target simply do not provide the seven necessary adjustments. The closest known prior art, a Newport coupler, provides only two of the seven required adjustments.

  2. Design and Optimization of a Hybrid-Driven Waist Rehabilitation Robot

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Bin; Yin, Guangcai; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a waist rehabilitation robot driven by cables and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) has been conceptualized and designed. In the process of mechanism design, the human body structure, the waist movement characteristics, and the actuators’ driving characteristics are the main considerable factors to make the hybrid-driven waist rehabilitation robot (HWRR) cost-effective, safe, flexible, and well-adapted. A variety of sensors are chosen to measure the position and orientation of the recovery patient to ensure patient safety at the same time as the structure design. According to the structure specialty and function, the HWRR is divided into two independent parallel robots: the waist twist device and the lower limb traction device. Then these two devices are analyzed and evaluated, respectively. Considering the characters of the human body in the HWRR, the inverse kinematics and statics are studied when the waist and the lower limb are considered as a spring and link, respectively. Based on the inverse kinematics and statics, the effect of the contraction parameter of the PAM is considered in the optimization of the waist twist device, and the lower limb traction device is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to minimize the global conditioning number over the feasible workspace. As a result of the optimization, an optimal rehabilitation robot design is obtained and the condition number of the Jacobian matrix over the feasible workspace is also calculated. PMID:27983626

  3. Design and Optimization of a Hybrid-Driven Waist Rehabilitation Robot.

    PubMed

    Zi, Bin; Yin, Guangcai; Zhang, Dan

    2016-12-14

    In this paper a waist rehabilitation robot driven by cables and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) has been conceptualized and designed. In the process of mechanism design, the human body structure, the waist movement characteristics, and the actuators' driving characteristics are the main considerable factors to make the hybrid-driven waist rehabilitation robot (HWRR) cost-effective, safe, flexible, and well-adapted. A variety of sensors are chosen to measure the position and orientation of the recovery patient to ensure patient safety at the same time as the structure design. According to the structure specialty and function, the HWRR is divided into two independent parallel robots: the waist twist device and the lower limb traction device. Then these two devices are analyzed and evaluated, respectively. Considering the characters of the human body in the HWRR, the inverse kinematics and statics are studied when the waist and the lower limb are considered as a spring and link, respectively. Based on the inverse kinematics and statics, the effect of the contraction parameter of the PAM is considered in the optimization of the waist twist device, and the lower limb traction device is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to minimize the global conditioning number over the feasible workspace. As a result of the optimization, an optimal rehabilitation robot design is obtained and the condition number of the Jacobian matrix over the feasible workspace is also calculated.

  4. A pilot study on the usefulness of body mass index and waist hip ratio as a predictive tool for gestational diabetes in Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anju; Beena Kumari, R; Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2008-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common public health issue of pregnancy and women who have had GDM are at high risk for developing of diabetes mellitus Type-2. The aim of this study was to find the association between various clinical and biochemical parameters and GDM. One hundred and six consecutive patients who attended the out patient unit of department of gynecology, Kottayam Medical College, were enrolled in the study and followed up through the whole antenatal, intra-partum and post-partum periods to identify the obstetric outcome. We found that the prevalence of GDM was seven times higher in those with higher waist-hip ratio (WHR > 0.85) compared with those having a lower WHR (p < 0.001).Those with higher WHR gained more weight than other group (10.6 kg vs. 8.1 kg; p < 0.001). Obesity (BMI > or =23) and higher WHR were associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes (BMI > or =23: OR = 7.5, CI 95% = (1.61-34.31), p = 0.013; WHR > 0.85: OR = 12.05, CI 95% = (1.82-77.43), p = 0.007). We found that a WHR of 0.849 has the optimal sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of GDM. A waist circumference of 85.5 cm (with sensitivity of 75%, specificity 81.4%) and a BMI of 24.3 kg/m(2) (sensitivity 75%, specificity 86.5%) had the best predictive value. In conclusion, we found that maternal obesity has a strong correlation with obstetric complications. We found WHR is more important risk determinant for GDM in overweight/obese women than women with normal weight/lean.

  5. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-02-21

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders.

  6. Relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Forrest, D W; Fox, J T; Forbes, T D A; Davis, M E; Randel, R D; Holloway, J W

    2012-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine phenotypic relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls. Data evaluated were obtained from 5 postweaning trials involving Angus (n = 92), Bonsmara (n = 62), and Santa Gertrudis (n = 50) bulls fed diets that ranged from 1.70 to 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. After an adaptation period of 24 to 28 d, feed intake was measured daily, and BW was measured at 7- or 14-d intervals during the 70- to 77-d trials. Ultrasound carcass traits (12th-rib back fat thickness, BF; LM area, LMA) and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured at the start and end of each trial. Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation within 51 d of the end of the trials when the age of bulls averaged from 365 to 444 d and were evaluated for progressive sperm motility and morphology. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75), with trial, trial by ADG, and trial by midtest BW(0.75) as random effects. Across all studies, bulls with low RFI phenotypes (<0.5 SD below the mean RFI of 0) consumed 20% less DM and had 10% less BF but had similar ADG, SC, and semen quality traits compared with high-RFI bulls (>0.5 SD above the mean RFI of 0). Gain to feed ratio was strongly correlated with ADG (0.60) and weakly correlated with initial BW (-0.17) and DMI (-0.26). Residual feed intake was not correlated with ADG, initial age, or BW but was correlated with DMI (0.71), G:F (-0.70), and BF (0.20). Initial SC (-0.20), gain in SC (-0.28), and percent normal sperm (-0.17) were correlated with G:F, but only sperm morphology was found to be weakly associated with RFI (0.13). These data suggest that RFI is not phenotypically associated with SC or sperm motility but is weakly associated with sperm morphology.

  7. Head Circumference as a Useful Surrogate for Intracranial Volume in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hshieh, Tammy T.; Fox, Meaghan L.; Kosar, Cyrus M.; Cavallari, Michele; Guttmann, Charles R.G.; Alsop, David; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Schmitt, Eva M.; Jones, Richard N.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracranial volume (ICV) has been proposed as a measure of maximum lifetime brain size. Accurate ICV measures require neuroimaging which is not always feasible for epidemiologic investigations. We examined head circumference as a useful surrogate for intracranial volume in older adults. Methods 99 older adults underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). ICV was measured by Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) software or Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library (FSL) extraction with manual editing, typically considered the gold standard. Head circumferences were determined using standardized tape measurement. We examined estimated correlation coefficients between head circumference and the two MRI-based ICV measurements. Results Head circumference and ICV by SPM8 were moderately correlated (overall r=0.73, men r=0.67, women r=0.63). Head circumference and ICV by FSL were also moderately correlated (overall r=0.69, men r=0.63, women r=0.49). Conclusions Head circumference measurement was strongly correlated with MRI-derived ICV. Our study presents a simple method to approximate ICV among older patients, which may prove useful as a surrogate for cognitive reserve in large scale epidemiologic studies of cognitive outcomes. This study also suggests the stability of head circumference correlation with ICV throughout the lifespan. PMID:26631180

  8. Neck Circumference-Height Ratio as a Predictor of Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Alice W.; Moul, Douglas E.; Krishna, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: While neck circumference (NC) is a useful predictor of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults, childhood OSA is difficult to predict clinically. We utilized the neck circumference-height ratio (NHR) to normalize NC in growing children. Our study aimed to determine if (1) NC is a reproducible clinical measurement; (2) NHR predicts OSA in children; (3) this metric translates to adults. Methods: For this retrospective study, paired NC measurements (from clinic and sleep laboratory) in 100 consecutive adult subjects were used to confirm inter-observer reproducibility. Polysomnographic (PSG) and anthropometric data from children aged 5–18 years presenting consecutively between July 2007 and February 2012 was obtained. Children with genetic syndromes, severe neurological disorders, craniofacial abnormalities, tracheostomy, past adenotonsillectomy, in-hospital PSG or sleep efficiency < 80% were excluded. Data were analyzed using χ2 test and logistic and linear regression models. These analyses were also applied to 99 adult patients with similar exclusion criteria. Results: Adult NC measurement had inter-observer correlation of 0.85 (N = 100). Among children, after correcting for BMI-Z scores, NHR conferred additional predictive value, in both logistic regression and linear models, for both apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 2 and > 5 (N = 507). In children, for NHR > 0.25, the odds ratio of AHI > 2 was 3.47. In adults, for NHR > 0.25, the odds ratio of AHI > 5 was 18. Conclusions: NHR can be included as a simple screening tool for OSA in children and adults, which along with other predictors, may improve the ability of clinicians to triage children and adults at risk for OSA for further evaluation with PSG. Citation: Ho AW, Moul DE, Krishna J. Neck circumference-height ratio as a predictor of sleep related breathing disorder in children and adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):311–317. PMID:26518700

  9. Evaluation of Hip/HeightP Ratio as an Index for Adiposity and Metabolic Complications in Obese Children: Comparison with Waist-related Indices

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenichiro; Nagahara, Keiko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether body adiposity index (BAI; hip/height1.5–18), pediatric BAI (BAIp; hip/height0.8–38), and other hip/heightP ratios are useful in obese children. Method: Ninety obese Japanese children, 55 boys and 35 girls, who visited our University Clinic, were enrolled. The age was 9.92 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD) years, and the percentage overweight (POW) was 51.6 ± 18.8%. We set the power value of the hip/heightP 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5, and 2 and studied the association with overweight indices, biochemical data, and fat area measured by computed tomography. Waist, waist/height ratio, and waist/hip ratio were also evaluated. Results: Hip/height and hip/height0.8 (BAIp) were more closely correlated with POW, body mass index percentile, and percentage body fat than hip/height1.5 (BAI). The correlation coefficient of hip/height with POW (r = 0.855) was the highest among the studied hip/heightP indices. The approximate line to predict POW was 411 × hip/height−207. The waist/height was also highly correlated with POW (r = 0.879). Hip and hip/height0.5 were more closely correlated with visceral fat area than hip/height, BAIp, and hip/height1.5. Hip and hip/height0.5 were significantly correlated with insulin. Only hip was also significantly associated with dyslipidemia. All hip/heightP indices were not significantly correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Waist was significantly correlated with serum lipids, ALT, and insulin. Conclusion: Hip/height and BAIp are better markers for overweight (adiposity) in obese children than BAI. However, hip/height, BAIp, and BAI are not useful to predict metabolic complications. Waist appears to be the best index for obese children overall at this time. PMID:27298049

  10. Probit Models to Investigate Prevalence of Total Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes among Aged 45 Years or Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Minghui; Augustin, Balekouzou; Shu, Chang; Qin, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to identify the most important predictors of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and estimate the mean change in the predicted probability among aged 45+ adults in China. We used baseline data collected from 2011 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (n = 9,513). First, we estimated the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed, and undiagnosed diabetes. Second, we used probit models to determine whether individual attributes, socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral health factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, central obesity, are associated with total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. We also consider other factors, including contact with medical system, hypertension and urban/rural settings. Third, we estimated average marginal effects of variables in probit models. Among Chinese people aged 45+, the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were 5.8% (95%CI, 5.3%-6.3%), 14.7% (95%CI, 14.0%-15.4%), 17.0% (95%CI, 16.3%-17.7%), 11.3% (95%CI, 10.6%-12.0%), respectively. The probability of total diagnosed diabetes is 3.3% (95% CI, 1.2%-5.3%) and 10.2% (95% CI, 7.0%-13.5%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 5.0% (95% CI, 3.0%-7.1%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference, 5.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-7.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8%- 2.7%) higher in urban areas than in rural areas, respectively. The probability of undiagnosed diabetes is 2.7% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.2%) and 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-9.6%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 2.6% (95% CI, 0.9%-4.4%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference and 2.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive, respectively, and -1.5% (95% CI, -2.5% to -0.5%) lower for individuals who were in contact with the medical system. Greater focus on prevention of diabetes is necessary for obesity

  11. Does the brain shrink as the waist expands?

    PubMed

    Willette, Auriel A; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults <40 years of age, most studies found no relationship between adiposity and occipital or parietal GM volumes, whereas findings for temporal lobe were mixed. In middle-aged and aged adults, a majority of studies found that higher adiposity is associated with parietal and temporal GM atrophy, whereas results for precuneus, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus were mixed. Higher adiposity had no clear association with global or regional WM in any age group. We conclude that higher adiposity may be associated with frontal GM atrophy across all ages and parietal and temporal GM atrophy in middle and old age.

  12. Association of neck circumference and obesity status with elevated blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Nafiu, O O; Zepeda, A; Curcio, C; Prasad, Y

    2014-04-01

    High blood pressure (BP) and overweight/obesity are increasingly prevalent in children. We examined the associations of excess weight indicators including neck circumference (NC) and body mass index (BMI) with high BP in children. We hypothesized that high NC is associated with elevated BP. We utilized cross-sectional anthropometric and BP data on 1058 children aged 6-18 years. Patients were classified into weight and NC categories according to published guidelines. Prehypertension was defined as systolic or diastolic BP levels between 90th and 95th percentile for gender, age and height. Hypertension signifies systolic and/or diastolic BP levels ≥ 95th percentile for age, gender and height. The prevalence of elevated BP was 29.2% (prehypertension=10.1%, hypertension=19.1%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0 and 18.7%, respectively. Rates of wide NC increased progressively with BMI categories by 8.8, 29.4 and 68.7% among normal weight, overweight and obese children, respectively. Within each BMI category, the unadjusted odds ratio for elevated BP was significantly higher in children with wide NC than those with normal NC (normal weight OR=1.78 (1.0-3.1), P=0.04); overweight OR=2.74 (1.5-5.2), P=0.001); obese OR=2.44 (1.3-4.6), P=0.006)). Increasing NC and BMI are associated with elevated BP in children. Joint presence of wide NC and high BMI is associated with significantly high rates of elevated BP. NC measurement may be a helpful tool to detect the presence of elevated BP in children.

  13. Relationship between Neck Circumference and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Doğan, Serap; Mazıcıoğlu, M. Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the association between anthropometric parameters and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to determine the most reliable measurement as a parameter in predicting NAFLD. Methods: Two-hundred fifty-three obese children of ages 10 to 18 years were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric data and metabolic parameters such as fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels, were measured. Liver function tests were assessed. NAFLD was determined by ultrasound. Results: Most metabolic parameters and anthropometric indices were significantly higher in children with NAFLD. A univariate logistic regression analysis was performed, taking NAFLD status as the dependent variable and anthropometric parameters as the independent variables. NAFLD was affected significantly by the anthropometric values. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that neck circumference (NC) was the only parameter which determined the risk in both genders. Each 1 cm increase in the NC increased the risk of NAFLD 1.544-fold (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.357-2.214) in the boys and 1.733-fold (p=0.001, 95% CI: 1.185-2.012) in the girls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to compare the reliability of anthropometric measurements. NC was observed to be a better indicator. Conclusion: Measurement of the NC was shown to be associated with NAFLD in children. We suggest the use of NC as a novel, simple, practical, and reliable anthropometric index in predicting children at risk for NAFLD. PMID:26758497

  14. Physical exercises for breast cancer survivors: effects of 10 weeks of training on upper limb circumferences

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Morano, Teresa; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; D’Arielli, Alberto; Castro, Cristina Gonzalez; Cugusi, Lucia; Cianchetti, Ettore; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were to verify the effects on upper limb circumferences and total body extracellular water of 10 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW) and Walking (W), both alone and combined with a series of exercises created for breast cancer survivors, the ISA method. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 4 different training groups and evaluated for upper limb circumferences, total body and extracellular water. [Results] The breast cancer survivors who performed NW, alone and combined with the ISA method, and Walking combined with the ISA method (but not alone) showed significantly reduced arm and forearm circumferences homolateral to the surgical intervention. [Conclusion] For breast cancer survivors, NW, alone and combined with the ISA method, and Walking combined with the ISA method should be prescribed to prevent the onset and to treat light forms of upper limb lymphedema because Walking training practiced alone had no significant effect on upper limb circumference reduction. PMID:27821934

  15. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  16. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  17. Tree Circumference Dynamics in Four Forests Characterized Using Automated Dendrometer Bands

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M.; Detto, Matteo; Lutz, James A.; Davies, Stuart J.; Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2016-01-01

    Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four different forested sites—two temperate broadleaf deciduous, one temperate conifer, and one tropical broadleaf semi-deciduous—to understand how tree circumference varies on time scales of hours to months, how these dynamics relate to environmental conditions, and whether the structure of these variations might introduce substantive error into estimates of woody growth. Diurnal stem circumference dynamics measured over the bark commonly—but not consistently—exhibited daytime shrinkage attributable to transpiration-driven changes in stem water storage. The amplitude of this shrinkage was significantly correlated with climatic variables (daily temperature range, vapor pressure deficit, and radiation), sap flow and evapotranspiration. Diurnal variations were typically <0.5 mm circumference in amplitude and unlikely to be of concern to most studies of tree growth. Over time scales of multiple days, the bands captured circumference increases in response to rain events, likely driven by combinations of increased stem water storage and bark hydration. Particularly at the tropical site, these rain responses could be quite substantial, ranging up to 1.5 mm circumference expansion within 48 hours following a rain event. We conclude that over-bark measurements of stem circumference change sometimes correlate with but have limited potential for directly estimating daily transpiration, but that they can be valuable on time scales of days to weeks for

  18. Tree Circumference Dynamics in Four Forests Characterized Using Automated Dendrometer Bands.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Valentine; McMahon, Sean M; Detto, Matteo; Lutz, James A; Davies, Stuart J; Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2016-01-01

    Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12-40 trees at four different forested sites-two temperate broadleaf deciduous, one temperate conifer, and one tropical broadleaf semi-deciduous-to understand how tree circumference varies on time scales of hours to months, how these dynamics relate to environmental conditions, and whether the structure of these variations might introduce substantive error into estimates of woody growth. Diurnal stem circumference dynamics measured over the bark commonly-but not consistently-exhibited daytime shrinkage attributable to transpiration-driven changes in stem water storage. The amplitude of this shrinkage was significantly correlated with climatic variables (daily temperature range, vapor pressure deficit, and radiation), sap flow and evapotranspiration. Diurnal variations were typically <0.5 mm circumference in amplitude and unlikely to be of concern to most studies of tree growth. Over time scales of multiple days, the bands captured circumference increases in response to rain events, likely driven by combinations of increased stem water storage and bark hydration. Particularly at the tropical site, these rain responses could be quite substantial, ranging up to 1.5 mm circumference expansion within 48 hours following a rain event. We conclude that over-bark measurements of stem circumference change sometimes correlate with but have limited potential for directly estimating daily transpiration, but that they can be valuable on time scales of days to weeks for characterizing

  19. Stable isotope analysis challenges wasp-waist food web assumptions in an upwelling pelagic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Litvin, Steven Y; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as 'wasp-waist' ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007-2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations.

  20. Age as an independent factor for the development of neuropathy in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Simona; Timar, Bogdan; Baderca, Flavia; Simu, Mihaela; Diaconu, Laura; Velea, Iulian; Timar, Romulus

    2016-01-01

    Population aging is unprecedented, without parallel in the history of humanity. As type 2 diabetes mellitus is predominantly more prevalent in aging populations, this creates a major public health burden. Older adults with diabetes have the highest rates of major lower-extremity amputation, myocardial infarction, visual impairment, and end-stage renal disease of any age group. The aims of our study were to assess whether age is an independent factor for the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy (DN), and to evaluate the relationship between the presence and the severity of DN and the diabetes duration and blood glucose level. In this study, we enrolled 198 patients, previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. For all patients, we measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and body mass index and we assessed the presence and severity of DN using the evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms. Patients had a median age of 62 years, with a median of diabetes duration of 7 years; 55.1% of the patients were men and the average HbA1c in the cohort was 8.2%. The prevalence of DN according to Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was 28.8%, being significantly and positively correlated with higher age (65 vs 59 years; P=0.001) and HbA1c (8.6% vs 8.0%; P=0.027). No significant correlations were observed between the severity of DN and diabetes duration, body mass index (31.9 vs 29.9 kg/m(2)), or the number of centimeters exceeding the normal waist circumference (25.2 vs 17.3 cm; P=0.003). In conclusion, age influences the presence of DN, independent on other risk factors. This influence persists even after adjusting for other, very important risk factors, like blood glucose level or diabetes duration.

  1. FastStats: Body Measurements

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the U.S. Measured average height, weight, and waist circumference for adults ages 20 years and over Men: Height (inches): 69.3 Weight (pounds): 195.5 Waist circumference (inches): 39.7 Women: Height (inches): 63.8 ...

  2. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. Methods: A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Conclusions: Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. PMID:25294689

  3. Frontal Gray Matter Atrophy in Middle Aged Adults with Type 1 Diabetes is Independent of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diabetes Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Timothy M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Nunley, Karen; Gianaros, Peter J.; Miller, Rachel; Costacou, Tina; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Rosano, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine if regional gray matter volume (GMV) differences in middle-aged adults with and without type-1 diabetes (T1D) are localized in areas most vulnerable to aging, e.g. fronto-subcortical networks; and if these differences are explained by cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes complications. Methods Regional GMV was computed using 3 Tesla MRI of 104 adults with a childhood onset of T1D (mean age: 49+7 and duration: 41±6 years) and 151 adults without diabetes (mean age: 40+6). A Bonferroni threshold (n=45, p≤0.001) was applied to account for multiple between-group comparisons and analyses were repeated in an age- and gender-matched subset of participants with T1D and controls (n=44 in each group, mean age [SD] and range: 44.0, [4.3], 17.4 and 44.6 [4.3], 17.0, respectively). Results Compared to controls, T1D patients had smaller GMV in the frontal lobe (6 to 19% smaller) and adjacent supramarginal and postcentral gyri (8 to 13% smaller). Between-group differences were independent of age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting total cholesterol and smoking status and were similar in sensitivity analyses restricted to age- and gender-matched participants. Associations between GMV and diabetes complications were not significant. Conclusions These findings extend the notion of accelerated brain aging in T1D to middle-aged adults. The pathophysiology of frontal gray matter atrophy and its impact on future development of disability and dementia need further study, especially as middle-aged T1D patients progress to older age. PMID:23994432

  4. Development and evaluation of a risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Chinese rural population based on the RuralDiab Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Xiaotian; Xu, Fei; Li, Linlin; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Liu, Ruihua; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a simple and effective risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged rural Chinese. Total of 5453 participants aged 30–59 years from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study were recruited for establishing the RuralDiab risk score by using logistic regression analysis. The RuralDiab risk score was validated in a prospective study from Henan Province of China, and compared with previous risk scores by using the receiver-operating characteristics cure. Ultimately, sex, age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, history of dyslipidemia, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index were included in the RuralDiab risk score (range from 0 to 36), and the optimal cutoff value was 17 with 67.9% sensitivity and 67.8% specificity. The area under the cures (AUC) of the RuralDiab risk score was 0.723(95%CI: 0.710–0.735) for T2DM in validation population, which was significant higher than the American Diabetes Association score (AUC: 0.636), the Inter99 score (AUC: 0.669), the Oman risk score (AUC: 0.675). The RuralDiab risk score was established and demonstrated an appropriate performance for predicting T2DM in middle-aged Chinese rural population. Further studies for validation should be implemented in different populations. PMID:28209984

  5. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on AGEs and sRAGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Asuman; Andican, Gülnur; Siva, Zeynep Oşar; Andican, Ahat; Burcak, Gülden

    2016-12-01

    In diabetes mellitus, chronic hyperglycemia leads to formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Binding of AGEs to receptors of AGE (RAGE) causes deleterious effects. In populations with a high consumption of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been reported. We aimed to investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on the levels of AGEs (carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine), sRAGE, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM patients (n = 38) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents, without insulin were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (1.2 g/day) for 2 months. Plasma CML, pentosidine, sRAGE, and NF-kB levels were measured by ELISA both before and after the supplementation. n-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly reduced fasting glucose (p < 0.01), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (p < 0.05), and pentosidine (p < 0.05) levels. The supplementation induced percentage changes in pentosidine and HbA1c and in pentosidine and creatinine were observed to be correlated (r = 0.349, p < 0.05) and (r = 0.377, p < 0.05), respectively. Waist circumference and systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly decreased due to n-3 supplementation (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01), respectively. Our results show that supplementation with n-3 fatty acid has beneficial effects on waist circumference; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; and the levels of glucose, HbA1c, and pentosidine in T2DM patients. However, the supplementation failed to decrease these parameters to the reference ranges for healthy subjects. In addition, the supplementation did not appear to induce any significant differences in CML, sRAGE, or NF-kB.

  6. Age at Menarche and Its Association with the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: Results from the KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Huth, Cornelia; Heier, Margit; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Kowall, Bernd; Stöckl, Heidi; Döring, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is a major public health challenge and identifies persons at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menarche and the metabolic syndrome (IDF and NCEP ATP III classification) and its components. Design 1536 women aged 32 to 81 years of the German population based KORA F4 study were investigated. Data was collected by standardized interviews, physical examinations, and whole blood and serum measurements. Results Young age at menarche was significantly associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), greater waist circumference, higher fasting glucose levels, and 2 hour glucose (oral glucose tolerance test), even after adjusting for the difference between current BMI and BMI at age 25. The significant effect on elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure was attenuated after adjustment for the BMI change. Age at menarche was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome adjusting for age (p-values: <0.001 IDF, 0.003 NCEP classification) and additional potential confounders including lifestyle and reproductive history factors (p-values: 0.001, 0.005). Associations remain significant when additionally controlling for recollected BMI at age 25 (p-values: 0.008, 0.033) or the BMI change since age 25 (p-values: 0.005, 0.022). Conclusion Young age at menarche might play a role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. This association is only partially mediated by weight gain and increased BMI. A history of early menarche may help to identify women at risk for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22028807

  7. Adjusting head circumference for covariates in autism: clinical correlates of a highly heritable continuous trait

    PubMed Central

    Chaste, Pauline; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J.; Murtha, Michael T.; Hus, Vanessa; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Yu, Timothy W.; Fombonne, Eric; Geschwind, Daniel; Grice, Dorothy E.; Ledbetter, David H.; Lord, Catherine; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa Lese; Martin, Donna M.; Morrow, Eric M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Sutcliffe, James S.; State, Matthew W.; Devlin, Bernie; Cook, Edwin H.; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brain development follows a different trajectory in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) than in typically developing children. A proxy for neurodevelopment could be head circumference (HC), but studies assessing HC and its clinical correlates in ASD have been inconsistent. This study investigates HC and clinical correlates in the Simons Simplex Collection cohort. METHODS We used a mixed linear model to estimate effects of covariates and the deviation from the expected HC given parental HC (genetic deviation). After excluding individuals with incomplete data, 7225 individuals in 1891 families remained for analysis. We examined the relationship between HC/genetic deviation of HC and clinical parameters. RESULTS Gender, age, height, weight, genetic ancestry and ASD status were significant predictors of HC (estimate of the ASD effect=0.2cm). HC was approximately normally distributed in probands and unaffected relatives, with only a few outliers. Genetic deviation of HC was also normally distributed, consistent with a random sampling of parental genes. Whereas larger HC than expected was associated with ASD symptom severity and regression, IQ decreased with the absolute value of the genetic deviation of HC. CONCLUSIONS Measured against expected values derived from covariates of ASD subjects, statistical outliers for HC were uncommon. HC is a strongly heritable trait and population norms for HC would be far more accurate if covariates including genetic ancestry, height and age were taken into account. The association of diminishing IQ with absolute deviation from predicted HC values suggests HC could reflect subtle underlying brain development and warrants further investigation. PMID:23746936

  8. Photonic crystal waveguide cavity with waist design for efficient trapping and detection of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pin-Tso; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-03-24

    For manipulating nanometric particles, we propose a photonic crystal waveguide cavity design with a waist structure to enhance resonance characteristic of the cavity. For trapping a polystyrene particle of 50 nm radius on the lateral side of the waist, the optical force can reach 2308 pN/W with 24.7% signal transmission. Threshold power of only 0.32 mW is required for stable trapping. The total length of the device is relatively short with only ten photonic crystal periods, and the trapping can occur precisely and only at the waist. The designed cavity can also provide particle detection and surrounding medium sensing using the transmission spectrum with narrow linewidth. The simulated figure of merit of 110.6 is relatively high compared with those obtained from most plasmonic structures for sensing application. We anticipate this design with features of compact, efficient, and versatile in functionality will be beneficial for developing lab-on-chip in the future.

  9. Use of nonlinear models for describing scrotal circumference growth in Guzerat bulls raised under grazing conditions.

    PubMed

    Loaiza-Echeverri, A M; Bergmann, J A G; Toral, F L B; Osorio, J P; Carmo, A S; Mendonça, L F; Moustacas, V S; Henry, M

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to use various nonlinear models to describe scrotal circumference (SC) growth in Guzerat bulls on three farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The nonlinear models were: Brody, Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, Von Bertalanffy, and Tanaka, where parameter A is the estimated testis size at maturity, B is the integration constant, k is a maturating index and, for the Richards and Tanaka models, m determines the inflection point. In Tanaka, A is an indefinite size of the testis, and B and k adjust the shape and inclination of the curve. A total of 7410 SC records were obtained every 3 months from 1034 bulls with ages varying between 2 and 69 months (<240 days of age = 159; 241-365 days = 451; 366-550 days = 1443; 551-730 days = 1705; and >731 days = 3652 SC measurements). Goodness of fit was evaluated by coefficients of determination (R(2)), error sum of squares, average prediction error (APE), and mean absolute deviation. The Richards model did not reach the convergence criterion. The R(2) were similar for all models (0.68-0.69). The error sum of squares was lowest for the Tanaka model. All models fit the SC data poorly in the early and late periods. Logistic was the model which best estimated SC in the early phase (based on APE and mean absolute deviation). The Tanaka and Logistic models had the lowest APE between 300 and 1600 days of age. The Logistic model was chosen for analysis of the environmental influence on parameters A and k. Based on absolute growth rate, SC increased from 0.019 cm/d, peaking at 0.025 cm/d between 318 and 435 days of age. Farm, year, and season of birth significantly affected size of adult SC and SC growth rate. An increase in SC adult size (parameter A) was accompanied by decreased SC growth rate (parameter k). In conclusion, SC growth in Guzerat bulls was characterized by an accelerated growth phase, followed by decreased growth; this was best represented by the Logistic model. The inflection point occurred at

  10. An Anthropometric Survey of 2000 Royal Air Force Aircrew, 1970/71

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    Table 26 Calf circumference Table 27 Thigh circumference Table 28 Buttock circumference Table 29 Waist circumference (Serial Nos 1-1662) Table 30 Waist ... Circumference (Serial Nos. 1-1662) 857 668 708 735 995 1020 1120 30. Waist Circumference (Serial Nos. 1663-2013) 829 660 693 720 974 1011 1033 31... circumference (Serial Nos 1663-2013) Table 31 Chest circumference Table 32 Neck circumference Table 33 Waist to waist over shoulder (Serial Nos 1-1662

  11. Association between Frailty, Osteoporosis, Falls and Hip Fractures among Community-Dwelling People Aged 50 Years and Older in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Background Association of frailty with adverse clinical outcomes has been reported in Western countries, but data from the Asian population are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population and to explore its association with musculoskeletal health in Taiwan. Methods I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) data were retrieved for this study. Frailty was defined by the Fried’s criteria; a comparison of demographic characteristics, physical performance, and body composition, including skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as recent falls, history of hip fractures and the functional status of subjects with different frailty statuses were accomplished. Results Overall, the data of 1,839 participants (mean age: 63.9±9.3 years, male 47.5%) were obtained for analysis. The prevalence of pre-frailty was 42.3% in men and 38.8% in women, whereas the prevalence of frailty was 6.9% and 6.7% in men and women, respectively. Frailty was significantly associated with older age, the male gender, larger waist circumference, lower skeletal muscle index, lower hip BMD, poorer physical function, poorer nutritional status, and poorer cognitive function. Also, frailty was significantly associated with osteoporosis (OR: 7.73, 95% CI: 5.01–11.90, p<0.001), history of hip fractures (OR: 8.66, 95% CI: 2.47–30.40, p = 0.001), and recent falls (O.R: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.35–4.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions Frailty and pre-frailty, in Taiwan, was closely associated with recent falls, history of hip fractures and osteoporosis among community-dwelling people 50 years of age and older. Furthermore, frailty intervention programs should take an integrated approach towards strengthening both and muscle mass, as well as prevention of falls. PMID:26348034

  12. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.

  13. Relationship between Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Body Mass Index in Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Fuentes Ferrer, Manuel; Oliva García, Jose Gregorio; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca; Caracena Castellanos, Nieves; Acevedo Rodríguez, Candelaria Xiomara; Palacio Abizanda, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional screening is a fundamental aspect of the initial evaluation of the hospitalised patient. Body Mass Index (BMI) in association with other parameters is a good marker of malnutrition (<18.5 kg/m2), but it presents the handicap that the great majority of patients cannot be weighed and measured. For this reason it is necessary to find other indicators that can be measured in these patients. Objectives 1) Analyse the relationship between BMI and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC); 2) establish a cut-off point of MUAC equivalent to BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Materials and Methods The anthropometric data of patients hospitalised over the period 2004–2013 were retrospectively revised. The following variables were collected: weight, height, BMI, MUAC, sex and age. Results 1373 patients were evaluated, who presented a mean weight of: 65.04±15.51 kg; height: 1.66±0.09 m; BMI: 23.48±5.03 kg/m2; MUAC: 26.95±4.50 cm; age: 56.24±16.77. MUAC correlates suitably to BMI by means of the following equation (simple linear regression): BMI = − 0.042 + 0.873 x MUAC (cm) (R2 = 0.609), with a Pearson r value of 0.78 (p<0.001). The area under the curve of MUAC for the diagnosis of malnutrition was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.94; p<0.001). The MUAC value ≤22.5 cm presented a sensitivity of 67.7%, specificity of 94.5%, and a correct classification of 90%. No significant statistical differences were found in the cut-off point of MUAC for the diagnosis of malnutrition based on sex (p = 0.115) and age (p = 0.694). Conclusions 1) MUAC correlates positively and significantly with BMI. 2) MUAC ≤ 22.5 cm correlates properly with a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2, independent of the age or sex of the patient, although there are other alternatives. MUAC constitutes a useful tool as a marker of malnutrition, fundamentally in patients for whom weight and height cannot be determined. PMID:27494612

  14. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  15. Age and male erectile responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Solnick, R L; Birren, J E

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine (1) the difference in the rate of penile circumference increase per unit time between a group of young and a group of old normal males when exposed to the same erotic movie and (2) the correlation coefficient between penile shaft temperature increase and penile circumference increase. Ten males aged 19-30 years and ten males aged 48-65 years served as subjects. Each subject placed a thermistor and strain gauge on his penis and both outputs were recorded simultaneously on a two-channel recorder. The younger group responded at an erection rate 5.8 times faster than that of the older group. The correlation coefficient, based on the percent approach to oral temperature (98.6 degrees F) and the percent increase in penile circumference, was 0.75.

  16. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  17. Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern boundary currents are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ13C and δ15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729

  18. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions In DA$\\Phi$NE With KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, M.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Milardi, C.; Shatilov, D.; Valishev, A.

    2015-06-24

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e- ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  19. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions in DAΦNE with KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, M.; Drago, A.; Gallo, A.; Milardi, C.; Shatilov, D.; Valishev, A.

    2015-06-24

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e⁻ ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  20. Zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and e are associated with obesity, inflammation, lipid profile and insulin resistance in Mexican school-aged children.

    PubMed

    García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  1. Association of Body Mass Index of HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women and Infant Weight, Body Mass Index, Length, and Head Circumference: The NISDI Perinatal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Letícia S.; Harris, D. Robert; Read, Jennifer S.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Succi, Regina C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) of HIV-1-infected women and their infants’ perinatal outcomes. The study population consisted of women enrolled in the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal Study with data allowing calculation of the BMI adjusted for length of gestation (adjBMI), who delivered singleton infants. Outcome variables included infant growth parameters at birth (weight, BMI, length and head circumference) and gestational age. Of 697 women from Argentina, the Bahamas, Brazil and Mexico who were included in the analysis, the adjBMI was classified as underweight for 109 (15.6%), normal for 418 (60.0%), overweight for 88 (12.6%) and obese for 82 (11.8%). Median infant birth weight, BMI, birth length and head circumference differed significantly according to maternal adjBMI (P≤0.0002). Underweight mothers gave birth to infants with lower weight, lower BMI, shorter length and smaller head circumference, while infants born to normal, overweight and obese mothers were of similar size. PMID:19081829

  2. Fetal Cerebellar Vermis Circumference Measured by 2-Dimensional Ultrasound Scan: Reference Range, Feasibility and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, M.; Sica, C.; Meglio, L. D.; Bolla, D.; Raio, L.; Surbek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To provide 2-dimensional ultrasonographic (2D-US) normograms of cerebellar vermis biometry, as well as to evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of these measurements in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 328 normal singleton pregnancies between 18 and 33 weeks of gestation. Measurements of the fetal cerebellar vermis circumference (VC) in the mid-sagittal plane were performed by both a senior and a junior operator using 2D-US. VC as a function of gestational age (GA) was expressed by regression equations. In 24 fetuses 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed planes were obtained in order to allow comparisons with 2D-US measurements. The agreement between 2D and 3D measurements and the interobserver variability were assessed by interclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results: Satisfactory vermis measurements could be obtained in 89.9% of cases. The VC (constant= − 12.21; slope=2.447; r=0.887, p<0.0001) correlated linearly with GA. A high degree of consistency was observed between 2D and 3D ultrasound measurements (ICC=0.846 95% CI 679–0.930) as well as between measurements obtained by different examiners (ICC=0.890 95% CI 989–0.945). Conclusion: 2-dimensional ultrasonographic measurements of cerebellar vermis throughout gestation in the mid-sagittal view seem to be feasible and reproducible enough to be potentially used in clinical practice. Such measurements may supply a tool for accurate identification of posterior fossa anomalies, providing the basis for proper counseling and management and of these conditions. PMID:27921094

  3. Feasibility, validity and reliability of the plank isometric hold as a field-based assessment of torso muscular endurance for children 8-12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Charles; Tremblay, Mark; Saunders, Travis J; McFarlane, Allison; Borghese, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann; Longmuir, Pat

    2013-08-01

    This project examined the feasibility, validity, and reliability of the plank isometric hold for children 8-12 years of age. 1502 children (52.5% female) performed partial curl-up and/or plank protocols to assess plank feasibility (n = 823, 52.1% girls), validity (n = 641, 54.1% girls) and reliability (n = 111, 47.8% girls). 12% (n = 52/431) of children could not perform a partial curl-up, but virtually all children (n = 1066/1084) could attain a nonzero score for the plank. Plank performance without time limit was influenced by small effects with age (β = 6.86; p < .001, η(2) = 0.03), flexibility (β = 0.79; p < .001, η(2) = 0.03), and medium effects with cardiovascular endurance (β = 1.07; p < .001, η(2) = 0.08), and waist circumference (β = -0.92; p < .001, η(2) = 0.06). Interrater (ICC = 0.62; CI = 0.50, 0.75), intra-rater (ICC = 0.83; CI = 0.73, 0.90) and test-retest (ICC = 0.63; CI = 0.46, 0.75) reliability were acceptable for the plank without time limit. These data suggest the plank without time limit is a feasible, valid and reliable assessment of torso muscular endurance for children 8-12 years of age.

  4. Impact of a 12-week aerobic exercise training program on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of a group of type 2 diabetes Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years

    PubMed Central

    Dahjio, Yves; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Essouma, Mickael; Loni, Gabriel Ekali; Onana, Arnold Ewane; Dehayem, Mesmin; Mvom, Angeline; Tadjore, Maurice Njock

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined whether aerobic exercise could have an impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. Methods We enrolled 23 T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years regularly followed at the National Obesity Center of Yaounde, Cameroon, in a 12-week aerobic exercise program monitored by a pedometer. Exercise intensity was progressively set between 55% and 75% of maximum heart rate. We measured weight, body mass index (BMI), fat, lean mass, visceral fat, maximum oxygen uptake, glycaemia and insulin tolerance index at baseline, after six and twelve weeks. A mixed ANOVA model was used to evaluate changes of outcome measures over time. Results Total body weight was significantly reduced after 12 weeks (P<0.05), waist circumference after 6 and 12 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase of the lean mass from 6 weeks (P<0.001) and a reduction of the mean visceral fat at 12 weeks (P<0.001). At the end of the program, the mean glycaemia was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the maximum oxygen uptake was enhanced (P<0.05). Conclusions The 12-week aerobic exercise program improved the anthropometric and metabolic parameters as well as the aerobic capacity of T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. PMID:27826567

  5. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50-60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (∆ score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  7. Analysis of coupled resonator optical waveguide gyroscope based on periodically modulated coupling and circumferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Zhang, Hailiang; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Wenjun; Chang, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Based on periodically modulated coupling and circumferences, we developed a new structure for coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) gyroscopes. Its sensitivity and resolution were significantly improved. With our new structure, which overcomes the individual limitations of the previous schemes, the sensitivity and resolution of our gyroscope are higher than those with coupling-coefficient modulation alone and circumference modulation alone. The resolution of the gyroscope gradually declines with increasing resonator propagation loss; when the quality factor Q ≤ 2 ×106 , the height of the center resonance peak of the transmission band decreases by more than 90%. Fortunately, this effect can be weakened by increasing the circumference difference. We also numerically analyzed the influence of manufacturing errors on the performance of the gyroscope. We found that the fluctuations of radius have a greater influence than the fluctuations of quality factor.

  8. Men's ratings of female attractiveness are influenced more by changes in female waist size compared with changes in hip size.

    PubMed

    Rozmus-Wrzesinska, Malgorzata; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2005-03-01

    Women's attractiveness has been found to be negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in many studies. Two components of this ratio can, however, carry different signals for a potential mate. Hip size indicates pelvic size and the amount of additional fat storage that can be used as a source of energy. Waist size conveys information such as current reproductive status or health status. To assess which of these two dimensions is more important for men's perception of female attractiveness, we used a series of photographs of a woman with WHR manipulated either by hip or waist changes. Attractiveness was correlated negatively with WHR, when WHR was manipulated by waist size. The relation was inverted-U shape when WHR was changed by hip size. We postulate that in westernized societies with no risk of seasonal lack of food, the waist, conveying information about fecundity and health status, will be more important than hip size for assessing a female's attractiveness.

  9. Aging-Related Correlation between Serum Sirtuin 1 Activities and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women, but not in Men

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased with age and was significantly lower in men in their fifties and older and in women in their forties and older compared with twenties in men and women, respectively. SIRT1 activities were altered by age and sex. Especially, women in their thirties showed the highest SIRT1 activities. Correlation analysis displayed that SIRT1 activity is positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) in men, and with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum TG in women. And, SIRT1 activity was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in women (r = −0.183, p = 0.039). Positive correlation was observed between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women (r = 0.222, p = 0.027), but not in men. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that serum SIRT1 activities may be utilized as a biomarker of aging. In addition, positive correlation between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women suggests that serum SIRT1 activity may reflect energy expenditure well in human. PMID:28168178

  10. New cross sectional stature, weight, and head circumference references for Down's syndrome in the UK and Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Styles, M; Cole, T; Dennis, J; Preece, M

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To present a growth reference for children with uncomplicated Down's syndrome living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Data are available for height and weight in the age range 0–18 years, including the first three months of life, and for head circumference in the first year. Methods: The study sample was drawn from 16 discrete geographical areas and was representative of children age 19 years of age or less who are now living in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Multiple growth measurements for 1507 children were obtained retrospectively by case note search. Data from children with significant cardiac or other major pathology were excluded from analysis. Data from preterm babies were excluded up to age 2 years. Centile curves were constructed from 5913 selected measurements from 1089 children and were derived using Cole's LMS method. Results: The resulting centiles differ substantially from those previously available in the UK, which were based on selective US data published in 1988. Conclusions: We propose that these charts should now be adopted as the standard UK/Republic of Ireland reference. PMID:12138054

  11. Wrist circumference is related to patellar tendon thickness in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John; Fried, Andrew; Maitra, Ranjan; Johnson, Darren L; Caborn, David N M

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of dominant wrist circumference measurements to predict dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness at regions of interest for bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft harvest was studied among 24 healthy men and women. Dominant wrist circumference displayed good relationships with dominant lower extremity patellar tendon thickness as determined by two-dimensional diagnostic ultrasound. This initial screening method may assist surgeons as they consider graft selection for patients who may be at risk for developing or exacerbating preexisting patellofemoral joint or knee extensor mechanism conditions with BPTB autograft harvest.

  12. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing.

    PubMed

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babič, Jan; Lešnik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-09-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers' trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key pointsThe change in the skis' waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions.The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries.The overall results of the abduction and internal

  13. The Waist Width of Skis Influences the Kinematics of the Knee Joint in Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Zorko, Martin; Nemec, Bojan; Babič, Jan; Lešnik, Blaz; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Recently alpine skis with a wider waist width, which medially shifts the contact between the ski edge and the snow while turning, have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to determine the knee joint kinematics during turning while using skis of different waist widths (65mm, 88mm, 110mm). Six highly skilled skiers performed ten turns on a predefined course (similar to a giant slalom course). The relation of femur and tibia in the sagital, frontal and coronal planes was captured by using an inertial motion capture suit, and Global Navigation Satellite System was used to determine the skiers’ trajectories. With respect of the outer ski the knee joint flexion, internal rotation and abduction significantly decreased with the increase of the ski waist width for the greatest part of the ski turn. The greatest abduction with the narrow ski and the greatest external rotation (lowest internal rotation) with the wide ski are probably the reflection of two different strategies of coping the biomechanical requirements in the ski turn. These changes in knee kinematics were most probably due to an active adaptation of the skier to the changed biomechanical conditions using wider skis. The results indicated that using skis with large waist widths on hard, frozen surfaces could bring the knee joint unfavorably closer to the end of the range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as potentially increasing the risk of degenerative knee injuries. Key points The change in the skis’ waist width caused a change in the knee joint movement strategies, which had a tendency to adapt the skier to different biomechanical conditions. The use of wider skis or, in particular, skis with a large waist width, on a hard or frozen surface, could unfavourably bring the knee joint closer to the end of range of motion in transversal and frontal planes as well as may potentially increase the risk of degenerative knee injuries. The overall results of the abduction and

  14. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  15. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sean A; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne W; Middleton, Sue M; Wittert, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005) from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis). A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes), separation/divorce (asthma), unemployment (cancer), high waist circumference (diabetes), elevated cholesterol (angina) and a family history of obesity (angina). Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated) should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives. PMID:18664294

  16. Cohort Profile: The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, Jennifer C; Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Li; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Hui; Liu, I-Wen; Liu, Hsia-Yuan; Weinstein, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Taiwanese middle-aged and older adults. It adds the collection of biomarkers and performance assessments to the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA), a nationally representative study of adults aged 60 and over, including the institutionalized population. The TLSA began in 1989, with follow-ups approximately every 3 years; younger refresher cohorts were added in 1996 and 2003. The first wave of SEBAS, based on a sub-sample of respondents from the 1999 TLSA, was conducted in 2000. A total of 1023 respondents completed both a face-to-face home interview and, several weeks later, a hospital-based physical examination. In addition to a 12-h (7 pm–7 am) urine specimen collected the night before and a fasting blood specimen collected during the examination, trained staff measured blood pressure, height, weight and waist and hip circumferences. A second wave of SEBAS was conducted in 2006 using a similar protocol to SEBAS 2000, but with the addition of performance assessments conducted by the interviewers at the end of the home interview. Both waves of SEBAS also included measures of health status (physical, emotional, cognitive), health behaviours, social relationships and exposure to stressors. The SEBAS data, which are publicly available at [http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACDA/studies/3792/version/5], allow researchers to explore the relationships among life challenges, the social environment and health and to examine the antecedents, correlates and consequences of change in biological measures and health. PMID:25205853

  17. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  18. Contractility studies on isolated bovine choroidal small arteries: determination of the active and passive wall tension-internal circumference relation.

    PubMed

    Delaey, C; Boussery, K; Van de Voorde, J

    2002-09-01

    Studies on isolated choroidal arteries could help to understand the regulatory mechanisms in the choroidal circulation. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether contractility studies on isolated choroidal arteries were feasible and to determine the active and passive wall tension-internal circumference relation of these arteries. This relation is essential for reliable further pharmacodynamic studies on these vessels. Isolated choroidal arteries were mounted on a wire myograph for isometric tension recording. After the vessel was mounted, the L(100) (the circumference of the vessel at a transmural pressure of 100 mmHg) was determined. Then the passive and active wall tension-internal circumference relation of the choroidal vessels was obtained by stepwise increasing the internal circumference. The changes in the internal circumference were expressed as a percentage of L(100). After each increase in circumference, the passive tone (in a calcium free medium), the spontaneous tone (in a Krebs--Ringer bicarbonate solution) and the active tone (in a solution containing K(+) 120 mM and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) 30 microM) was measured. The passive tone of the vessel increased exponentially with the circumference of the vessel. Both the spontaneous tone and the active tone also increased when the vessel was stretched. They peaked when the internal circumference approached 90% of the L(100) and diminished again when the circumference was further increased. The peak value of the active tension curve averaged 2.24+/-0.47 Nm(-1) (n=10). The passive tension was 0.57+/-0.08 Nm(-1) (n=10) at this circumference. The peak value of the spontaneous tension curve averaged 0.37+/-0.08 Nm(-1) (n=10). It can be concluded that in vitro contractility studies on isolated choroidal arteries are feasible. The optimal length or preload of the choroidal arteries is attained when the internal circumference of the artery is set to 90% of the L(100).

  19. Effect of Codend Circumference on the Size Selection of Square-Mesh Codends in Trawl Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    De Carlo, Francesco; Lucchetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that increasing mesh number in the circumference of a diamond-mesh trawl codend can reduce size selection for round fish, whereas selection for flat fish species is unaffected. This effect has also been documented in Mediterranean trawl fisheries. In contrast, no information is available with regard to the effect of increasing mesh number in the circumference of square-mesh codends on the size selection of round fish and flat fish species. A field study was devised to bridge this gap and formulate proposals aimed at improving trawl fishery management. Size selection data were collected for a round fish species, red mullet (Mullus barbatus), and two flat fish species, Mediterranean scaldfish (Arnoglossus laterna) and solenette (Buglossidium luteum). Fishing trials were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Central Mediterranean) using three square-mesh codends that differed only in mesh number around the circumference. Results demonstrated that increasing the number of meshes from 107 to 213 reduced the 50% retention length (L50) for red mullet by 2.5 cm but did not affect size selection for the two flat fish species. In some fisheries, regulatory provisions regarding the number of meshes in the circumference should therefore be carefully considered both for diamond- and square-mesh codends. PMID:27472058

  20. Effect of Codend Circumference on the Size Selection of Square-Mesh Codends in Trawl Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Sala, Antonello; Herrmann, Bent; De Carlo, Francesco; Lucchetti, Alessandro; Brčić, Jure

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that increasing mesh number in the circumference of a diamond-mesh trawl codend can reduce size selection for round fish, whereas selection for flat fish species is unaffected. This effect has also been documented in Mediterranean trawl fisheries. In contrast, no information is available with regard to the effect of increasing mesh number in the circumference of square-mesh codends on the size selection of round fish and flat fish species. A field study was devised to bridge this gap and formulate proposals aimed at improving trawl fishery management. Size selection data were collected for a round fish species, red mullet (Mullus barbatus), and two flat fish species, Mediterranean scaldfish (Arnoglossus laterna) and solenette (Buglossidium luteum). Fishing trials were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Central Mediterranean) using three square-mesh codends that differed only in mesh number around the circumference. Results demonstrated that increasing the number of meshes from 107 to 213 reduced the 50% retention length (L50) for red mullet by 2.5 cm but did not affect size selection for the two flat fish species. In some fisheries, regulatory provisions regarding the number of meshes in the circumference should therefore be carefully considered both for diamond- and square-mesh codends.

  1. In the Spirit of Eratosthenes: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charischak, Ihor

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the mathematics and science underlying Eratosthenes' measurement of the circumference of Earth in about 200 B.C. and provides a lesson plan so that small groups of high school students can duplicate the measurements. Equipment needed and related Web sites are listed, and a model chart to record measurements is provided. (PEN)

  2. Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M; Kaakinen, Marika; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Freathy, Rachel M; Geller, Frank; Guxens, Mònica; Cousminer, Diana L; Kerkhof, Marjan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ikram, M Arfan; Beilin, Lawrence J; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Buxton, Jessica L; Charoen, Pimphen; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Eriksson, Johan; Evans, David M; Hofman, Albert; Kemp, John P; Kim, Cecilia E; Klopp, Norman; Lahti, Jari; Lye, Stephen J; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Müller, Martina; O’Reilly, Paul F; Prokopenko, Inga; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Steegers, Eric A P; Sunyer, Jordi; Tiesler, Carla; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Breteler, Monique M B; Debette, Stephanie; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J; van der Lugt, Aad; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Vernooij, Meike W; Blakemore, Alexandra IF; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fernandez-Benet, Julio; Grant, Struan F A; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; van der Heijden, Albert J; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lathrop, Mark; McArdle, Wendy L; Mølgaard, Anne; Newnham, John P; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pouta, Annneli; Ring, Susan M; Sovio, Ulla; Standl, Marie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wichmann, H-Erich; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; DeCarli, Charles; van Duijn, Cornelia M; McCarthy, Mark I; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Estivill, Xavier; Hattersley, Andrew T; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Pennell, Craig E; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Smith, George Davey; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-01-01

    To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association (GWA) studies (N=10,768 from European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N=19,089). Rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P=8.1×10−9), and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P=2.8×10−10) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height1, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P=3.8×10−7 for rs7980687, P=1.3×10−7 for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P=3.9×10−6). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal show genome-wide association with adult intra cranial volume2, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases3-5, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life. PMID:22504419

  3. Hip circumference, height and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Janghorbani, M; Momeni, F; Dehghani, M

    2012-12-01

    Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hip circumference or height, the results are inconsistent. The present systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies was conducted to assess the effects of hip circumference and height on diabetes risk. Online databases were searched through January 2012, and the reference lists of pertinent articles reporting observational studies in humans were examined. Pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with a random-effects model. Eighteen studies (nine cross-sectional and nine cohort) were included, with 250,497 participants and 7,765 cases of T2DM. Hip circumference was inversely associated with an increased risk of T2DM in men (summary RR [95% CI] 0.60 [0.45, 0.80]) and women (0.54 [0.42, 0.70]). These results were consistent between cross-sectional and cohort studies. An inverse association between height and T2DM was observed in women only (summary RR [95% CI] 0.83 [0.73, 0.95]). Our meta-analysis strongly supports an inverse relationship between hip circumference and risk of T2DM in men and women. The inverse association between height and risk was significant only in women.

  4. Growth of Head Circumference in Autistic Infants during the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumoto, Aya; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Mio; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Miyazaki, Masahito; Mori, Kenji; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kagami, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the increase in head circumference (HC) of 85 autistic infants (64 boys and 21 girls) during their first year of life. The data were collected from their "mother-and-baby" notebooks. This notebook is a medical record of the baby's growth and development delivered to the parents of all babies born in Japan. This is a…

  5. Prediction equations for body-fat percentage in Indian infants and young children using skinfold thickness and mid-arm circumference.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bandana; Bose, Kaushik; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mahalanabis, Dilip

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to develop prediction equations for fat-mass percentage in infants in India based on skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and age. Skinfold thicknesses and mid-arm circumference of 46 apparently-healthy infants (27 girls and 19 boys), aged 6-24 months, from among the urban poor attending a well baby clinic of a hospital in Kolkata were measured. Their body-fat percentage was measured using the D2O dilution technique as the reference method. Equations for body-fat percentage were developed using a stepwise forward regression model using skinfold thicknesses, mid-arm circumference, and age as independent variables, and the body-fat percentage was derived by D2O dilution as the dependent variable. The new prediction equations are: body-fat percentage = -69.26+5.76xB-0.33xT2+5.40xM+0.01xA2 for girls and body-fat percentage = -8.75+3.73xB+2.57xS for boys, where B=biceps skinfold thickness, T=triceps skinfold thickness, and S=suprailiac skinfold thickness all in mm, M=mid-arm circumference in cm, and A=age in month. Using the D2O dilution technique, the means (SD) of the calculated body-fat percentage were 17.11 (7.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.62) for boys and, using the new prediction equations, these were 17.11 (6.25) for girls and 16.93 (6.02) for boys. The mean of the differences of paired values in body-fat percentage was zero. The mean (SD) of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage derived by the D2O technique and the new equations, applied on an independent sample of 23 infants (11 girls and 12 boys) were -0.93 (6.56) for girls and 1.14 (2.43) for boys; the 95% confidence limits of the differences of paired values for body-fat percentage were -2.03 to +3.89 for girls and -0.26 to +2.54 for boys. Given that the trajectories of growth during infancy and childhood are a major risk factor for a group of diseases in adulthood, including coronary heart disease and diabetes, these predictive equations should be useful

  6. Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the proportion of subjects achieving a combined reduction in arm circumference of ≥1.25cm measured at three equally spaced points between the elbow and the shoulder. Secondary outcomes included total measurement change at each time point and subjective satisfaction ratings. Results: After six treatments, the low-level laser therapy group showed a combined reduction in arm circumference of 3.7cm versus 0.2cm in the sham treatment group (p<0.0001). Significantly more subjects in the low-level laser therapy group (N=12; 60%) achieved ≥1.5cm total decrease in upper arm circumference versus sham-treated subjects (N=0; 0%) (p<0.0005). Low-level laser therapy treatment resulted in a combined reduction in arm circumference of 2.2cm after three treatments and 3.7cm after six treatments (for each, p<0.0001) indicating a progressive and cumulative treatment effect. Body mass index remained unchanged for all subjects. A significantly greater number of subjects in the low-level laser therapy treatment group were satisfied with their results (p<0.05), believed their upper arm appearance improved (p<0.0005), and indicated the results exceeded expectations (p<0.05). The treatments were painless and no adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Noninvasive low-level laser therapy is safe, painless, and effective in reducing upper arm circumference and is associated with a high degree of subject satisfaction. PMID:22468172

  7. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements of leg circumference measurements by tape measure based on 3 reference points.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Recep; Caglayan-Tunc, Aygul; Kisakol, Gurcan; Unler, Gulhan Kanat; Hidayetoglu, Taha; Yazici, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreements in tape measurements of the ankle and calf circumference with due emphasis on the 3 main reference points, the patella, the tibial tuberosity, and the medial malleolus. The leg circumference at 2 locations was measured in 66 patients in the mornings of 2 consecutive days by 6 observers. Finally, a blinded couple measured leg circumferences at a line created on calves with a ballpoint pen of 68 outpatients to calculate interobserver agreement for lined regions. Leg circumference measurement was accepted as correct when the difference was less than 0.6 cm in 2 occasions. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were calculated as the percentage of correct measurements. Chi-square test was used to compare intraobserver and interobserver agreements for each reference point. At the calf region, intraobserver and interobserver agreements based on the tibial tuberosity (88% and 81%) were better than those of the patella (65% and 57%) and the medial malleolus (73% and 65%). On the other hand, at above the ankle region, the agreements (79% and 62%) were also better than those of the patella (60% and 43%) and nearly the same as those of the medial malleolus (86% and 65%). Finally, interobserver agreement of the measurements at the created line with ballpoint pen (96%) was better when compared to those of the tibial tuberosity (81%), the patella (57%), and medial malleolus (65%) (p = 0.005, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). The results of this study suggest that the tibial tuberosity as a reference point for leg circumference measurement has better intraobserver and interobserver agreements than those of the patella and the medial malleoli.

  8. Refractive index insensitive temperature sensor based on waist-enlarged few mode fiber bitapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Si-wen; Fu, Xing-hu; Fu, Guang-wei; Jin, Wa; Bi, Wei-hong

    2017-01-01

    A refractive index insensitive temperature sensor based on waist-enlarged few mode fiber (FMF) bitapers is presented. The first section of FMF is spliced between two single-mode fibers. In fusion process, the waist-enlarged FMF bitapers can be obtained by large current discharging repeatedly. The refractive index and temperature sensing mechanisms are analyzed. For the sensors with different sizes, the refractive index and temperature experiments have been performed. The results show that in the refractive index ranges of 1.335 0—1.346 6 and 1.348 2—1.419 3, the refractive index insensitivity is verified. In a temperature range of 31.9—90 °C, the sensor sensitivity can be up to 85.57 pm/°C. In addition, it has a compact structure. Therefore, the sensor can avoid the cross sensitivity for measuring the refractive index and temperature simultaneously.

  9. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio among schoolchildren with visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, Wrzesińska; Urzędowicz, Beata; Motylewski, Sławomir; Zeman, Krzysztof; Pawlicki, Lucjan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children and adolescents with visual impairments may be predisposed to excessive body mass due to restrictions in everyday functioning and the ability to take part in physical activity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and abdominal obesity (AO) among blind and partially sighted schoolchildren and to determine whether sociodemographic factors and participation in physical education classes (PEC) are associated with excessive body weight or AO in this group. A cross-sectional sample of 141 partially sighted or blind schoolchildren aged 7 to 18.9 years were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and sociodemographic variables and ability to attend PEC were recorded. Overweight and obesity were noted among 21.3% and 14.9% of students, respectively. Although more males than females had excessive body weight (39.2% vs 32.3%), the difference was not significant (chi square test [ch2] = 3.197; probability value [P] = 0.362). There was a significant association between mean body mass index standard deviation score and age (results of ANOVA analysis [F] = 5.620; P = 0.0045). A waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.50 was observed among 27.7% of pupils. The prevalence of AO in boys and girls was 32.9% and 21.0%, respectively; this difference was not significant (ch2 = 2.48; P = 0.12). There was a significant relationship between mean WHtR and age (7–9 years: 0.477 ± 0.050; 10–13 years: 0.484 ± 0.065; ≥14 years: 0.454 ± 0.061; results of Kruskal–Wallis test [H] = 8.729; P = 0.023, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that none of the sociodemographic variables examined (except “having siblings”) were significantly associated with the occurrence of overweight, obesity, and AO. Subjects with no siblings were 4 times more likely to have WHtR ≥ 0.5 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33–17

  10. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Spanish children aged 9-12 years.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V; García-Hermoso, A; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Ortega, F B

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to examine (a) the construct validity and reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in children; and (b) the association of both self-reported and measured fitness with cardiometabolic risk. Cross-sectional study in 1145 Spanish children (9-12 years). We measured body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, insulin, and fitness level (reported and measured). A validated cardiometabolic syndrome index was used. An age- and sex-matched sample of 245 children originally not included in the study sample fulfilled IFIS twice for reliability purposes. IFIS was able to correctly classify children according to their measured fitness levels (analysis of covariance, adjusted for sex and age was used). Test-retest reliability of IFIS items was also good, i.e., average weighted Kappa = 0.70. Our data also suggest that both measured and reported cardiorespiratory, and speed and agility fitness were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as adiposity and a cardiometabolic syndrome risk score. The associations for muscular fitness (both reported and measured) differed depending on how it was expressed (i.e., absolute vs relative terms). Our findings suggest that self-reported fitness, as assessed by IFIS, is a valid, reliable, and health-related measure, and it can be a good alternative at population level when physical fitness cannot be measured.

  11. Continuity and Innovation in the Data Collection Protocols of the Second Wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Jaszczak, Angela; O’Doherty, Katie; Colicchia, Michael; Satorius, Jennifer; McPhillips, Jane; Czaplewski, Meredith; Imhof, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Background. The second Wave (W2) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of older adults now between the ages of 62 and 90, conducted approximately 3,400 interviews. Selected coresidential romantic partners as well as W1 panel nonrespondents were selected for W2. Data collection included in-person questionnaires, up to 15 biomeasures, and a post-interview questionnaire. Methods. A proxy questionnaire also collected data on respondents that were deceased or in too poor health to participate in W2. Biomeasure collection included height, weight, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, and preventricular contraction, timed walk and chair stands, smell, saliva collection using a Salivette (cortisol), saliva passive drool in a tube (dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone), dried blood spots (Epstein–Barr virus antibody titers, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein), whole blood in a microtainer (cytokines), urine (creatinine, vasopressin, oxytocin), Oragene (genotype), respondent-administered vaginal swabs (bacterial vaginosis,yeast, and vaginal cell cytology), and Actiwatch (sleep patterns and activity). Results. Measures, such as response and cooperation rates, are also provided to evaluate design and implementation. Discussion. This article describes both innovation in the development and implementation of W2 as well as fidelity to W1 study design and data collection procedures. PMID:24939998

  12. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4–6 years old

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Methods Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. Results The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (p<0.001), thus schoolchildren in the higher adiposity categories had significantly higher BP levels (p<0.001). Conclusions Our results show a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life. PMID:28141860

  13. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease as a Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation in Middle-Aged Population (OPERA Study).

    PubMed

    Käräjämäki, Aki J; Pätsi, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Markku; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Huikuri, Heikki; Ukkola, Olavi

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are widespread diseases and have multiple common risk factors and comorbidities. No studies of association between ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD and AF exist in other than diabetic population. The goal of this prospective study was to study the value of NAFLD as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. This study had 958 subjects from the OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis) cohort, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 years. NAFLD was diagnosed if the subject had fatty liver in ultrasonography and no excess alcohol intake. AF was followed in the National Registers. In this study 249 subjects (26.0%) had NAFLD and 37 (14.9%) of these had AF whereas only 56 (7.9%) of those without NAFLD experienced AF during the follow-up time (p = 0.001). In the multiple Cox regression analysis including potential confounders (age, sex, study group, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (ALT), systolic blood pressure, quick index, left ventricular mass index, left atrial diameter, coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)), NAFLD remained as an independent predictor of AF (Adjusted OR, 1.88 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.03-3.45)). In conclusion, our data shows that NAFLD is independently associated with the risk of AF.

  14. Association between leg length-to-height ratio and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gongshu; Liu, Jian; Li, Nan; Tang, Zheying; Lan, Fengrong; Pan, Lei; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between leg-length-to-height ratio (LLHR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese children. Methods 1236 children (619 obese and 617 nonobese children) aged 3–6 years participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2005 in Tianjin, China. Information on body adiposity, metabolic traits, and related covariates was obtained using a standardized protocol. LLHR was calculated as the ratio of leg length to stature. Results In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS among children in the second through the highest quartiles of LLHR Z-score were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.25), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.32–0.63), and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26–0.53), respectively, (Pfor trend < 0.0001 across LLHR Z-score quartiles). Compared with children with both higher levels of LLHR and lower levels of adipose indices, the corresponding ORs of MetS for those with both lower levels of LLHR and higher levels of anthropometric indices were 4.51 (95% CI, 3.08–6.62) for BMI Z-score, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.60–5.73) for waist circumference, and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.85–4.10) for waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. Conclusions Greater LLHR is inversely associated with MetS in Chinese children. PMID:26844042

  15. Treatment of delayed/nonunion of scaphoid waist with Synthes cannulated scaphoid screw and bone graft.

    PubMed

    Inaparthy, P K; Nicholl, J E

    2008-12-01

    Fracture of the scaphoid bone is the most common fracture of the carpus, and frequently, diagnosis is delayed. The unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to delayed union or nonunion. The Synthes scaphoid screw is a cannulated headed screw, which provides superior compression compared with some other devices used to internally fix scaphoid nonunions. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective study looking at the union rate, time to union, and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment against the delay between injury and surgery and location of the fracture within the bone. This study is a review of a cohort of 30 patients treated with a cannulated Synthes scaphoid screw and corticocancellous bone grafting for scaphoid waist delayed union and nonunion at our center. We achieved 86% overall union rate. The patients with delayed union achieved a 100% union rate. Three out of four patients with persistent nonunion after surgery reported no pain and improved function. The failure rate was 75% in patients who had sustained their fracture more than 5 years previously. Our study demonstrates that delayed union of scaphoid waist fractures and scaphoid waist nonunions present for less than 5 years can be successfully treated by fracture compression and bone grafting.

  16. Treatment of Delayed/Nonunion of Scaphoid Waist with Synthes Cannulated Scaphoid Screw and Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Fracture of the scaphoid bone is the most common fracture of the carpus, and frequently, diagnosis is delayed. The unique anatomy and blood supply of the scaphoid itself predisposes to delayed union or nonunion. The Synthes scaphoid screw is a cannulated headed screw, which provides superior compression compared with some other devices used to internally fix scaphoid nonunions. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective study looking at the union rate, time to union, and complications and correlating the outcome of treatment against the delay between injury and surgery and location of the fracture within the bone. This study is a review of a cohort of 30 patients treated with a cannulated Synthes scaphoid screw and corticocancellous bone grafting for scaphoid waist delayed union and nonunion at our center. We achieved 86% overall union rate. The patients with delayed union achieved a 100% union rate. Three out of four patients with persistent nonunion after surgery reported no pain and improved function. The failure rate was 75% in patients who had sustained their fracture more than 5 years previously. Our study demonstrates that delayed union of scaphoid waist fractures and scaphoid waist nonunions present for less than 5 years can be successfully treated by fracture compression and bone grafting. PMID:18780015

  17. Cross-validation of Waist-Worn GENEA Accelerometer Cut-Points

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Whitney A.; Bassett, David R.; Freedson, Patty S.; John, Dinesh; Steeves, Jeremy A.; Conger, Scott A.; Ceaser, Tyrone G.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Sasaki, Jeffer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the classification accuracy of the waist GENEA cut-points developed by Esliger et al. for predicting intensity categories across a range of lifestyle activities. Methods Each participant performed one of two routines, consisting of seven lifestyle activities (home/office, ambulatory, and sport). The GENEA was worn on the right waist and oxygen uptake was continuously measured using the Oxycon mobile. A one-way chi-square was used to determine the classification accuracy of the GENEA cut-points. Cross tabulation tables provided information on under- and over-estimations, and sensitivity and specificity analyses of the waist cut-points were also performed. Results Spearman’s rank order correlation for the GENEA SVMgs and Oxycon mobile MET values was 0.73. For all activities combined, the GENEA accurately predicted intensity classification 55.3% of the time, and increased to 58.3% when stationary cycling was removed from the analysis. The sensitivity of the cut-points for the four intensity categories ranged from 0.244 to 0.958 and the specificity ranged from 0.576 to 0.943. Conclusion In this cross-validation study, the proposed GENEA cut-points had a low overall accuracy rate for classifying intensity (55.3%) when engaging in 14 different lifestyle activities. PMID:24496118

  18. Measurer’s Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Forearm-Hand Length Forearm-Center of Grip Length Neck Circumference Neck Circumference , Base Waist Back Length (Omphalion) Sleeve Length: Spine...Weight 17 UNCLASSIFIED Torso Station Shoulder Circumference Chest Circumference Waist Circumference (Omphalion) Vertical Trunk Circumference ...of dimensions there is a caution not to let the participant tense the abdominal muscles. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE (OMPHALION) is a good example of a

  19. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of

  20. Neck circumference predicts renal function decline in overweight women: A community-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kwon, Young Eun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Upper-body subcutaneous fat, which is commonly estimated from the neck circumference (NC), was revealed to be the main reservoir of circulating nonesterified fatty acids in overweight patients. Despite a close association between NC and metabolic complications, the relationship of NC with renal function has not been fully investigated. In this study, the impact of NC on the development of incident CKD was elucidated.The data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study cohort. The subjects were followed at 2-year intervals from 2003 to 2011. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of ≥23 kg/m. A total of 4298 cohort subjects were screened. After exclusion, 2268 overweight subjects were included for the final analysis. The primary end point was incident CKD, which was defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m or the development of proteinuria.The mean patient age was 36.3 ± 3.0 years, and 1285 (56.7%) were men. They were divided into 2 groups according to the median NC in male and female subjects, separately. In both sexes, hypertension (men, P < 0.001; women, P = 0.009) and diabetes (men, P = 0.002; women, P < 0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the big NC group than in the small NC group. In contrast, eGFR was significantly lower only in male subjects of the big NC group (P < 0.001), whereas it was comparable between the small and big NC groups (P = 0.167). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, NC values were independently associated with incident CKD development in female subjects after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (per 1 cm increase, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.159 [1.024-1.310], P = 0.019) but not in male subjects.NC is independently associated with the development of CKD in overweight female subjects, suggesting

  1. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... using three key measures: body mass index (BMI) waist circumference, and risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity. Waist Circumference Determine your waist circumference by placing a measuring ...

  2. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  3. Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

    2012-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (p<0.001). There was a significant higher increase for appetite level (0.12±0.33) (p<0.05) and an increasing trend on energy and protein intake in the TG group (213±554 kcal; 3.64 ±26.8 g) than in the CG group. In conclusion, supplementation of fish oil has a positive effect on appetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.

  4. Anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure measures among rural elderly adults of Asian Indian origin: the Santiniketan aging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Bala, Sanjib Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is increasing in industrialized and in developing countries. The present community-based cross sectional work was undertaken to study the anthropometric, body composition, and blood pressure characteristics of rural-dwelling elderly adults of Asian Indian origin. A total of 300 individuals (Male = 157 and Female = 143) from the Bolpur-Sriniketan area of West Bengal, India, took part in the study. Participants were divided into four age-groups: Group I, 55-59 years (Male:Female = 55:61); Group II, 60-64 years (Male:Female = 41:33); Group III, 65-69 years (Male:Female = 27:21); Group IV, 70 years and older (Male:Female = 34:28). Anthropometric measures were taken using standard techniques. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and the sum of four skin folds were subsequently computed. Body composition measures, namely percentage of body fat, fat mass, fat free mass, arm muscle circumference, arm muscle area, and arm fat area, were calculated accordingly. Left-arm systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were also measured, and mean arterial pressure was subsequently calculated. Overall observations in the study population indicate a predominance of body weights below the normal body mass index of 25 kg/m(2). More than half the subjects reported the lack of adequate sanitation facilities and education levels were generally low. Rates of smoking (65.6%) and habitual consumption of alcohol (38.9%) were high in male participants. Upon comparison across the four age groups, results revealed decreases in percent body fat, fat mass, and mid upper arm muscle circumference for Groups III and IV versus Group I for men and for Group IV versus I for women. The overall trend for both SBP and DBP was for small increases with age in men in contrast to slight decreases with age in women. Our findings of generally low body weights, detrimental age-related changes in body composition, and a number of other health-related concerns highlight

  5. The association between "hypertriglyceridemic waist" and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background "Hypertriglyceridemic waist" (HTGW) phenotype, an inexpensive early screening