Science.gov

Sample records for age white race

  1. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American teachers'…

  2. Race, Age, and Identity Transformations in the Transition from High School to College for Black and First-Generation White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Race and class differences in academic and social integration matter for educational success, social mobility, and personal well-being. In this article, I use interview data with students attending predominantly white four-year research universities to investigate the integration experiences of black and first-generation white men. I examine each…

  3. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    PubMed Central

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  4. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  5. What White Children Need to Know about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Bartoli, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    While white parents' intention is to convey to their children the belief that race should not matter, the message their children receive is that race, in fact, does not matter. The intent and aim are noble, but in order for race not to matter in the long run, we have to acknowledge that, currently, it does matter a great deal. If white…

  6. Can White children grow up to be Black? Children's reasoning about the stability of emotion and race.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A

    2016-06-01

    Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children who were happy or angry and Black or White and were asked to indicate which of 2 adults (a race but not emotion match or an emotion but not race match) each child would grow up to be. White adults, White 9- to 10-year-olds, and racial minority 5- to 6-year-olds selected race matches, whereas White 5- to 6-year-olds selected race and emotion matches equally. These data suggest that beliefs about racial stability vary by age and social group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Critical Race Theory and the Whiteness of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine E.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses three tenets of critical race theory to critique the common pattern of teacher education focusing on preparing predominantly White cohorts of teacher candidates for racially and ethnically diverse students. The tenet of interest convergence asks how White interests are served through incremental steps. The tenet of color…

  8. White Lies: A Critical Race Study of Power and Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Patricia Jones

    2009-01-01

    This was a phenomenological study of racial privilege as experienced by White people who have struggled to become more racially aware and socially active in dismantling racism and White privilege. The primary conceptual framework for this study was Critical Race Theory with Transformative Learning theory and Racial Identity Development as…

  9. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  10. Can White Children Grow up to Be Black? Children's Reasoning about the Stability of Emotion and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children…

  11. Extending the Bounds of Race and Racism: Indigenous Women and the Persistence of the Black-White Paradigm of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagno, Angelina E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how the dominant Black-White binary paradigm of race in the United States situates Indigenous women as either racialized Others or White Others in the context of a predominantly White university. Race and racism are thus salient in the lives of Indigenous students in multiple and complex ways--ways which are…

  12. Age of initial drug experimentation among white and non-white ethnics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, N; Carlisi, J; Greenway, C; Zalesnick, M

    1981-12-01

    Students in four cities completed a questionnaire regarding their ethnic background and drug use patterns. From this information, comparisons in age of initial drug experimentation among ethnic groups and races were made. The results indicated significant differences in actual age of experimentation among ethnic groups, as well as differences in other general pattern relating to age of first drug use. A comparison of Whites to non-Whites showed little difference in ages of initial drug experimentation. It was concluded that ethnicity, more so than mere race, was related to age of first use of drugs.

  13. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  14. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  15. Race, School, and Seinfeld: Autoethnographic Sketching in Black and White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsted, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…

  16. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.

  17. The two worlds of race revisited: a meditation on race in the age of Obama.

    PubMed

    Early, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race."

  18. The Aesthetics of White Racism in Pre-Service Teacher Education: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Winters, Venus E.; Hoff, Pamela Twyman

    2011-01-01

    The authors use critical race theory (CRT) and critical race feminism (CRF) as a lens for analyzing and grappling with White students' resistance to learning about and deconstructing systems of oppression. The authors build on the work of critical scholars whose work exposes the ways in which White pre-service teachers resist counter-hegemonic…

  19. Learning to See: The Development of Race and Class Consciousness in White Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullucci, Kerri

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of White teachers and their identity development. Using a qualitative approach steeped in the tenants of critical race theory and storytelling, this study investigated how White teachers learn about race, class and diversity in meaningful ways, with a close eye on the role their own personal histories played in their development.…

  20. Is Gender More Important and Meaningful Than Race? An Analysis of Racial and Gender Identity Among Black, White, and Mixed-Race Children.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2016-10-13

    Objectives: Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Method: Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. Results: We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children's assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. Conclusion: The findings extend research on young children's social identity development and the role of culture and context in children's emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. "What Is Critical Whiteness Doing in Our Nice Field Like Critical Race Theory?" Applying CRT and CWS to Understand the White Imaginations of White Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Tandon, Madhavi; Galindo, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Critical Race Theory (CRT) revolutionized how we investigate race in education. Centralizing counter-stories from people of color becomes essential for decentralizing white normative discourse--a process we refer to as realities within the Black imagination. Yet, few studies examine how whites respond to centering the Black imagination, especially…

  2. Students and Institutions Protecting Whiteness as Property: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Student Affairs Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondi, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on interviews with White students graduating from a student affairs preparation program as well as a literature review of whiteness in education. Applying "critical race theory," the author examined the ways that students and institutions protected whiteness. Institutions and those within them concerned with equity must have…

  3. Seeing White through Rap: A Classroom Exercise for Examining Race Using a Hip-Hop Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    When discussing race in the classroom, getting students--including, importantly, white students--to see that all people have racial identities can be a challenge. This classroom exercise employs a rap video as a tool for helping to reveal white as a racial identity and for exploring the concept of white privilege--the idea that economic, social,…

  4. Beyond the Face of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations of White Neurosis and Racial Cray-Cray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; DiAngelo, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the emotional and cognitive context that underlies whiteness. They employ interdisciplinary approaches of critical Whiteness studies and critical race theory to entertain how common White responses to racial material stem from the need for Whites to deny race, a traumatizing process that begins in childhood.…

  5. Racial Discourse in Predominantly White Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study of Teachers' Lived Experiences Discussing Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Nichols, Mary Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the lived experiences of white middle school teachers in predominantly white rural communities as they discuss race and race issues with students. Using methods of descriptive phenomenology, interviews were conducted with teachers to explore what it was like for them to talk about race in classrooms comprised of only…

  6. Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle, Ed.; Weis, Lois, Ed.; Powell, Linda C., Ed.; Wong, L. Mun, Ed.

    The contributions in this volume analyze the white racialization process in the context of multiculturalism and examine how racism is established in institutional structures. The chapters are: (1) "The Achievement (K)not: Whiteness and 'Black Underachievement'" (Linda C. Powell); (2) "White Experimenters, White Blood, and Other White Conditions:…

  7. Cognitive aging in older Black and White persons.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Sytsma, Joel; Bennett, David A; Barnes, Lisa L

    2015-06-01

    During a mean of 5.2 years of annual follow-up, older Black (n = 647) and White (n = 647) persons of equivalent age and education completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which composite measures of 5 abilities were derived. Baseline level of each ability was lower in the Black subgroup. Decline in episodic and working memory was not related to race. Decline in semantic memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability was slower in Black persons than White persons, and in semantic memory and perceptual speed this effect was stronger in older than younger participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for retest effects. The results suggest subtle cognitive aging differences between Black persons and White persons.

  8. Age and Race Differences in the Trajectories of Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; Liang, Jersey; Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess age- and race-based variation in within-persons changes in self-esteem over a 16-year period. We used hierarchical linear modeling with data from 3,617 adults aged 25 and older who were interviewed up to four times. Self-esteem increased, on average, over the course of the study period. At the same time, significant age variations around this trend were observed, with younger adults experiencing increases in self-esteem and older adults experiencing decreases. In general, race differences were not evident with respect to average levels or rates of change in self-esteem. However, a significant age by race interaction suggested that late life declines in self-esteem were steeper for blacks compared to whites. These findings suggest the presence of age- and race-based stratification with respect to self-esteem. Future work in this area should examine the health and well-being effects of declining self-esteem during old age. PMID:20230130

  9. Multiple Realities: A Relationship Narrative Approach in Therapy with Black-White Mixed-Race Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockquemore, Kerry Ann; Laszloffy, Tracey A.

    2003-01-01

    Emerging empirical research on racial identity formation among persons with one Black and one White parent reveals that multiple identity options are possible. Presents a relational narrative approach to therapy with Black-White mixed-race clients who experience systematic invalidation of their chosen racial identity through a detailed case…

  10. Race Consciousness and Collective Commitment among Black Students on White Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    1984-01-01

    Black students on White campuses seem to retain high levels of race consciousness and collective commitment. However, compared to a 1970 sample of Black students attending historically Black colleges, Black students on White campuses in 1981 are decidedly more moderate. These differences are partly attributable to institutional context effects.…

  11. Whiteness: A Narrative Analysis on Student Affairs Professionals, Race, Identity, and Multicultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashe, Susan Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect race has on the daily work of white student affairs professionals, how invested participants feel in being multiculturally competent, and their awareness of racial identity, racial attitudes, and racial privilege. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather responses from 12 white, student affairs, mid-level…

  12. Whiteness in the Social Studies Classroom: Students' Conceptions of Race and Ethnicity in United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher examined student conceptions of "Whiteness" as it relates to past and present U.S. history. Using Critical Race Theory as the lens, this study employed mixed methods, analyzing teacher observations, classroom artifacts/student work, survey, and interview data from White students and students of color at an…

  13. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  14. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  15. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  16. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  17. Race Differences in Age-Trends of Autonomic Nervous System Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017

  18. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy White and Black Adolescents: Relations to Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relations of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14–18 years, 48% blacks, 51% girls) using a quantitative PCR method. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Black adolescents had longer telomeres than white adolescents (age and sex adjusted T/S ratio ± SE: 1.32 ± 0.01 vs. 1.27 ± 0.01, p=0.014) and girls had longer telomeres than boys (age and race adjusted T/S ratio ± SE: 1.31 ± 0.01 vs. 1.27 ± 0.01, p=0.007). None of the adiposity or adipokine measures explained a significant proportion of the variance in telomere length. Vigorous physical activity was positively associated with telomere length (adjusted R2=0.019, p=0.009) and accounted for 1.9% of the total variance only in girls. Conclusion This study, conducted in a biracial adolescent cohort, demonstrated that: (1) race and sex differences in telomere length have already emerged during adolescence; (2) adiposity and adipokines are not associated with telomere length at this age; and (3) the anti-aging effect of vigorous physical activity may begin in youth especially in girls. PMID:20855079

  19. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  20. Exploring the Perceptions of Campus Climate among Mixed Race Students Attending a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Catherine Team

    2016-01-01

    This narrative inquiry intended to capture the lived stories told by nine, full-time, undergraduate students, who self-identified as two or more races, to better understand their perceptions of campus climate at a predominately white institution (PWI). The conceptual framework consisted of the study of multiraciality, Renn's Ecological Theory of…

  1. Passing as White: Race, Shame, and Success in Teacher Licensure Testing Events for Black Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative portraiture study explored how race becomes a conscious and salient dimension of teacher licensure exams for black preservice teachers. The findings focus on one black preservice teacher and how she identified as white on the demographic survey preceding her licensure exam due to the racialized nature of the experience and the…

  2. Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

  3. Working through Whiteness, Race and (Anti) Racism in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne; Dowling, Fiona; Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Background: The persistent gaps between a largely white profession and ethnically diverse school populations have brought renewed calls to support teachers' critical engagement with race. Programmes examining the effects of racism have had limited impact on practice, with student teachers responding with either denial, guilt or fear; they also…

  4. Sociocultural Influences on Undergraduate Students' Conversations on Race at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvalson, Sherri Ivy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the sociocultural influences on dialogues about race of undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). This qualitative study included 16 undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a small, private university in the Midwest who participated…

  5. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  6. A Crack in the Door: Critical Race Theory in Practice at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaisson, Reba L.

    2004-01-01

    Midwest Central University has a population of 3,500 students, predominantly working class and 95 percent White. The racial composition of the university suggests, and rightly so, that the students have minimal contact with Asians, Blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, Indians, Middle-Easterners, and people of mixed race, even though there is a predominantly…

  7. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  8. Anger in Black and White: Race, Alienation, and Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, J. Beth; Kiecolt, K. Jill

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 General Social Survey and the 1973 Chicago Crowding Study, we test the hypotheses that African Americans feel and express more anger than whites, that sense of control (versus powerlessness) lessens anger and mistrust increases anger, and that these indicators of alienation affect anger differently for African Americans…

  9. Cause-specific mortality by race in low-income Black and White people with Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, B N; May, M E; Fischl, A; Frisbee, J; Han, X; Blot, W J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate, with extended follow-up, cause-specific mortality among low-income Black and White Americans with Type 2 diabetes who have similar socio-economic status. Methods Black and White Americans aged 40–79 years with Type 2 diabetes (n = 12 498) were recruited from community health centres as part of the Southern Community Cohort Study. Multivariable Cox analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios and 95% CIs for subsequent cause-specific mortality, based on both underlying and contributing causes of death. Results During the follow-up (median 5.9 years), 13.3% of the study population died. The leading causes of death in each race were ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disorders, cancer, renal failure and heart failure; however, Blacks were at a lower risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) or respiratory disorders (hazard ratio 0.70, 0.53–0.92) than Whites but had higher or similar mortality attributable to renal failure (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.40), heart failure (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 0.98–2.19) and cancer (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62–1.22). Risk factors for each cause of death were generally similar in each race. Conclusions These findings suggest that the leading causes of death and their risk factors are largely similar among Black and White Americans with diabetes. For the two leading causes of death in each race, however, ischaemic heart disease and respiratory disorders, the magnitude of risk is lower among Black Americans and contributes to their higher survival rates. PMID:25112863

  10. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%.

  11. Whither the White Working Class? A Comment on Khanna and Harris, "Discovering Race in a 'Post-Racial' World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemonen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Even though I recognize the value of using the mass media to teach sociological concepts and reveal racial biases, I caution against the use of classroom exercises that are developed solely in the context of whiteness studies. Overarching statements of white privilege mask complex race-class interactions generally and the mass media's…

  12. Race, Context, and Privilege: White Adolescents' Explanations of Racial-ethnic Centrality

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th–12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality. PMID:19636713

  13. Race, context, and privilege: white adolescents' explanations of racial-ethnic centrality.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Charmaraman, Linda

    2009-02-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th-12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality.

  14. How race and age experiences shape young children's face processing abilities.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.

  15. An Analysis of a White Preservice Teacher's Reflections on Race and Young Children within an Urban School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Tambra O.; Bryan, Michelle L.; Larkin, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    Building upon research that theorizes and documents students' perceptions of race, racial attitudes, and treatment by teachers, this article explores the impact of resegregation on how children of Color see and experience race in schools, specifically in relation to their teachers. Drawing upon our interpretations of a White preservice teacher's…

  16. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  17. Nonmedical stimulant use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals aged 12-34 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S; Brady, Kathleen T; Blazer, Dan G; Hoyle, Rick H

    2014-12-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12-34 years in the 2005-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, "Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin" was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; "got them from a friend/relative for free" and "bought them from a friends/relative" were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18-25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations.

  18. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  19. Age at first start and racing career of a cohort of Australian Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Knight, P K; Thomson, P C

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare the career profiles of a cohort of Standardbred horses that first raced as 2-year-olds with those that started their racing careers at a later age. METHOD Retrospective analysis of the racing records of all foals born in New South Wales in the 2000 foaling season. RESULTS The career records of 999 horses were analysed. Almost half (43.9%) first raced as 2-year-olds and one-third (33.9%) as 3-year-olds. The median career duration for horses that first raced as 2-year-olds was 2.93 years (interquartile range (IQR) 2.70-3.16), which was significantly greater than the median for horses that first raced at 3, 4 or ≥5 years old (P < 0.001). Males, and horses that first raced as 2-year-olds, earned significantly more prize money than females or horses that started racing aged ≥3 years (P < 0.001). The population median number of career starts was 28.0 (IQR 8-64). Males, and horses that first raced as 2-year-olds, had significantly more career starts than females or horses that started racing aged ≥3 years (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION This study found no evidence suggesting that racing as a 2-year-old had a deleterious effect on a horse's racing career.

  20. Race in virtual environments: competitive versus cooperative games with black or white avatars.

    PubMed

    Vang, Mao H; Fox, Jesse

    2014-04-01

    Often, virtual environments and video games have established goals, and to achieve them, users must either compete or cooperate with others. The common ingroup identity model predicts that individuals maintain multiple identities at any given time based on roles, demographics, and contextual factors, and that they interpret others based on similarity (i.e., perceived ingroup) or dissimilarity (i.e., perceived outgroup) to these identities. In this experiment, we manipulated two aspects of a virtual partner's identity-race and task collaboration-to determine how users would perceive others in a virtual world. White participants (N=99) played an anagram game competitively (outgroup) or cooperatively (ingroup) in a virtual environment with a black (outgroup) or white (ingroup) virtual partner. Contrary to hypotheses, performing either task led to more positive evaluations of black avatars than white avatars.

  1. Black client, white therapist: working with race in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2013-02-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa we speak about race extensively. It permeates our workplace, weaves a thread through the fabric of our professional and personal lives, as well as our private conversations and public interactions with others. From within psychoanalytic theory, the thread weaves through the unknown content of our racialized unconscious. When there is a focus on race in the South African psychoanalytic context it largely takes the form of the struggle to articulate the complexities of working with difference, as Swartz notes, or the struggle to map out issues of race. Such struggles are not localized in South Africa, but strongly reflect a much broader struggle within the global psychoanalytic community, as mirrored in the expanding focus on race. Although the consulting rooms seem far removed from the ongoing political tensions that have recently emerged in South Africa, psychoanalytic psychotherapy remains a space of meaningful engagement with the other, and where the therapeutic dyad is one of racial difference it permits an encounter with our racialized unconscious. This article seeks to document the experience of my black client and my white response to her racial pain and struggle; in doing so, I describe the racial 'contact' between us and within us that triggers a racialized transference and countertransference dynamic, which contains the space for racial healing for both of us.

  2. You Can't Erase Race! Using CRT to Explain the Presence of Race and Racism in Majority White Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Thandeka K.

    2013-01-01

    Employing a critical race analysis of contemporary suburban schooling in the US, the author challenges the ideology of colorblind racial contexts. The concepts of colorblindness, interest-convergence, racial realism, and white privilege are used to explain how federal mandates and common school policies and practices, such as tracking, traditional…

  3. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  4. Speaking of Whiteness: Compromise as a Purposeful Pedagogical Strategy toward White Students' Learning about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Roseboro, Donyell L.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses pedagogical issues that arise in higher education when instructors of color teach classes with predominantly white students. We use student interview data collected during one graduate social foundations of education course to argue that in order to be effective, pedagogical decisions in a foundations course centered on race…

  5. Inequality in Black and White High School Students' Perceptions of School Support: An Examination of Race in Context.

    PubMed

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.

  6. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  7. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  8. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  9. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  10. Negotiating Race-Related Tensions: How White Educational Leaders Recognize, Confront, and Dialogue about Race and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…

  11. Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity.

  12. Beyond Black and White: Race/Ethnicity and Health Status Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Judy H.; Bierman, Arlene S.; Elliott, Marc N.; Wilson, Rachel L.; Xia, Chengfei; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    Objectives This study examined physical and mental health, health symptoms, sensory and functional limitations, risk factors, and multimorbidity among older Medicare managed care members to assess disparities associated with race/ethnicity. Study Design and Methods We used data on 236,289 older adults from 208 Medicare plans who completed the 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey to compare 14 health indicators across non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, multiracial individuals, and Hispanics. Logistic regression models that clustered on the plan estimated the risk of indicators of adverse health and functional status. Results Even after controlling for key patient sociodemographic factors, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with most adverse health indicators. Except for Asians, all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to report poor mental health status, presence of most health symptoms, sensory limitations, and activities-of-daily-living disability. Important differences were observed across racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions Despite some exceptions, elders of racial/ethnic minority background are generally at higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for a broad range of adverse health and functional outcomes that are not routinely assessed. Limitations include bias related to self-reported data and respondent recall. Future research should consider ethnic subgroup variations; employing newer techniques to improve estimates for smaller groups; and prioritizing and identifying opportunities for care improvement of diverse enrollee groups by considering specific needs. To improve the health status of the elderly, service delivery targeting the needs of specific population groups, coupled with culturally appropriate care for racial/ethnic minorities, should also be considered. PMID:24884752

  13. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist,…

  14. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  15. Projections of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex, and Race: 1983 to 2080.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory

    1984-01-01

    Based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and net immigration trends, statistical tables depict the future U.S. population by age, sex, and race. Figures are based on the July 1, 1982, population estimates and race definitions and are projected using the cohort-component method with alternative assumptions for future fertility, mortality,…

  16. White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R; Donaldson, L

    1998-01-01

    The request for scientifically appropriate terminology in research on race, ethnicity, and health has largely bypassed the term White. This and other words, such as Caucasian, are embedded in clinical and epidemiological discourse, yet they are rarely defined. This commentary analyzes the issue from the perspective of the epidemiology of the health of minority ethnic and racial groups in Europe and the United States. Minority groups are usually compared with populations described as White, Caucasian, European, Europid, Western, Occidental, indigenous, native, and majority. Such populations are heterogeneous, the labels nonspecific, and the comparisons misleading. Terminology that reflects the research purpose-for examples, reference, control, or comparison--is better (unlike White, these terms imply no norm, allowing neither writers nor readers to make stereotyped assumptions about the comparison populations. This paper widens the debate on nomenclature for racial and ethnic groups. Many issues need exploration, including whether there is a shared understanding among the international research community of the terms discussed. PMID:9736867

  17. Nice White Men or Social Justice Allies?: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine How White Male Faculty and Administrators Engage in Ally Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.; Bondi, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Numerous scholars have offered definitions and perspectives for White people to be or become social justice allies. The purpose of this study was to examine the complicated realities that social justice allies in higher education face when working on campus. Using a critical interpretivist approach grounded in critical race theory, the authors…

  18. Sex disparities in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic subsite, race and age.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gwen; Devesa, Susan S; Cross, Amanda J; Inskip, Peter D; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B

    2011-04-01

    Although incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States has declined in recent years, rates remain higher in men than in women and the male-to-female incidence rate ratio (MF IRR) increases progressively across the colon from the cecum to the rectum. Rates among races/ethnicities other than Whites or Blacks have not been frequently reported. To examine CRC rates by sex across anatomic subsite, age and racial/ethnic groups, we used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for cases diagnosed among residents of 13 registries during 1992-2006. Incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population; MF IRR and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Among each racial/ethnic group, the MF IRR increased fairly monotonically from close to unity for cecal cancers to 1.81 (Hispanics) for rectal cancers. MF IRRs increased with age most rapidly for distal colon cancers from <1.0 at ages <50 years to 1.4-1.9 at older ages. The MF IRR for rectal cancers also rose with age from about 1.0 to 2.0. For proximal cancer, the MF IRR was consistently <1.5; among American Indian/Alaska Natives, it was <1.0 across all ages. The MF IRRs for CRC vary markedly according to subsite and age but less by racial/ethnic group. These findings may partially reflect differences in screening experiences and access to medical care but also suggest that etiologic factors may be playing a role.

  19. The effect of age on the racing speed of Thoroughbred racehorses

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse’s final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses’ average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed. PMID:26170760

  20. The effect of age on the racing speed of Thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse's final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses' average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed.

  1. Beyond the Black-White Binary of U.S. Race Relations: A Next Step in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2017-01-01

    Many if not most people in the academy as well as the public sphere tend to regard race and racism in the United States in terms of a default frame of reference (i.e., a paradigm): the black-white binary. Although this frame is constructive as well as compelling, it displays serious liabilities. This article outlines, for religious educators, nine…

  2. Epigenetic Age Acceleration Assessed With Human White-Matter Images.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Karen; Carless, Melanie A; Kulkarni, Hemant; Curran, Joanne E; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Mathias, Samuel; Göring, Harald Hh; Yao, Nailin; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2017-04-06

    The accurate estimation of age using methylation data has proved a useful and heritable biomarker, with acceleration in epigenetic age predicting a number of age-related phenotypes. Measures of white matter integrity in the brain are also heritable and highly sensitive to both normal and pathological aging processes across adulthood. We consider the phenotypic and genetic interrelationships between epigenetic age acceleration and white matter integrity in humans. Our goal was to investigate processes that underlie inter-individual variability in age-related changes in the brain. Using blood taken from a Mexican-American extended pedigree sample (n=628; age=23.28-93.11 years), epigenetic age was estimated using the method developed by S. Horvath (2013). For n=376 individuals, DTI scans were also available. The interrelationship between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter integrity were investigated with variance decomposition methods. To test for neuroanatomical specificity, 16 specific tracts were additionally considered. We observed negative phenotypic correlations between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter tract integrity (ρpheno=-0.119, p=0.028), with evidence of shared genetic (ρgene=-0.463, p=0.013) but not environmental influences. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlations with age acceleration were also seen for a number of specific white matter tracts, along with additional negative phenotypic correlations between granulocyte abundance and white matter integrity. These findings that increased acceleration in epigenetic age in peripheral blood correlates with reduced white matter integrity in the brain, and shares common genetic influences. provide a window into the neurobiology of aging processes within the brain and a potential biomarker of normal and pathological brain aging.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTEpigenetic measures can be used to predict age with a high degree of accuracy and so capture acceleration in biological age

  3. Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 18–50 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. RESULTS The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1.6, 4.3, 3.9, and 3.4 per 1,000 person-years for age-groups 18–29, 30–39, and 40–50 and total sample, respectively. Incidences of diabetes increased with age by race and sex groups (P for trend ≤0.01); higher in black females versus white females and blacks versus whites in total sample (P < 0.05). In a multivariable Cox model, baseline parental diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24) and plasma insulin were significantly associated with diabetes incidence at the youngest age (18–29 years); black race, BMI, and glucose at age 30–39 years; female sex, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, ratio of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and glucose at age 40–50 years; and black race, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and glucose in whole cohort. Further, patients with diabetes, regardless of age onset, displayed a significantly higher prevalence of maternal history of diabetes at baseline (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In relatively young adults, predictability of baseline cardiometabolic risk factors along with race, sex, and parental history of diabetes for the onset of type 2 diabetes varied by age-group. These findings have implications for early prevention and intervention in relatively young adults. PMID:22399694

  4. Race and region are associated with nutrient intakes among black and white men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Newby, P K; Noel, Sabrina E; Grant, Rachael; Judd, Suzanne; Shikany, James M; Ard, Jamy

    2011-02-01

    Stroke mortality rates and prevalence of several chronic diseases are higher in Southern populations and blacks in the US. This study examined the relationships of race (black, white) and region (Stroke Belt, Stroke Buckle, other) with selected nutrient intakes among black and white American men (n = 9229). The Block 98 FFQ assessed dietary intakes and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine whether race and region were associated with intakes of fiber, saturated fat, trans fat, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and cholesterol. Race and region were significant predictors of most nutrient intakes. Black men consumed 1.00% lower energy from saturated fat compared with white men [multivariable-adjusted β: 1.00% (95% CI = -0.88, -1.13)]. A significant interaction between race and region was detected for trans fat (P < 0.0001), where intake was significantly lower among black men compared with white men only in the Stroke Belt [multivariable-adjusted β: -0.21 (95% CI = -0.11, -0.31)]. Among black men, intakes of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium were lower, whereas cholesterol was higher, compared with white men (P < 0.05 for all). Comparing regions, men in the Stroke Buckle had the lowest intakes of fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium compared with those in the Stroke Belt and other regions; men in both the Stroke Buckle and Stroke Belt had higher intakes of cholesterol compared with those in other regions (P < 0.005 for all). Given these observed differences in dietary intakes, more research is needed to understand if and how they play a role in the health disparities and chronic disease risks observed among racial groups and regions in the US.

  5. Black/Brown/White Relations: Race Relations in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.

    The collection of papers in this book present an analysis of the effects of institutional racism on all races. The first part of the book deals with seeking definitions of the race problem and explores the various facets of race relations in the 1970s, including: (1) the black view of a national population policy and the fear of racial genocide;…

  6. Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…

  7. Impact of Age, Race and Socio-economic Status on Temporal Trends in Late-Stage Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Xiao, Hong; Gwede, Clement K.; Tan, Fei; Huang, Youjie; Adunlin, Georges; Ali, Askal

    2015-01-01

    Individual-level data from the Florida Cancer Data System (1981–2007) were analysed to explore temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage diagnosis, and how they vary based on race, income and age. Annual census-tract rates were computed for two races (white and black) and two age categories (40–65, >65) before being aggregated according to census tract median household incomes. Joinpoint regression and a new disparity statistic were applied to model temporal trends and detect potential racial and socio-economic differences. Multi-dimensional scaling was used as an innovative way to visualize similarities among temporal trends in a 2-D space. Analysis of time-series indicated that late-stage diagnosis was generally more prevalent among blacks, for age category 40–64 compared to older patients covered by Medicare, and among classes of lower socio-economic status. Joinpoint regression also showed that the rate of decline in late-stage diagnosis was similar among older patients. For younger patients, the decline occurred at a faster pace for blacks with rates becoming similar to whites in the late 90s, in particular for higher incomes. Both races displayed distinct spatial patterns with higher rates of late-stage diagnosis in the Florida Panhandle for whites whereas high rates clustered in South-eastern Florida for blacks. PMID:26644992

  8. Impact of Age, Race and Socio-economic Status on Temporal Trends in Late-Stage Prostate Cancer Diagnosis in Florida.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Xiao, Hong; Gwede, Clement K; Tan, Fei; Huang, Youjie; Adunlin, Georges; Ali, Askal

    2015-11-01

    Individual-level data from the Florida Cancer Data System (1981-2007) were analysed to explore temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage diagnosis, and how they vary based on race, income and age. Annual census-tract rates were computed for two races (white and black) and two age categories (40-65, >65) before being aggregated according to census tract median household incomes. Joinpoint regression and a new disparity statistic were applied to model temporal trends and detect potential racial and socio-economic differences. Multi-dimensional scaling was used as an innovative way to visualize similarities among temporal trends in a 2-D space. Analysis of time-series indicated that late-stage diagnosis was generally more prevalent among blacks, for age category 40-64 compared to older patients covered by Medicare, and among classes of lower socio-economic status. Joinpoint regression also showed that the rate of decline in late-stage diagnosis was similar among older patients. For younger patients, the decline occurred at a faster pace for blacks with rates becoming similar to whites in the late 90s, in particular for higher incomes. Both races displayed distinct spatial patterns with higher rates of late-stage diagnosis in the Florida Panhandle for whites whereas high rates clustered in South-eastern Florida for blacks.

  9. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  10. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  11. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  12. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  13. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven L; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal structure of the scale; no age differences across the 3-year age span 4:0–6:11; gender differences on only one of the five scales; artistic talent; and small but statistically significant race/ethnicity differences with Asian Americans rated, on average, 1.5 scale-score points higher than whites and Native Americans and 7 points higher than African American and Hispanic students. The present findings provide support for the GRS-P as a valid screening test for giftedness. PMID:26346963

  14. Age exacerbates HIV-associated white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Gongvatana, Assawin; Woods, Adam J; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric C; Cummings, Tiffany; Correia, Stephen; Tashima, Karen; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-04-01

    Both HIV disease and advanced age have been associated with alterations to cerebral white matter, as measured with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and more recently with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study investigates the combined effects of age and HIV serostatus on WMH and DTI measures, as well as the relationships between these white matter measures, in 88 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 49 seronegative (HIV-) individuals aged 23-79 years. A whole-brain volumetric measure of WMH was quantified from FLAIR images using a semi-automated process, while fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for 15 regions of a whole-brain white matter skeleton generated using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). An age by HIV interaction was found indicating a significant association between WMH and older age in HIV+ participants only. Similarly, significant age by HIV interactions were found indicating stronger associations between older age and decreased FA in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules, cerebral peduncles, and anterior corona radiata in HIV+ vs. HIV- participants. The interactive effects of HIV and age were stronger with respect to whole-brain WMH than for any of the FA measures. Among HIV+ participants, greater WMH and lower anterior corona radiata FA were associated with active hepatitis C virus infection, a history of AIDS, and higher current CD4 cell count. Results indicate that age exacerbates HIV-associated abnormalities of whole-brain WMH and fronto-subcortical white matter integrity.

  15. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  16. Associations Between Anxiety Disorder Diagnoses and Body Mass Index Differ by Age, Sex and Race: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Ramona S.; Breitkopf, Carmen R.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Jacobson, Robert M.; Jacobson, Debra J.; Fan, Chun; St. Sauver, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large studies have examined correlations between anxiety and body mass index (BMI) by gender or racial groups using clinical data. Objective: This study aimed to determine associations between diagnosed anxiety disorders and BMI, and evaluate whether observed associations varied by demographic characteristics. Method: Data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data linkage system were analyzed to examine associations between anxiety disorders and BMI among adults ages 18-85 residing in Olmsted County, MN in 2009 (n=103,557). Height and weight data were available for 75,958 people (73%). The international classification of underweight, overweight, and obesity by BMI was used. Results: Population consisted of 56% females, 92.8% White individuals, with median age of 46 years. When adjusted for age, sex, and race, we observed a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI group. Underweight and obese individuals were more likely to have an anxiety diagnosis compared to normal weight individuals. Stratification by sex yielded a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI only in women. Stratification by race showed a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI only in the White population. Anxiety was significantly associated only with obesity in the Black population. Anxiety was not associated with a BMI category in Asian or Hispanic groups. Among elderly group, there is inverse correlation between anxiety and obesity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that anxiety may have heterogeneous associations with BMI in the population. Further research on potential mechanisms contributing to these findings will help direct efforts in anxiety and obesity management across diverse population groups. PMID:27857777

  17. "Abolish the White Race" or "Transfer Economic Power to the People"?: Some Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2012-01-01

    "Race Traitor", a movement founded by Noel Ignatiev and John Garvey, has been given a boost in recent months in three different arenas: the Occupy movement; an antiracist advertising campaign; and in an academic journal. With respect to the last, which is the main focus of this paper, Critical Race Theorists John Preston and Charlotte…

  18. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...

  19. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...

  20. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...

  1. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of...

  2. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  3. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  4. A Way Forward: Nurturing the Imagination at the Intersection of Race, Class, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.

    2016-01-01

    Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…

  5. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  6. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  7. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  8. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.

  9. Us & Them? Entering a Three-Dimensional Narrative Inquiry Space with White Pre-Service Teachers to Explore Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Lachuk, Amy S.; Mosley, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two white teacher educators illustrate entering into a three-dimensional narrative space with a white pre-service teacher. The authors explore how their histories have led them to practice teacher education pedagogies that are rooted in ideas of social justice and critical race theory. In order to support the goals and aims of…

  10. Not just black and white: peer victimization and the intersectionality of school diversity and race.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sycarah; Middleton, Kyndra; Ricks, Elizabeth; Malone, Celeste; Briggs, Candyce; Barnes, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Although bullying is a prevalent issue in the United States, limited research has explored the impact of school diversity on types of bullying behavior. This study explores the relationship between school diversity, student race, and bullying within the school context. The participants were African American and Caucasian middle school students (n = 4,581; 53.4% female). Among the participants, 89.4% were Caucasian and 10.6% were African American. The research questions examined the relationship between school diversity, student race and bullying behaviors, specifically race-based victimization. The findings suggested that Caucasian middle school students experience more bullying than African American students generally, and specifically when minorities in school settings. Caucasian students also experienced almost three times the amount of race-based victimization than African American students when school diversity was held constant. Interestingly, African American students experienced twice the amount of race-based victimization than Caucasian students when in settings with more students of color. The present study provides insight into bullying behaviors across different contexts for different races and highlights the need to further investigate interactions between personal and environmental factors on the bulling experiences of youth.

  11. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  12. Voices of Teacher Candidates of Color on White Race Evasion: "I Worried about My Safety!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Yukari Takimoto

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the negative impacts minority teacher candidates receive from white teacher candidates in a required multicultural education class. The findings reveal that four teacher candidates of color had difficulty positioning themselves among the overwhelming silencing power of whiteness in the class. The white students…

  13. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Information Briefs #1 - 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 22 information briefs from the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Four of the briefs provide data on health, available services, income, and employment from a report comparing the well-being of older people in three rural and urban locations. National estimates are provided about the need for meals for older people, and…

  14. Wives and mothers like ourselves? Exploring white women's intervention in the politics of race, 1920s-1940s.

    PubMed

    Holland, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper takes the issue of the removal of Aboriginal children, and the broader white anxiety over the 'half-caste problem' which underpinned the policy, to explore white women reformers' intervention in the politics of race in the years 1920-40. In these years middle-class women's citizenship was based on maternalism and the defence of motherhood. At the same time the national feminist lobby, the Australian Federation of Women Voters, joined the public debate about the 'Aboriginal problem'. In this context it is necessary to ask: What was the feminist view of Aboriginal women's status? Were they considered 'wives and mothers' like themselves, as Louisa Lawson suggested in the 1890s? What was their view of the 'half-caste problem' and the 'absorption proposal' formulated to solve it? By asking such questions I hope to modify the current feminist historiographical view of white women reformers as 'pro-Aboriginal' and 'radical' and their policies as challenging White Australia in these years.

  15. The use of a random regression model to account for change in racing speed of German trotters with increasing age.

    PubMed

    Bugislaus, A-E; Roehe, R; Willms, F; Kalm, E

    2006-08-01

    In a genetic analysis of German trotters, the performance trait racing time per km was analysed by using a random regression model on six different age classes (2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-year-old and older trotters; the age class of 3-year-old trotters was additionally divided by birth months of horses into two seasons). The best-fitting random regression model for the trait racing time per km on six age classes included as fixed effects sex, race track, condition of race track (fitted as second-order polynomial on age), distance of race and each driver (fitted as first-order polynomial on age) as well as the year-season (fitted independent of age). The random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted as second-order polynomials on age. Data consisted of 138,620 performance observations from 2,373 trotters and the pedigree data contained 9,952 horses from a four-generation pedigree. Heritabilities for racing time per km increased from 0.01 to 0.18 at age classes from 2- to 4-year-old trotters, then slightly decreased for 5 year and substantially decreased for 6-year-old horses. Genetic correlations of racing time per km among the six age classes were very high (rg = 0.82-0.99). Heritability was h2 = 0.13 when using a repeatability animal model for racing time per km considering the six age classes as fixed effect. Breeding values using repeatability analysis over all and within age classes resulted in slightly different ranking of trotters than those using random regression analysis. When using random regression analysis almost no reranking of trotters over time took place. Generally, the analyses showed that using a random regression model improved the accuracy of selection of trotters over age classes.

  16. Influence of age, gender, and race on nitric oxide release over acupuncture points-meridians

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821

  17. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  18. Blacks in the White Establishment? A Study of Race and Class in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweigenhaft, Richard L.; Domhoff, G. William

    This follow-up study of black graduates of A Better Chance (ABC) concludes that race is a more important factor than class in the personal and social identity of blacks. ABC was an innovative program launched in 1963 by 16 independent secondary schools to recruit and prepare minority group students for entry into exclusive boarding schools, elite…

  19. A White Veneer: Education Policy, Space and "Race" in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how neo-liberal education policy change and urban renewal in inner Sydney and London has interacted with "raced" and classed educational identities. I draw on two examples of policy change, the "Building the Future" policy development in the inner city area of Sydney and the "Excellence in Cities"…

  20. Toward a Theoretical Explanation of the Effects of Race on Counseling: A Black and White Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Janet E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines a model for predicting interaction between various potential racial pairings of counselor and client. Hypothesized counseling predispositions for racial conciousness stages are formulated with implications for same and cross-race dyads. Offers suggestions for future research, as well as counseling and training recommendations. (BH)

  1. Symposium: "Crash": Rhetorically Wrecking Discourses of Race, Tolerance, and White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Vorris L.

    2007-01-01

    From within the milieu of race and identity fatigue emerges "Crash." Winner of three Academy Awards, including Best Picture, "Crash" addresses how the fluidity of identity is pooled, ebbed, blocked, directed, dammed up. How identity and subjectivity are dammed up and mediated through the force of the anxieties, fears, and frustrations of people…

  2. Race Talk and School Equity in Local Print Media: The Discursive Flexibility of Whiteness and the Promise of Race-Conscious Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villenas, Sofia A.; Angeles, Sophia L.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how a progressive, rural/small city community in the USA wrestles with race, racism, and school equity in the public arena of print media. It inquires into the tensions, limitations, and possibilities for race-conscious discourse in the face of both explicit racist hate speech and benevolent liberal race talk. Based on…

  3. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  4. Variation of Laminar Depth in Normal Eyes With Age and Race

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo; Smith, Brandon; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if laminar depth (LD) and prelaminar tissue volume (PTV) are associated with age and race in healthy human eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces: internal limiting membrane, Bruch's membrane (BM), anterior sclera (AS), and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa. These four surfaces defined the LD and PTV using Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and AS for reference structures. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate whether the effect of age on each outcome was differential by race. Results. When age was analyzed as a continuous variable, the interaction term between age and race was statistically significant for mean LDBMO (P = 0.015) and mean LDAS (P = 0.0062) after adjusting for axial length and BMO area. For every 1-year increase in age, the LDAS was greater on average by 1.78 μm in AD subjects and less by 1.71 μm in ED subjects. Mean PTV was lower in the older subjects (1248 × 106 μm3 AD, 881 × 106 μm3 ED) compared to the younger subjects (1316 × 106 μm3 AD, 1102 × 106 μm3 ED) in both groups. Conclusions. With increasing age, the LD changes differently across racial groups in normal subjects. The LD in ED subjects showed a significantly decreasing slope suggesting that the lamina moves anteriorly with age in this group. PMID:25414182

  5. Acquiring Double Images: White Preservice Teachers Locating Themselves in a Raced World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Barbara L.; Hancock, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Barbara Seidl and Stephen Hancock introduce the concept of a double image, which they argue is central to the development of a mature, antiracist identity for White people. Similar in some ways to Dubois's (1903) concept of "double consciousness," a double image is a sensibility or consciousness that gives White people a deeper…

  6. The Place of Race in Cultural Nursing Education: The Experience of White BSN Nursing Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Ann Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The growing cultural diversity in the United States confronts human service professions such as nursing with challenges to fundamental values of social justice and caring. Non-White individuals have experienced long-documented and persistent disparities in health outcomes and receipt of health care services when compared to whites. Medical…

  7. Black Lives, White Lives. Three Decades of Race Relations in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauner, Bob

    This book explores the racial experience and consciousness of black and white Americans within the context of their lives over the course of 20 years. The subjects of this book, 16 blacks and 12 whites, were interviewed in 1968, again in 1978-79, and for a third time in 1986. They speak in their own words about how their lives unfolded, how their…

  8. Evidence-based sentencing: Public openness and opposition to using gender, age, and race as risk factors for recidivism.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Monahan, John

    2016-02-01

    The incarceration of criminal offenders in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. One way to scale back the prison population is by using empirical risk assessment methods to apportion prison sentences based on the likelihood of the offender recidivating, so-called "evidence-based sentencing." This practice has been denounced by some legal scholars, who claim that the use of certain empirically relevant risk factors--including gender, age, and race--is plainly immoral. This study tested whether lay individuals share their sentiment. More than 600 participants weighted to be representative of the United States population were asked about the extent to which they would support imposing shorter sentences for old versus young offenders, female versus male offenders, and white versus black offenders, all else being equal. The results indicate that very few participants (<3%) had no settled opinion about using evidence-based sentencing, and approximately half were unequivocally opposed to the practice. Whereas more than 3-quarters of participants were against using race to determine prison sentences, almost half were open to the possibility of using gender and more than 3-quarters of the participants were open to the possibility of using age to determine prison sentences. Individual differences as a function of participants' own demographic characteristics, or of their belief in "just deserts" as the primary purpose of sentencing, or of their political outlook, were either inconsistently or meagerly related to these findings. The profoundly disparate views held by the general public regarding the use of specific risk factors do not bode well for the use of demographic risk factors in sentencing as a way to roll back mass incarceration.

  9. Race and the Religious Contexts of Violence: Linking Religion and White, Black, and Latino Violent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that concentrated disadvantage and other measures are strongly associated with aggregate-level rates of violence, including across racial and ethnic groups. Less studied is the impact of cultural factors, including religious contextual measures. The current study addresses several key gaps in prior literature by utilizing race/ethnic-specific arrest data from California, New York, and Texas paired with religious contextual data from the Religious Congregations and Memberships Survey (RCMS). Results suggest that, net of important controls, (1) religious contextual measures have significant crime-reducing associations with violence, (2) these associations are race/ethnic-specific, and (3) religious contextual measures moderate the criminogenic association between disadvantage and violence for Blacks. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24976649

  10. A White President of a Predominantly Black College Speaks Out About Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschechtelin, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that racism and white supremacy are threatening America's social, economic, and political stability. Suggests that inviting community dialog on these taboo topics may lead to solutions, and recounts such steps taken at Baltimore City Community College. (VWC)

  11. Age- and Race-Related Differences in Human Scleral Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We tested the hypothesis that there are age- and race-related differences in posterior scleral material properties, using eyes from human donors of European (20–90 years old, n = 40 eyes) and African (23–74 years old, n = 22 eyes) descent. Methods. Inflation tests on posterior scleral shells were performed while full-field, three-dimensional displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Scleral material properties were fit to each eye using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the collagen fibril crimp and the local anisotropic collagen architecture. The effects of age and race were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equations, while accounting for intradonor correlations. Results. The shear modulus significantly increased (P = 0.038) and collagen fibril crimp angle significantly decreased with age (P = 0.002). Donors of African descent exhibited a significantly higher shear modulus (P = 0.019) and showed evidence of a smaller collagen fibril crimp angle (P = 0.057) compared to donors of European descent. The in-plane strains in the peripapillary sclera were significantly lower with age (P < 0.015) and African ancestry (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The age- and race-related differences in scleral material properties result in a loss of scleral compliance due to a higher shear stiffness and a lower level of stretch at which the collagen fibrils uncrimp. The loss of compliance should lead to larger high frequency IOP fluctuations and changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical response in the elderly and in persons of African ancestry, and may contribute to the higher susceptibility to glaucoma in these at-risk populations. PMID:25389203

  12. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  13. General Thomas Dresser White: Renaissance Man in a Dark Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    GENERAL THOMAS DRESSER WHITE: RENAISSANCE MAN IN A DARK AGE BY CHRIS WINKLEPLECK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...remain a plebe but for a matter of months due to the shortened program. In all, his class spent only two years at the...short of swamp. No injury except for skinned finger and stiff back. Ambassador apparently calm and very decent about matter . He sent wires to the

  14. Black and White race differences in aerobic capacity, muscle fiber type, and their influence on metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Ceaser, Tyrone; Hunter, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. Increasing aerobic capacity (VO2max) reduces adiposity, maintains weight, and reduces the risk of developing obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Two major determinants of aerobic capacity are the metabolic properties specific to a particular muscle fiber type and the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to deliver nutrient-rich content to the muscle. Recent research suggests that some race/ethnic groups, particularly non-Hispanic Black subjects, are predisposed to a reduced VO2max by way of muscle fiber type. Combined with insufficient physical activity, these characteristics place non-Hispanic Black subjects at an increased risk for obesity and other adverse health outcomes when compared with other race/ethnic groups. The purpose of this review was to suggest a model for explaining how skeletal muscle fiber type may contribute to reduced aerobic capacity and obesity among non-Hispanic Black subjects. Our review indicates that metabolic properties of type II skeletal muscle (e.g. reduced oxidative capacity, capillary density) are related to various cardiometabolic diseases. Based on the review, non-Hispanic Black subjects appear to have a lower maximal aerobic capacity and a greater percentage of type II skeletal muscle fibers. Combined with reduced energy expenditure and reduced hemoglobin concentration, non-Hispanic Black subjects may be inherently predisposed to a reduced maximal aerobic capacity compared with non-Hispanic White subjects, thereby increasing the risk for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  15. From Dialogue to Action: The Impact of Cross-Race Intergroup Dialogue on the Development of White College Students as Racial Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimo, Craig John

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of postsecondary education are poised to leverage the presence of racial diversity to educate for social change. The purpose of this study was to examine how a race/ethnicity intergroup dialogue facilitates the development of confidence and frequency of white college students' engagement in actions that are congruent with the…

  16. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…

  17. Microstructural Differences in the Human Posterior Sclera as a Function of Age and Race

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dongmei; McPheeters, Sheridan; Johnson, Gregory; Utzinger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to quantify the age and race-related differences in the microstructural organization of the human posterior sclera. Such differences may contribute to the predisposition of primary open-angle glaucoma in various high-risk populations. Methods. Posterior–temporal scleras from 75 right eyes were procured at an average distance of 3.5 mm from the center of the optic nerve head (ONH). A light-scattering device was used to investigate the matrix organization of posterior scleral fibers around the ONH. In addition to the degree of alignment (via eccentricity), the percentage occurrence of fiber angles within equatorial and meridionally aligned bins was quantified as a function of depth, sex, age, and race. There were 20 African Americans, 55 Caucasians, 49 males, 26 females, in this study, all falling within three age groups (<30, n = 8; 30–60, n = 33; and >60 years, n = 34). Three scleral layers, normalized for depth, were examined. Results. For all ages and both races, fibers were preferentially oriented equatorially at all layers (P < 0.001). The African Americans had a significantly higher percentage of occurrence of meridional fibers than did the Caucasians (P < 0.001). The percentage occurrence of meridional fibers decreased significantly from the inner to the outer layers of the posterior sclera (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Statistically significant microstructural differences were found in the posterior sclera between African American and Caucasian donors. Ongoing work is focused on identifying whether such microstructural differences play a role in the higher prevalence of glaucoma in African American populations. PMID:21051726

  18. Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness Variation With Age and Race in Normal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo A.; Smith, Brandon; Wang, Lan; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the association between peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) with age and race in a group of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) subjects with normal eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of AD and ED were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces of Bruch's membrane (BM), Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), and anterior sclera (AS). Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured between BM and AS at increasing distance away from BMO. The mean PCT was compared between AD and ED subjects and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis was used to examine the association between race and PCT overall, in each quadrant, and by distance from BMO. Models were adjusted for age, BMO area, and axial length in the regression analysis. Results. Overall, the mean PCT increased from 63.9 μm ± 18.1 at 0 to 250 μm to 170.3 μm ± 56.7 at 1500 to 2000 μm from BMO. Individuals of AD had a greater mean PCT than those of ED at all distances from BMO (P < 0.05 at each distance) and in each quadrant (P < 0.05 in each quadrant). Results from multivariate regression indicate that ED subjects had significantly lower PCT compared to AD overall and in all quadrants and distances from BMO. Increasing age was also significantly associated with a lower PCT in both ED and AD participants. Conclusions. Peripapillary choroidal thickness varies with race and age, as individuals of AD have a thicker peripapillary choroid than those of ED. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221923.) PMID:25711640

  19. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  20. Examining multicultural counseling competence and race-related attitudes among white marital and family therapists.

    PubMed

    Constantine, M G; Juby, H L; Liang, J J

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the relative contributions of social desirability attitudes, previous number of multicultural counseling courses taken, and racism and White racial identity attitudes together in predicting marital and family therapists' self-reported multicultural counseling competence. Results revealed that, when controlling for social desirability attitudes and the number of multicultural courses taken, racism and White racial identity attitudes in consort accounted for a significant amount of the variance in self-perceived multicultural counseling competence. Implications for marital and family therapy training, practice, and research are discussed.

  1. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  2. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  3. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  4. Impact of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on the survival of patients with rectal cancer in the United States from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Martin D.; Yang, Dongyun; Sunakawa, Yu; Zhang, Wu; Ning, Yan; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Schirripa, Marta; Lenz, Annika Medea; Bohanes, Pierre; Barzi, Afsaneh; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Hanna, Diana L.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Most studies report on colon and rectal cancers collectively, even though biologic and prognostic differences exist between these disease entities. Here, we investigated the effects of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on rectal cancer (RC) mortality by stage focusing on differences before and after 2004. Using the SEER database, we identified 105,511 patients diagnosed with RC from 1988-2012. Main outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). In patients with stage I-III RC, women achieved a longer DSS (HR 0.87, P < 0.001) than men, independent of age, from 1988-2012. In stage IV disease, the sex disparity favoring women was limited to the age 18-44 yr cohort (DSS HR 0.79, P < 0.001). The sex difference in DSS (Pinteraction = 0.009) was significantly reduced from 2004 to 2012 across all ages. Hispanics and Native Americans with locoregional RC had inferior DSS relative to Whites from 1988-2003, but these differences were not evident from 2004-2012 (Pinteraction = 0.001). Additionally, Asians with stage I-III RC had superior DSS from 2004 on compared to Whites. Mortality in African American patients improved modestly overall and remained significantly higher than other ethnicities/races across all stages. Sex disparities have narrowed in patients with metastatic RC, but persist in patients with stage I-III disease. These differences are most evident among young patients (18-44 years), where sex disparities have even widened in stage I-III disease. While outcomes have improved for Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans with stage I-III rectal cancer, black-white disparities remain in all disease stages. PMID:27449091

  5. What's Race Got to Do with It? Preservice Teachers and White Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Terri; Margolin, Marcia; Fragnoli, Kristi; Bloom, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined changes in student teachers' White racial identity and color-blindness (using scores on the WRCDS-R and CoBRAS), as well as their perceptions of working with students of color, following a semester of student teaching in diverse classrooms. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated student teachers were more color-blind about…

  6. Lies, Myths, Stock Stories, and Other Tropes: Understanding Race and Whites' Policy Preferences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnor, Jamel K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being academically unqualified for admission to the University of Texas at Austin, Abigail Fisher, a White female, argued that she was not admitted due to the university's diversity policy. In addition to framing post-secondary admissions as a zero-sum phenomenon, Ms. Fisher intentionally framed students of color who are admitted to the…

  7. Race, Gender, and Social Control: Voices of Imprisoned Native American and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Luana

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the differing experiences of Native American and white women in prison. A literature review and unstructured interviews with 31 women in a Montana state prison concentrate on relationships between prisoners and guards, sexual harassment, mind-altering drugs, and prisoners' responses to multiple forms of control. Recommends new approach…

  8. Blinded by the White: Foregrounding Race in a Language and Literacy Course for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Kindel A. Turner

    2012-01-01

    While the teaching population in the U.S. is predominantly (84%) White (National Council of Education Statistics, 2010), students of Color will comprise 41% of the total school population by the year 2020, with 67% in urban areas (NCES, 2010). Studies show that children of Color are regularly disenfranchised through inequitable instructional,…

  9. Getting Slammed: White Depictions of Race Discussions as Arenas of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiAngelo, Robin; Sensoy, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    For many educators who lead cross-racial discussions, creating "safe" spaces in which students can express their views is a familiar goal. Yet what constitutes safety is rarely defined or contextualized. In the absence of this contextualization, the goal of safety is most often driven by White participants who complain that they are (or…

  10. "This Strange White World": Race and Place in Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Aboard a train heading out of Minneapolis toward frontier North Dakota, Era Bell Thompson in her autobiography "American Daughter" (1946) describes a landscape that grows steadily bleaker with each mile farther west: "Suddenly there was snow--miles and miles of dull, white snow, stretching out to meet the heavy, gray sky; deep banks…

  11. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability.

  12. “Weathering” and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Hicken, Margaret; Keene, Danya; Bound, John

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We considered whether US Blacks experience early health deterioration, as measured across biological indicators of repeated exposure and adaptation to stressors. Methods. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we examined allostatic load scores for adults aged 18–64 years. We estimated probability of a high score by age, race, gender, and poverty status and Blacks’ odds of having a high score relative to Whites’ odds. Results. Blacks had higher scores than did Whites and had a greater probability of a high score at all ages, particularly at 35–64 years. Racial differences were not explained by poverty. Poor and nonpoor Black women had the highest and second highest probability of high allostatic load scores, respectively, and the highest excess scores compared with their male or White counterparts. Conclusions. We found evidence that racial inequalities in health exist across a range of biological systems among adults and are not explained by racial differences in poverty. The weathering effects of living in a race-conscious society may be greatest among those Blacks most likely to engage in high-effort coping. PMID:16380565

  13. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Benjamin B.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure—one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan—is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a ‘dose-response’ relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast

  14. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  15. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  16. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  17. Superficial White Matter: Effects of Age, Sex, and Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Clark, Kristi A.; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Mazziotta, John C.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18–74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies. PMID:23461767

  18. Place, not race: disparities dissipate in southwest Baltimore when blacks and whites live under similar conditions.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas; Pollack, Keshia; Thorpe, Roland; Fesahazion, Ruth; Gaskin, Darrell

    2011-10-01

    Much of the current health disparities literature fails to account for the fact that the nation is largely segregated, leaving racial groups exposed to different health risks and with variable access to health services based on where they live. We sought to determine if racial health disparities typically reported in national studies remain the same when black and white Americans live in integrated settings. Focusing on a racially integrated, low-income neighborhood of Southwest Baltimore, Maryland, we found that nationally reported disparities in hypertension, diabetes, obesity among women, and use of health services either vanished or substantially narrowed. The sole exception was smoking: We found that white residents were more likely than black residents to smoke, underscoring the higher rates of ill health in whites in the Baltimore sample than seen in national data. As a result, we concluded that racial differences in social environments explain a meaningful portion of disparities typically found in national data. We further concluded that when social factors are equalized, racial disparities are minimized. Policies aimed solely at health behavior change, biological differences among racial groups, or increased access to health care are limited in their ability to close racial disparities in health. Such policies must address the differing resources of neighborhoods and must aim to improve the underlying conditions of health for all.

  19. Patterns and Trends in Age-Specific Black-White Differences in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality - United States, 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lisa C; Henley, S Jane; Miller, Jacqueline W; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C

    2016-10-14

    Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among U.S. women (1). Compared with white women, black women historically have had lower rates of breast cancer incidence and, beginning in the 1980s, higher death rates (1). This report examines age-specific black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence during 1999-2013 and mortality during 2000-2014 in the United States using data from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) (2). Overall rates of breast cancer incidence were similar, but death rates remained higher for black women compared with white women. During 1999-2013, breast cancer incidence decreased among white women but increased slightly among black women resulting in a similar average incidence at the end of the period. Breast cancer incidence trends differed by race and age, particularly from 1999 to 2004-2005, when rates decreased only among white women aged ≥50 years. Breast cancer death rates decreased significantly during 2000-2014, regardless of age with patterns varying by race. For women aged ≥50 years, death rates declined significantly faster among white women compared with black women; among women aged <50 years, breast cancer death rates decreased at the same rate among black and white women. Although some of molecular factors that lead to more aggressive breast cancer are known, a fuller understanding of the exact mechanisms might lead to more tailored interventions that could decrease mortality disparities. When combined with population-based approaches to increase knowledge of family history of cancer, increase physical activity, promote a healthy diet to maintain a healthy bodyweight, and increase screening for breast cancer, targeted treatment interventions could reduce racial disparities in breast cancer.

  20. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  1. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  2. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036

  3. Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  4. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p < 0.0001), with MD providing the largest difference between NAWM and WMH. Receiver operating characteristic analysis on each biomarker showed that MD differentiated best between NAWM and WMH, identifying 94.6% of the lesions using a threshold of 0.747 × 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) (area under curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe.

  5. White dwarf stars and the age of the Galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The history of the Galaxy is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarf (WD) stars. Significant limits can be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. A wide range of input WD model sequences is used to derive the current limits to the age estimates suggested by fitting to the observed falloff in the WD luminosity function. The results suggest that the star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy has been relatively constant, and that the disk age lies in the range 6-12 billion years, depending upon the assumed structure of WD stars, and in particular on the core composition and surface helium layer mass. Using plausible mixed C/O core input models, the estimates for the disk age range from 8-10.5 Gyr, i.e.,sustantially younger than most age estimates for the halo globular clusters. After speculating on the significance of the results, expected observational and theoretical refinements which will further enhance the reliability of the method are discussed.

  6. Chartbook on Aging in America [and] Supplement. White House Conference on Aging, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Carole, Comp.; Brotman, Herman, Comp.

    This chartbook, developed for participants in the 1981 White House Conference on Aging, depicts past, present, and projected developments in demographics, economics, and other areas to explain the size and makeup of the older population and its economic and social roles in society. Each of the 70 charts, classified under seven headings, includes a…

  7. Hemodynamic responses to laboratory stressors in children and adolescents: the influences of age, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Allen, M T; Matthews, K A

    1997-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.

  8. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  9. Aging's effects on marathon performance insights from the New York City race.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.

  10. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  11. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.

  12. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  13. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  14. Race Is Nowhere and Race Is Everywhere: Narratives from Black and White South African University Students in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the life history narratives of a group of 12 black and white male and female undergraduate students at a historically white Afrikaans medium university, now undergoing its own transformation in post-apartheid South Africa. Conceptualizations of identity and discourse across four elements of context, setting, situated activity…

  15. Efficient mapping and geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality at the county-level by race and age in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Schootman, Mario

    2013-06-01

    This study identified geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality across the U.S. using kriging to overcome unavailability of data because of confidentiality and reliability concerns. A structured additive regression model was used to detect where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated across nine divisions with 3109 U.S. counties during 1982-2004. Our analysis identified at least 25.8% of counties where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated. High-risk counties compared to lower-risk counties had higher relative risks for African American women than for White women. Greater geographic disparities more likely present in African American women and younger women. To sum up, our statistical approach reduced the impact of unavailable data, and identified the number and location of counties with high breast cancer mortality risk by race and age across the U.S.

  16. Relationship of ACL Injury and Posterior Tibial Slope With Patient Age, Sex, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Waiwaiole, Alana; Gurbani, Ajay; Motamedi, Kambiz; Seeger, Leanne; Sim, Myung Shin; Nwajuaku, Patricia; Hame, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been proposed as a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, studies that have examined this relationship have provided inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. Further characterization of this relationship may enable the medical community to identify individuals at greater risk for ACL injury and possibly characterize an anatomic target during surgical reconstruction. Purpose: The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between PTS and ACL injury. The secondary goal was to determine whether there are any patient factors, such as age, race, or sex, that correlate with ACL injury and PTS. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Medical records of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee between January 2003 and December 2009 were reviewed. Patients were separated into 2 groups: a study group of those subjects who had undergone surgery for ACL injury (n = 107) and a control group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 114). Demographic data were collected, and MRI images from both groups were analyzed using imaging software to obtain medial and lateral tibial slope measurements. Data were then analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison and a multivariable regression model to determine which, if any, patient factors were related to probability of having an ACL injury. Results: ANOVA comparison demonstrated that the study group had significantly greater values for lateral PTS (6° ± 4°; P < .001) and medial PTS (7° ± 4°; P = .002) compared with controls (5° ± 3° and 5° ± 4°, respectively). After stepwise elimination of nonsignificant variables, the final multivariable logistic regression model determined that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; P < .001) and lateral PTS (OR, 1.12; P = .002) had statistically significant relationships with ACL injury. Medial PTS, race, and sex were not

  17. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in World Marathon Majors races 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Aschmann, André; Onywera, Vincent; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The age for the fastest marathoners is well investigated, but not the age and nationality of the fastest. We investigated the age of peak marathon performance for the annual top 100 women and men competing in four races of the "World Marathon Majors" (Boston, Berlin, Chicago and New York) and the "Stockholm Marathon" between 2000 and 2014 using mixed-effects regression analyses and one-way ANOVA. Race times of Ethiopian men decreased to 2:14 h:min, but remained unchanged for Kenyan (2:14 h:min), Moroccan (2:15 h:min) and South African (2:18 h:min) men. Race times in Ethiopian (2:34 h:min), Kenyan (2:29 h:min) and South African (2:49 h:min) women showed no changes. Age increased in Ethiopian and South African men to 29.0 ± 5.0 and 32.0 ± 1.0 years, respectively. Age for Kenyan (29.9 ± 2.0 years) and Moroccan (34.9 ± 3.9 years) men remained unchanged. Age remained unchanged for Ethiopian (26.5 ± 2.0 years), Kenyan (30.0 ± 0.8 years) and South African (36.3 ± 7.0 years) women. In summary, Ethiopian men improved marathon race times, but not Ethiopian women. Age increased in Ethiopian men, but not in Ethiopian women. For practical applications, female and male marathoners from Ethiopia were the youngest and the fastest.

  18. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  19. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215

  20. The other-race effect in children from a multiracial population: A cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Tham, Diana Su Yun; Bremner, J Gavin; Hay, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    The role of experience with other-race faces in the development of the other-race effect was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- and 6-year-olds and 13- and 14-year-olds raised in a monoracial (British White, n=83) population and a multiracial (Malaysian Chinese, n=68) population. British White children showed an other-race effect to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian Chinese children showed a recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian Chinese) children showed no other-race effect for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in reorganizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.

  1. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  2. Virtual human technology: capturing sex, race, and age influences in individual pain decision policies.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Adam T; Alqudah, Ashraf F; Stutts, Lauren A; Robinson, Michael E

    2008-11-15

    Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. This study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and pain expression. Participants provided computerized ratings with Visual Analogue Scales on the VH's pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, negative mood, coping, and need for medical treatment. Idiographic analyses revealed that individuals used pain expression most frequently as a significant cue. Nomothetic analyses showed that higher pain expression VH and female VH were viewed as having higher pain intensity, higher pain unpleasantness, greater negative mood, worse coping, and a greater need to seek medical treatment than lower pain expression VH and male VH, respectively. Older VH were viewed as having worse coping and a greater need to seek medical treatment than younger VH. This innovative paradigm involving VH technology and a lens model design was shown to be highly effective and could serve as a model for future studies investigating pain-related decision making in healthcare providers.

  3. Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Aging: Contributions from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Song, Allen W.

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of cerebral white matter is critical for efficient cognitive functioning, but little is known regarding the role of white matter integrity in age-related differences in cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the directional displacement of molecular water and as a result can characterize the properties of white matter that combine to restrict diffusivity in a spatially coherent manner. This review considers DTI studies of aging and their implications for understanding adult age differences in cognitive performance. Decline in white matter integrity contributes to a disconnection among distributed neural systems, with a consistent effect on perceptual speed and executive functioning. The relation between white matter integrity and cognition varies across brain regions, with some evidence suggesting that age-related effects exhibit an anterior-posterior gradient. With continued improvements in spatial resolution and integration with functional brain imaging, DTI holds considerable promise, both for theories of cognitive aging and for translational application. PMID:19705281

  4. Frontostriatal white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in probabilistic reward learning.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Levens, Sara M; Perry, Lee M; Dougherty, Robert F; Knutson, Brian

    2012-04-11

    Frontostriatal circuits have been implicated in reward learning, and emerging findings suggest that frontal white matter structural integrity and probabilistic reward learning are reduced in older age. This cross-sectional study examined whether age differences in frontostriatal white matter integrity could account for age differences in reward learning in a community life span sample of human adults. By combining diffusion tensor imaging with a probabilistic reward learning task, we found that older age was associated with decreased reward learning and decreased white matter integrity in specific pathways running from the thalamus to the medial prefrontal cortex and from the medial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum. Further, white matter integrity in these thalamocorticostriatal paths could statistically account for age differences in learning. These findings suggest that the integrity of frontostriatal white matter pathways critically supports reward learning. The findings also raise the possibility that interventions that bolster frontostriatal integrity might improve reward learning and decision making.

  5. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  6. Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2014-03-01

    People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals.

  7. Selective effects of aging on brain white matter microstructure: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    PubMed

    Michielse, Stijn; Coupland, Nick; Camicioli, Richard; Carter, Rawle; Seres, Peter; Sabino, Jennifer; Malykhin, Nikolai

    2010-10-01

    We examined age-related changes in the cerebral white matter. Structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and diffusion tensor images (DTIs) were acquired from 69 healthy subjects aged 22-84 years. Quantitative DTI tractography was performed for nine different white matter tracts to determine tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial, and radial diffusivities. We used automated and manual segmentation to determine volumes of gray matter (GM), white mater (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and intracranial space. The results showed significant effects of aging on WM, GM, CSF volumes, and selective effects of aging on structural integrity of different white matter tracts. WM of the prefrontal region was the most vulnerable to aging, while temporal lobe connections, cingulum, and parieto-occipital commissural connections showed relative preservation with age. This study was cross-sectional, and therefore, additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  8. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    PubMed

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age.

  9. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  10. Age-related differences in autism: The case of white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Caan, Matthan W A; Teeuw, Jalmar; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Geurts, Hilde M

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is typified as a brain connectivity disorder in which white matter abnormalities are already present early on in life. However, it is unknown if and to which extent these abnormalities are hard-wired in (older) adults with ASD and how this interacts with age-related white matter changes as observed in typical aging. The aim of this first cross-sectional study in mid- and late-aged adults with ASD was to characterize white matter microstructure and its relationship with age. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging with head motion control in 48 adults with ASD and 48 age-matched controls (30-74 years), who also completed a Flanker task. Intra-individual variability of reaction times (IIVRT) measures based on performance on the Flanker interference task were used to assess IIVRT-white matter microstructure associations. We observed primarily higher mean and radial diffusivity in white matter microstructure in ASD, particularly in long-range fibers, which persisted after taking head motion into account. Importantly, group-by-age interactions revealed higher age-related mean and radial diffusivity in ASD, in projection and association fiber tracts. Subtle dissociations were observed in IIVRT-white matter microstructure relations between groups, with the IIVRT-white matter association pattern in ASD resembling observations in cognitive aging. The observed white matter microstructure differences are lending support to the structural underconnectivity hypothesis in ASD. These reductions seem to have behavioral percussions given the atypical relationship with IIVRT. Taken together, the current results may indicate different age-related patterns of white matter microstructure in adults with ASD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:82-96, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  12. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses.

  13. White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

  14. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791.

  15. Race and Ancestry in the Age of Inclusion: Technique and Meaning in Post-Genomic Science

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Janet K.; Ackerman, Sara L.; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so, by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals’ genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Hierarchical Models for the Ages of Galactic Halo White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, S.; van Dyk, D. A.; von Hippel, T.

    2017-03-01

    The ages of white dwarfs are of great importance in stellar evolution. Si et al. developed a novel approach to increase the precision of such estimates by combining multiple white dwarfs in a Bayesian hierarchical model. In this paper, we further investigate the robustness of the Bayesian hierarchical model by performing a simulation study.

  17. Effects of stereotype threat, perceived discrimination, and examiner race on neuropsychological performance: simple as black and white?

    PubMed

    Thames, April D; Hinkin, Charles H; Byrd, Desiree A; Bilder, Robert M; Duff, Kimberley J; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Streiff, Vanessa

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive roles of stereotype threat and perceived discrimination and the mediating role of examiner-examinee racial discordance on neuropsychological performance in a non-clinical sample of African American and Caucasian individuals. Ninety-two African American (n = 45) and Caucasian (n = 47) adults were randomly assigned to either a stereotype threat or non-threat condition. Within each condition, participants were randomly assigned to either a same race or different race examiner. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and completed a measure of perceived discrimination. African Americans in the stereotype threat condition performed significantly worse on global NP (Mz = -.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.07, -0.67] than African Americans in the non-threat condition (Mz = 0.09, CI [0.15, 0.33]. African Americans who reported high levels of perceived discrimination performed significantly worse on memory tests when tested by an examiner of a different race, Mz = -1.19, 95% CI [-1.78, -.54], than African Americans who were tested by an examiner of the same race, Mz = 0.24, 95% CI [-0.24, 0.72]. The current study underscores the importance of considering the role of contextual variables in neuropsychological performance, as these variables may obscure the validity of results among certain racial/ethnic groups.

  18. Multiculturalism or Multibodism: On the Impossible Intersections of Race and Gender in the American White Feminist and Black Nationalist Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyewumi, Oyeronke

    1999-01-01

    Examines the discounting of African American women in both feminist and black nationalist discourses, despite the civil rights and women's movements of the 1960s and the rhetoric of multiculturalism and identity politics that developed following these movements. Accounts for the marginalization of African American women in race and gender…

  19. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  20. White House Conference on Aging Literature: A Gold Mine of Issues for the 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, William F.

    The 1981 White House Conference on Aging, particularly the 50 State Conferences on Aging, generated over 1,500 pages of data on aging, addressing over 3,000 issues. To summarize the information from the 16 Technical Committee reports, a conceptual framework was used which focused on the well being of older people in three dimensions - health,…

  1. Multicultural Education in a Post-Race Political Age: Our Movement at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 elections ushered in a new era in U.S. politics with implications for race relations and social justice activity. Drawing parallels between the contemporary African American community and splintering undercurrents in the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME), the author urges cross-generational coalescence around an…

  2. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  3. Integrated, Marginal, and Resilient: Race, Class, and the Diverse Experiences of White First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuber, Jenny Marie

    2011-01-01

    While first-generation college students are "at risk", the majority "do" persist. Using in-depth interviews with 28 white college students I ask: How do white, first-generation, working-class students understand their college experiences, especially in terms of their academic, social, and cultural adjustment? Moreover, what kinds of factors seem…

  4. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K

    1998-03-01

    "This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."

  5. Age-related abnormalities in white matter microstructure in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Pauley, Gregory; Richards, Todd; Neuhaus, Emily; Martin, Nathalie; Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis W.; Estes, Annette; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in structural and functional connectivity have been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across a wide age range. However, developmental changes in white matter microstructure are poorly understood. We used a cross-sectional design to determine whether white matter abnormalities measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were present in adolescents and adults with ASD and whether age-related changes in white matter microstructure differed between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Participants included 28 individuals with ASD and 33 TD controls matched on age and IQ and assessed at one time point. Widespread decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased radial diffusivity (RaD) and mean diffusivity (MD) were observed in the ASD group compared to the TD group. In addition, significant group-by-age interactions were also observed in FA, RaD, and MD in all major tracts except the brain stem, indicating that age-related changes in white matter microstructure differed between the groups. We propose that white matter microstructural changes in ASD may reflect myelination and/or other structural differences including differences in axonal density/arborization. In addition, we suggest that white matter microstuctural impairments may be normalizing during young adulthood in ASD. Future longitudinal studies that include a wider range of ages and more extensive clinical characterization will be critical for further uncovering the neurodevelopmental processes unfolding during this dynamic time in development. PMID:22902768

  6. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  7. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to…

  8. What is the age for the fastest ultra-marathon performance in time-limited races from 6 h to 10 days?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Valeri, Fabio; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that the age of peak ultra-marathon performance seemed to increase with increasing race distance. The present study investigated the age of peak ultra-marathon performance for runners competing in time-limited ultra-marathons held from 6 to 240 h (i.e. 10 days) during 1975-2013. Age and running performance in 20,238 (21%) female and 76,888 (79%) male finishes (6,863 women and 24,725 men, 22 and 78%, respectively) were analysed using mixed-effects regression analyses. The annual number of finishes increased for both women and men in all races. About one half of the finishers completed at least one race and the other half completed more than one race. Most of the finishes were achieved in the fourth decade of life. The age of the best ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration, also when only one or at least five successful finishes were considered. The lowest age of peak ultra-marathon performance was in 6 h (33.7 years, 95% CI 32.5-34.9 years) and the highest in 48 h (46.8 years, 95% CI 46.1-47.5). With increasing number of finishes, the athletes improved performance. Across years, performance decreased, the age of peak performance increased, and the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing number of finishes. In summary, the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased and performance decreased in time-limited ultra-marathons. The age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration and with increasing number of finishes. These athletes improved race performance with increasing number of finishes.

  9. The War on Drugs That Wasn't: Wasted Whiteness, "Dirty Doctors," and Race in Media Coverage of Prescription Opioid Misuse.

    PubMed

    Netherland, Julie; Hansen, Helena B

    2016-12-01

    The past decade in the U.S. has been marked by a media fascination with the white prescription opioid cum heroin user. In this paper, we contrast media coverage of white non-medical opioid users with that of black and brown heroin users to show how divergent representations lead to different public and policy responses. A content analysis of 100 popular press articles from 2001 and 2011 in which half describe heroin users and half describe prescription opioid users revealed a consistent contrast between criminalized urban black and Latino heroin injectors with sympathetic portrayals of suburban white prescription opioid users. Media coverage of the suburban and rural opioid "epidemic" of the 2000s helped draw a symbolic, and then legal, distinction between (urban) heroin addiction and (suburban and rural) prescription opioid addiction that is reminiscent of the legal distinction between crack cocaine and powder cocaine of the 1980s and 1990s. This distinction reinforces the racialized deployment of the War on Drugs and is sustained by the lack of explicit discussion of race in the service of "color blind ideology." We suggest potential correctives to these racially divergent patterns, in the form of socially responsible media practices and of clinical engagement with public policy.

  10. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  11. Benefit/risk for adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use by age, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G

    2015-12-01

    In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances.

  12. The Legal Construction of Race: Mexican-Americans and Whiteness. Occasional Paper No. 54. Latino Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, George A.

    Mexican Americans were legally defined as Whites as a result of treaty obligations with Mexico that expressly allowed Mexicans to become U.S. citizens. Federal laws of the time required that an alien be White to become a U.S. citizen. The government of Mexico and the U.S. Department of State pressured the U.S. Census Bureau to reclassify Mexican…

  13. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  14. Ageing and brain white matter structure in 3,513 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Liewald, David C.; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Davies, Gail; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Gale, Catharine R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the microstructural properties of the human brain's connections is necessary for understanding normal ageing and disease. Here we examine brain white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 3,513 generally healthy people aged 44.64–77.12 years from the UK Biobank. Using conventional water diffusion measures and newer, rarely studied indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we document large age associations with white matter microstructure. Mean diffusivity is the most age-sensitive measure, with negative age associations strongest in the thalamic radiation and association fibres. White matter microstructure across brain tracts becomes increasingly correlated in older age. This may reflect an age-related aggregation of systemic detrimental effects. We report several other novel results, including age associations with hemisphere and sex, and comparative volumetric MRI analyses. Results from this unusually large, single-scanner sample provide one of the most extensive characterizations of age associations with major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:27976682

  15. The structure of feared social situations among race-ethnic minorities and Whites with social anxiety disorder in the United States.

    PubMed

    Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety.

  16. The structure of feared social situations among race-ethnic minorities and Whites with social anxiety disorder in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M.; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety. PMID:25795220

  17. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

  18. Race and Performance of Student as Determinants of Teacher Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Orchowsky, Stanley

    1979-01-01

    The effect of students' race and performance on nonverbal behavior of teachers was investigated. White college-age subjects, acting as teachers, were led to praise successful or unsuccessful students. Results showed that stimulus teachers were more pleased with successful than unsuccessful students, and more pleased with White than Black students.…

  19. The neuroscience of race

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516

  20. Dopamine transporter availability in clinically normal aging is associated with individual differences in white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Anna; Hedden, Trey; Younger, Alayna P; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-02-01

    Aging-related differences in white matter integrity, the presence of amyloid plaques, and density of biomarkers indicative of dopamine functions can be detected and quantified with in vivo human imaging. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether these imaging-based measures constitute independent imaging biomarkers in older adults, which would speak to the hypothesis that the aging brain is characterized by multiple independent neurobiological cascades. We assessed MRI-based markers of white matter integrity and PET-based marker of dopamine transporter density and amyloid deposition in the same set of 53 clinically normal individuals (age 65-87). A multiple regression analysis demonstrated that dopamine transporter availability is predicted by white matter integrity, which was detectable even after controlling for chronological age. Further post-hoc exploration revealed that dopamine transporter availability was further associated with systolic blood pressure, mirroring the established association between cardiovascular health and white matter integrity. Dopamine transporter availability was not associated with the presence of amyloid burden. Neurobiological correlates of dopamine transporter measures in aging are therefore likely unrelated to Alzheimer's disease but are aligned with white matter integrity and cardiovascular risk. More generally, these results suggest that two common imaging markers of the aging brain that are typically investigated separately do not reflect independent neurobiological processes. Hum Brain Mapp 37:621-631, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  2. C-A5-04: A Simple, Accurate SAS Algorithm for Electronic Abstraction of Race from Digitized Progress Notes

    PubMed Central

    Roblin, Douglas; Joski, Peter; Ren, Junling; Farmer, Robert; Baldwin, David; Carrell, David; Hart, Gene; Pardee, Roy; Bachman, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Individual-level race/ethnicity is important for research into causes and consequences of health disparities. For various non-research reasons, it has rarely been collected on enrollees in integrated delivery systems. Individual-level race/ethnicity can be found in medical record documentation. Manual abstraction on large numbers of medical records is costly. We developed a simple SAS algorithm for electronic abstraction of white and African American race from digitized progress notes and evaluated its accuracy by comparing electronically abstracted race with other data sources. Methods: A simple SAS algorithm, based on text search strings (e.g. white male, African American woman), scanned digitized progress notes for provider face-to-face visits from 2005 through July 2009 in Kaiser Permanente Georgia’s (KPG) and Group Health Cooperative’s (GHC) electronic medical record systems. White and African American race was abstracted. If the patient had more than 1 visit with abstracted race, the patient was classified using the earliest visit. Abstracted race was linked at the individual-level to survey datasets with self-reported race (2005 survey of working age adults, 2007 survey of adults with hypertension, 2000–2005 Medicare surveys) and mother’s race on 2000–2006 birth certificates. White and African American race was abstracted from GHC progress notes from 2005 through July 2009 using the same algorithm and compared to self-reported race on health risk appraisals. Accuracy of the SAS algorithm was assessed by overall proportion matching race from the other datasets, Cohen’s kappa, and McNemar’s test. Results: White or African American race was electronically abstracted for 56,261 KPG and 6,427 GHC enrollees. Abstracted race matched race from the other datasets in 97–99% of enrollees. Cohen’s kappas were highly significant (p<0.05), ranging from 0.939 ± 0.013 (N=657 matches with hypertension survey records) to 0.994 ± 0

  3. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  4. White Matter Changes in Tinnitus: Is It All Age and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Bin; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tinnitus is a condition characterized by the perception of auditory phantom sounds. It is known as the result of complex interactions between auditory and nonauditory regions. However, previous structural imaging studies on tinnitus patients showed evidence of significant white matter changes caused by hearing loss that are positively correlated with aging. Current study focused on which aspects of tinnitus pathologies affect the white matter integrity the most. We used the diffusion tensor imaging technique to acquire images that have higher contrast in brain white matter to analyze how white matter is influenced by tinnitus-related factors using voxel-based methods, region of interest analysis, and deterministic tractography. As a result, white matter integrity in chronic tinnitus patients was both directly affected by age and also mediated by the hearing loss. The most important changes in white matter regions were found bilaterally in the anterior corona radiata, anterior corpus callosum, and bilateral sagittal strata. In the tractography analysis, the white matter integrity values in tracts of right parahippocampus were correlated with the subjective tinnitus loudness.

  5. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  6. Sex-specific and race-specific hip fracture rates.

    PubMed Central

    Kellie, S E; Brody, J A

    1990-01-01

    Sex-, race- and age-specific hip fracture rates were determined using Health Care Financing Administration data for Medicare-reimbursed hip fracture hospitalizations from 1980 to 1982. Rates were highest in White women, lowest in Black men, and intermediate in White men and Black women. Proportions of hip fracture patients dying during hospitalization and those discharged to nursing homes, respectively, were: White men (10.5%; 49%); Black men (9.3%; 32%); White women (5.0%; 54%); and Black women (8.2%; 30%). PMID:2305917

  7. Pattern of normal age-related regional differences in white matter microstructure is modified by vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2009-11-10

    Even successful aging is associated with regional brain shrinkage and deterioration of the cerebral white matter. Aging also brings about an increase in vascular risk, and vascular impairment may be a potential mechanism behind the observed patterns of aging. The goals of this study were to characterize the normal age differences in white matter integrity in several brain regions across the adult life span and to assess the modifying effect of vascular risk on the observed pattern of regional white matter integrity. We estimated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity of white matter in nine cerebral regions of interest in 77 healthy adults (19-84 years old). There was a widespread reduction of white matter anisotropy with age, and prefrontal and occipital regions evidenced the greatest age-related differences. Diffusivity increased with age, and the magnitude of age differences increased beginning with the middle of the fifth decade. Vascular risk factors modified age differences in white matter integrity. Clinically diagnosed and treated arterial hypertension was associated with reduced white matter anisotropy and increased diffusivity beyond the effects of age. In the normotensive participants, elevation of arterial pulse pressure (a surrogate of arterial stiffness) was linked to deterioration of the white matter integrity in the frontal regions. Although the causal role of vascular risk in brain aging is unclear, the observed pattern of effects suggests that vascular risk may drive the expansion of age-related white matter damage from anterior to posterior regions.

  8. Long-term all-sites cancer mortality time trends in Ohio, USA, 1970–2001: differences by race, gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Tyczynski, Jerzy E; Berkel, Hans J

    2005-01-01

    Background There were significant changes in cancer mortality in the USA over the last several decades, in the whole country and in particular states. However, no in depth analysis has been published so far, dealing with changes in mortality time trends in the state of Ohio. Since the state of Ohio belongs to the states of relatively high level of all-sites mortality in both males and females, it is of interest to analyze recent changes in mortality rates, as well as to compare them with the situation in the rest of the USA. The main aim of this study was to analyze, describe and interpret all-sites cancer mortality time trends in the population of the State of Ohio. Methods Cancer mortality data by age, sex, race and year for the period 1970–2001 were obtained from the Surveillance Research Program of the National Cancer Institute SEER*Stat software. A joinpoint regression methodology was used to provide estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occurred. Results In both, males and females mortality rates were higher in blacks compared with whites. The difference was bigger in males (39.9%) than in women (23.3%). Mortality rates in Ohio are generally higher than average USA rates – an overall difference was 7.5% in men in 1997–2001, and 6.1% in women. All-sites mortality trends in Ohio and in the whole USA are similar. However, in general, mortality rates in Ohio remained elevated compared with the USA rates throughout the entire analyzed period. The exceptions are the rates in young and middle-aged African Americans. Conclusion Although direction of time trends in Ohio are similar in Ohio and the whole US, Ohio still have cancer mortality rates higher than the US average. In addition, there is a significant discrepancy between white and black population of Ohio in all-sites mortality level, with disadvantage for Blacks. To diminish disparities in cancer mortality between African

  9. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis.

  10. Minority-Serving Institutions, Race-Conscious "Dwelling," and Possible Futures for Basic Writing at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamos, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This essay looks to Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) for strategies that can be implemented in order to combat contemporary neoliberal attacks against the programmatic and institutional spaces of basic writing within Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Working from Nedra Reynolds' notion of thirdspace-oriented "dwelling"…

  11. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  12. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  13. Predictors of Age of Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of a Consistent Source of Medical Care, Race, and Condition Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Natacha D.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Neece, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent…

  14. Observational Constraints on the Age-Metallicity Relation from White Dwarf-Main Sequence Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2017-03-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational property to understand how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet a consensus on the observed properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood. This is due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining precise stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign to provide the much needed observational AMR by using white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are natural clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main sequence companions. Since white dwarfs and main sequence stars in these binary systems are coeval, these binaries provide an unique opportunity to observationally determine in a robust way the AMR. Here we present the AMR derived from the analysis of a sample of 23 WDMS binaries.

  15. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  16. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on white matter in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bendlin, B.B.; Canu, E.; Willette, A.A.; Kastman, E.K.; McLaren, D.G.; Kosmatka, K.J.; Xu, G.; Field, A.S.; Colman, R.J.; Coe, C.L.; Weindruch, R.H.; Alexander, A.L.; Johnson, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhesus macaques on a calorie restricted diet (CR) develop less age-related disease, have virtually no indication of diabetes, are protected against sarcopenia, and potentially live longer. Beneficial effects of CR likely include reductions in age-related inflammation and oxidative damage. Oligodendrocytes are particularly susceptible to inflammation and oxidative stress, therefore, we hypothesized that CR would have a beneficial effect on brain white matter and would attenuate age-related decline in this tissue. CR monkeys and controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A beneficial effect of CR indexed by DTI was observed in superior longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, external capsule, and brainstem. Aging effects were observed in several regions, although CR appeared to attenuate age-related alterations in superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal white matter, external capsule, right parahippocampal white matter and dorsal occipital bundle. The results, however, were regionally specific and also suggested that CR is not salutary across all white matter. Further evaluation of this unique cohort of elderly primates to mortality will shed light on the ultimate benefits of an adult-onset, moderate CR diet for deferring brain aging. PMID:20541839

  17. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  18. Structural organization of the prefrontal white matter pathways in the adult and aging brain measured by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Malykhin, Nikolai; Vahidy, Sana; Michielse, Stijn; Coupland, Nick; Camicioli, Richard; Seres, Peter; Carter, Rawle

    2011-11-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies confirmed the vulnerability of frontal callosal fibers to normal aging. The present study extended this examination systematically to other prefrontal white matter regions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and DTI datasets were acquired from 69 healthy subjects aged 22-84 years. The prefrontal white matter was parcellated into several anatomical sub-regions: medial and lateral orbitofrontal white matter, dorsolateral prefrontal white matter, and medial prefrontal white matter, using reliable DTI-tractography protocols. Tract-specific characteristics were calculated using Matlab. Regression models were used to determine the relationship between age and structural integrity of white matter tracts. The results of our study demonstrate regional age-related changes in the prefrontal white matter tracts of the human brain. This study was cross-sectional and therefore additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  19. Improved survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and disparities by age, race, and socioeconomic status by decade, 1983–2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Hong, Guobin; Li, Dan; Mallampati, Saradhi; Zhou, Xiuling; Zhou, Cuiling; Zhang, Hongyu; Cheng, Zhibin; Shan, Hong; Ma, Haiqing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for the majority of liver cancer, is a highly aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and therefore adds up the financial burden. Incidence data of HCC in three decades during 1983-2012 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database with incidence rates of 1.9, 3.1 and 4.9 per 100,000 respectively. In addition, to evaluate the survival changes in the same period, a total of 63,640 HCC cancer cases were accessed from SEER database. The six-month relative survival rates improved each decade from 31.0% to 42.9% to 57.2% and the higher increase can be seen in the last two decades. More importantly, the disparities of survival among different racial groups and socioeconomic status (SES) were confirmed by the inferiority of survival in Black race and high-poverty group respectively. This research analyzed the incidence and survival data of HCC in the past three decades and may help predict the future trends of incidence and survival. Furthermore, this study may help better design healthcare policies and clinical management programs to balance the disparities of survival between SES groups, races, ages and sexes confirmed in this study and thereby improve the clinical management of HCC. PMID:27486977

  20. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced white matter damage in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Okauchi, Masanobu; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Gu, Yuxiang; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2015-10-01

    Iron contributes to c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation in young rats and white matter injury in piglets after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we examined the effect of deferoxamine on ICH-induced white matter injury and JNK activation and in aged rats. Male Fischer 344 rats (18months old) had either an intracaudate injection of 100μl of autologous blood or a needle insertion (sham). The rats were treated with deferoxamine or vehicle with different regimen (dosage, duration and time window). White matter injury and activation of JNK were examined. We found that a dose of DFX should be at more than 10mg/kg for a therapeutic duration more than 2days with a therapeutic time window of 12h to reduce ICH-induced white matter loss at 2months. ICH-induced white matter injury was associated with JNK activation. The protein levels of phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK) were upregulated at day-1 after ICH and then gradually decreased. P-JNK immunoreactivity was mostly located in white matter bundles. ICH-induced JNK activation was reduced by DFX treatment. This study demonstrated that DFX can reduce ICH-induced JNK activation and white matter damage.

  1. Facts on Women Workers of Minority Races.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet on women workers of minority races includes all races in a minority other than white, Negroes constituting about 90 percent of all persons other than white in the United States; Spanish-speaking persons are included in the white population. The following topics are encompassed; labor force participation; unemployment; marital status;…

  2. The Ages of the Thin Disk, Thick Disk, and the Halo from Nearby White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; von Hippel, Ted; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Jeffery, Elizabeth; DeGennaro, Steven

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the white dwarf luminosity functions derived from the local 40 pc sample and the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al. Many previous studies have ignored the contribution of thick disk white dwarfs to the Galactic disk luminosity function, which results in an erroneous age measurement. We demonstrate that the ratio of thick/thin disk white dwarfs is roughly 20% in the local sample. Simultaneously fitting for both disk components, we derive ages of 6.8–7.0 Gyr for the thin disk and 8.7 ± 0.1 Gyr for the thick disk from the local 40 pc sample. Similarly, we derive ages of 7.4–8.2 Gyr for the thin disk and 9.5–9.9 Gyr for the thick disk from the deep proper motion catalog, which shows no evidence of a deviation from a constant star formation rate in the past 2.5 Gyr. We constrain the time difference between the onset of star formation in the thin disk and the thick disk to be {1.6}-0.4+0.3 Gyr. The faint end of the luminosity function for the halo white dwarfs is less constrained, resulting in an age estimate of {12.5}-3.4+1.4 Gyr for the Galactic inner halo. This is the first time that ages for all three major components of the Galaxy have been obtained from a sample of field white dwarfs that is large enough to contain significant numbers of disk and halo objects. The resultant ages agree reasonably well with the age estimates for the oldest open and globular clusters.

  3. Changes in the sotolon content of dry white wines during barrel and bottle aging.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Valérie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-04-23

    GC-MS in electron ionization mode (EI) was used as a simple, sensitive method for assaying sotolon [4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5) H-furanone] in various dry white wines. The impact of barrel-aging conditions, that is, whether yeast lees were present or not, on the formation of sotolon in dry white wines was then studied. The sotolon content was highest in dry white wines aged in new barrels without lees, often exceeding the perception threshold (8 microg/L). These results demonstrated that yeast lees were capable of minimizing the formation of sotolon in dry white wines during aging. The sotolon and oxygen contents of several bottle of the same white wine were also compared 7 years after bottling. At the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations generally measured, between 5 and 100 microg/L, the sotolon content remained below its perception threshold in wine. The perception threshold was exceeded only in wines with oxygen concentrations above 500 microg/L. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wine samples analyzed also resulted in a decrease in their free sulfur dioxide content.

  4. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  5. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites.

  6. Associations between reaction time measures and white matter hyperintensities in very old age.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Becky I; Bunce, David; Kochan, Nicole A; Wen, Wei; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-02-01

    In old age, a relationship has been reported between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and white matter integrity as evidenced by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, it is unclear how far such associations are due to incipient neurodegenerative pathology in the samples investigated. The present study examined the relationship between IIV and WMH in older individuals (N=526) drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Using a complex reaction time (RT) task, greater IIV and mean-RT were related to a higher WMH burden in the frontal lobe. Critically, significant associations remained having taken future dementia into account suggesting that they were not explained by incipient dementia. Additionally, independent measures of executive function accounted for the association between RT metrics and WHM. The results are consistent with the view that frontally-supported cognitive processes are involved in IIV-WMH relations, and that RT measures are sensitive to compromise in white matter structures in non-demented older individuals.

  7. Race and incarceration in an aging cohort of Vietnam veterans in treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.

  8. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  9. Black nurse in white space? Rethinking the in/visibility of race within the Australian nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Mapedzahama, Virginia; Rudge, Trudy; West, Sandra; Perron, Amelie

    2012-06-01

    This article presents an analysis of data from a critical qualitative study with 14 skilled black African migrant nurses, which document their experiences of nurse-to-nurse racism and racial prejudice in Australian nursing workplaces. Racism generally and nurse-to-nurse racism specifically, continues to be under-researched in explorations of these workplaces; when racism is researched, the focus is nurse-to-patient racism and racial prejudice. Similarly, research on the experiences of migrant nurses from a variety of ethnicities in Australia has tended to neglect their experiences of the social dynamics of the workplace, thus reinforcing their racialisation. When racialised, the migrant nurse becomes 'the problem' through a focus on English language competency and ensuing communication barriers. This paper applies Essed's framework of 'everyday racism' to theorise narratives of racism by black African migrant nurses in Australia. In so doing, it not only brings to the fore silenced discussions of nurse-to-nurse racism in Australia, but also exposes the subtle, mundane nature of contemporary racism. For this reason, while the data we present must be read within their context, that is, the Australian nursing workplace, it has significance for advancing a critical analysis of racialised minority groups' experiences of racism within seemingly 'race-less' nursing workplaces internationally.

  10. Age-related decline in oligodendrogenesis retards white matter repair in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Pham, Loc-Duyen D.; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Matsuzaki, Toshinori; Seo, Ji Hae; Magnain, Caroline; Ayata, Cenk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Boas, David; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose Aging is one of the major risk factors for white matter injury in cerebrovascular disease. However, the effects of age on the mechanisms of injury/repair in white matter remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we ask if compared to young brains, white matter regions in older brains may be more vulnerable in part due to decreased rates of compensatory oligodendrogenesis after injury. Methods A mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion was prepared by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in 2-month and 8-month old mice. Matching in vitro studies were performed by subjecting oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to sub-lethal 7-day CoCl2 treatment to induce chemical hypoxic stress. Results Baseline myelin density in the corpus callosum was similar in 2-month and 8-month old mice. But after induction of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion, older mice showed more severe white matter injury together with worse deficits in working memory. The numbers of newborn oligodendrocytes and their precursors were increased by cerebral hypoperfusion in young mice, whereas these endogenous responses were significantly dampened in older mice. Defects in CREB signaling may be involved because activating CREB with the type-III phosphodiesterase inhibitor cilostazol in older mice restored the differentiation of OPCs, alleviated myelin loss and improved cognitive dysfunction during cerebral hypoperfusion. Cell culture systems confirmed that cilostazol promoted the differentiation of OPCs. Conclusions An age-related decline in CREB-mediated oligodendrogenesis may compromise endogenous white matter repair mechanisms, and therefore, drugs that activate CREB signaling provide a potential therapeutic approach for treating white matter injury in aging brains. PMID:23881957

  11. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Reports of the Mini-Conferences, MCR 1-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 42 reports from mini-conferences held in various nationwide locations prior to the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Each report presents an overview of the topic, descriptions of particular problems, and statements of recommendations, based on the views of mini-conference participants, and made available to the…

  12. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus among white Americans by sex, stage, and age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Devesa, Susan S; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2008-08-20

    Rapid increases in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus have been reported among white men. We further explored the temporal patterns of this disease among white individuals by sex, stage, and age by use of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We identified 22,759 patients from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 2004, with esophageal cancer, of whom 9526 were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Among white men, increases in the incidence of esophageal cancer were largely attributed to a 463% increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma over this time period, from 1.01 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90 to 1.13) in 1975-1979 to 5.69 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 5.47 to 5.91) in 2000-2004. A similar rapid increase was also apparent among white women, among whom the adenocarcinoma rate increased 335%, from 0.17 (95% CI = 0.13 to 0.21) to 0.74 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.81), over the same time period. Adenocarcinoma rates rose among white men and women in all stage and age groups, indicating that these increases are real and not an artifact of surveillance.

  13. Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer dementia in blacks and whites: a report from the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B; Zimmerman, Molly E; Sanders, Amy E; Verghese, Joe; Dickson, Dennis W; Derby, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    As the population ages, the need to characterize rates of cognitive impairment and dementia within demographic groups defined by age, sex, and race becomes increasingly important. There are limited data available on the prevalence and incidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) from population-based studies. The Einstein Aging Study, a systematically recruited community-based cohort of 1944 adults aged 70 or older (1168 dementia free at baseline; mean age, 78.8 y; average follow-up, 3.9 y), provides the opportunity to examine the prevalence and incidence rates for dementia, Alzheimer dementia (AD), aMCI, and naMCI by demographic characteristics. Dementia prevalence was 6.5% (4.9% AD). Overall dementia incidence was 2.9/100 person-years (2.3/100 person-years for AD). Dementia and AD rates increased with age but did not differ by sex. Prevalence of aMCI was 11.6%, and naMCI prevalence was 9.9%. aMCI incidence was 3.8 and naMCI incidence was 3.9/100 person-years. Rates of aMCI increased significantly with age in men and in blacks; sex, education, and race were not significant risk factors. In contrast, naMCI incidence did not increase with age; however, blacks were at higher risk compared with whites, even when controlling for sex and education. Results highlight the public health significance of preclinical cognitive disease.

  14. Haematology of the racing Thoroughbred in Australia 2: haematological values compared to performance.

    PubMed

    Revington, M

    1983-04-01

    Eight hundred and sixteen blood samples were collected from Thoroughbred racehorses at the race track, 1 to 3 h before racing, and subjected to routine haematological examination. Attempts were made to correlate the haemogram with subsequent performance. Races were classified according to age, class and distance, and performances were grouped according to distance from the winner. Intra- and interclass comparisons were made but no relationship emerged between racing performance and the haemogram. The haemograms of individual horses on different occasions were compared with subsequent performance, but no consistent or significant relationships were apparent. The extent of the rise in red and white cell parameters between horses at rest and immediately before racing were examined as indicators of performance, but no correlations found. It was concluded that under the conditions of this survey no relationship existed between the haemogram of the Thoroughbred racehorse and its racing performance.

  15. Morphometric analysis of arteriolar tortuosity in human cerebral white matter of preterm, young, and aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Thore, Clara R; Anstrom, John A; Moody, Dixon M; Challa, Venkata R; Marion, Miranda C; Brown, William R

    2007-05-01

    Arteriolar tortuousities, consisting of vascular coils, loops, and spirals, appear in white matter in a subset of human cerebral vessels. Computerized morphometry was used to analyze brain sections from a broad age range of subjects to determine whether tortuosity is a phenomenon of aging or is associated with leukoaraiosis (LA) or Alzheimer disease (AD). Autopsy brains were studied from 55 subjects ranging in age from 23 weeks postconception to 102 years. Fourteen aged subjects were diagnosed with LA and 7 with AD. By using computerized morphometry, vascular curl (curvilinear length/straight length) was measured in white matter arterioles in 100-microm-thick, alkaline phosphatase-stained sections. Aging subjects, compared with young subjects, showed significant increases in both the prevalence and severity of tortuosity. Curl scores in aged subjects with LA or AD were not significantly different from aged controls without LA or AD. We conclude that 1) tortuous vessels are extremely rare in preterm babies, children, or young adults; 2) significant tortuosity, as indicated by elevated curl scores, begins in middle age; 3) tortuosity does not appear in a subset of aged individuals regardless of longevity; and 4) tortuosity does not appear in a subset of individuals with either LA or AD.

  16. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO DERIVING AGES OF INDIVIDUAL FIELD WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Erin M.; Von Hippel, Ted; Van Dyk, David A. E-mail: dvandyke@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-09-20

    We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach to determine the ages, distances, and zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) masses of 28 field DA white dwarfs (WDs) with ages of approximately 4-8 Gyr. Our technique requires only quality optical and near-infrared photometry to derive ages with <15% uncertainties, generally with little sensitivity to our choice of modern initial-final mass relation. We find that age, distance, and ZAMS mass are correlated in a manner that is too complex to be captured by traditional error propagation techniques. We further find that the posterior distributions of age are often asymmetric, indicating that the standard approach to deriving WD ages can yield misleading results.

  17. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  18. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function and the Age of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Oswalt, T. D.

    1996-12-01

    We present the results for the White Dwarf Luminosity Function (WDLF) derived from our entire sample of common proper motion binaries (CPMBs) containing white dwarfs (WDs). Approximately 170 WDs are contained in our study which makes it one of the largest samples ever used in the determination of the WDLF. We will discuss our sample selection and completion techniques and the constraint this sample places on the debate about the age of the Galaxy and ultimately the Universe. The WDs in this study were identified spectroscopically [Oswalt et al. in White Dwarfs, ed. G. Wegner, (Springer: Berlin), (1990)] and satisfy the limits [V < 18.50, mu > 0.10 "/yr] over which the sample's incompleteness is well-behaved (and hence correctible). The size of this sample allows us to set firm limits on the age of Galactic disk, making use of the latest interior [Wood, in White Dwarfs, eds. D. Koester & K. Werner (Kluwer: Dordrecht), 1995] and atmosphere [Bergeron, P., et al. Astrophys. J. 449, 258-279, 1995] models. Our new results, which strengthen the >= 9.5(+1.1}_{-0.8) Gyr(1 sigma ) age for the Galactic disk [Oswalt et al. Nature 382, 692 (1996)], will be presented. JAS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program, grant NGT-51086 and TDO gratefully acknowledges support from NSF grant AST 90-16284.

  19. Age-Related Changes in Axonal and Mitochondrial Ultrastructure and Function in White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Stahon, Katharine E.; Bastian, Chinthasagar; Griffith, Shelby; Kidd, Grahame J.; Brunet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The impact of aging on CNS white matter (WM) is of general interest because the global effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers are more complex and profound than those in cortical gray matter. It is important to distinguish between axonal changes created by normal aging and those caused by neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury. Using three-dimensional electron microscopy, we show that in mouse optic nerve, which is a pure and fully myelinated WM tract, aging axons are larger, have thicker myelin, and are characterized by longer and thicker mitochondria, which are associated with altered levels of mitochondrial shaping proteins. These structural alterations in aging mitochondria correlate with lower ATP levels and increased generation of nitric oxide, protein nitration, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, mitochondria–smooth endoplasmic reticulum interactions are compromised due to decreased associations and decreased levels of calnexin and calreticulin, suggesting a disruption in Ca2+ homeostasis and defective unfolded protein responses in aging axons. Despite these age-related modifications, axon function is sustained in aging WM, which suggests that age-dependent changes do not lead to irreversible functional decline under normal conditions, as is observed in neurodegenerative diseases. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is a common risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage with age are hypothesized to increase risk for stroke. We compared axon–myelin–node–mitochondrion–smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) interactions in white matter obtained at 1 and 12 months. We show that aging axons have enlarged volume, thicker myelin, and elongated and thicker mitochondria. Furthermore, there are reduced SER connections to mitochondria that correlate with lower calnexin and calreticulin levels. Despite a

  20. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  1. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  2. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  3. Correlates of Three Year Transfer Student Retention Rates with Race, Gender, Age, Credit Hours, and Place of Residence at a Regional Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationship between the three year academic success of transfer students and the variables of race, gender, age, number of transfer credit hours, and place of residence. The study was conducted at Midwestern State University, a public, regional four-year institution and followed the incoming transfer classes of the…

  4. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  5. Hypertension-related alterations in white matter microstructure detectable in middle age.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Linda K; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Eyler, Lisa T; Franz, Carol E; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Panizzon, Matthew S; Rinker, Daniel A; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Most studies examining associations between hypertension and brain white matter microstructure have focused on older adults or on cohorts with a large age range. Because hypertension effects on the brain may vary with age, it is important to focus on middle age, when hypertension becomes more prevalent. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine differences in white matter diffusion metrics as a function of hypertension in a well-characterized cohort of middle-aged men (n=316; mean, 61.8 years; range, 56.7-65.6). Diffusion metrics were examined in 9 tracts reported to be sensitive to hypertension in older adults. Relative to normotensive individuals, individuals with long-standing hypertension (>5.6 years) showed reduced fractional anisotropy or increased diffusivity in most tracts. Effects were stronger among carriers than among noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for 2 tracts connecting frontal regions with other brain areas. Significant differences were observed even after adjustment for potentially related lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. Shorter duration of hypertension or better blood pressure control among hypertensive individuals did not lessen the adverse effects. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter alterations appear early in the course of hypertension and may persist despite adequate treatment. Although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest that prevention-rather than management-of hypertension may be vital to preserving brain health in aging.

  6. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  7. A data-driven simulation of HIV spread among young men who have sex with men: the role of age and race mixing, and STIs

    PubMed Central

    BECK, Ekkehard C.; BIRKETT, Michelle; ARMBRUSTER, Benjamin; MUSTANSKI, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the U.S. have a high HIV incidence with substantial racial disparities that are poorly understood. We use a data-driven simulation model to understand the impact of network-level mechanisms and STI infections on the spread of HIV among YMSM. Methods We designed and parameterized a stochastic agent-based network simulation model using results of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM in Chicago. Within this model, YMSM formed and dissolved partnerships over time, and partnership-types were stratified by length of partnership, sex and age of the partner. In each partnership, HIV, gonorrhea and chlamydia could be transmitted. Counterfactual scenarios were run to examine drivers of HIV. Results Over a 15 year simulation, the HIV epidemic among YMSM continued to rise with Latino/White YMSM facing a steeper increase in the HIV burden compared to Black YMSM. YMSM in partnerships with older MSM, in particular Black YMSM with older Black MSM, were at highest risk for HIV and one infection prevented with an older partner would prevent 0.8 additional infections among YMSM. Additionally, racial disparities in HIV were driven by differences in the HIV prevalence of YMSM partners. Finally, of all HIV infections among YMSM, 14.6% were attributable to NG and CT infections. Conclusion Network-level mechanisms and STI infections play a significant role in the spread of HIV, and in racial disparities among YMSM. HIV prevention efforts should target YMSM across race, and interventions focusing on YMSM partnerships with older MSM might be highly effective. PMID:26102448

  8. Age of Neoproterozoic bilatarian body and trace fossils, White Sea, Russia: implications for metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, M W; Grazhdankin, D V; Bowring, S A; Evans, D A; Fedonkin, M A; Kirschvink, J L

    2000-05-05

    A uranium-lead zircon age for a volcanic ash interstratified with fossil-bearing, shallow marine siliciclastic rocks in the Zimnie Gory section of the White Sea region indicates that a diverse assemblage of body and trace fossils occurred before 555.3 +/- 0.3 million years ago. This age is a minimum for the oldest well-documented triploblastic bilaterian Kimberella. It also makes co-occurring trace fossils the oldest that are reliably dated. This determination of age implies that there is no simple relation between Ediacaran diversity and the carbon isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater.

  9. The Association of Aging with White Matter Integrity and Functional Connectivity Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Albert C.; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Huang, Chu-Chung; Lin, Ching-Po

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with reduced cerebral structural integrity and altered functional brain activity, yet the association of aging with the relationship between structural and functional brain changes remains unclear. Using combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) modalities, we hypothesized that aging-related changes in white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy) was associated with the short- or long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) in hub regions. We tested this hypothesis by using a healthy aging cohort comprised of 140 younger adults aged 20–39 years and 109 older adults aged 60–79 years. Compared with the younger group, older adults exhibited widespread reductions in white matter integrity with selective preservation in brain stem tracts and the cingulum connected to the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, whereas FCD mapping in older adults showed a reduced FCD in the visual, somatosensory, and motor functional networks and an increased FCD in the default mode network. The older adults exhibited significantly increased short- or long-range FCD in functional hubs of the precuneus, posterior, and middle cingulate, and thalamus, hippocampus, fusiform, and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, DTI-fMRI relationship were predominantly identified in older adults in whom short- and long-range FCD in the left precuneus was negatively correlated to structural integrity of adjacent and nonadjacent white matter tracts, respectively. We also found that long-range FCD in the left precuneus was positively correlated to cognitive function. These results support the compensatory hypothesis of neurocognitive aging theory and reveal the DTI-fMRI relationship associated with normal aging. PMID:27378915

  10. Aging leads to a programmed loss of brown adipocytes in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole H; Landa, Alejandro; Park, Seongjoon; Smith, Roy G

    2012-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity deteriorates with age, but mechanisms remain unclear. Age-related changes in the function of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) are less characterized than those in visceral WAT. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations in sWAT, which in contrast to epididymal WAT, harbors a subpopulation of energy-dissipating UCP1+ brown adipocytes, promote age-dependent progression toward insulin resistance. Indeed, we show that a predominant consequence of aging in murine sWAT is loss of 'browning'. sWAT from young mice is histologically similar to brown adipose tissue (multilocular, UCP1+), but becomes morphologically white by 12 months of age. Correspondingly, sWAT expression of ucp1 precipitously declines (~300-fold) between 3 and 12 months. Loss continues into old age (24 months) and is inversely correlated with the development of insulin resistance. Additional age-dependent changes in sWAT include lower expression of adbr3 and higher expression of maoa, suggesting reduced local adrenergic tone as a potential mechanism. Indeed, treatment with a β3-adrenergic agonist to compensate for reduced tone rescues the aged sWAT phenotype. Age-related changes in sWAT are not explained by the differences in body weight; mice subjected to 40% caloric restriction for 12 months are of body weight similar to 3-month-old ad lib fed mice, but display sWAT resembling that of age-matched ad lib fed mice (devoid of brown adipose-like morphology). Overall, findings identify the loss of 'browning' in sWAT as a new aging phenomenon and provide insight into the pathogenesis of age-associated metabolic disease by revealing novel molecular changes tied to systemic metabolic dysfunction.

  11. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  12. [Does patient age influence the indications for investigating asympatomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Brembilla-Perrot, B; Holban, I; Houriez, P; Beurrier, D; Claudon, O; Vançon, A C

    2000-12-01

    Sudden death may be the presenting symptom of a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Electrophysiological investigation is the best method of identifying high risk cases. The aim of this study was to determine whether this investigation should be proposed to all patients, irrespective of age. Transoesophageal stimulation was performed in 85 asymptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Of the 85 subjects, 13 were under 20 years of age, 30 under 30 years, 15 under 40 years, 16 under 50 years and 11 between 50 and 69 years of age. A protocol of incremental stimulation until 2nd degree AVB was attained and programmed atrial stimulation with one or two extrastimuli delivered on 2 paced cycles (600 and 400 ms) was used under basal conditions and with Isoprenaline. A malignant form of the condition was defined as the demonstration of two abnormalities: rapid conduction in the bundle of Kent (over 240/min) under basal conditions or over 300/min after Isoprenaline, and if it induced sustained atrial fibrillation (> 1 min). The results were: [table: see text] In conclusion, the number of malignant forms of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is exactly the same, irrespective of age. Elderly patients remain at risk of malignant WPW syndrome because of the increased incidence of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, the authors recommend systematic evaluation of this syndrome if the patient has an active life-style especially with regard to sporting activities.

  13. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  14. Child and Mother Client Satisfaction Questionnaire Scores regarding Mental Health Services: Race, Age, and Gender Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr; Koeske, Gary; Greeno, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) to examine the level of consumer satisfaction with children's (ages 8 to 17 years) outpatient mental health services. Analyses were completed using both individual satisfaction items and a summed scale score. The CSQ scale had satisfactory internal consistency reliability for both…

  15. Guggenheim for Governor: Antisemitism, Race, and the Politics of Gilded Age Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1893 financial panic struck Colorado. The price of silver, in a protracted downward spiral since the conclusion of the Civil War, finally crashed. With economic and political turmoil come angry responses, as people search for scape-goats to explain their new and unexpected poverty. And in Gilded Age Colorado, one of those angry…

  16. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  17. Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval. PMID:17383774

  18. Comparison between Aging of Slices and Ethylene Treatment of Whole White Potato Tubers.

    PubMed

    Janes, H W; Wiest, S C

    1980-07-01

    Cyanide-resistant O(2) consumption can be stimulated by either treating whole white potato tubers (Norchip) with ethylene, in the presence of 100% O(2), or aging slices obtained from untreated potato tubers. A comparison of alternative pathway activity elicited by either treatment was undertaken. The proportion of electrons flowing through the alternative path in the presence of intermediate concentrations of KCN and at various concentrations of salicylhydroxamic acid was identical in both cases. However, the respiration of slices from ethylene-treated tubers was in every case stimulated by KCN, whereas the aged slices never exhibited this phenomenon. Furthermore, the metabolism of d-[U-(14)C]glucose was several hundred times greater in aged slices than in fresh slices from C(2)H(4)-treated tubers. These results, along with the respiratory kinetics of aged slices from ethylene-treated tubers, suggest that aged slices and fresh slices from ethylene-treated tubers are biochemically dissimilar.

  19. An examination of successful aging among Southern Black and White older adults.

    PubMed

    Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A; Davis, Boyd

    2013-03-01

    Research on successful aging in minority older adults and those from certain regions of the United States, such as the South, is lacking. It is important to learn whether disparities exist in Southern Black older adults' perceptions of successful aging compared to those of majority older adults. Thus, this study examined successful aging using focus groups to obtain a regionally and racially sensitive understanding of the phenomenon. Focus group sessions were facilitated with Southern Black and White older adults with questions on successful aging, using content analysis to interpret the findings. Four central themes were found: Connecting and Relating; Temporality; Perception and Interpretation; and Activity. Beliefs and decisions about managing oneself through life events, including health problems and disability, may have a major influence on the trajectory of progressive, chronic illness, and consequently, successful aging.

  20. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  1. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  2. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P < 0.001). γH2Ax showed a similar, although attenuated difference among groups (P = 0.03). Expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and p16 suggested induction of senescence mechanisms in glia. Oxidative DNA damage and a DNA damage response are features of WML pathogenesis and suggest candidate mechanisms for glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined.

  3. Regional staging of white matter signal abnormalities in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindemer, Emily R; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce R; Augustinack, Jean C; Salat, David H

    2017-01-01

    White matter lesions, quantified as 'white matter signal abnormalities' (WMSA) on neuroimaging, are common incidental findings on brain images of older adults. This tissue damage is linked to cerebrovascular dysfunction and is associated with cognitive decline. The regional distribution of WMSA throughout the cerebral white matter has been described at a gross scale; however, to date no prior study has described regional patterns relative to cortical gyral landmarks which may be important for understanding functional impact. Additionally, no prior study has described how regional WMSA volume scales with total global WMSA. Such information could be used in the creation of a pathologic 'staging' of WMSA through a detailed regional characterization at the individual level. Magnetic resonance imaging data from 97 cognitively-healthy older individuals (OC) aged 52-90 from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study were processed using a novel WMSA labeling procedure described in our prior work. WMSA were quantified regionally using a procedure that segments the cerebral white matter into 35 bilateral units based on proximity to landmarks in the cerebral cortex. An initial staging was performed by quantifying the regional WMSA volume in four groups based on quartiles of total WMSA volume (quartiles I-IV). A consistent spatial pattern of WMSA accumulation was observed with increasing quartile. A clustering procedure was then used to distinguish regions based on patterns of scaling of regional WMSA to global WMSA. Three patterns were extracted that showed high, medium, and non-scaling with global WMSA. Regions in the high-scaling cluster included periventricular, caudal and rostral middle frontal, inferior and superior parietal, supramarginal, and precuneus white matter. A data-driven staging procedure was then created based on patterns of WMSA scaling and specific regional cut-off values from the quartile analyses. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease

  4. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  5. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Richard A; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; McGuire, Philip K

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict.

  6. Quantitative fiber tracking of lateral and interhemispheric white matter systems in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Edith V.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of white matter, as measured in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is disrupted in normal aging. A current consensus is that in adults advancing age affects anterior brain regions disproportionately more than posterior regions; however, the mainstay of studies supporting this anterior-posterior gradient is based primarily on measures of the corpus callosum. Using our quantitative fiber tracking approach, we assessed fiber tract integrity of samples of major white matter cortical, subcortical, interhemispheric, and cerebellar systems (11 bilateral and 2 callosal) on DTI data collected at 1.5 T magnet strength. Participants were 55 men (age 20-78 years) and 65 women (age 28-81 years), deemed healthy and cognitively intact following interview and behavioral testing. Fiber integrity was measured as orientational diffusion coherence (fractional anisotropy, FA) and magnitude of diffusion, which was quantified separately for longitudinal diffusivity (λL), an index of axonal length or number, and transverse diffusivity (λT), an index of myelin integrity. Aging effects were more evident in diffusivity than FA measures. Men and women, examined separately, showed similar age-related increases in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in fibers of the internal and external capsules bilaterally and the fornix. FA was lower and diffusivity higher in anterior than posterior fibers of regional paired comparisons (genu versus splenium and frontal versus occipital forceps). Diffusivity with older age was generally greater or FA lower in the superior than inferior fiber systems (longitudinal fasciculi, cingulate bundles), with little to no evidence for age-related degradation in pontine or cerebellar systems. The most striking sex difference emerged for the corpus callosum, for which men showed significant decline in FA and increase in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in the genu but not splenium. By contrast, in women the age effect was present in both

  7. White matter tract covariance patterns predict age-declining cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Yunglin; Bowman, F. DuBois; Razlighi, Qolamreza R.; O’Shea, Deirdre; Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship of white matter (WM) integrity to cognitive abilities and aging and have either focused on a global measure or a few selected WM tracts. Ideally, contribution from all of the WM tracts should be evaluated at the same time. However, the high collinearity among WM tracts precludes systematic examination of WM tracts simultaneously without sacrificing statistical power due to stringent multiple-comparison corrections. Multivariate covariance techniques enable comprehensive simultaneous examination of all WM tracts without being penalized for high collinearity among observations. Method In this study, Scaled Subprofile Modeling (SSM) was applied to the mean integrity of 18 major WM tracts to extract covariance patterns that optimally predicted four cognitive abilities (perceptual speed, episodic memory, fluid reasoning, and vocabulary) in 346 participants across ages 20 to 79 years old. Using expression of the covariance patterns, age-independent effects of white matter integrity on cognition and the indirect effect of WM integrity on age-related differences in cognition were tested separately, but inferences from the indirect analyses were cautiously made given cross-sectional data set was used in the analysis. Results A separate covariance pattern was identified that significantly predicted each cognitive ability after controlling for age except for vocabulary, but Age by WM covariance pattern interactions were not significant for any of the three abilities. Furthermore, each of the patterns mediated the effect of age on the respective cognitive ability. A distinct set of WM tracts was most influential in each of the three patterns. The WM covariance pattern accounting for fluid reasoning showed the most number of influential WM tracts whereas the episodic memory pattern showed the least number. Conclusion Specific patterns of WM tracts make significant contributions to the age-related differences in perceptual speed

  8. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  9. White Dwarfs and the Age of our Galaxy: A Professional Development Workshop for Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Armosky, B. J.; Kilic, M.; Shipman, H.; von Hippel, T.

    2005-12-01

    The first of a planned series of workshops for secondary school science teachers was conducted at McDonald Observatory in 2005. In preparation for the workshop, new instructional materials on white dwarfs and the age of our Galaxy were prepared and pilot-tested. Thirteen teachers from Arizona, Delaware, and Texas performed these standards-aligned activities at the workshop in preparation for using them within their own classrooms. During four nights of observing, the participants made CCD-images at the 0.8-m telescope and reduced the data with personal computers using easily available image reduction software. Working in teams, they created a color-magnitude diagram for an open cluster and found several white dwarf candidates within the cluster. With guidance, they used the work of the White Dwarf Luminosity Function Collaboration, which fostered this workshop, to estimate the age of the Galaxy. The workshop included tours of other observatory facilities, practical exercises with small telescopes, and time to reflect on their own teaching practices. Evaluation on the workshop and the use of the instructional materials is continuing. Support from the National Science Foundation (AST 0307315), National Science FoundationsDistinguished Teaching Scholars Program (DUE-0306557), and The National Aeronautics and Space Administration under an Education and Public Outreach supplement to Grant/Contract/Agreement No. NAG5-13070 issued through the Office of Space Science is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Aging White Matter and Cognition: Differential Effects of Regional Variations in Diffusion Properties on Memory, Executive Functions, and Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on…

  11. Comparison of TW1 and TW2 skeletal age differences in American black and white and in Mexican children 6-13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Little, B B

    1981-01-01

    Differences in Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) skeletal ages as derived from the original (TW1) and revised (TW2) systems were compared in three ethnically different samples of children 6-13 years of age: mixed longitudinal samples of American White and Black children for Philadelphia, and a cross-sectional samples of Mexican children from Oaxaca in southern Mexico. TW2 skeletal ages are, on average, consistently lower than TW1 skeletal ages. Within a given chronological age and sex group, the differences are similar in terms of means and variation about the means in better-off children, both black and White in Philadelphia and in disadvantaged Mexican children.

  12. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  13. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  14. Integrity of normal-appearing white matter: Influence of age, visible lesion burden and hypertension in patients with small-vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Chappell, Francesca M; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Armitage, Paul A; Makin, Stephen D; Heye, Anna K; Thrippleton, Michael J; Sakka, Eleni; Shuler, Kirsten; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities accumulate with age and occur in patients with stroke, but their pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured multiple magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of tissue integrity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities in patients with mild stroke, to improve understanding of white matter hyperintensities origins. We classified white matter into white matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter and measured fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, water content (T1-relaxation time) and blood-brain barrier leakage (signal enhancement slope from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging). We studied the effects of age, white matter hyperintensities burden (Fazekas score) and vascular risk factors on each biomarker, in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities, and performed receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis. Amongst 204 patients (34.3-90.9 years), all biomarkers differed between normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities ( P < 0.001). In normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities, mean diffusivity and T1 increased with age ( P < 0.001), all biomarkers varied with white matter hyperintensities burden ( P < 0.001; P = 0.02 signal enhancement slope), but only signal enhancement slope increased with hypertension ( P = 0.028). Fractional anisotropy showed complex age-white matter hyperintensities-tissue interactions; enhancement slope showed white matter hyperintensities-tissue interactions. Mean diffusivity distinguished white matter hyperintensities from normal-appearing white matter best at all ages. Blood-brain barrier leakage increases with hypertension and white matter hyperintensities burden at all ages in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities, whereas water mobility and content increase as tissue damage accrues, suggesting that blood-brain barrier leakage

  15. Poverty, race, and hospitalization for childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Wissow, L S; Gittelsohn, A M; Szklo, M; Starfield, B; Mussman, M

    1988-01-01

    This study uses Maryland hospital discharge data for the period 1979-82 to determine whether Black children are more likely to be hospitalized for asthma and whether this difference persists after adjustment for poverty. The average annual asthma discharge rate was 1.95/1000 children aged 1-19; 3.75/1000 for Black children, and 1.25/1000 for White. Medicaid-enrolled children of both races had increased discharge rates for asthma compared to those whose care was paid for by other sources: 5.68/1000 vs 2.99/1000 for Blacks, and 3.10/1000 vs 1.11/1000 for Whites. When ecologic analyses were performed, populations of Black and White children had nearly equal asthma discharge rates after adjustment for poverty. The statewide adjusted rate was 2.70/1000 (95% CL = 1.93, 3.78) for Black children and 2.10/1000 (1.66, 2.66) for White children. Among Maryland counties and health planning districts, variation in asthma discharge rates was not associated with the supply of hospital beds or the population to primary-care physician ratio. We conclude that Black children are at increased risk of hospitalization for asthma, but that some or all of this increase is related to poverty rather than to race. PMID:3381951

  16. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  17. Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, José I.

    2006-11-01

    Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

  18. Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; MacPherson, Sarah E; Ferguson, Karen J; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Hernández, Maria Del C Valdés; Bastin, Mark E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-12-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. However, many studies are cross-sectional or have relatively short follow-up periods, making it difficult to relate GCs directly to changes in cognitive ability with increasing age. Moreover, studies combining endocrine, MRI and cognitive variables are scarce, measurement methods vary considerably, and formal tests of the underlying causal hypothesis (cortisol→brain→cognition) are absent. In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years, provided measures of fluid intelligence, processing speed and memory, diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol and two measures of white matter (WM) structure (WM hyperintensity volume from structural MRI and mean diffusivity averaged across 12 major tracts from diffusion tensor MRI), hippocampal volume, and also cognitive ability at age 11. We tested whether negative relationships between cognitive ageing differences (over more than 60 years) and salivary cortisol were significantly mediated by WM and hippocampal volume. Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73 (r=-.28 to -.36, p<.05) were partially mediated by both WM structural measures, but not hippocampal volume. Cortisol-WM relationships were modest, as was the degree to which WM structure attenuated cortisol-cognition associations (<15%). These data support the hypothesis that GCs contribute to cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain WM structure.

  19. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  20. Microembolism Induces Anhedonia but No Detectable Changes in White Matter Integrity in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Christina L.; Gutman, David A.; Majeed, Waqas; Keilholz, Shella D.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Microvascular disease leads to alterations of cerebral vasculature including the formation of microembolic (ME) strokes. Though ME are associated with changes in mood and the severity and progression of cognitive decline, the effect of ME strokes on cerebral microstructure and its relationship to behavioral endpoints is unknown. Here, we used adult and aged male rats to test the hypotheses that ME lesions result in subtle changes to white and gray matter integrity as detected by high-throughput diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and that these structural disruptions correspond to behavioral deficits. Two weeks post-surgery, aged animals showed depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose consumption test in the absence of altered cerebral diffusivity as assessed by ex-vivo DTI. Furthermore, DTI indices did not correlate with the degree of behavioral disruption in aged animals or in a subset of animals with observed tissue cavitation and subtle DTI alterations. Together, data suggest that behavioral deficits are not the result of damage to brain regions or white matter tracts, rather the activity of other systems may underlie functional disruption and recovery. PMID:24811070

  1. Age-Associated Alterations in Corpus Callosum White Matter Integrity in Bipolar Disorder Assessed Using Probabilistic Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Toteja, Nitin; Cokol, Perihan Guvenek; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Kafantaris, Vivian; Peters, Bart D.; Burdick, Katherine E.; John, Majnu; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Atypical age-associated changes in white matter integrity may play a role in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder, but no studies have examined the major white matter tracts using nonlinear statistical modeling across a wide age range in this disorder. The goal of this study was to identify possible deviations in the typical pattern of age-associated changes in white matter integrity in patients with bipolar disorder across the age range of 9 to 62 years. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 57 (20M/37F) patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 57 (20M/37F) age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were computed for the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, two projection tracts, and five association tracts using probabilistic tractography. Results Overall, patients had lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity compared to healthy volunteers across all tracts (while controlling for the effects of age and age2). In addition, there were greater age-associated increases in mean diffusivity in patients compared to healthy volunteers within the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum beginning in the second and third decades of life. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for alterations in the typical pattern of white matter development in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy volunteers. Changes in white matter development within the corpus callosum may lead to altered inter-hemispheric communication that is considered integral to the neurobiology of the disorder. PMID:25532972

  2. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  3. Sharing Race, the Personal, and the Political from Multiple Social Locations at an HBCU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Mazhani, Tjazha

    2009-01-01

    Aline Gubrium, a young White woman teaching Introduction To Comparative Women's Studies at a historically Black women's college, and Tjazha Mazhani, a young Black woman who has taken Gubrium's course, enact a play--about their multiple positions and perspectives (in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, age, and rank) in the pedagogical process of…

  4. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years

  5. Learning and Living While Black: Black Students, White Universities, and the Age of Post-Affirmative Action and Post-Racialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    With Critical Race Theory (CRT) and social justice serving as complementary conceptual frames, this ethnographic study investigates the learning and living experiences of ten African American students of a predominantly White university in the Midwest. While several studies have investigated Black students' experiences at PWIs, most notably…

  6. Pre-teen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at age 18-19: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, BMI (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9-10. We hypothesized that pre-teen insulin and insulin resistance (IR) would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Further, we hypothesized that increased insulin and IR, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Patients and Methods: Prospective 10-yr follow-up of 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. Results: When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9-10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9-10, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19. Black girls consumed a greater percent of calories from fat throughout. At age 19, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9-10 for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and greater fat free mass. By ages 18-19, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by age 9-10 BMI, 10 year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between age 9-10 insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls), all p <.0001. Conclusions: Insulin at ages 9-10 interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9-10 could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from

  7. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  8. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism.

  9. Effect of ethnicity and race on cognitive and language testing at 18 – 22 months in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andrea Freeman; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Das, Abhik; Lowe, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of race/ethnicity to cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd edition (BSID-III) in extremely preterm toddlers (<28+0 weeks’ estimated gestational age). Study design Extremely preterm toddlers at NICHD Neonatal Research Network Centers evaluated at 18–22 months adjusted age from 3 race/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic-White) were included in this cohort study. Multivariable regression modeling was used to identify race/ethnic differences adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Children included 369 Whites, 352 Blacks and 144 Hispanic-Whites. Cognitive scores differed between groups in unadjusted analysis (p=<0.001), but not after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors (p=0.13). Language scores differed in adjusted and unadjusted analyses. Whites scored higher than Blacks or Hispanic-Whites, and Blacks scored higher than Hispanic-Whites. Conclusions A combination of medical variables and primary caretaker education accounted for differences in BSID-III cognitive scores between groups. Black and Hispanic-White toddlers had lower language scores than Whites, even after adjustment. Early intervention should be targeted to these identified risk factors. Assessment of early language development among minority groups may be warranted. PMID:22269248

  10. Reduced Frontal Cortex Efficiency is Associated with Lower White Matter Integrity in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zude; Johnson, Nathan F.; Kim, Chobok; Gold, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Increased frontal cortex activation during cognitive task performance is common in aging but remains poorly understood. Here we explored patterns of age-related frontal brain activations under multiple task performance conditions and their relationship to white matter (WM) microstructure. Groups of younger (N = 28) and older (N = 33) participants completed a task-switching paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed, and rested while diffusion tensor imaging was performed. Results from fMRI analyses indicated age-related increases in frontal brain activations under conditions of poorer performance in the older group (the nonswitch and switch conditions) and for a contrast in which behavioral performance was equated (older group nonswitch condition vs. younger group switch condition). Within the older adult group, higher frontal activation was associated with poorer behavioral performance under all task conditions. In 2 regions in right frontal cortex, blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) magnitudes were negatively correlated with WM integrity in tracts connecting these structures with other task-relevant frontoparietal and striatal regions. Our results link age-related declines in the efficiency of frontal cortex functioning with lower WM integrity in aging. PMID:23960206

  11. The contribution of social and environmental factors to race differences in dental services use.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Colby H; Bowie, Janice V; Gaskin, Darrell J; LaVeist, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2015-06-01

    Dental services use is a public health issue that varies by race. African Americans are less likely than whites to make use of these services. While several explanations exist, little is known about the role of segregation in understanding this race difference. Most research does not account for the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and segregation. Using cross-sectional data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study, we examined the relationship between race and dental services use. Our primary outcome of interest was dental services use within 2 years. Our main independent variable was self-identified race. Of the 1408 study participants, 59.3% were African American. More African Americans used dental services within 2 years than whites. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, income, education, insurance, self-rated health, and number of comorbidities, African Americans had greater odds of having used services (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.16, 1.89) within 2 years. Within this low-income racially integrated sample, African Americans participated in dental services more than whites. Place of living is an important factor to consider when seeking to understand race differences in dental service use.

  12. Race, Ethnicity, and Sex Affect Risk for Polyps Greater than 9 mm in Average-risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, David A.; Williams, J. Lucas; Holub, Jennifer L.; Morris, Cynthia D.; Logan, Judith R.; Eisen, Glenn M.; Carney, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Colorectal cancer risk differs based on patient demographics. We aimed to measure the prevalence of significant colorectal polyps in average-risk individuals and to determine differences based on age, sex, race, or ethnicity. Methods In a prospective study, colonoscopy data were collected, using an endoscopic report generator, from 327,785 average-risk adults who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 84 gastrointestinal practice sites from 2000 to 2011. Demographic characteristics included age, sex, race, and ethnicity. The primary outcome was the presence of suspected malignancy or large polyp(s) >9 mm. The benchmark risk for age to initiate screening was based on white men, 50–54 years old. Results Risk of large polyps and tumors increased progressively in men and women with age. Women had lower risks than men in every age group, regardless of race. Blacks had higher risk than whites from ages 50 through 65 years and Hispanics had lower risk than whites from ages 50 through 80 years. The prevalence of large polyps was 6.2% in white men 50–54 years old. The risk was similar among the groups of white women 65–69 years old, Black women 55–59 years old, Black men 50–54 years old, Hispanic women 70–74 years old, and Hispanic men 55–59 years old. The risk of proximal large polyps increased with age, female sex, and Black race. Conclusions There are differences in the prevalence and location of large polyp and tumors in average-risk individuals based on age, sex, race, and ethnicity. These findings could be used to select ages at which specific groups should begin colorectal cancer screening. PMID:24786894

  13. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  14. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions.

  15. [Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome after 50 yars of age. Clinical and electrophysiological data].

    PubMed

    Lévy, S; Borde, C; Dupon, J; Bémurat, M; Gérard, R; Bricaud, H

    1980-07-01

    The Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is usually observed in young people and is much rarer in patients over 50 years old. This fact may be explained by the demise of a certain number of patients before the age of 50 and/or a change in the clinical features of the syndrome with age and/or of the electrophysiological properties of the normal and accessory conduction pathways. To test the latter hypothesis, the clinical and electrophysiological data of 15 patients over 50 years old with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (Group I) were compared with that of 10 patients under 30 years old with the same syndrome (Group II). The same protocol of electrophysiological investigation was used in both groups of patients. The results showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the two groups in the incidence of associated cardiac disease. This was more common in Group I (1 4 out of 15 patients) than in Group II (2 out of 10 patients). The cardiothoracic ratio was significantly higher in Group I (p < 0.01). The two groups also differed in the age at which tachycardia first occured. 9 out of 11 patients in Group I only had symptoms after thirty years. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the types of tachycardia and the frequency of attacks. There was no significant difference in QRS, PR, AH, HV intervals, in the ventriculo-atrial conduction time and the effective refractory periods of the atrium, right ventricle or atrio-ventricular node. There was no significant difference in the anterograde and retrograde refractory periods of the accessory pathways between the two groups. Reciprocating tachycardia, initiated by electrical stimulation in 7 patients in Group I and 6 patients in Group II, was conducted anterogradely to the ventricles through the normal pathway and retrogradely to the atria through the the accessory pathway. This study suggest that age-related changes in the electrophysiological properties of the accessory are not an important

  16. Race of Student and Nonverbal Behavior of Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    White and black subjects, playing the role of teacher, were led to praise verbally a white or black student. It was hypothesized that the race of the student would affect the nonverbal behavior of the teacher. White and black judges, blind to the race of the students and to the hypothesis of the study, rated how pleased the facial expressions of…

  17. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  18. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  19. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population.

  20. Profiles of Youth. 1971 White House Conference on Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Youth, Washington, DC.

    This resource book is a compilation of data about youth which was prepared for the participants of the White House Conference on Youth. The tabular data are divided into eleven sections. In the first section, the youth population, ages 14 through 24, is contrasted with the general population with respect to geographic location, race, marital…

  1. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  2. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  3. White LED compared with other light sources: age-dependent photobiological effects and parameters for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rebec, Katja Malovrh; Klanjšek-Gunde, Marta; Bizjak, Grega; Kobav, Matej B

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic science at work and living places should appraise human factors concerning the photobiological effects of lighting. Thorough knowledge on this subject has been gained in the past; however, few attempts have been made to propose suitable evaluation parameters. The blue light hazard and its influence on melatonin secretion in age-dependent observers is considered in this paper and parameters for its evaluation are proposed. New parameters were applied to analyse the effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources and to compare them with the currently applied light sources. The photobiological effects of light sources with the same illuminance but different spectral power distribution were determined for healthy 4-76-year-old observers. The suitability of new parameters is discussed. Correlated colour temperature, the only parameter currently used to assess photobiological effects, is evaluated and compared to new parameters.

  4. Regional, racial, and gender differences in colorectal cancer screening in middle-aged African-Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Suzuki, Rie

    2012-12-01

    African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening.

  5. Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Johnson, Nathan F; Powell, David K

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging.

  6. White noise and synchronization shaping the age structure of the human population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, Stanislaw; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Kula, Mateusz

    2007-06-01

    We have modified the standard diploid Penna model of ageing in such a way that instead of threshold of defective loci resulting in genetic death of individuals, the fluctuation of environment and "personal" fluctuations of individuals were introduced. The sum of the both fluctuations describes the health status of the individual. While environmental fluctuations are the same for all individuals in the population, the personal component of fluctuations is composed of fluctuations corresponding to each physiological function (gene, genetic locus). It is rather accepted hypothesis that physiological parameters of any organism fluctuate highly nonlinearly. Transition to the synchronized behaviors could be a very strong diagnostic signal of the life threatening disorder. Thus, in our model, mutations of genes change the chaotic fluctuations representing the function of a wild gene to the synchronized signals generated by mutated genes. Genes are switched on chronologically, like in the standard Penna model. Accumulation of defective genes predicted by Medawar's theory of ageing leads to the replacement of uncorrelated white noise corresponding to the healthy organism by the correlated signals of defective functions. As a result we have got the age distribution of population corresponding to the human demographic data.

  7. Quantitative T2 mapping of white matter: applications for ageing and cognitive decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Tsivos, Demitra; Dillon, Serena; Coulthard, Elizabeth; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2016-08-01

    In MRI, the coherence lifetime T2 is sensitive to the magnetic environment imposed by tissue microstructure and biochemistry in vivo. Here we explore the possibility that the use of T2 relaxometry may provide information complementary to that provided by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ageing of healthy controls (HC), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). T2 and diffusion MRI metrics were quantified in HC and patients with MCI and mild AD using multi-echo MRI and DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to evaluate quantitative MRI parameters in white matter (WM). A prolonged T2 in WM was associated with AD, and able to distinguish AD from MCI, and AD from HC. Shorter WM T2 was associated with better cognition and younger age in general. In no case was a reduction in T2 associated with poorer cognition. We also applied principal component analysis, showing that WM volume changes independently of  T2, MRI diffusion indices and cognitive performance indices. Our data add to the evidence that age-related and AD-related decline in cognition is in part attributable to WM tissue state, and much less to WM quantity. These observations suggest that WM is involved in AD pathology, and that T2 relaxometry is a potential imaging modality for detecting and characterising WM in cognitive decline and dementia.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Mindfulness Meditation on Brain's White Matter Microstructure and its Aging

    PubMed Central

    Laneri, Davide; Schuster, Verena; Dietsche, Bruno; Jansen, Andreas; Ott, Ulrich; Sommer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Although research on the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) is increasing, still very little has been done to address its influence on the white matter (WM) of the brain. We hypothesized that the practice of MM might affect the WM microstructure adjacent to five brain regions of interest associated with mindfulness. Diffusion tensor imaging was employed on samples of meditators and non-meditators (n = 64) in order to investigate the effects of MM on group difference and aging. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to estimate the fractional anisotrophy of the WM connected to the thalamus, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The subsequent generalized linear model analysis revealed group differences and a group-by-age interaction in all five selected regions. These data provide preliminary indications that the practice of MM might result in WM connectivity change and might provide evidence on its ability to help diminish age-related WM degeneration in key regions which participate in processes of mindfulness. PMID:26834624

  9. Lifelong Bilingualism Contributes to Cognitive Reserve against White Matter Integrity Declines in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Brian T.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Powell, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N = 20) and monolinguals (N = 20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging. PMID:24103400

  10. "Are You Gonna Show This to White People?": Chicana/o and Latina/o Students' Counter-Narratives on Race, Place, and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the recurring narratives on race, place and representation that emerged in the talk of Chicana/o and Latina/o sixth-graders at a middle school in East Los Angeles, California. Discourse analytic methods are used to closely examine how these narratives were constructed within the contexts of everyday classroom interactions.…

  11. The age-testosterone relationship in black, white, and Mexican-American men, and reasons for ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies give contradictory findings regarding testosterone levels in white, black, and Hispanic men. Here, I present a cross-sectional reanalysis of serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 1637 males, aged 12-90, who participated in the morning examination of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) during the year 1988-1991. Testosterone and SHBG in males are described precisely over the age range 12 to 90 years. Testosterone and SHBG are not notably different in white and Mexican-American (MA) males. In the age range 20-69 years, black men average 0.39 ng/ml higher testosterone than white and MA men (p < 0.001). The higher testosterone in black men is partly explained by low marriage rate and low adiposity.

  12. Does White Matter Matter? Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Task Switching in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Gabriele; Wee, Emily; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I.; Leaver, Echo E.; Fabiani, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Older adults often encounter difficulties in switching between tasks, perhaps because of age-related decreases in executive function. Executive function may largely depend on connections between brain areas—connections that may become structurally and functionally weaker in aging. Here we investigated functional and structural age-related changes in switching between a spatial and a verbal task. These tasks were chosen because they are expected to differentially use the two hemispheres. Brain measures included anatomical information about anterior corpus callosum size (CC; the major commissure linking the left and right hemisphere), and the event-related optical signal (EROS). Behavioral results indicated that older adults had greater task-switching difficulties, which, however, were largely restricted to switching to the spatial task and to individuals with smaller anterior CCs. The EROS data showed both general switching-related activity in the left middle frontal gyrus (with approximately 300-msec latency) and task-specific activity in the inferior frontal gyrus, lateralized to the left for the switch-to-verbal condition and to the right for the switch-to-spatial condition. This lateralization was most evident in younger adults. In older adults, activity in the switch-to-spatial condition was lateralized to the right hemisphere in individuals with large CC, and to the left in individuals with small CC. These data suggest that (a) task switching may involve both task-general and task-specific processes; and (b) white matter changes may underlie some of the age-related problems in switching. These effects are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that aging involves some degree of cortical disconnection, both functional and anatomical. PMID:18752402

  13. Genetics of ageing-related changes in brain white matter integrity - a review.

    PubMed

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C; Mather, Karen A; Wen, Wei; Schofield, Peter R; Kwok, John B J; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2013-01-01

    White matter (WM) plays a vital role in the efficient transfer of information between grey matter regions. Modern imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have enabled the examination of WM microstructural changes across the lifespan, but there is limited knowledge about the role genetics plays in the pattern and aetiology of age-related WM microstructural changes. Family and twin studies suggest that the heritability of WM integrity measures changes over the lifespan, with the common DTI measure, fractional anisotropy (FA), showing moderate to high heritability in adults. However, few heritability studies have been undertaken in older adults. Linkage studies in middle-aged adults suggest that specific regions on chromosomes 3 and 15 may harbour genetic variants for WM integrity. A number of studies have investigated candidate genes, with the APOE ɛ4 polymorphism being the most frequently studied. Although these candidate gene studies suggest associations of particular genes with WM integrity measures in some specific brain regions, the findings remain inconsistent due to differences in their methodologies, samples and the outcome measures used. The APOE ɛ4 allele has been associated with decreased WM integrity (FA) in the cingulum, corpus callosum and parahippocampal gyrus. Only one genome-wide association study of global WM integrity measures in older adults has been published, and reported suggestive single nucleotide polymorphisms await replication. Overall, genetic age-related WM integrity studies are lacking and a concerted effort to examine the genetic determinants of age-related decline in WM integrity is clearly needed to improve our understanding of the ageing brain.

  14. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  15. Differences in initial stroke severity between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites vary by age: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeffrey J.; Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Smith, Melinda A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide variety of racial and ethnic disparities in stroke epidemiology and treatment have been reported. Race-ethnic differences in initial stroke severity may be one important determinant of differences in outcome after stroke. The overall goal of this study was to move beyond ethnic comparisons in the mean or median severity, and instead investigate ethnic differences in the entire distribution of initial stroke severity. Additionally, we investigated whether age modifies the relationship between ethnicity and initial stroke severity as this may be an important determinant of racial differences in outcome after stroke. Methods Ischemic stroke cases were identified from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was determined from the medical record or abstracted from the chart. Ethnicity was reported as Mexican American (MA) or non-Hispanic white (NHW). Quantile regression was used to model the distribution of NIHSS score by age category (45–59, 60–74, 75+) to test whether ethnic differences exist over different quantiles of NIHSS (5 percentile increments). Crude models examined the interaction between age category and ethnicity; models were then adjusted for history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4,366 ischemic strokes, with median age 72 years (IQR: 61–81), 55% MA and median NIHSS of 4 (IQR: 2–8). MAs were younger, more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have atrial fibrillation compared to NHWs. In the crude model, the ethnicity-age interaction was not statistically significant. After adjustment, the ethnicity-age interaction became significant at the 85th and 95th percentiles of NIHSS distribution. MAs in the younger age category (45–59) were significantly less

  16. Engaging White College Students in Productive Conversations about Race and Racism: Avoiding Dominant-Culture Projection and Condescension-Judgment Default

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deKoven, Aram

    2011-01-01

    Conversations about racism and White privilege are rarely easy, but are necessary in order to have a more equitable society. Through honest and properly facilitated dialogues, people can work through their prejudices toward other people. In this article the author explores two ways in which White preservice educators inadvertently halt classroom…

  17. DIXIE TEACHERS REPORT THEIR PUPILS LEARN WELL IN MIXED-RACE SCHOOLS. NEGRO STUDENTS LAG AT FIRST BUT STUDY HARD TO CATCH UP WITH WHITES, THEY SAY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TANNER, JAMES C.

    INCLUDED ARE NUMEROUS EXAMPLES SHOWING THAT THE SOUTHERN SEGREGATIONISTS' ARGUMENTS AGAINST SCHOOL INTEGRATION ARE FACTUALLY UNFOUNDED. IN MOST INSTANCES THE PERFORMANCE OF BOTH NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS HAS INCREASED MARKEDLY WHEN SCHOOLS ARE INTEGRATED. INITIALLY, NEGRO STUDENTS ARE USUALLY BEHIND THEIR WHITE COUNTERPARTS BY 1 OR 2 YEARS, BUT…

  18. Maternal race, demography and health care disparities impact risk for IVH in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Lin, Aiping; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Zhang, Heping; O’Shea, T. Michael; Bada, Henrietta S.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.; Lifton, Richard P.; Bauer, Charles R.; Ment, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether risk factors associated with Grade (Gr) 2–4 intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) differs between African ancestry and white subjects. Study design Inborn, appropriate for gestational age (GA) infants with birth weights (BW) 500–1250 grams and exposed to >1 dose of antenatal steroids were enrolled in 24 neonatal intensive care units. Cases had Gr 2–4 IVH and controls matched for site, race and BW range had 2 normal ultrasounds read centrally. Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified factors associated with IVH across African ancestry and white race. Results Subjects included 579 African ancestry or white race infants with Gr 2–4 IVH and 532 controls. Mothers of African ancestry children were less educated, and white case mothers were more likely to have > 1 prenatal visit and have a multiple gestation (P ≤.01 for all). Increasing GA (P =.01), preeclampsia (P < .001), complete antenatal steroid exposure (P = .02), cesarean delivery (P < .001) and white race (P = .01) were associated with decreased risk for IVH. Chorioamnionitis (P = .01), Apgar< 3 at 5 min (P < .004), surfactant (P < .001) and high frequency ventilation (P < .001) were associated with increased risk for IVH. Among African ancestry infants, having >1 prenatal visit was associated with decreased risk (P = .02). Among white infants, multiple gestation was associated with increased risk (P < .001) and higher maternal education with decreased IVH risk (P < .05). Conclusion Risk for IVH differs between African ancestry and white infants and may be attributable to both race and health care disparities. PMID:24589078

  19. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie…

  20. Predictors of race-day jockey falls in jumps racing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hitchens, P; Blizzard, L; Jones, G; Day, L; Fell, J

    2011-05-01

    Thoroughbred jumps racing jockeys have a fall rate greater than their flat racing counterparts. Previous studies have focused on factors that contribute to falls by horses but, to date, there has not been a study of risk factors for falls to jockeys in jumps races. Data on race-day falls were extracted from stipendiary stewards reports lodged with Principal Racing Authorities following each race meeting. Denominator data were provided by Racing Information Services Australia on races conducted from August 2002 until July 2009. Univariable and multivariable analyses, estimating incidence rate ratios, were conducted using Poisson regression. In multivariable analysis in hurdle racing, important predictors of falls were higher club level, larger field size, greater prize money, provisionally licensed jockeys and older jockeys. There were significant interactions between jockey licence and prize money; jockey age and previous rides this meeting; race grade and race distance; horse age and field size; and club level and field size. In steeplechase racing, important predictors were type of jump with lowest fall rates in races over Mark III jumps compared to standard fences, provisionally licensed jockeys, jockeys having had previous rides at a meeting, and larger field size. There were significant interactions between the number of previous starts by the horse and field size; race distance and prize money; and race distance and previous rides this meeting. This study has identified factors for falls in jumps racing that could form the basis for targeted strategies to improve occupational health and safety standards.

  1. Multiple race reporting for children in a national health survey.

    PubMed

    Parker, J D; Lucas, J B

    2000-01-01

    The 1997 standard for race and ethnicity data from the Office of Management and Budget requires the collection of data for multiple race groups. The aims of this study were to compare characteristics of multiple race children and describe race reporting for children within interracial and multiple race families. Descriptive statistics were estimated using the 1993-1995 National Health Interview Surveys. In this time period, 2.6% of children had more than one race reported. Multiple race children were a diverse group who differed from each other and their single race counterparts. For example, the percent of children reported as both Black and White who lived in a two-parent household (58.9%), was significantly less than the corresponding percents for other multiple race children (65.8%-79.6%), and between the corresponding percents for single race Black (42.7%) and single race White children (83.2%). The relationships between parental race and child's race varied. Although 3.1% of children in two-parent households lived with interracial parents, fewer than half of these children had more than one race reported. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with child's reported race among interracial families. These findings indicate that generalizations about multiple race children for research or policy purposes will be problematic.

  2. White matter integrity supports BOLD signal variability and cognitive performance in the aging human brain.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing-moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)-to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network "hubs" that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity.

  3. White matter integrity of motor connections related to training gains in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Robert; Zimerman, Máximo; Timmermann, Jan E; Wessel, Maximilian J; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-06-01

    Impaired motor skill acquisition is a feature of older age. Acquisition of new motor skills requires the interplay between different cortical motor areas. Using diffusion tensor imaging we reconstructed cortico-cortical connections between the primary motor cortex (M1) and secondary motor areas in 11 older and 11 young participants who took part in a motor skill acquisition paradigm with the nondominant left hand. Examining the extent to which tract-related integrity correlated with training gains we found that white matter integrity of fibers connecting contralateral M1 with both contralateral (r = 0.85) and ipsilateral supplementary motor areas (r = 0.92) were positively associated in old participants. Also, fibers connecting contralateral M1 with ipsilateral dorsal premotor (r = 0.82) and fibers connecting ipsilateral dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area (r = 0.88) were positively related to skill acquisition (all p < 0.05). A similar structure-behavior relationship was not present in the young control subjects suggesting a critical role of brain structural integrity for motor learning in healthy aging.

  4. Failure to Modulate Attentional Control in Advanced Aging Linked to White Matter Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Shire, Emily H.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced aging is associated with reduced attentional control and less flexible information processing. Here, the origins of these cognitive effects were explored using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that systematically varied demands to shift attention and inhibit irrelevant information across task blocks. Prefrontal and parietal regions previously implicated in attentional control were recruited by the task and most so for the most demanding task configurations. A subset of older individuals did not modulate activity in frontal and parietal regions in response to changing task requirements. Older adults who did not dynamically modulate activity underperformed their peers and scored more poorly on neuropsychological measures of executive function and speed of processing. Examining 2 markers of preclinical pathology in older adults revealed that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), but not high amyloid burden, were associated with failure to modulate activity in response to changing task demands. In contrast, high amyloid burden was associated with alterations in default network activity. These results suggest failure to modulate frontal and parietal activity reflects a disruptive process in advanced aging associated with specific neuropathologic processes. PMID:21765181

  5. Serum immunoglobulins G, A and M in White and Black adults on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Shulman, G; Gilich, G C; Andrew, M J

    1975-07-12

    Blood donors and hospital inpatients of the same sex and race group showed similar concentrations of serum immunoglobulins G and M. Serum IgA levels were significantly higher in three of four hospital patient groups as compared with blood donor groups matched for sex and race. Age was shown to be responsible for this difference, since on average the blood donors were younger and analysis of all subjects in age groups showed a progressive rise in IgA with increasing age. Lower IgA levels occurred in women than in men of comparable age and race group. A sex difference with higher IgM levels in women was confirmed. All values in Black adults were much higher than in Whites. It is therefore of importance to consider the ranges of values for any individual's age, sex and race when interpreting results of serum immunoglobulin assay.

  6. Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randy E.; Wanta, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Examines, based on a survey, potential differences between races in the agenda-setting process. Finds that whites and minorities do not have different issue agendas and do not differ on the magnitude of agenda-setting effects. (TB)

  7. Nonverbal Behavior, Race, and the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Teachers are not always sensitive to the fact that students of different races may possess differing communicative codes. Differences between the nonverbal communication of blacks and whites are discussed. (CB)

  8. The Complexities of Conducting Ethnographic Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaas, Jongi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic race research in the context of the South African situation, forming part of my ethnographic race research PhD project, conducted in two historically white, single-sex schools in South Africa. First, it critically examines the theoretical dilemmas on crucial issues of…

  9. Examination of ancestral informative markers and self-reported race with tumor characteristics of breast cancer among Black and White women.

    PubMed

    Reding, Kerryn W; Carlson, Christopher S; Kahsai, Orsalem; Chen, Christina C; McDavid, Andrew; Doody, David R; Chen, Chu; Ornelas, India; Lowe, Kimberly; Bernstein, Leslie; Weiss, Linda; McDonald, Jill A; Simon, Michael S; Strom, Brian; Marchbanks, Polly A; Burkman, Ronald; Spirtas, Robert; Liff, Jonathan M; Malone, Kathleen E

    2012-07-01

    African American (AA) women have a higher mortality from breast cancer (BC) compared to European American (EA) women. This may be due to the higher proportion of AA women with tumors that are diagnosed at more advanced stages and are characterized as being estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-). Our study sought to determine whether self-reported race and percent African ancestry were associated with BC tumor characteristics. In a multi-center, population-based case-control study of BC, we determined percent African ancestry using ancestry informative markers (AIM) among women self-reporting race as AA or Black. BC tumor characteristics were associated with self-reported race (including a 30 % reduction in ER+/PR+ tumors [95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-0.9] and a 1.5-fold increased risk of high grade [95 % CI: 1.2-1.9] for AA women compared to EA women). AIMs among AA women were not associated with BC tumor characteristics (AA women with ≥95 % versus <80 % African ancestry, odds ratio [OR] = 1.0 for ER+/PR+ [95 % CI: 0.6-1.8] and OR = 0.9 for high-grade tumors [95 % CI: 0.6-1.4]). Similar findings were observed for BC stage. While BC subtypes were associated with self-reported race, BC subtypes were not associated with percent African ancestry. These study results suggest that subtle differences in percent African ancestry are less important than the overall presence of African ancestry in relation to BC tumor characteristics.

  10. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference.

  11. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew H.; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R.; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject’s whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  12. Race effects on conditioned pain modulation in youth

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Walker, Lynn; Bruehl, Stephen; Hellman, Natalie; Sherman, Amanda L.; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Race and ethnicity shape the experience of pain in adults, with African Americans typically exhibiting greater pain intensity and evoked pain responsiveness than Non-Hispanic Whites. However, it remains unclear whether there are racial differences in conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and if these are present in youth. CPM refers to a reduction in perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus and may be especially relevant in determining risk for chronic pain. The present study assessed CPM to evoked thermal pain in 78 healthy youth (ages 10 to 17), 51% of whom were African American and 49% were Non-Hispanic White. African-American youth reported lower mean conditioning pain ratings than Non-Hispanic White youth, controlling for mean pre-conditioning pain ratings, which is consistent with stronger CPM. Multilevel models demonstrated stronger CPM effects in African-American than Non-Hispanic White youth, as evident in more rapid within-person decreases in pain ratings during the conditioning phase. These findings suggest that diminished CPM likely does not account for the enhanced responsiveness to evoked thermal pain observed in African-American youth. These results may have implications for understanding racial differences in chronic pain experience in adulthood. Perspective This study evaluated conditioned pain modulation to evoked thermal pain in African-American and Non-Hispanic White youth. Findings could have implications for the development of personalized chronic pain treatment strategies that are informed by race and ethnicity. PMID:26086899

  13. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Health-Related and Medical Care Issues of the Elderly. Eighteen Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 18 papers on health-related and medical care issues of the elderly that were presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. The materials focus on the following topics: physical mobility, death, heart disease, nutrition, injury, senile dementia, post-menopausaul women, gerontological nursing, learning and memory,…

  14. The Role of White Matter Hyperintensities and Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Age-Related Executive Dysfunctioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Vogels, Raymond L. C.; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; Poggesi, Anna; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Various studies support an association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and deficits in executive function in nondemented ageing. Studies examining executive functions and WMH have generally adopted executive function as a phrase including various functions such as flexibility, inhibition, and working memory. However, these functions…

  15. Genetics of white matter development: a DTI study of 705 twins and their siblings aged 12 to 29.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    White matter microstructure is under strong genetic control, yet it is largely unknown how genetic influences change from childhood into adulthood. In one of the largest brain mapping studies ever performed, we determined whether the genetic control over white matter architecture depends on age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). We assessed white matter integrity voxelwise using diffusion tensor imaging at high magnetic field (4-Tesla), in 705 twins and their siblings (age range 12-29; 290 M/415 F). White matter integrity was quantified using a widely accepted measure, fractional anisotropy (FA). We fitted gene-environment interaction models pointwise, to visualize brain regions where age, sex, SES and IQ modulate heritability of fiber integrity. We hypothesized that environmental factors would start to outweigh genetic factors during late childhood and adolescence. Genetic influences were greater in adolescence versus adulthood, and greater in males than in females. Socioeconomic status significantly interacted with genes that affect fiber integrity: heritability was higher in those with higher SES. In people with above-average IQ, genetic factors explained over 80% of the observed FA variability in the thalamus, genu, posterior internal capsule, and superior corona radiata. In those with below-average IQ, however, only around 40% FA variability in the same regions was attributable to genetic factors. Genes affect fiber integrity, but their effects vary with age, sex, SES and IQ. Gene-environment interactions are vital to consider in the search for specific genetic polymorphisms that affect brain integrity and connectivity.

  16. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  17. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  18. The Impact of Drivers' Race, Gender, and Age during Traffic Stops: Assessing Interaction Terms and the Social Conditioning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Rob; Engel, Robin S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that minority drivers receive disparate traffic stop outcomes compared with similarly situated White drivers. This research, however, is often not grounded within a theoretical framework and fails to examine specific combinations of driver demographics. This study addresses those shortcomings by examining research…

  19. Nogo receptor blockade overcomes remyelination failure after white matter stroke and stimulates functional recovery in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Sozmen, Elif G.; Rosenzweig, Shira; Llorente, Irene L.; DiTullio, David J.; Machnicki, Michal; Vinters, Harry V.; Havton, Lief A.; Giger, Roman J.; Hinman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    White matter stroke is a distinct stroke subtype, accounting for up to 25% of stroke and constituting the second leading cause of dementia. The biology of possible tissue repair after white matter stroke has not been determined. In a mouse stroke model, white matter ischemia causes focal damage and adjacent areas of axonal myelin disruption and gliosis. In these areas of only partial damage, local white matter progenitors respond to injury, as oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) proliferate. However, OPCs fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) even in regions of demyelination with intact axons and instead divert into an astrocytic fate. Local axonal sprouting occurs, producing an increase in unmyelinated fibers in the corpus callosum. The OPC maturation block after white matter stroke is in part mediated via Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) signaling. In both aged and young adult mice, stroke induces NgR1 ligands and down-regulates NgR1 inhibitors during the peak OPC maturation block. Nogo ligands are also induced adjacent to human white matter stroke in humans. A Nogo signaling blockade with an NgR1 antagonist administered after stroke reduces the OPC astrocytic transformation and improves poststroke oligodendrogenesis in mice. Notably, increased white matter repair in aged mice is translated into significant poststroke motor recovery, even when NgR1 blockade is provided during the chronic time points of injury. These data provide a perspective on the role of NgR1 ligand function in OPC fate in the context of a specific and common type of stroke and show that it is amenable to systemic intervention to promote recovery. PMID:27956620

  20. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  1. White matter lesions and the cholinergic deficit in aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Richter, Nils; Michel, Anne; Onur, Oezguer A; Kracht, Lutz; Dietlein, Markus; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Neumaier, Bernd; Fink, Gereon R; Kukolja, Juraj

    2017-01-18

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), white matter lesions (WMLs) are associated with an increased risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, while memory deficits have, at least in part, been linked to a cholinergic deficit. We investigated the relationship between WML load assessed with the Scheltens scale, cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measured with [(11)C]N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate PET, and neuropsychological performance in 17 patients with MCI due to AD and 18 cognitively normal older participants. Only periventricular, not nonperiventricular, WML load negatively correlated with AChE activity in both groups. Memory performance depended on periventricular and total WML load across groups. Crucially, AChE activity predicted memory function better than WML load, gray matter atrophy, or age. The effects of WML load on memory were fully mediated by AChE activity. Data suggest that the contribution of WML to the dysfunction of the cholinergic system in MCI due to AD depends on WML distribution. Pharmacologic studies are warranted to explore whether this influences the response to cholinergic treatment.

  2. Elder mistreatment: priorities for consideration by the white house conference on aging.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, Karl; Connolly, Marie-Therese; Breckman, Risa; Spreng, Nathan; Lachs, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    Elder mistreatment is recognized internationally as a prevalent and growing problem, meriting the attention of policymakers, practitioners, and the general public. Studies have demonstrated that elder mistreatment is sufficiently widespread to be a major public health concern and that it leads to a range of negative physical, psychological, and financial outcomes. This article provides an overview of key issues related to the prevention and treatment of elder mistreatment, focusing on initiatives that can be addressed by the White House Conference on Aging. We review research on the extent of mistreatment and its consequences. We then propose 3 challenges in preventing and treating elder mistreatment that relate to improving research knowledge, creating a comprehensive service system, and developing effective policy. Under each challenge, examples are provided of promising initiatives that can be taken to eliminate mistreatment. To inform the recommendations, we employed recent data from the Elder Justice Roadmap Project, in which 750 stakeholders in the field of elder mistreatment were surveyed regarding research and policy priorities.

  3. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals' memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions - normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity.

  4. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions – normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  5. White Matter Integrity Supports BOLD Signal Variability and Cognitive Performance in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing–moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)—to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network “hubs” that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity. PMID:25853882

  6. White matter integrity and reaction time intraindividual variability in healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Balota, David A; Duchek, Janet M; Head, Denise

    2012-02-01

    Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the reaction time (RT) distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging.

  7. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2016-12-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are `natural' clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main-sequence companions. Since the progenitors of white dwarfs and the main-sequence stars were born at the same time, WDMS binaries provide a unique opportunity to observationally constrain in a robust way the properties of the AMR. In this work we present the AMR derived from analysing a pilot sample of 23 WDMS binaries and provide clear observational evidence for the lack of correlation between age and metallicity at young and intermediate ages (0-7 Gyr).

  8. Methionine requirements of male white Peking ducks from twenty-one to forty-nine days of age.

    PubMed

    Xie, M; Hou, S S; Huang, W

    2006-04-01

    A dose-response experiment with 6 dietary methionine levels (0.20, 0.275, 0.35, 0.425, 0.50, and 0.575%) was conducted with male White Peking ducklings to estimate the methionine requirement of growing ducks from 21 to 49 d of age. One-day-old male White Peking ducklings were fed common starter diets from hatching to 21 d of age and then fed the experimental diets from 21 to 49 d of age. Three hundred thirty-six 21-d-old birds were allotted to 24 pens with 14 birds per pen according to similar pen weight. There were 6 dietary treatments, each containing 4 replicate pens. At 49 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain of ducks from each pen were measured, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and leg meat (including thigh and drum stick). Significant effects of dietary methionine on weight gain, breast meat, and abdominal fat were observed. Both weight gain and breast meat yield showed significant quadratic response to increasing dietary methionine, and abdominal fat decreased linearly (P < 0.05). According to the quadratic model, the optimal methionine requirement of male White Peking ducks from 21 to 49 d of age for maximum weight gain and breast meat yield were 0.377 and 0.379%, respectively.

  9. Age-related changes in the topological organization of the white matter structural connectome across the human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tengda; Cao, Miao; Niu, Haijing; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Evans, Alan; He, Yong; Dong, Qi; Shu, Ni

    2015-10-01

    Lifespan is a dynamic process with remarkable changes in brain structure and function. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated age-related microstructural changes in specific white matter tracts during development and aging. However, the age-related alterations in the topological architecture of the white matter structural connectome across the human lifespan remain largely unknown. Here, a cohort of 113 healthy individuals (ages 9-85) with both diffusion and structural MRI acquisitions were examined. For each participant, the high-resolution white matter structural networks were constructed by deterministic fiber tractography among 1024 parcellation units and were quantified with graph theoretical analyses. The global network properties, including network strength, cost, topological efficiency, and robustness, followed an inverted U-shaped trajectory with a peak age around the third decade. The brain areas with the most significantly nonlinear changes were located in the prefrontal and temporal cortices. Different brain regions exhibited heterogeneous trajectories: the posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices displayed prolonged maturation/degeneration compared with the prefrontal cortices. Rich-club organization was evident across the lifespan, whereas hub integration decreased linearly with age, especially accompanied by the loss of frontal hubs and their connections. Additionally, age-related changes in structural connections were predominantly located within and between the prefrontal and temporal modules. Finally, based on the graph metrics of structural connectome, accurate predictions of individual age were obtained (r = 0.77). Together, the data indicated a dynamic topological organization of the brain structural connectome across human lifespan, which may provide possible structural substrates underlying functional and cognitive changes with age.

  10. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  11. Variation in child body mass index patterns by race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status in the United States and England.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Melissa L; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines body mass index (BMI) trajectories among children from different race/ethnic and maternal nativity backgrounds in the United States and England from early- to middle-childhood. This study is the first to examine race/ethnic and maternal nativity differences in BMI trajectories in both countries. We use two longitudinal birth cohort studies-The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 3,285) for the United States and the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 6,700) for England to estimate trajectories in child BMI by race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status using multilevel growth models. In the United States our sample includes white, black, and Hispanic children; in England the sample includes white, black, and Asian children. We find significant race/ethnic differences in the initial BMI and BMI trajectories of children in both countries, with all non-white groups having significantly steeper BMI growth trajectories than whites. Nativity differences in BMI trajectories vary by race/ethnic group and are only statistically significantly higher for children of foreign-born blacks in England. Disparities in BMI trajectories are pervasive in the United States and England, despite lower overall BMI among English children. Future studies should consider both race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status subgroups when examining disparities in BMI in the United States and England. Differences in BMI are apparent in early childhood, which suggests that interventions targeting pre-school age children may be most effective at stemming childhood disparities in BMI.

  12. Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black New Orleans)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Kristen L. Buras examines educational policy formation in New Orleans and the racial, economic, and spatial dynamics shaping the city's reconstruction since 2005. More specifically, Buras draws on the critical theories of whiteness as property, accumulation by dispossession, and urban space economy to describe the strategic…

  13. Black, White, and Rainbow [of Desire]: The Colour of Race-Talk of Pre-Service World Language Educators in Boalian Theatre Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Jennifer; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how Boalian Theatre of the Oppressed exercises helped instructors and pre-service teachers navigate the consequences of ventriloquized, racialized discourses in a pre-service world language teacher education classroom. Applying a critical and performative approach, we analyse the mostly White student-actors' varying…

  14. "Do Latin@ Interests Always Have to 'Converge' with White Interests?"': (Re)claiming Racial Realism and Interest-Convergence in Critical Race Theory Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.; Aleman, Sonya M.

    2010-01-01

    The interest-convergence principle proposes that change benefitting people and communities of color only occurs when those interests also benefit Whites. As newly transplanted Chicano/a residents of a state facing exponential growth of its Latino immigrant population, we have attempted to counter the efforts criminalizing members of our Latino/a…

  15. The Threat of Captivity: Hollywood and the Sexualization of Race Relations in "The Girls of the White Orchid" and "The Bitter Tea of General Yen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the captivity tale as an outgrowth of two fundamental contradictions within patriarchal ideology. Considers American popular thought in relation to this tale. Relates xenophobia in the 1980s to the sexual and racial politics of "The Girls of the White Orchid." Discusses the racial, sexual, and textual ambivalence in "The…

  16. Constructions of Race among Religiously Conservative College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The "Whites as victims" motif in conversations about race has been well documented in recent decades. When discussing affirmative action hiring policies, a common belief expressed by Whites is that people of color have been permitted to progress unfairly at the expense of harder working Whites. Whites using this discourse see themselves…

  17. A tale of 10 plutons - Revisited: Age of granitic rocks in the White Mountains, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Conrad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis and conventional K-Ar age determinations on plutonic rocks of the White Mountains define two stages of magmatic emplacement: Late Cretaceous, between ca. 90 Ma and 75 Ma, and Middle-Late Jurassic, between ca. 180 and 140 Ma. The Jurassic stage can be divided into two substages, 180-165 Ma and 150-140 Ma. Thermal effects of the younger plutons on the older granitoids partially to completely reset ages, making it difficult to determine the age of emplacement and cooling of several of the plutons even by 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analyses. New data together with published ages and regional geochronological synthesis of the Sierra Nevada batholith indicate that regions within the batholith have coherent periods or episodes of magmatic activity. In the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada directly to the west there was little or no activity in Early Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time; magmatism took place during relatively short intervals of 15 m.y. or less in the Middle and Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous periods. The new K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses of granitoids from the White Mountains help, but do not completely clarify the complex history of emplacement, cooling, and reheating of the batholith.

  18. Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Jenee

    2009-01-01

    In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…

  19. Racing Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of…

  20. Effect of maternal race on outcome of preterm infants in the military.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D N; Yoder, B A; Clark, R H; Butzin, C A; Null, D M

    1993-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that low birth weight black infants have less morbidity and birth-weight-specific mortality during the perinatal period than low birth weight white infants. We studied the effect of maternal race on outcome in preterm infants born at a military hospital that offers free access to obstetric and neonatal care. Between January 1, 1986, and December 31, 1991, data were prospectively collected on all 667 infants delivered at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center with an estimated gestational age of less than 35 weeks. Three hundred ninety-two white infants and 165 black infants were included in the data analysis. The mean (+/- SD) birth weight was 1701 +/- 65 g for white infants and 1462 +/- 66 g for black infants. The mean estimated gestational age was 31.0 +/- 3.2 weeks for white infants and 29.9 +/- 3.8 weeks for black infants. Preeclampsia was more frequent in black mothers than in white mothers for the entire study population (21% vs 14%), but the birth weight differential between races remained after correction for preeclampsia. There were no significant differences between races in stillbirths, gender, maternal age, maternal transfer status, number of prenatal visits, or percentages of mothers with small-for-gestational-age infants, multiple-gestation infants, prolonged rupture of membranes, or initial prenatal visit during the first trimester. Intraventricular hemorrhage was more frequent in white infants at 27 through 29 weeks estimated gestational age (50% vs 13%). There were no significant differences between the two groups in survival or in the occurrence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or bronchopulmonary dysplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Age-related cognitive gains are mediated by the effects of white matter development on brain network integration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C; Skudlarski, Pawel; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental, yet rarely tested premise of developmental cognitive neuroscience is that changes in brain activity and improvements in behavioral control across adolescent development are related to brain maturational factors that shape a more efficient, highly-interconnected brain in adulthood. We present the first multimodal neuroimaging study to empirically demonstrate that maturation of executive cognitive ability is directly associated with the relationship of white matter development and age-related changes in neural network functional integration. In this study, we identified specific white matter regions whose maturation across adolescence appears to reduce reliance on local processing in brain regions recruited for conscious, deliberate cognitive control in favor of a more widely distributed profile of functionally-integrated brain activity. Greater white matter coherence with age was associated with both increases and decreases in functional connectivity within task-engaged functional circuits. Importantly, these associations between white matter development and brain system functional integration were related to behavioral performance on tests of response inhibition, demonstrating their importance in the maturation of optimal cognitive control.

  2. The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program in the Age of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sean R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boswell, Stephen L

    2015-06-01

    Thanks to the Affordable Care Act, thousands of people living with HIV who have received Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program-funded care are now eligible for Medicaid or subsidized insurance. The protection against insurance discrimination on the basis of preexisting conditions is increasing health care access for many, but this does not mean that the Ryan White Program is no longer needed. Services essential to improving outcomes on the continuum of HIV care are not supported by any other source. Because of the growing number of people living with HIV, we must increase funding for the Ryan White Program and increase the number of HIV care providers.

  3. When flux standards go wild: white dwarfs in the age of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, JJ

    2017-01-01

    White dwarfs have been used as flux standards for decades, thanks to their staid simplicity. We have tested their photometric stability by analyzing the light curves of several hundred spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs, through K2 Campaign 8. We find that the vast majority (>90%) are <1% stable in the Kepler bandpass on 0.04-d to 10-d timescales, confirming that these stellar remnants are generally excellent flux standards. From the cases that do exhibit significant (several percent) variability, we caution that binarity and magnetism are two extremely important attributes to rule out when establishing a white dwarf as a photometric standard.

  4. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from…

  5. Race and sex differences in cardiovascular recovery from acute stress.

    PubMed

    Gillin, J L; Mills, P J; Nelesen, R A; Dillon, E; Ziegler, M G; Dimsdale, J E

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of race and gender on recovery, i.e. the relative return to baseline after a stress challenge, cardiovascular and catecholamine measures were examined before, during and after two standardized laboratory stressors (a speaking and a mirror tracing task) in a group of 85 Black and White men and women (mean age 35.6 years, range 20 to 52). For the speech task, White men showed the least systolic (p < 0.025) and diastolic (p < 0.05) blood pressure recovery as compared to Black men and women. For the mirror star tracing task, total peripheral resistance (p < 0.03) recovery was least for Whites as compared to Blacks and heart rate (p < 0.04) recovery was least for White women as compared to Black women and men. There were no significant group effects in terms of catecholamine recovery from either task. The findings extend prior studies on race and gender by suggesting that these same characteristics affect recovery from stressors.

  6. Race-Ethnic Differences in Sexual Health Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R

    2012-12-01

    Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility.

  7. Leading Edges: Recent Research on Psychosocial Aging. Review Essays Prepared for the White House Conference on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Beth B., Ed.; Bond, Kathleen, Ed.

    The objectives of this book, a collection of papers about recent research on psychosocial aging, are to broaden scientific understanding of the psychosocial components of the aging process and the place of older people in society, and to call attention to a number of issues in aging research. The papers emphasize that aging does not occur in a…

  8. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility.

  9. Differences in risk factors for suicidality between African American and White patients vulnerable to suicide.

    PubMed

    Vanderwerker, Lauren C; Chen, Joyce H; Charpentier, Peter; Paulk, Mary Elizabeth; Michalski, Marion; Prigerson, Holly G

    2007-02-01

    Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts have been shown to differ between African Americans and Whites across the lifespan. In the present study, risk factors for suicidality were examined separately by race/ethnicity in a population of 131 older adult patients considered vulnerable to suicide due to substance abuse and/or medical frailty. In adjusted analyses, social support was significantly associated with suicidality in African American patients, while younger age and the presence of an anxiety disorder were significantly associated with suicidality in White patients. The results suggest that race/ethnicity-specific risk profiles may improve the detection of suicidality in vulnerable populations.

  10. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  11. Black–White Disparity in Disability Among U.S. Older Adults: Age, Period, and Cohort Trends

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study delineates activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) black–white disparity trends by age, period, and cohort (APC) and explores sociodemographic contributors of cohort-based disparity trends. Method. We utilized multiple cross-sectional waves of National Health Interview Survey data (1982–2009) to describe APC trends of ADL and IADL disparities using a cross-classified random effect model. Further, we decomposed the cohort-based disparity trends using Fairlie’s decomposition method for nonlinear outcomes. Results. The crossover ADL and IADL disparities (whites > blacks) occurring at age 75 increased with age and reached a plateau at age of 80, whereas period-based ADL and IADL disparities remained constant for the past 3 decades. The cohort disparity trends for both disabilities showed a decline with each successive cohort except for ADL disparity among women. Discussion. We examined the role of aging on racial disparity in disability and found support for the racial crossover effect. Further, the racial disparity in disability will disappear should the observed pattern of declining cohort-based ADL and IADL disparities persist. Although education, income, and marital status are important sociodemographic contributors to cohort disparity trends, future studies should investigate individual behavioral health determinants and cohort-specific characteristics that explain the cohort-based racial difference in ADL and IADL disabilities. PMID:24986183

  12. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.

  13. Race, disability, and grade: Social relationships in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gazi F; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Mandell, David S

    2017-01-01

    Race is associated with social relationships among typically developing children; however, studies rarely examine the impact of race on social outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined how race (African American, Latino, Asian, or White) in conjunction with disability status (autism spectrum disorders or typically developing) and grade (grades K-2 or 3-5) affects friendships and social networks. The sample comprises 85 children with autism spectrum disorders and 85 typically developing controls matched on race, gender, age/grade, and classroom (wherever possible). Race, disability, and grade each had an independent effect on friendship nominations, and there was an interaction among the three variables. Specifically, children with autism spectrum disorders who were African American or Latino in the upper elementary grades received fewer friendship nominations than typically developing White children in the lower elementary grades. Only the presence of autism spectrum disorders was associated with social network centrality. Our results also suggested that Latino children with autism spectrum disorders in the upper elementary grades were at the highest risk of social isolation. Implications for re-conceptualizing social skills interventions are discussed.

  14. Race, disability, and grade: Social relationships in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Gazi F; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Mandell, David S

    2016-01-01

    Race is associated with social relationships among typically developing children; however, studies rarely examine the impact of race on social outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined how race (African American, Latino, Asian, or White) in conjunction with disability status (autism spectrum disorders or typically developing) and grade (grades K–2 or 3–5) affects friendships and social networks. The sample comprises 85 children with autism spectrum disorders and 85 typically developing controls matched on race, gender, age/grade, and classroom (wherever possible). Race, disability, and grade each had an independent effect on friendship nominations, and there was an interaction among the three variables. Specifically, children with autism spectrum disorders who were African American or Latino in the upper elementary grades received fewer friendship nominations than typically developing White children in the lower elementary grades. Only the presence of autism spectrum disorders was associated with social network centrality. Our results also suggested that Latino children with autism spectrum disorders in the upper elementary grades were at the highest risk of social isolation. Implications for re-conceptualizing social skills interventions are discussed. PMID:26966285

  15. Complicating Whiteness: Identifications of Veteran White Teachers in Multicultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A scrupulous search of whiteness literatures in relation to multicultural education reveals a preponderance of scholarship noting White privilege and race evasiveness. Given contrasting scholarship arguing White identity as complicated, multifarious, and bound to social and historical context, concurrent with a dearth of scholarship that examines…

  16. Familistic Attitudes and Marriage Role Expectations of American Indian and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Robert William

    The major purpose of the research was the exploration of familistic attitudes and marriage role expectations of American Indian and White adolescents as related to grade, age, sex, race, tribal affiliation, place of residence, academic achievement, future educational plans, parents' marital status, and language spoken in the home. Subjects were…

  17. Age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching are mediated by reaction time and white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z; Hakun, J G; Johnson, N F; Gold, B T

    2014-10-10

    Age-related increases in right frontal cortex activation are a common finding in the neuroimaging literature. However, neurocognitive factors contributing to right frontal over-recruitment remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the influence of age-related reaction time (RT) slowing and white matter (WM) microstructure reductions as potential explanatory factors for age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching. Groups of younger (N=32) and older (N=33) participants completed a task switching paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed, and rested while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed. Two right frontal regions of interest (ROIs), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and insula, were selected for further analyses from a common network of regions recruited by both age groups during task switching. Results demonstrated age-related activation increases in both ROIs. In addition, the older adult group showed longer RT and decreased fractional anisotropy in regions of the corpus callosum with direct connections to the fMRI ROIs. Subsequent mediation analyses indicated that age-related increases in right insula activation were mediated by RT slowing and age-related increases in right DLPFC activation were mediated by WM microstructure. Our results suggest that age-related RT slowing and WM microstructure declines contribute to age-related increases in right frontal activation during cognitive task performance.

  18. Energy Drinks, Race, and Problem Behaviors among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study examined relationships between energy drink consumption and problem behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults. It was hypothesized that frequent consumption of energy drinks would be positively associated with substance abuse and other risky behaviors and that these relationships would be moderated by race. Methods Cross-sectional, self-report survey data were collected from 602 Western New York undergraduate students in the spring of 2006. Differences in problem behaviors by frequency of energy drink consumption were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic regressions, controlling for gender, race, age, parental education, and college grade point average. Follow-up regressions were conducted to test for a moderating effect of race. Results Frequency of energy drink consumption was positively associated with marijuana use, sexual risk-taking, fighting, seatbelt omission, and taking risks on a dare for the sample as a whole, and associated with smoking, drinking, alcohol problems, and illicit prescription drug use for white students but not for black students. Conclusions These findings suggest that energy drink consumption is closely associated with a problem behavior syndrome, particularly among whites. Frequent consumption of energy drinks may serve as a useful screening indicator to identify students at risk for substance use and/or other health-compromising behavior. PMID:18848678

  19. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  20. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J.; Ndung’u, Michael N.; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J. L.; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J.; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Allan, Louise M.; Oakley, Arthur E.; O’Brien, John T.; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  1. Full disclosure of financial costs and options to patients: the roles of race, age, health insurance, and usual source for care.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Arbelaez, Jose J; Dixon, Bruce W

    2004-02-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with financial discussions and financial disclosure of medical costs within a low-income urban community. The method used was a cross-sectional community-based survey in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted door-to-door and at area food pantries. Two hundred and twenty six adults were interviewed. Overall, 76.1% reported having a usual source for care and 73.0% had health insurance. Thirty nine and four tenths percent reported having been asked about their ability to pay for health services; this was more common among African Americans (OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.73-15.84), those with no health insurance (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.01-17.89), and those less than 45 years old (OR:2.9; 95% CI 1.03-8.28). Only 10.6% reported being told how much a health visit would cost. Overall, 30.1% reported their provider made payment allowances for medical bills, with white respondents 2.5 times more likely and those persons identifying an ambulatory site for care 2.6 times more likely to report this. Overall, 30.5% reported being referred to a collection agency for unpaid medical bills; this was 2.4 times more common among those individuals identifying a non-ambulatory usual site for care. Significant race and socio-economic disparities exist in discussions about and access to financial resources to pay for medical care. Expanding the availability of financial assistance is critical to improving access to health care.

  2. Children's Assessments of Corporal Punishment and Other Disciplinary Practices: The Role of Age, Race, SES, and Exposure to Spanking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Holden, George W.

    2010-01-01

    African-American and Anglo-American children's assessments of four disciplinary methods (spanking, reasoning, withdrawing privileges, and time-out) were investigated with 108 children ages 6-10 years old and one of their parents. Children watched videos depicting a child being disciplined and then rated each discipline method. Reasoning was rated…

  3. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  4. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities.

  5. Race and prevalence of large bowel polyps among the low-income and uninsured in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kristin; Brandt, Heather M.; Bearden, James D.; Blankenship, Bridgette F.; Caldwell, Renay; Dunn, James; Hegedus, Patricia; Hoffman, Brenda J.; Marsh, Courtney H.; Marsh, William H.; Melvin, Cathy L.; Seabrook, March E.; Sterba, Ronald E.; Stinson, Mary Lou; Thibault, Annie; Berger, Franklin G.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to whites, blacks have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates and are at greater risk for early onset disease. The reasons for this racial disparity are poorly understood, but one contributing factor could be differences in access to high quality screening and medical care. Aims The present study was carried out to assess whether a racial difference in prevalence of large bowel polyps persists within a poor and uninsured population (n=233, 124 blacks, 91 whites, 18 other) undergoing screening colonoscopy. Methods Eligible patients were uninsured, asymptomatic, had no personal history of colorectal neoplasia, and were between the ages 45–64 years (blacks) or 50–64 years (whites, other). We examined the prevalence of any adenoma (conventional, serrated) and then difference in adenoma/polyp type by race and age categories. Results Prevalence for ≥ 1 adenoma was 37% (95% CI 31%–43%) for all races combined and 36% in blacks < 50 years, 38% in blacks ≥ 50 years, 35% in whites. When stratified by race, blacks had a higher prevalence of large conventional proximal neoplasia (8%) compared to whites (2%) (p-value =0.06) but a lower prevalence of any serrated-like polyp (blacks 18%, whites 32%); p-value=0.02) and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (blacks 2%, whites 8% chi-square p-value; p=0.05). Conclusions Within this uninsured population the overall prevalence of adenomas was high and nearly equal by race, but the racial differences observed between serrated and conventional polyp types emphasizes the importance of taking polyp type into account in future research on this topic. PMID:26386856

  6. Growth hormone action predicts age-related white adipose tissue dysfunction and senescent cell burden in mice.

    PubMed

    Stout, Michael B; Tchkonia, Tamara; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Palmer, Allyson K; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Escande, Carlos; Spong, Adam; Masternak, Michal M; Oberg, Ann L; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Miller, Richard A; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L

    2014-07-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. White adipose tissue (WAT) may play a central role in age-related disease onset and progression due to declines in adipogenesis with advancing age. Recent reports indicate that the accumulation of senescent progenitor cells may be involved in age-related WAT dysfunction. Growth hormone (GH) action has profound effects on adiposity and metabolism and is known to influence lifespan. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that GH activity would predict age-related WAT dysfunction and accumulation of senescent cells. We found that long-lived GH-deficient and -resistant mice have reduced age-related lipid redistribution. Primary preadipocytes from GH-resistant mice also were found to have greater differentiation capacity at 20 months of age when compared to controls. GH activity was also found to be positively associated with senescent cell accumulation in WAT. Our results demonstrate an association between GH activity, age-related WAT dysfunction, and WAT senescent cell accumulation in mice. Further studies are needed to determine if GH is directly inducing cellular senescence in WAT or if GH actions on other target organs or alternative downstream alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin or glucose levels are responsible.

  7. Growth hormone action predicts age-related white adipose tissue dysfunction and senescent cell burden in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Palmer, Allyson K.; List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Escande, Carlos; Spong, Adam; Masternak, Michal M.; Oberg, Ann L.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Miller, Richard A.; Kopchick, John J.; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. White adipose tissue (WAT) may play a central role in age-related disease onset and progression due to declines in adipogenesis with advancing age. Recent reports indicate that the accumulation of senescent progenitor cells may be involved in age-related WAT dysfunction. Growth hormone (GH) action has profound effects on adiposity and metabolism and is known to influence lifespan. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that GH activity would predict age-related WAT dysfunction and accumulation of senescent cells. We found that long-lived GH-deficient and -resistant mice have reduced age-related lipid redistribution. Primary preadipocytes from GH-resistant mice also were found to have greater differentiation capacity at 20 months of age when compared to controls. GH activity was also found to be positively associated with senescent cell accumulation in WAT. Our results demonstrate an association between GH activity, age-related WAT dysfunction, and WAT senescent cell accumulation in mice. Further studies are needed to determine if GH is directly inducing cellular senescence in WAT or if GH actions on other target organs or alternative downstream alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin or glucose levels are responsible. PMID:25063774

  8. Do the long-term consequences of neglect differ for children of different races and ethnic backgrounds?

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Wilson, Helen W; Allwood, Maureen; Chauhan, Preeti

    2013-02-01

    Scant research has examined how children of different races or ethnic backgrounds manifest consequences of neglect. We examined multiple domains of functioning (academic/intellectual, social/behavioral, and psychiatric), three theories (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience), and potential confounding variables. Children with documented cases of neglect (ages 0-11) and matched controls without such histories were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (N = 1,039). The sample was 47.3% female, 62.4% White, 34.3% Black, and 3.4% Hispanic. Black and White neglected children showed negative consequences for IQ, reading ability, and occupational status compared to controls. Compared to same race and ethnic group controls, neglected White children showed extensive mental health consequences, Black children showed more anxiety and dysthymia, and Hispanic children showed increased risk for alcohol problems. Black and White neglected children differed in risk for violence compared to same race controls: Neglected Black children were arrested for violence two times more often than Black controls, whereas neglected White children were more likely than White controls to report engaging in violence. Findings provide some support for each theory (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience). Understanding the factors that account for similarities and differences in consequences requires further investigation. Implications for research and policy are discussed.

  9. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  10. Self-rated health among Hispanic vs non-Hispanic white adults: the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Shetterly, S M; Baxter, J; Mason, L D; Hamman, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether objective health indicators explained lower self-rated health among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. It also considered socioeconomic and cultural explanations. METHODS: Health ratings of 429 Hispanics and 583 non-Hispanic Whites aged 20 through 74 were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Illness indicators were found to be strongly correlated with self-rated health in both ethnic groups, but after such markers were controlled for, Hispanics remained 3.6 times more likely to report fair or poor health (95% confidence interval = 2.4, 5.3). Adjustment for socioeconomic factors accounted for a portion of Hispanics' lower health rating, but the strongest explanatory factor was acculturation. CONCLUSIONS: Because of cultural and economic influences on definitions of health, ethnic differences in self-assessed health may not accurately reflected patterns resulting from objective health measurements. PMID:9003141

  11. RACE OF MALE SEX PARTNERS AND OCCURRENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Mark A.; Andrews, William W.; Zhang, Jun; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Yu, Kai-Fun; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is sexually transmitted is uncertain. Also it is unknown why BV is approximately twice as prevalent among African-American as among white women. An association of BV with a characteristic of the male sex partner, such as race, might support sexual transmission as well as account for the observed ethnic disparity in BV. METHODS 3620 non-pregnant women 15–44 years of age were followed quarterly for 1 year. At each visit, extensive questionnaire data and vaginal swabs for Gram’s staining were obtained. The outcome was transition from BV-negative to positive (Nugent’s score ≥7) in an interval of 2 consecutive visits. RESULTS BV occurred in 12.8% of 906 sexually active intervals to white women- 24.8% of intervals when the woman reported an African-American partner and 10.7% when all partners were white. Among white women, there was a two-fold increased risk for BV incidence with an African-American, compared with a white partner (risk ratio (RR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.4; adjusted RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.4), but differed according to condom use. In the presence of consistent condom use, the adjusted RR was 0.7 (0.3–2.4); it was 2.4 (1.0–6.2) in the presence of inconsistent use; and 2.7 (1.7–4.2) in the absence of condom use. African-American women could not be studied, as there were insufficient numbers who reported only white male sex partners. CONCLUSION The association of BV occurrence with partner’s race, and its blunting by condom use, suggests that BV may have a core group component and may be sexually transmitted. PMID:19959972

  12. "Destiny Has Thrown the Negro and the Filipino under the Tutelage of America": Race and Curriculum in the Age of Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2009-01-01

    The article brings together the fields of curriculum studies, history of education, and ethnic studies to chart a transnational history of race, empire, and curriculum. Drawing from a larger study on the history of education in the Philippines under U.S. rule in the early 1900s, it argues that race played a pivotal role in the discursive…

  13. Gender and the Neighborhood Location of Mixed-Race Couples

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Steven; Ellis, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Gender asymmetry in mixed-race heterosexual partnerships and marriages is common. For instance, black men marry or partner with white women at a far higher rate than white men marry or partner with black women. This article asks if such gender asymmetries relate to the racial character of the neighborhoods in which households headed by mixed-race couples live. Gendered power imbalances within households generally play into decisions about where to live or where to move (i.e., men typically benefit more than women), and we find the same in mixed-race couple arrangements and residential attainment. Gender interacts with race to produce a measurable race-by-gender effect. Specifically, we report a positive relationship between the percentage white in a neighborhood and the presence of households headed by mixed-race couples with a white male partner. The opposite holds for households headed by white-blacks and white-Latinos if the female partner is white; they are drawn to predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods. The results have implications for investigations of residential location attainment, neighborhood segregation analysis, and mixed-race studies. PMID:23073752

  14. Tending to the Heart of Communities of Color: Towards Critical Race Teacher Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Liou, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Critical Race Theory and Critical Whiteness Studies assert colorblindness flourishes when most urban teachers who are White feel emotionally uncomfortable to engage in dynamics of race in the classroom. Colorblind ideology distorts urban teaching because it presumes (a) many White teachers are missionaries trained to save and (b) urban schools are…

  15. Family identity: black-white interracial family health experience.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the white matter in normal aging: The rate-of-change differs between segments within tracts.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, J; Lätt, J; Åhs, F; Fredrikson, M; Söderlund, H; Schiöth, H B; Kok, J; Kremer, B; van Westen, Danielle; Larsson, E-M; Nilsson, M

    2017-03-27

    Knowledge concerning the normal aging of cerebral white matter will improve our understanding of abnormal changes in neurodegenerative diseases. The microstructural basis of white matter maturation and aging can be investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Generally, diffusion anisotropy increases during childhood and adolescence followed by a decline in middle age. However, this process is subject to spatial variations between tracts. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent age-related variations also occur within tracts. DTI parameters were compared between segments of two white matter tracts, the cingulate bundle (CB) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), in 257 healthy individuals between 13 and 84years of age. Segments of the CB and the IFO were extracted and parameters for each segment were averaged across the hemispheres. The data was analysed as a function of age. Results show that age-related changes differ both between and within individual tracts. Different age trajectories were observed in all segments of the analysed tracts for all DTI parameters. In conclusion, aging does not affect white matter tracts uniformly but is regionally specific; both between and within white matter tracts.

  17. Taking the Risk to Engage in Race Talk: Professional Development in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Smith, Robin Renee

    2017-01-01

    Developing public education where every child has the right to learn requires that teachers pay attention to and engage in race talk--open discussion about race, social construction of race, and racism. While it is clear that children engage and reflect critically about these aspects of race even at a young age, teachers rarely engage in race talk…

  18. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  19. Male-female differences in transitions from first drug opportunity to first use: searching for subgroup variation by age, race, region, and urban status.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, M L; Anthony, J C

    2001-10-01

    Recent studies in the United States suggest that male-female differences in the prevalence of drug use may result from sex differences in opportunities to use drugs rather than from differences in the likelihood of making a transition into drug use once an opportunity has occurred. That is, men have more opportunities to try drugs, but women appear to be just as likely as men to initiate drug use when given the opportunity to do so. This paper examines whether this general observation holds for subgroups defined by age or birth cohort, race/ethnicity, geographic region, and urban status. We analyzed data from the 1991, 1992, and 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. We found general consistency across the subgroups studied. Males were more likely than females to have opportunities to use drugs, but the sexes were equally likely to make a transition into drug use once an opportunity had occurred to try a drug. The implications of this evidence are discussed in relation to the epidemiology and prevention of drug use and with respect to future research on sex and gender differences in drug involvement.

  20. Poverty, education, race, and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, John M; Kaczor, Diane T

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have considered the differing impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnancy outcomes among racial subgroups. We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression. Poverty was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only among African Americans with 12 or more years of education (RR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2). White participants with both a low level of education and an income below the poverty line were at increased risk of preterm birth (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). White women with 12 or more years of education had increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA, defined as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) associated with poverty status (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). Socioeconomic indicators appear to have complex joint effect patterns among racial subgroups, perhaps because the material and psychological implications of education and income status differ between groups.

  1. Vaccination coverage by race/ethnicity and poverty level among children aged 19-35 months -- United States, 1996.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The Childhood Immunization Initiative (CII), implemented in 1993, is an intensive program to increase vaccination coverage among preschool-aged children and to reduce or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases. In 1996, national coverage goals were achieved for 2-year-old children for the most critical doses of each routinely recommended vaccine. Disparities in vaccination coverage have been documented previously among different racial/ethnic groups. This report presents findings from CDC's National Immunization Survey (NIS), which document progress toward achieving the 1996 CII vaccination coverage goals by racial/ethnic group and by level of poverty. The findings indicate that, for each of five racial/ethnic groups, most of the national CII vaccination coverage goals were met and that, based on poverty level, all the goals were met for children living at or above the poverty level, and two of the five goals were met for children living below the poverty level.

  2. Race Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Bryan Lee, a senior at the University of California, Irvine, has noticed that some of his classmates adamantly declare their multiracial heritage while others choose not to identify themselves as being any particular ethnicity. The half-Korean, half-White biomedical engineering major is co-president of the university's Mixed Students Organization…

  3. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  4. Using CForest to Analyze Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Study of White Matter Integrity in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    McWhinney, Sean R; Tremblay, Antoine; Chevalier, Thérèse M; Lim, Vanessa K; Newman, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    Healthy aging has been associated with a global reduction in white matter integrity, which is thought to reflect cognitive decline. The present study aimed to investigate this reduction over a broad range of the life span, using diffusion tensor imaging analyzed with conditional inference random forest modeling (CForest). This approach is sensitive to subtle and potentially nonlinear effects over the age continuum and was used to characterize the progression of decline in greater detail than has been possible in the past. Data were collected from 45 healthy individuals ranging in age from 19 to 67 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was estimated using probabilistic tractography for a number of major tracts across the brain. Age coincided with a nonlinear decrease in FA, with onset beginning at ∼30 years of age and the steepest declines occurring later in life. However, several tracts showed a transient increase before this decline. The progression of decline varied by tract, with steeper but later decline occurring in more anterior tracts. Finally, strongly right-handed individuals demonstrated relatively preserved FA until more than a decade following the onset of decline of others. These results demonstrate that using a novel, nonparametric analysis approach, previously reported reductions in FA with healthy aging were confirmed, while at the same time, new insight was provided into the onset and progression of decline, with evidence suggesting increases in integrity continuing into adulthood.

  5. 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mire, Amina

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women's skin, and replace it with ageless skin, free from pigmentation. In order to contextualize the investigation of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening practice and discourse, this article draws from the literature in colonial commodity culture, colonial tropical medicine, the contemporary anti-ageing discourse, and advertisements for anti-ageing skin-whitening products. First, it argues that the framing of the biomedicalization of ageing as a pigmentation problem caused by deteriorating environmental conditions and unhealthy lifestyle draws tacitly from European colonial concerns with the European body's susceptibility to tropical diseases, pigmentation disorders, and racial degeneration. Second, the article argues that the rise of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening commodities that promise to whiten, brighten, and purify the ageing skin of women and frames the visible signs of ageing in terms of pigmentation pathology.

  6. Unmixing for race making in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stanley R

    2008-11-01

    This article analyzes race-targeted policy in Brazil as both a political stake and a powerful instrument in an unfolding classificatory struggle over the definition of racial boundaries. The Brazilian state traditionally embraced mixed-race classification, but is adopting racial quotas employing a black/white scheme. To explore potential consequences of that turn for beneficiary identification and boundary formation, the author analyzes attitudinal survey data on race-targeted policy and racial classification in multiple formats, including classification in comparison to photographs. The results show that almost half of the mixed-race sample, when constrained to dichotomous classification, opts for whiteness, a majority rejects mixed-race individuals for quotas, and the mention of quotas for blacks in a split-ballot experiment nearly doubles the percentage choosing that racial category. Theories of how states make race emphasize the use of official categories to legislate exclusion. In contrast, analysis of the Brazilian case illuminates how states may also make race through policies of official inclusion.

  7. Teaching about Race and Class in Early American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Before the 2008 presidential election, when an African American friend asked him whether he thought whites would vote for Barack Obama, the author found himself answering by going back to the 17th century, to the invention of the white race as a buffer class to keep those at the bottom divided, and the way that his own white working-class people…

  8. Counselor Race and Power Base: Effects on Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Female (N = 4) interviewers, two black and two white, portrayed expert or referent role and attempted to influence 32 white subjects to use problemsolving processes and perform career-planning activities. Significant interactions of race and role were obtained such that black-expert and white-referent interviewers were most influential in attitude…

  9. Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

  10. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  11. The relationship between pain and functional disability in Black and White older adults.

    PubMed

    Horgas, Ann L; Yoon, Saunjoo L; Nichols, Austin Lee; Marsiske, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In this study we examined pain and disability in 115 community-dwelling, urban, older adults (mean age = 74 years; 52% Black, 48% White). Participants completed a survey of pain (pain presence, intensity, locations, and duration) and disability (Sickness Impact Profile). Sixty percent of the sample reported pain; Black and White adults did not differ on any pain variable. In structural equation models controlling for socioeconomic factors and health, pain did not mediate the relationship between race and disability. Race moderated the pain-disability relationship; pain was more associated with disability among Whites than Blacks. This study highlights the need for greater understanding of health disparities between Black and White older adults as they relate to pain and disability.

  12. Age-related decline in task switching is linked to both global and tract-specific changes in white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Todd A D; Cooper, Patrick S; Rennie, Jaime L; Levi, Christopher R; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Parsons, Mark W; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2017-03-01

    Task-switching performance relies on a broadly distributed frontoparietal network and declines in older adults. In this study, they investigated whether this age-related decline in task switching performance was mediated by variability in global or regional white matter microstructural health. Seventy cognitively intact adults (43-87 years) completed a cued-trials task switching paradigm. Microstructural white matter measures were derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence. Task switching performance decreased with increasing age and radial diffusivity (RaD), a measure of white matter microstructure that is sensitive to myelin structure. RaD mediated the relationship between age and task switching performance. However, the relationship between RaD and task switching performance remained significant when controlling for age and was stronger in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Variability in error and RT mixing cost were associated with RaD in global white matter and in frontoparietal white matter tracts, respectively. These findings suggest that age-related increase in mixing cost may result from both global and tract-specific disruption of cerebral white matter linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular risks in older adults. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1588-1603, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Research in Aging. Report and Executive Summary of the Technical Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birren, James E.; And Others

    This Technical Committee Report provides an overview and historical sketch of research in aging and proposes a need for new knowledge. An examination of key issues notes the difficulty in assigning priority to research topics, and identifies emerging issues of public concern including: (1) physical health (alcohol and drugs, falls and accidents,…

  14. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  15. [Influence of age on the presumed cause of syncope in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chometon, F; Brembilla-Perrot, B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the causes of syncope in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and to determine whether the age of the patients was a significant factor. Forty-seven patients with a WPW, aged 11 to 72 years, underwent electrophysiological study by the oesophageal approach because of an unexplained syncope. Nineteen patients were under 20 years of age (16 +/- 3 years: group I) and 28 were over 20 years of age (40 +/- 13 years: group II). Junctional tachycardia was induced in 8 patients of group I (42%) and in 13 of group II (46%) (NS); atrial fibrillation was induced in 8 patients of group I (42%) and in 9 of group II (35%) (NS). A potentially malignant form of WPW was identified in 8 patients of group I (42%) and in 11 of group II (39%) (NS); Syncope was directly attributed to the WPW in 14 patients of group I (74%) and in 19 of group II (78%), either after identification of a serious form or induction of junctional tachycardia (6 patients of group I and 8 of group II). The rest of the syncopal episodes had various causes. There were no deaths. The authors conclude that oesophageal electrophysiological investigations enable rapid identification of a high incidence of tachycardias probably responsible for syncope in WPW. The causes of syncope and incidence of potentially severe forms of WPW were not significantly influenced by the age of the patients.

  16. Race and trust in the health care system.

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, L. Ebony; Cooper, Lisa A.; Ratner, Lloyd E.; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Powe, Neil R.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A legacy of racial discrimination in medical research and the health care system has been linked to a low level of trust in medical research and medical care among African Americans. While racial differences in trust in physicians have been demonstrated, little is known about racial variation in trust of health insurance plans and hospitals. For the present study, the authors analyzed responses to a cross-sectional telephone survey to assess the independent relationship of self-reported race (non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white) with trust in physicians, hospitals, and health insurance plans. METHODS: Respondents ages 18-75 years were asked to rate their level of trust in physicians, health insurance plans, and hospitals. Items from the Medical Mistrust Index were used to assess fear and suspicion of hospitals. RESULTS: Responses were analyzed for 49 (42%) non-Hispanic black and 69 (58%) non-Hispanic white respondents (N=118; 94% of total survey population). A majority of respondents trusted physicians (71%) and hospitals (70%), but fewer trusted their health insurance plans (28%). After adjustment for potential confounders, non-Hispanic black respondents were less likely to trust their physicians than non-Hispanic white respondents (adjusted absolute difference 37%; p=0.01) and more likely to trust their health insurance plans (adjusted absolute difference 28%; p=0.04). The difference in trust of hospitals (adjusted absolute difference 13%) was not statistically significant. Non-Hispanic black respondents were more likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to be concerned about personal privacy and the potential for harmful experimentation in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of trust in components of our health care system differ by race. Differences in trust may reflect divergent cultural experiences of blacks and whites as well as differences in expectations for care. Improved understanding of these factors is needed if efforts to enhance

  17. Ice-age endurance: DNA evidence of a white spruce refugium in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynn L; Hu, Feng Sheng; Nelson, David M; Petit, Rémy J; Paige, Ken N

    2006-08-15

    Paleorecords offer key information for evaluating model simulations of species migration in response to forecast climatic change. However, their utility can be greatly compromised by the existence of glacial refugia that are undetectable in fossil records (cryptic refugia). Despite several decades of investigation, it remains controversial whether Beringia, the largely unglaciated area extending from northeastern Siberia to the Yukon Territory, harbored small populations of certain boreal tree species during the last glaciation. Here, we present genetic evidence for the existence of a glacial refuge in Alaska that helps to resolve this long-standing controversy. We sequenced chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant boreal tree species, in 24 forest stands across northwestern North America. The majority of cpDNA haplotypes are unique, and haplotype diversity is relatively high in Alaska, arguing against the possibility that this species migrated into the region from areas south of the Laurentide Ice Sheet after the end of the last glaciation. Thus, white spruce apparently survived long glacial episodes under climatic extremes in a heterogeneous landscape matrix. These results suggest that estimated rates of tree migration from fossil records may be too high and that the ability of trees to track anthropogenic warming may be more limited than previously thought.

  18. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  19. A Rebuttal to Jack Niemonen's "Whither the White Working Class?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Niemonen claims that the concept of white privilege is "anti-sociological" and "mask[s] complex race-class interactions." He highlights the importance of including social class in discussions of white privilege but focuses exclusively on the white working class, neglecting how race and social class also intersect for…

  20. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    PubMed

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes.

  1. Disparities in receipt of radiotherapy and survival by age, sex, and race among patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Doug M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Combination chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for treatment of non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). This population based study evaluated disparities in receipt of radiotherapy (RT) as well as comparative survival rates for SCCA patients in the United States. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database was used to identify patients with non-metastatic SCCA diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the relationships between age, sex, and race and the receipt of RT, adjusting for marital status and stage of disease. Relative survival (RS) rates were compared by each factor, with added adjustment for RT status, using Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 3,885 patients with localized or regional SCCA as the only primary malignancy were included in the study, of which, 3,192 (82%) received RT. In our multivariate analysis, lower rates of RT were found for those 65+ years old [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.71; P<0.001], males (adjusted OR 0.65; P<0.001), and blacks (adjusted OR 0.78; P=0.049). Multivariate survival analysis showed worse survival among those 65+ years old (adjusted HR 1.65; P<0.001), males (adjusted HR 1.53; P<0.001), and blacks (adjusted HR 1.35; P=0.001). Conclusions This population based study identified older patients, males, and blacks as less likely to receive RT. Worse survival was also found in these groups. PMID:28078120

  2. Expression and Perception of Emotion: Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitter, A. George; Black, Harvey

    A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), sex of expressor, race of perceiver and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and sadness) was analyzed in terms of three dependent variables: (1)…

  3. Race and Criminal Deviance: A Study of Youthful Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony R.; Lewis, Michael

    In order to examine empirically the impact of race on aspects of the nature and etiology of criminal deviance, questionnaires were administered to 234 predominantly lower class black and white inmates in a prison for youthful offenders. The data thus provided indicated that the different experiences associated with race in contemporary America…

  4. Race Differences in Strains Associated with Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Toni Terling; Sharp, Susan F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated suicidal strains contributing to suicidal behaviors among adolescents by race. Data from the Add Health Project support the presence of process differences by race and delineate the specific nature of these differences. For example, Blacks experience more status strains, but they are more religious than Whites (which serves to…

  5. Coincidence or Conspiracy? Whiteness, Policy and the Persistence of the Black/White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an approach shaped by critical race theory (CRT) the paper proposes a radical analysis of the nature of race inequality in the English educational system. Focusing on the relative achievements of White school leavers and their Black (African Caribbean) peers, it is argued that long standing Black/White inequalities have been obscured by a…

  6. The Souls of White Folk: Critical Pedagogy, Whiteness Studies, and Globalization Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2002-01-01

    Critical pedagogy benefits from an intersectional understanding of whiteness studies and globalization discourse. As capitalism spreads, its partnership with race relations evolves into a formidable force. Defines a global approach to race, suggesting that problems with white privilege transcend the nation state. A critical pedagogy of whiteness…

  7. On non-invasive 2D and 3D Chromatic White Light image sensors for age determination of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-10-10

    The feasibility of 2D-intensity and 3D-topography images from a non-invasive Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor for the age determination of latent fingerprints is investigated. The proposed method might provide the means to solve the so far unresolved issue of determining a fingerprints age in forensics. Conducting numerous experiments for an indoor crime scene using selected surfaces, different influences on the aging of fingerprints are investigated and the resulting aging variability is determined in terms of inter-person, intra-person, inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Main influence factors are shown to be the sweat composition, temperature, humidity, wind, UV-radiation, surface type, contamination of the finger with water-containing substances, resolution and measured area size, whereas contact time, contact pressure and smearing of the print seem to be of minor importance. Such influences lead to a certain experimental variability in inter-person and intra-person variation, which is higher than the inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Comparing the aging behavior of 17 different features using 1490 time series with a total of 41,520 fingerprint images, the great potential of the CWL technique in combination with the binary pixel feature from prior work is shown. Performing three different experiments for the classification of fingerprints into the two time classes [0, 5 h] and [5, 24 h], a maximum classification performance of 79.29% (kappa=0.46) is achieved for a general case, which is further improved for special cases. The statistical significance of the two best-performing features (both binary pixel versions based on 2D-intensity images) is manually shown and a feature fusion is performed, highlighting the strong dependency of the features on each other. It is concluded that such method might be combined with additional capturing devices, such as microscopes or spectroscopes, to a very promising age estimation scheme.

  8. [Race and the use of dental health services by the elderly].

    PubMed

    Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim de; Oliveira, Pierre Andrade Pereira de; Paegle, Ana Claudia; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

    2012-08-01

    We analyze if race can be considered a limiting factor in the use of dental services by the elderly. This study is of an analytical nature, with the use of secondary data collected by the National Survey of Oral Health in 2003. Those examined who declared themselves as being white, brown or black in the 65 to 74-year-old age bracket were included. The sample was composed of 5,108 elderly people: 2,575 whites and 2,533 blacks. Of the whites, 3.8% stated that they had never been to the dentist, while this figure was 7.8% for the blacks. Even after the adjustment for interception for prosthetics and dental pain, the chance of elderly blacks not having used dental services at least once in their life is 0.62 OR less than for elderly whites. Of those who used the services, 21.2% of the elderly whites visited the dentist in the last year, while for elderly blacks the figure was 14.2%, in the adjusted model for interception for prosthetics and dental pain the OR was 0.60. All the relations were statistically significant (p<0,001). Race is a limiting factor in the use of dental services by the elderly and even after the adjustments the elderly blacks continue to manifest greater resistance to the use of oral health services.

  9. Track condition and racing injuries in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Hill, T; Carmichael, D; Maylin, G; Krook, L

    1986-10-01

    The incidences of fractures and soft tissue injuries during 68397 starts of thoroughbred horses at New York Racing Association tracks were analyzed concerning track condition, dirt and turf tracks, environmental conditions, length of races, location of fractures on the track, and age of horses. It was concluded that the conditions evaluated are of no importance in the occurrence of racing injuries to thoroughbred horses.

  10. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.

  11. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  12. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001). Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  13. Serum enzyme activities following long-distance running: comparison between Ethiopian and white athletes.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, A; Nemet, D; Shenkman, L

    1995-11-01

    Ethiopian runners are famous for their achievements in long-distance running. The recent immigration of Ethiopians to Israel provided an opportunity to compare some physiological variables between elite Ethiopian and white Israeli runners. Six Ethiopian and five white Israeli runners, aged 20 to 40 years, were studied before and after an 11 km race. Venous blood was sampled from each runner prior to the race, and 1 h, 48 h, and 5 days following the race. The activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured, and levels of serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. CK activity rose 2.6-fold with a peak 5 days after the race. LDH and AST levels rose as well (1.4-1.3-fold, respectively). Significant elevations also occurred in serum phosphorus, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations 1 h after the race. In contrast to previous studies in which higher enzyme activities were reported in blacks, we did not detect any difference in serum enzyme values between black and white runners.

  14. Breakin' down Whiteness in Antiracist Teaching: Introducing Critical Whiteness Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Mackey, Janiece

    2016-01-01

    Because of the changing nature of race the role of antiracist teaching is a forever-evolving process. Acknowledging that the majority of the U.S. teaching force, from K-12 to teacher education in institutions of higher education, are white middle-class females, it becomes imperative to unveil pedagogical applications of critical whiteness studies.…

  15. The effect of thermal resetting and recrystallisation on white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages during retrograde metamorphism on Syros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uunk, Bertram; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2015-04-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar dating is a proven powerful tool for constraining timing of metamorphism, deformation and exhumation. However, in high-pressure metamorphic rocks, dating often results in wide age ranges which are not in agreement with constraints from other isotopic systems, indicating that geological and chemical processes complicate straightforward 40Ar/39Ar dating. In this research project, white mica ages from rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece with contrasting rheology and strain mechanisms are compared, in order to better understand the role of deformation, recrystallization and fluid flow on 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica during retrograde metamorphism. Resulting ages vary along different sections on the island, inconsistent with other isotopic constraints on eclogite-blueschist metamorphism (55-50 Ma) and greenschist overprinting (41-30 Ma). Two end-member models are possible: 1) Results represent continuous crystallization of white mica while moving from blueschist to greenschist conditions in the metamorphic P-T loop, or 2) white mica equilibrated in eclogite-blueschist conditions and their diffusion systematics were progressively perturbed during greenschist overprinting. The single grain fusion analyses yielded contrasting age distributions, which indicate contrasts in degree of re-equilibration during retrograde metamorphism. Step wise heating of larger grain populations resulted in flat plateau shapes, providing no evidence for partial resetting. Electron microprobe measurements of Si per formula unit, as a proxy for pressure during crystallisation, do not explain age variation within sections or on the island scale. The previously unreported north-south age trend and age ranges per sample, as shown only in the 40Ar/39Ar system of the metapelitic and marble lithologies, contains key information that will allow us to test between different scenarios for age formation. Excess argon infiltration at this stage seems to have been of

  16. Unpacking the “Black Box” of Race-Ethnic Variation in Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Nash, Sue P.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2015-01-01

    Race-ethnic differences in a range of childbearing behaviors are long-standing and well-documented, and these differences are attenuated, but not eliminated, when accounting for socioeconomic disparities. The residual differences are often attributed to vague and untested variation across race-ethnic groups in knowledge, attitudes, psychological attributes, normative beliefs, and social context. We use the longitudinal Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), which contains a rich set of such factors measured in early adolescence, to assess whether they contribute to race-ethnic differences in having a birth among men and women ages 17–24 (n=1,042). Specifically, we test whether individual attitudes, religiosity, and academic behaviors; knowledge and behaviors regarding sex and dating; peer normative context; and parental communication about sex account for variation in the risk of an early birth. We find that socioeconomic factors attenuate but do not reduce differences between Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Including adolescent academic performance and early entry into sex reduces the Black-White difference in the odds of early fertility to nonsignificance; however, beyond socioeconomic status, none of the broad range of factors further attenuate Hispanic-White differences, which remain large and statistically significant. PMID:26195990

  17. Different age-dependent performance in Drosophila wild-type Canton-S and the white mutant w1118 flies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Xiao, Chengfeng; Meldrum Robertson, R

    2017-04-01

    Aging has significant effects on the locomotor performance of insects including Drosophila. Using a protocol for the high-throughput analysis of fly locomotion in a circular arena, we examined age-dependent behavioral characteristics in adult flies. There are widely used wild-type and genetically engineered background lines including the Canton-S strain and the w1118 strain, which has a null mutation of the white gene. Under standard rearing conditions, we found similar survival and median lifespans in Canton-S (50days) and w1118 (54days) strains, however, w1118 flies maintained stable body mass for up to 43days, whereas Canton-S flies gained body mass at young age, followed by a gradual decline. We also tested the behavioral performance of young and old flies. Compared with young w1118 flies (5-10days), old w1118 flies (40-45days) had an increased boundary preference during locomotion in small circular arenas, and increased speed of locomotor recovery from anoxia. Old Canton-S files, however, exhibited unchanged boundary preference and reduced recovery speed from anoxia relative to young flies. In addition, old w1118 flies showed decreased path length per minute and reduced 0.2s path increment compared with young flies, whereas old Canton-S flies displayed the same path length per minute and the same 0.2s path increment compared with young flies. We conclude that age-dependent behavioral and physiological changes differ between Canton-S and w1118 flies. These results illustrate that phenotypic differences between strains can change qualitatively, as well as quantitatively, as the animals age.

  18. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  19. Readers and Book Characters: Does Race Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Kerry; Powell, Sarah; Holmes, Stacy; Witt, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the results of a study in which they sought to determine the effect of the race of a book's primary characters on the reading motivation of 3rd-grade students in Mississippi. Students (N = 35) from 2 3rd-grade classrooms chose books with covers that depicted main characters who were either Black or White. The authors sought to…

  20. Children's Essentialist Reasoning about Language and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Dautel, Jocelyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Across four studies, we directly compared children's essentialist reasoning about the stability of race and language throughout an individual's lifespan. Monolingual English-speaking children were presented with a series of images of children who were either White or Black; each face was paired with a voice clip in either English or French.…

  1. Race and Ethnicity in Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Robert A.; Hamilton, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born…

  2. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  3. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  4. Reciprocal Associations between Depressive Symptoms and Mastery among Older Adults; Black-White Differences

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of sense of mastery tend to be comorbid, limited information exists on racial differences in the longitudinal associations between the two over time. The current study compared Black and White American older adults for the longitudinal links between depressive symptoms and mastery in the United States. Methods: Using data from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001–2004, this longitudinal cohort study followed 1493 Black (n = 734) and White (n = 759) elderly individuals (age 66 or more) for 3 years. Depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), 8 items] and mastery (Pearlin Mastery Scale, 7 items) were measured in 2001 and 2004. Demographics, socio-economics, and physical health were covariates and race was the focal moderator. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used for data analysis, where groups were defined based on race. Results: Among White but not Black older adults, higher levels of depressive symptoms at baseline predicted a greater decline in sense of mastery over 3 years of follow-up. Similarly among Whites but not Blacks, individuals with lower mastery at baseline developed more depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion: Findings are indicative of Black-White differences in reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and mastery over time. Race alters how depression is linked to changes in evaluation of self (e.g., mastery) over time. PMID:28105012

  5. Adipogenic signaling in rat white adipose tissue: modulation by aging and calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Lee, Garrick D; Ding, Liusong; Hu, Jingping; Qiu, Guang; de Cabo, Rafa; Bernier, Michel; Ingram, Donald K; Zou, Sige

    2007-08-01

    Alterations in adipogenesis could have significant impact on several aging processes. We previously reported that calorie restriction (CR) in rats significantly increases the level of circulating adiponectin, a distinctive marker of differentiated adipocytes, leading to a concerted modulation in the expression of key transcription target genes and, as a result, to increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced deleterious lipid accumulation in other tissues. These findings led us to investigate further the effects of aging on adipocytes and to determine how CR modulates adipogenic signaling in vivo. CR for 2 and 25 months, significantly increased the expression of PPARgamma, C/EBPbeta and Cdk-4, and partially attenuated age-related decline in C/EBPalpha expression relative to rats fed ad libitum (AL). As a result, adiponectin was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels, resulting in activation of target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis, and greater responsiveness of adipose tissue to insulin. Moreover, CR significantly decreased the ratio of C/EBPbeta isoforms LAP/LIP, suggesting the suppression of gene transcription associated with terminal differentiation while facilitating preadipocytes proliferation. Morphometric analysis revealed a greater number of small adipocytes in CR relative to AL feeding. Immunostaining confirmed that small adipocytes were more strongly positive for adiponectin than the large ones. Overall these results suggest that CR increased the expression of adipogenic factors, and maintained the differentiated state of adipocytes, which is critically important for adiponectin biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity.

  6. Race, Disability, and Grade: Social Relationships in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Race is associated with social relationships among typically developing children; however, studies rarely examine the impact of race on social outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined how race (African American, Latino, Asian, or White) in conjunction with disability status (autism spectrum disorders or typically…

  7. Still Flies in Buttermilk: Black Male Faculty, Critical Race Theory, and Composite Counterstorytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…

  8. Attitudes toward victims of rape: effects of gender, race, religion, and social class.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-06-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while focusing on gender and racial differences. Results indicate (N = 220) that victims of rape are generally viewed more sympathetically by females than by males and by Whites than by African Americans. However, the effect of race disappears when socioeconomic variables are controlled, suggesting a more complex relationship. Also, a hierarchical regression indicates that age, sex, education, and income are significant predictors of attitudes toward victims. This study builds on existing research that examines such attitudes from a cultural perspective and extends this literature by examining the interactive effects of several demographic variables within a community sample.

  9. Forgiveness of Others and Health: Do Race and Neighborhood Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cheryl A.; Toussaint, Loren; Thomas, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the relationship between interpersonal forgiveness and health for older Blacks and Whites. We outline a series of arguments concerning the following: (a) how forgiveness can affect health, (b) how forgiveness may be more protective for Blacks, and (c) how the relationship between forgiveness and health may vary by neighborhood deterioration. Method. Two waves (2001 and 2004) of the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey provided data from a nationally representative elderly sample of 436 Blacks and 500 Whites. Measures included sociodemographics, forgiveness, and three dimensions of health: self-reported health, alcohol use, and chronic conditions. We employ both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses. Results. Results suggest that forgiveness of others was protective of health for Blacks but not Whites. Moreover, among Blacks, we found the following: (a) forgiveness was positively associated with self-reported health over time, (b) forgiveness was negatively associated with alcohol use and number of chronic conditions, and (c) forgiveness interacted with neighborhood deterioration such that the beneficial effects of forgiveness for self-reported health did not extend to those living in run-down neighborhoods. Discussion. Race and neighborhood were shown to be important for understanding the forgiveness–health connection. Forgiveness was associated with better health for Blacks but not Whites, consistent with McCullough’s evolutionary framework (McCullough, M. E. (2008). Beyond revenge: The evolution of the forgiveness instinct. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass), forgiveness was beneficial in some settings but had a deleterious impact in more noxious environments. This study suggests that researchers should give more consideration to race and social context in attempting to more fully understand the relationship between forgiveness and health. PMID:22156629

  10. The Relationship of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children to Sex, Race, and Fluid-Crystallized Intelligence on the KAIT at Ages 11 to 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…

  11. The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.

    PubMed

    Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI.

  12. Map the Race to the White House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Felice S.; Cooper, Linda L.

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 presidential election is a great backdrop for analyzing graphs, learning about population distributions, and studying the effect on the electoral voting process. To take advantage of the enthusiasm surrounding the election, the authors conducted two activities in the months leading up to the 2008 presidential elections with several groups…

  13. Does the way I see you affect the way I see myself? Associations between interviewers' and interviewees' 'color/race' in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bastos, João Luiz; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Barros, Aluísio J D; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Gonçalves, Helen; Nunes, Ana Paula

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the associations between female interviewers' self-classified 'color/race' and participants' self- and interviewer-classified 'color/race'. A cross-sectional study was carried out among adult individuals living in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Associations were examined by means of contingency tables and multinomial regression models, adjusting for interviewees' socioeconomic and demographic factors. Individuals aged > or = 40 years were 2.1 times more likely to classify themselves as brown (versus white) when interviewed by black (as compared to white) interviewers. Participants in the same age group were 2.5 times less likely to classify themselves as black (versus white), when interviewed by black interviewers. These differences were even greater among men 40 years or older. Compared to white interviewers, black female interviewers were 2.5 times less likely to classify men aged > or = 40 years as black. These results highlight the complexity of racial classification, indicating the influence of the interviewer's physical characteristics on the interviewee's 'color/race'.

  14. Preadolescent Attitudes toward the Elderly: An Analysis of Race, Gender and Contact Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Julianne; Fiedler, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    White, Mexican-American, and Black preadolescents (N=157) completed Tuckman-Lorge Old People Scale and contact questionnaire to examine preadolescent attitudes toward elderly through analysis of race, gender, and contact variables. Found only one variable studied, race, was significantly related to attitudes toward elderly. White preadolescents…

  15. Audience Matters: Teaching Issues of Race and Racism for a Predominantly Minority Student Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybee, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the literature about teaching issues of race and racism in classrooms has addressed matters of audience. Zeus Leonardo, for example, has argued that teachers should use the language of white domination, rather than white privilege, when teaching about race and racism because the former language presupposes a minority audience, while the…

  16. African American Race is an Independent Risk Factor in Survival from Initially Diagnosed Localized Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wieder, Robert; Shafiq, Basit; Adam, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African American race negatively impacts survival from localized breast cancer but co-variable factors confound the impact. METHODS: Data sets were analyzed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) directories from 1973 to 2011 consisting of patients with designated diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma, race as White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, age, stage I, II or III, grade 1, 2 or 3, estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive or negative, marital status as single, married, separated, divorced or widowed and laterality as right or left. The Cox Proportional Hazards Regression model was used to determine hazard ratios for survival. Chi square test was applied to determine the interdependence of variables found significant in the multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards Regression analysis. Cells with stratified data of patients with identical characteristics except African American or Caucasian race were compared. RESULTS: Age, stage, grade, ER and PR status and marital status significantly co-varied with race and with each other. Stratifications by single co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans. Stratification by three and four co-variables demonstrated worse hazard ratios for survival for African Americans in most subgroupings with sufficient numbers of values. Differences in some subgroupings containing poor prognostic co-variables did not reach significance, suggesting that race effects may be partly overcome by additional poor prognostic indicators. CONCLUSIONS: African American race is a poor prognostic indicator for survival from breast cancer independent of 6 associated co-variables with prognostic significance. PMID:27698895

  17. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently from other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared.

  18. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R; Cockerham, William C

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 - 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem.

  19. Association between race, obesity and diabetes in elderly community dwellers: data from the FIBRA study.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Maria Clara; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Garcia, Cássia de Almeida Merlo Sarzedo; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Guariento, Maria Elena

    2016-11-03

    This study sought to investigate the effect of race on measures of body fat (body mass index - BMI, waist circumference - WC and waist-hip ratio - WHR), as well as its relationship with diabetes, among elderly individuals living in urban areas in seven places in Brazil, according to gender. This is a cross-sectional study carried out with a probabilistic sample comprising 2,566 individuals with 65 years of age or more who participated in the FIBRA Study (Frailty in Elderly Brazilians). We used several self-reported sociodemographic variables (gender, age, race, schooling and family income), anthropometric measures of general (BMI) and abdominal obesity (WC and WHR) and self-reported diabetes. Adjusting for schooling and income, white race was associated with higher WC values (p = 0.001) and WHR (p > 0.001) for male gender, regardless of diabetes status. However, when we considered only diabetic individuals, black race became associated with general (BMI) (p = 0.007) and central obesity (CC) (p > 0.001), only among women.

  20. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  1. Race/ethnic differences in desired body mass index and dieting practices among young women attending college in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai'i. A total of 144 female college students 18-20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups.

  2. Cortical Grey Matter and Subcortical White Matter Brain Microstructural Changes in Schizophrenia Are Localised and Age Independent: A Case-Control Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18–65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18–65 year age range. PMID:24124469

  3. Cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter brain microstructural changes in schizophrenia are localised and age independent: a case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18-65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18-65 year age range.

  4. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  5. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  6. Race moderates the relationship between obesity and colorectal cancer screening in women

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Lucia A.; Campbell, Marci K.; Satia, Jessie A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Pignone, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the relationship between obesity and usage of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in women varies when stratifying by race. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, we examined the relationship between obesity and CRC screening for white and African-American women aged 50 and older. Screening usage variables indicated if a woman was up-to-date for any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, or FOBT. We used multivariable logistic regression models that included interaction terms to determine if race moderates the obesity-screening relationship. We also calculated adjusted up-to-date colonoscopy rates using direct standardization to model covariates. Results The relationship between obesity and screening differed by race for any CRC screening test (P = 0.04 for interaction) and for colonoscopy (P = 0.01 for interaction), but not for FOBT. Obese white women had a lower adjusted colonoscopy rate (30.2%, 95% CI 25.9–34.8) than non-obese white women (39.1%, 95% CI 36.1–42.2). Obese African-American women, on the other hand, had a higher adjusted colonoscopy rate (41.2%, 95% CI 31.6–51.4) than their non-obese counterparts (35.6%, 95% CI 28.3–43.6). Overall, adjusted colonoscopy rates were lowest among obese white women. Conclusions Obesity is associated with lower CRC screening rates in white, but not African-American women. PMID:19941158

  7. Differences in life expectancy due to race and educational differences are widening, and many may not catch up.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, S Jay; Antonucci, Toni; Berkman, Lisa; Binstock, Robert H; Boersch-Supan, Axel; Cacioppo, John T; Carnes, Bruce A; Carstensen, Laura L; Fried, Linda P; Goldman, Dana P; Jackson, James; Kohli, Martin; Rother, John; Zheng, Yuhui; Rowe, John

    2012-08-01

    It has long been known that despite well-documented improvements in longevity for most Americans, alarming disparities persist among racial groups and between the well-educated and those with less education. In this article we update estimates of the impact of race and education on past and present life expectancy, examine trends in disparities from 1990 through 2008, and place observed disparities in the context of a rapidly aging society that is emerging at a time of optimism about the next revolution in longevity. We found that in 2008 US adult men and women with fewer than twelve years of education had life expectancies not much better than those of all adults in the 1950s and 1960s. When race and education are combined, the disparity is even more striking. In 2008 white US men and women with 16 years or more of schooling had life expectancies far greater than black Americans with fewer than 12 years of education-14.2 years more for white men than black men, and 10.3 years more for white women than black women. These gaps have widened over time and have led to at least two "Americas," if not multiple others, in terms of life expectancy, demarcated by level of education and racial-group membership. The message for policy makers is clear: implement educational enhancements at young, middle, and older ages for people of all races, to reduce the large gap in health and longevity that persists today.

  8. Age-effects in white matter using associated diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer ratio during late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Kempton, Matthew; Barker, Gareth; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo; Del Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Anés, Mauricio; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Amaro, Edson; Rohde, Luis Augusto; McGuire, Philip; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Sato, João Ricardo; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, several studies have described the typical brain white matter maturation in children and adolescents. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the most frequent MRI technique used to investigate the structural changes across development. However, few previous studies have used the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which gives a closer measure of myelin content. Here, we employed both techniques for the same sample of 176 typically developing children from 7 to 14years of age. We investigated the associations between DTI parameters and MTR measure, to assess the myelination in the brain in development. Secondly, we investigated age-effects on DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and MTR. No significant correlations between MTR and DTI parameters were observed. In addition, a significant age-effect was detected for DTI data but was not visible for MTR data. Thereby, changes in white matter at this age might be primarily correlated with microstructural changes.

  9. Effect of recipient's race on pediatric renal allograft survival: a single-center study.

    PubMed

    Schulman, S L; Palmer, J; Dunn, S; Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1992-06-01

    One hundred twenty-seven children (83 males, 44 females, 86 white, 41 nonwhite; mean age 12.1 years) who received 160 renal transplants between 1980 and 1989 were retrospectively studied. Variables such as age, sex, primary diagnosis, type, HLA-DR mismatching, and repeated transplants were compared between races and found not to be significant. However, HLA-A and -B cadaveric-graft mismatching, which was equivalent between whites and nonwhites prior to 1985 (pre-cyclosporine A era), has significantly favored whites (49% with 0 to 2 HLA-A and -B mismatch vs 16% in nonwhites) since 1985 (P less than .05), and a significantly higher proportion of nonwhite patients (59%) were receiving medical assistance (P less than .0001). Graft survival was evaluated with significantly poorer results in nonwhites as compared to whites (P less than .05). Although no difference was found between white and nonwhite cadaveric-graft survival before 1985, nonwhites had significantly worse graft survival since 1985 (72% vs 59% for 1 year and 61% vs 24% for 3 years in whites and nonwhites, respectively; P less than .05). Subpopulations such as nonwhite adolescents, nonwhite females, nonwhites with repeated transplants, and all low socioeconomic patients were identified as high-risk children with poor long-term survival. It is concluded that secondary to poorer matching since 1985 there has been decreased graft survival in nonwhites despite cyclosporine A. Attempts to improve matching and attention to high-risk groups are needed for equivalent survival.

  10. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  11. Narrowing in categorical responding to other-race face classes by infants.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Tanaka, James W

    2016-05-01

    Infants can form object categories based on perceptual cues, but their ability to form categories based on differential experience is less clear. Here we examined whether infants filter through perceptual differences among faces from different other-race classes and represent them as a single other-race class different only from own-race faces. We used a familiarization/novelty-preference procedure to investigate category formation for two other-race face classes (Black vs. Asian) by White 6- and 9-month-olds. The data indicated that while White 6-month-olds categorically represented the distinction between Black and Asian faces, White 9-month-olds formed a broad other-race category inclusive of Black and Asian faces, but exclusive of own-race White faces. The findings provide evidence that narrowing can occur for mental processes other than discrimination: category formation is also affected. The results suggest that frequency of experience with own-race versus other-race classes of faces may propel infants to contrast own-race faces with other-race faces, but not different classes of other-race faces with each other.

  12. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.

  13. Breaking the race barrier.

    PubMed

    Minrath, M

    1985-08-01

    Through the reflective process of analyzing one's own feelings and reactions to the ethnic minority patient, the white therapist develops an inner clarity that serves as a resource to cope with the unique conflicts one must confront in interracial practice. Only when the therapist has come to some resolution of his or her own feelings about the plight of ethnic minorities in this country can this acumen develop. Although the therapeutic skills applied in psychotherapy with ethnic minorities are in no way different from overall therapeutic skills, certain techniques may be especially useful in interracial practice. For instance, a discussion of the meaning of race and ethnicity in the relationship may curtail racial distortion, prevent stereotyping, and lead to the creation of a therapeutic alliance. When dealing with transference and countertransference issues, the therapist must be particularly attentive to the representation of these same distortions and stereotypes. Formulating clinical problems from dual perspectives, theoretical and sociocultural, is an arduous, but necessary task. Finally, the white therapist must be able to view ethnic minority patients as individuals. Although these patients cope with special problems which must be acknowledged and dealt with in therapy, the therapist must realize there is a common ground on which to communicate. On this common ground, therapists discover the foundation of interracial clinical practice is the ability to accept and respect their patients and themselves as individuals who may have similar anxieties, problems, experiences, and goals. It is through the recognition and sharing of the fundamental human bond that ethnic and racial differences, which may have detrimental effects on interpersonal relationships, are transcended.

  14. Attitudes of African American and low socioeconomic status white women toward medical research.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Deborah F; Jackson, Sharon A; Camacho, Fabian; Hall, Mark A

    2007-02-01

    Minority and low socioeconomic status women are under-represented in clinical research due to logistical, informational, attitudinal, and sociocultural barriers. The primary objective of this study was to explore factors associated with research participation among African American and low socioeconomic status White women using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A secondary goal was to assess differences in barriers to research participation by age and race. A combination of qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (trust scale) methodologies was employed. Ten focus groups were held, organized by age and race. Content analysis revealed three predominant themes: fear, distrust, and hope. Older women had higher trust; there was no difference in trust by race. The results suggest that women have conflicting feelings about research that cross ethnic lines and should be addressed by researchers. Effective strategies for overcoming barriers and increasing representation are those that establish ongoing relationships with relevant communities.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Bryan, R. Nick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower odds of having unfavorable brain MRI findings. Methods: We studied 565 healthy, middle-aged, black and white men and women in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study. The fitness measure was symptom-limited maximal treadmill test duration (Maxdur); brain MRI was measured 5 years later. Brain MRI measures were analyzed as means and as proportions below the 15th percentile (above the 85th percentile for white matter abnormal tissue volume). Results: Per 1-minute-higher Maxdur, the odds ratio for having less whole brain volume was 0.85 (p = 0.04) and for having low white matter integrity was 0.80 (p = 0.02), adjusted for age, race, sex, clinic, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, education, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, and lung function (plus intracranial volume for white matter integrity). No significant associations were observed between Maxdur and abnormal tissue volume or blood flow in white matter. Findings were similar for associations with continuous brain MRI measures. Conclusions: Greater physical fitness was associated with more brain volume and greater white matter integrity measured 5 years later in middle-aged adults. PMID:25957331

  16. Structuring Contexts: Pathways toward Un-Obstructing Race-Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berchini, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This research is situated in second-wave White Teacher Identity studies and investigates the ways context structures a high school English teacher's white identity, practices, and race-consciousness. Working with detailed data and vignettes from a single case study, the author highlights the teaching of a unit on the Holocaust. Using the required…

  17. Race, Self-Evaluation and the Protestant Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony R.; Stokes, Randall

    1978-01-01

    A study of 225 Black and White prisoners indicates that the content and process of self-evaluation may be linked to race. When levels of perceived effectiveness in goal attainment are held constant, higher aspirations lower self-esteem for Whites, but raise it for Blacks. (Author/WI)

  18. Three-year changes in leisure activities are associated with concurrent changes in white matter microstructure and perceptual speed in individuals aged 80 years and older.

    PubMed

    Köhncke, Ylva; Laukka, Erika J; Brehmer, Yvonne; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that engagement in leisure activities is associated with favorable trajectories of cognitive aging, but little is known about brain changes related to both activities and cognition. White matter microstructure shows experience-dependent plasticity and declines in aging. Therefore, we investigated the role of change in white matter microstructure in the activities-cognition link. We used repeated assessments of engagement, perceptual speed, and white matter microstructure (probed with diffusion tensor imaging) in a population-based sample of individuals over 80 years without dementia (n = 442, Mage = 85.1; n = 70 for diffusion tensor imaging; 2 occasions 3 years apart). Using multivariate latent change modeling, we observed positive correlations among changes in predominantly social activities, white matter microstructure, and perceptual speed. Interindividual differences in change in white matter microstructure statistically accounted for the association between change in leisure activities and change in perceptual speed. However, as analyses are based on observational data from 2 measurement occasions, causality remains unclear.

  19. 17β-estradiol replacement therapy protects myelin sheaths in the white matter of middle-aged female ovariectomized rats: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanmin; Xiao, Qian; Chao, Fenglei; He, Qi; Lv, Fulin; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Xuan; Huang, Chunxia; Li, Yongde; Wang, Sanrong; Jiang, Rong; Gu, Hengwei; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) can improve cognitive function and affect the structure of the brain, including the white matter, in postmenopausal women. However, it is unclear whether ERT plays an important role in white matter remodeling in postmenopausal women. In the present study, middle-aged (9-12-month-old) female Sprague-Dawley rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and randomly allocated to the vehicle treatment (OVX+Veh) group or the 17β-estradiol replacement (OVX+E) group. After 1 month of treatment, spatial learning and memory capacities were assessed using the Morris water maze task. Then, stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate white matter volume and myelinated fiber parameters of the white matter in the 2 groups of rats. The results revealed that the mean escape latency of the OVX+E rats in the Morris water maze task was significantly shorter than that of the OVX+Veh rats. The volume density of the myelinated fibers and the volume density and total volume of the myelin sheaths were significantly greater in the OVX+E rats than in the OVX+Veh rats. However, there were no significant differences in white matter volume or in the total length or volume of myelinated fibers in white matter between the 2 groups of rats. Our results showed that 1 month of ERT had significant beneficial effects on spatial learning capacity and on the myelin sheaths and myelinated fibers in the white matter of middle-aged OVX rats.

  20. Witnessing Whiteness: First Steps toward an Antiracist Practice and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tochluk, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    The book describes and critiques strategies used to avoid race issues, and identifies the detrimental effect of avoiding race on cross-race collaborations. The author illustrates how racial discomfort leads white educators toward ineffective teaching pedagogy and poor relationships with students and colleagues of color. Questioning the…