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  1. Race-Related Health Disparities and Biological Aging: Does Rate of Telomere Shortening Differ Across Blacks and Whites?

    PubMed Central

    Rewak, Marissa; Buka, Stephen; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Loucks, Eric B.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Non, Amy L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent work suggests that leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, is sensitive to effects of social stress and may also provide early indication of premature aging. Using data from a birth cohort with LTL information at birth and in middle adulthood we examined a potential source of race-based health disparity by testing the hypothesis that Blacks would demonstrate a faster rate of telomere shortening than Whites. Linear regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for pack years, BMI, education and social factors, diet, exercise, marital status, and age. At birth black individuals had LTLs that were longer, on average, than their White counterparts (b = 3.85, p < 0.01). However, rate of shortening was greater for Blacks, who showed a larger difference in length between birth and adulthood (b = 5.10, p = 0.01) as compared with Whites, resulting in smaller racial differences in absolute adult LTL. PMID:24686071

  2. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American…

  3. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  4. Race, Age, and Identity Transformations in the Transition from High School to College for Black and First-Generation White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Race and class differences in academic and social integration matter for educational success, social mobility, and personal well-being. In this article, I use interview data with students attending predominantly white four-year research universities to investigate the integration experiences of black and first-generation white men. I examine each…

  5. A White Teacher Talks about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Veteran teacher Julie Landsman leads the reader through a day of teaching and reflection about her work with high school students who are from a variety of cultures. She speaks honestly about issues of race, poverty, institutional responsibility, and white privilege by engaging the reader in the experiences of a day in the classroom with some of…

  6. A White Teacher Talks about Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Julie

    In this book, a veteran teacher examines a typical day of teaching and reflects on her work with high school students from a variety of cultures, speaking honestly about issues of race, poverty, institutional responsibility, and white privilege by describing her experiences in the classroom. Throughout the day, she encounters bigotry, deals with…

  7. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    PubMed Central

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  8. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  9. What White Children Need to Know about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Bartoli, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    While white parents' intention is to convey to their children the belief that race should not matter, the message their children receive is that race, in fact, does not matter. The intent and aim are noble, but in order for race not to matter in the long run, we have to acknowledge that, currently, it does matter a great deal. If white…

  10. White Kids: Language, Race, and Styles of Youth Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In White Kids, Mary Bucholtz investigates how white teenagers use language to display identities based on race and youth culture. Focusing on three youth styles--preppies, hip hop fans, and nerds--Bucholtz shows how white youth use a wealth of linguistic resources, from social labels to slang, from Valley Girl speech to African American English,…

  11. Worship Discourse and White Race-based Policy Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality. PMID:25324579

  12. Worship Discourse and White Race-based Policy Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Brown, R Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S

    2014-06-01

    The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality.

  13. White Lies: A Critical Race Study of Power and Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Patricia Jones

    2009-01-01

    This was a phenomenological study of racial privilege as experienced by White people who have struggled to become more racially aware and socially active in dismantling racism and White privilege. The primary conceptual framework for this study was Critical Race Theory with Transformative Learning theory and Racial Identity Development as…

  14. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  15. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  16. Can White Children Grow up to Be Black? Children's Reasoning about the Stability of Emotion and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research questions whether children conceptualize race as stable. We examined participants' beliefs about the relative stability of race and emotion, a temporary feature. Participants were White adults and children ages 5-6 and 9-10 (Study 1) and racial minority children ages 5-6 (Study 2). Participants were presented with target children…

  17. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  18. Race, School, and Seinfeld: Autoethnographic Sketching in Black and White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsted, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…

  19. Beyond black, white and Hispanic: race, ethnic origin and drinking patterns in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D A

    1998-01-01

    This study used data on 42,862 U.S. adults, including 18,352 past-year drinkers, to describe differentials by race and national origin in U.S. drinking patterns. Age-sex standardized estimates were presented within 21 categories of ethnic origin for whites and within five categories each for individuals of black and other races. Of the three racial groups, whites were the most likely to drink, but blacks had the highest volume of intake and frequency of heavy drinking. Differences by ethnic origin within racial categories were as marked as differentials between races. Compared to whites of European origin, those of Hispanic and native American origin were less likely to drink but consumed more alcohol on days when they drank. Whites of Southern and Eastern European origin drank proportionately more wine and demonstrated more moderate drinking patterns (lower intake per drinking day and/or less frequent heavy drinking) than those of Northern or Central European origin. Hispanics of Caribbean origin were less prone to heavy drinking than other white Hispanics; similarly, blacks from the English-speaking Caribbean showed more moderate drinking patterns than other blacks. Individuals of Asian origin, in particular those of non-Japanese origin, had the most moderate drinking patterns within the category of other race. Although the black/white differentials in volume of intake and frequency of heavy drinking disappeared after adjusting for marital status, education and income, most of the differences by ethnic origin retained their statistical significance if not their original magnitudes. These findings indicate that cultural forces exert a strong effect on drinking behavior. Differences among European whites with respect to prevalence of drinking, beverage preference and frequency of heavy drinking suggest that the association between ethnic origin and drinking behavior may persist even after many generations of presumed acculturation.

  20. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  1. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind.

  2. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  3. Learning to See: The Development of Race and Class Consciousness in White Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullucci, Kerri

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of White teachers and their identity development. Using a qualitative approach steeped in the tenants of critical race theory and storytelling, this study investigated how White teachers learn about race, class and diversity in meaningful ways, with a close eye on the role their own personal histories played in their development.…

  4. The Aesthetics of White Racism in Pre-Service Teacher Education: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Winters, Venus E.; Hoff, Pamela Twyman

    2011-01-01

    The authors use critical race theory (CRT) and critical race feminism (CRF) as a lens for analyzing and grappling with White students' resistance to learning about and deconstructing systems of oppression. The authors build on the work of critical scholars whose work exposes the ways in which White pre-service teachers resist counter-hegemonic…

  5. The two worlds of race revisited: a meditation on race in the age of Obama.

    PubMed

    Early, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race."

  6. The two worlds of race revisited: a meditation on race in the age of Obama.

    PubMed

    Early, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race." PMID:21465840

  7. "What Is Critical Whiteness Doing in Our Nice Field Like Critical Race Theory?" Applying CRT and CWS to Understand the White Imaginations of White Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Garrison-Wade, Dorothy F.; Tandon, Madhavi; Galindo, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Critical Race Theory (CRT) revolutionized how we investigate race in education. Centralizing counter-stories from people of color becomes essential for decentralizing white normative discourse--a process we refer to as realities within the Black imagination. Yet, few studies examine how whites respond to centering the Black imagination, especially…

  8. Validity of Self-Reported Fitness Across Black and White Race, Gender, and Health Literacy Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Clark, Daniel O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare concurrent criterion validity of the Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) Survey, a new fitness measure, between black and white race, gender, and health literacy groups. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Midwest urban primary care center and commercial fitness center. Subjects One hundred one black, white, male, and female primary care patients aged ≥40 years. Measures Measures included demographics, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, the SRFit Survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. The BodPod determined percentage of body fat. Body mass index was calculated. Analysis Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations between corresponding physical tests and SRFit survey items. Results Correlations between physical tests and SRFit items ranged from r=.52 to .76 (ρ=.41–.85) in males, r =.40 to .79 (ρ = .33–.80) in females, r =.45 to .79 (ρ = .53–.82) in blacks, and r =.49 to .77 (ρ = .33–.82) in whites. Correlations were r =.58 (ρ = .58) to r = .77 (ρ = .79) in persons with low health literacy and r =.50 to .79 (ρ = .39–.85) among persons with moderate to high health literacy. Conclusion SRFit shows similar concurrent validity across race, gender, and health literacy subgroups. PMID:24670069

  9. Students and Institutions Protecting Whiteness as Property: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Student Affairs Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondi, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on interviews with White students graduating from a student affairs preparation program as well as a literature review of whiteness in education. Applying "critical race theory," the author examined the ways that students and institutions protected whiteness. Institutions and those within them concerned with equity must have…

  10. Seeing White through Rap: A Classroom Exercise for Examining Race Using a Hip-Hop Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    When discussing race in the classroom, getting students--including, importantly, white students--to see that all people have racial identities can be a challenge. This classroom exercise employs a rap video as a tool for helping to reveal white as a racial identity and for exploring the concept of white privilege--the idea that economic, social,…

  11. Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US children.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Vijay; Hampl, Jeffrey S; Betts, Nancy M

    2003-11-01

    Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of 1- to 10-year-old US children were evaluated. Three-day, dietary intakes from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were evaluated. Data from 1895 children (967 males, 928 females; 1,540 Whites, 355 Blacks) who resided in the 48 conterminous states were analyzed. Micronutrient intakes, intakes as percent of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and percent of children who consumed < or =67% of the RDA were computed. Black males compared with White males, Black females compared with White females and White females compared with White males had significantly lower dietary intakes for several micronutrients. More Black males than White males had intakes < or =67% of the RDA for vitamin E, calcium and zinc. Blacks and female children were at a greater risk for vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium, iron and zinc deficiency. PMID:14522694

  12. Cross race comparisons between SES health gradients among African-American and white women at mid-life

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) inform understanding of race differences in the magnitude of health gains associated with higher SES. The study sample, 1268 African-American women and 2066 white women, was drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979. The outcome was the Physical Components Summary from the SF-12 assessed at age 40. Ordinary least squares regressions using education, income and net worth fully interacted with race were conducted. Single measure gradients tended to be steeper for whites than African-Americans, partly because “sheepskin” effects of high school and college graduation were higher for whites and low income and low net worth whites had worse health than comparable African-Americans. Conditioning on multiple measures of SES eliminated race disparities in health benefits of education and net worth, but not income. A discussion of current public policies that affect race disparities in levels of education, income and net wealth is provided. PMID:24632052

  13. Beyond the Face of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations of White Neurosis and Racial Cray-Cray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; DiAngelo, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the emotional and cognitive context that underlies whiteness. They employ interdisciplinary approaches of critical Whiteness studies and critical race theory to entertain how common White responses to racial material stem from the need for Whites to deny race, a traumatizing process that begins in childhood.…

  14. Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Michelle, Ed.; Weis, Lois, Ed.; Powell, Linda C., Ed.; Wong, L. Mun, Ed.

    The contributions in this volume analyze the white racialization process in the context of multiculturalism and examine how racism is established in institutional structures. The chapters are: (1) "The Achievement (K)not: Whiteness and 'Black Underachievement'" (Linda C. Powell); (2) "White Experimenters, White Blood, and Other White Conditions:…

  15. Whiteness in the Social Studies Classroom: Students' Conceptions of Race and Ethnicity in United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researcher examined student conceptions of "Whiteness" as it relates to past and present U.S. history. Using Critical Race Theory as the lens, this study employed mixed methods, analyzing teacher observations, classroom artifacts/student work, survey, and interview data from White students and students of color at an ethnically…

  16. Whiteness: A Narrative Analysis on Student Affairs Professionals, Race, Identity, and Multicultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashe, Susan Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect race has on the daily work of white student affairs professionals, how invested participants feel in being multiculturally competent, and their awareness of racial identity, racial attitudes, and racial privilege. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather responses from 12 white, student affairs, mid-level…

  17. Black Leadership, White Leadership: Race and Race Relations in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how race and race relations influence school leadership practice. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study was conducted in a high-poverty, high-minority, urban high school in the Southeastern USA. The authors utilized an anthropological conceptual framework called a moiety, through…

  18. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  19. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight as Potential Mediators of Higher Stillbirth Risk in Mixed Black/White Race Couples

    PubMed Central

    DeMonner, Sonya M.; Lantz, Paula M.; Hayward, Rodney A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective Although births of multiracial and multiethnic infants are becoming more common in the United States, little is known about birth outcomes and risks for adverse events. We evaluated risk of fetal death for mixed race couples compared with same race couples and examined the role of prematurity and low birth weight as potential mediating risk factors. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using data from the 1998–2002 California Birth Cohort to evaluate the odds of fetal death, low birth weight, and prematurity for couples with a mother and father who were categorized as either being of same or different racial groups. Risk of prematurity (birth prior to 37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (<2500 g) were also tested to see if the model could explain variations among groups. Results The analysis included approximately 1.6 million live births and 1749 stillbirths. In the unadjusted model, compared with two white parents, black/black and black/white couples had a significantly higher risk of fetal death. When all demographic, social, biological, genetic, congenital, and procedural risk factors except gestational age and birth weight were included, the odds ratios (OR) were all still significant. Black/black couples had the highest level of risk (OR 2.11, CI 1.77-2.51), followed by black mother/white father couples (OR 2.01, CI 1.16-3.48), and white mother/black father couples (OR 1.84, CI 1.33-2.54). Virtually all of the higher risk of fetal death was explainable by higher rates of low birth weight and prematurity. Conclusions Mixed race black and white couples face higher odds of prematurity and low birth weight, which appear to contribute to the substantially higher demonstrated risk for stillbirth. There are likely additional unmeasured factors that influence birth outcomes for mixed race couples. PMID:20235877

  20. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  1. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  2. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. PMID:26610722

  3. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  4. Density of fat-free body mass: relationship with race, age, and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Gallagher, D; Deurenberg, P; Wang, J; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1997-05-01

    The two-compartment body composition method assumes that fat-free body mass (FFM) has a density of 1.100 kg/l. This study tested the hypothesis that FFM density is independent of race, age, and body fatness. Subjects were 703 black and white subjects, ages 20-94 yr, with body mass index (BMI) 17-35 kg/m2. Body composition was assessed using a four-compartment model based on tritium dilution volume, body density by underwater weighing, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body weight. No relationship was observed between FFM density and race or BMI. A tendency was observed for a lower FFM density only in older white women. The difference in percent body fat (delta fat) between the four-compartment model and underwater weighing was < 2% for all groups. Race, age, and BMI explained only 2.3 (women) and 1.4% (men) of the variance in delta fat, whereas the total body water fraction of FFM explained 77%. In contrast to current thinking, these results show that the assumption of constant FFM density is valid in black, elderly, and obese subjects.

  5. Symposium: Talking about Race and Whiteness in "Crash"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Joyce Irene

    2007-01-01

    Teaching films like "Crash" gives teachers and researchers the opportunity to discuss films as social texts that engage students in critical thinking and self-reflection. This particular movie is especially effective in its use of a pulp-fiction visual rhetoric. Unfortunately, the film equates and replaces the term "race" with the term "prejudice"…

  6. Unlearning Whiteness, Rethinking Race Issues in Graduate Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Deborah; Golner, Ronald; Hanson, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the experiences of music education graduate students and their instructor during a fifteen-week seminar course entitled "Race issues in music teaching." Excerpts from students' journal entries and the instructor's responses to those journals are constructed in this paper as dialogue vignettes which provide insight into the…

  7. Disentangling the effects of race and SES on arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being in African American and White women.

    PubMed

    McIlvane, J M

    2007-09-01

    This study examined both unique and interactive effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being in African American and White women. Participants included 77 African American and 98 White women, aged 45 to 90, who completed structured, face-to-face interviews. A series of 2 x 2 MANCOVAs examined race (African American, White) and SES (high/low education or high/low occupational status) differences in arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being. African Americans used more religious coping, wishful-thinking, seeking social support, and emotional expression than Whites. Individuals with low SES reported worse arthritis-related symptoms, poorer well-being, and greater use of coping strategies that tend to be maladaptive. Race x SES interactions revealed higher depressive symptoms in African Americans with low versus high education and coping differences in African Americans with low versus high occupational status; however differences in depressive symptoms and coping based on SES were not evident for Whites. Results demonstrate unique and interactive race and SES differences for arthritis-related symptoms, coping, and well-being showing the complexity of race and SES in the realm of physical and mental health.

  8. The Short-Term Effect of a Race-Related Course on Racial Identity of White Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Roseboro, Donyell L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the short-term impact of taking a race-related course on white teacher education students' racial identity attitudes. The study compared a sample of preservice and inservice teachers in the United States taking a race-related course to a comparison group of students taking a non-race-related course. Students completed Helms'…

  9. Race Differences in Age-Trends of Autonomic Nervous System Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017

  10. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  11. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  12. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  13. Passing as White: Race, Shame, and Success in Teacher Licensure Testing Events for Black Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petchauer, Emery

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative portraiture study explored how race becomes a conscious and salient dimension of teacher licensure exams for black preservice teachers. The findings focus on one black preservice teacher and how she identified as white on the demographic survey preceding her licensure exam due to the racialized nature of the experience and the…

  14. Implicit race bias decreases the similarity of neural representations of black and white faces.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Bar-David, Eyal; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Implicit race bias has been shown to affect decisions and behaviors. It may also change perceptual experience by increasing perceived differences between social groups. We investigated how this phenomenon may be expressed at the neural level by testing whether the distributed blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) patterns representing Black and White faces are more dissimilar in participants with higher implicit race bias. We used multivoxel pattern analysis to predict the race of faces participants were viewing. We successfully predicted the race of the faces on the basis of BOLD activation patterns in early occipital visual cortex, occipital face area, and fusiform face area (FFA). Whereas BOLD activation patterns in early visual regions, likely reflecting different perceptual features, allowed successful prediction for all participants, successful prediction on the basis of BOLD activation patterns in FFA, a high-level face-processing region, was restricted to participants with high pro-White bias. These findings suggest that stronger implicit pro-White bias decreases the similarity of neural representations of Black and White faces.

  15. Sociocultural Influences on Undergraduate Students' Conversations on Race at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvalson, Sherri Ivy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the sociocultural influences on dialogues about race of undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). This qualitative study included 16 undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a small, private university in the Midwest who participated…

  16. Working through Whiteness, Race and (Anti) Racism in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne; Dowling, Fiona; Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Background: The persistent gaps between a largely white profession and ethnically diverse school populations have brought renewed calls to support teachers' critical engagement with race. Programmes examining the effects of racism have had limited impact on practice, with student teachers responding with either denial, guilt or fear; they also…

  17. Patellar dislocation in the United States: role of sex, age, race, and athletic participation.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Brian R; Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D

    2012-03-01

    Patellar instability has been extensively studied in selected, high-risk cohorts, but the epidemiology in the general population remains unclear. A longitudinal, prospective epidemiological database was used to determine the incidence and demographic risk factors for patellar dislocations presenting to emergency departments of the United States. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried for all patellar dislocations presenting to emergency departments between 2003 and 2008. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then calculated with respect to sex, age, and race. The hypothesis was that patellar dislocation is influenced by sex, age, race, and athletic participation. An estimated 40,544 patellar dislocations occurred among an at-risk population of 1,774,210,081 person-years for an incidence rate of 2.29 per 100,000 person-years in the United States. When compared with males, females showed no significant overall or age-stratified differences in the rates of patellar dislocation (IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71, 1.00; p = 0.08; p > 0.05). Peak incidence of patellar dislocation occurred between 15 and 19 years of age (11.19/100,000 person-years). When compared with Hispanic race, black and white race were associated with significantly higher rates of patellar dislocation (IRR 4.30 [95% CI 1.63, 6.97; p = 0.02], IRR 4.02 [95% CI 1.06, 6.98; p = 0.03], respectively). Nearly half (51.9%) of all patellar dislocation occurred during athletic activity, with basketball (18.2%), soccer (6.9%), and football (6.3%) associated with the highest percentage of patellar dislocation during athletics. Age between 15 and 19 years is associated with higher rates of patellar dislocation. Sex is not a significant risk factor for patellar dislocation. Black and white race are a significant risk factor for patellar dislocation when compared with Hispanic race. Half of all patellar dislocation occurs during athletic activity. This study was conducted on the Level of evidence II.

  18. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%.

  19. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  20. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  1. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  2. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  3. Anger in Black and White: Race, Alienation, and Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, J. Beth; Kiecolt, K. Jill

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the 1996 General Social Survey and the 1973 Chicago Crowding Study, we test the hypotheses that African Americans feel and express more anger than whites, that sense of control (versus powerlessness) lessens anger and mistrust increases anger, and that these indicators of alienation affect anger differently for African Americans…

  4. Discourses of Whiteness: White Students at Catholic Women's Colleges (Dis)Engaging Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.; Enke, Kathryn A. E.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how White college women understand and are influenced by whiteness, we discursively analyzed data from interviews and focus groups with 25 White seniors at two Catholic women's colleges. Findings suggest that participants understood whiteness through discourses of insignificance, nominal difference, responsibility, and…

  5. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified.

  6. Whither the White Working Class? A Comment on Khanna and Harris, "Discovering Race in a 'Post-Racial' World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemonen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Even though I recognize the value of using the mass media to teach sociological concepts and reveal racial biases, I caution against the use of classroom exercises that are developed solely in the context of whiteness studies. Overarching statements of white privilege mask complex race-class interactions generally and the mass media's…

  7. Race, context, and privilege: white adolescents' explanations of racial-ethnic centrality.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Charmaraman, Linda

    2009-02-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th-12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality. PMID:19636713

  8. Race, Context, and Privilege: White Adolescents' Explanations of Racial-ethnic Centrality

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th–12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality. PMID:19636713

  9. The Discourse of Denial: How White Teacher Candidates Construct Race, Racism and "White Privilege"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Patrick; Portelli, John; Daniel, Beverly-Jean; Campbell, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on a representative sample from 200 teacher candidates' responses to Peggy McIntosh's article, "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack." The notion and understanding of whiteness and white privilege were explored revealing several strategies that teacher candidates employed to avoid addressing whiteness…

  10. Young Girls’ and Caretakers’ Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance Across Age, Race, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls’ involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker–child concordance of problem behaviors varied by child age and race. Results indicate that the girls understood most questions (except for some related to drug use) and that comprehension and reported involvement increased with age. Findings show that nonwhites showed greater comprehension and reported more involvement in problem behavior than Whites. Overall, the authors find modest concordance between reports from the girls and their caretakers, with greater agreement for nonwhites and older children. The authors conclude that a more comprehensive understanding of youth problem behavior is gained when both caretakers and children provide reports. PMID:22457546

  11. Age, race, diabetes, blood pressure, and mortality among hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Myers, Orrin B; Adams, Christopher; Rohrscheib, Mark R; Servilla, Karen S; Miskulin, Dana; Bedrick, Edward J; Zager, Philip G

    2010-11-01

    Observational studies involving hemodialysis patients suggest a U-shaped relationship between BP and mortality, but the majority of these studies followed large, heterogeneous cohorts. To examine whether age, race, and diabetes status affect the association between systolic BP (SBP; predialysis) and mortality, we studied a cohort of 16,283 incident hemodialysis patients. We constructed a series of multivariate proportional hazards models, adding age and BP to the analyses as cubic polynomial splines to model potential nonlinear relationships with mortality. Overall, low SBP associated with increased mortality, and the association was more pronounced among older patients and those with diabetes. Higher SBP associated with increased mortality among younger patients, regardless of race or diabetes status. We observed a survival advantage for black patients primarily among older patients. Diabetes associated with increased mortality mainly among older patients with low BP. In conclusion, the design of randomized clinical trials to identify optimal BP targets for patients with ESRD should take age and diabetes status into consideration.

  12. An Analysis of a White Preservice Teacher's Reflections on Race and Young Children within an Urban School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Tambra O.; Bryan, Michelle L.; Larkin, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    Building upon research that theorizes and documents students' perceptions of race, racial attitudes, and treatment by teachers, this article explores the impact of resegregation on how children of Color see and experience race in schools, specifically in relation to their teachers. Drawing upon our interpretations of a White preservice teacher's…

  13. Race (black-white) and gender divergences in the relationship of childhood cardiovascular risk factors to carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Tang, Rong; Bond, M Gene; Berenson, Gerald S

    2007-10-01

    It has been established that childhood cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are predictive of adulthood vascular changes as measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). However, whether this relationship is race- and gender-specific is not known. This aspect was examined in a black-white cohort of 868 adults (29% blacks, 42% males) aged 25-44 years who were examined at least twice in childhood for traditional CV risk factors with an average follow-up period of 26.4 years. The average value of the two earliest childhood measurements was used as the childhood value, standardized to age, race, and gender-specific z-score. Carotid IMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. The mean of the maximum carotid IMT readings of three right and three left far walls for common, bulb and internal segments was used. In univariate analysis, significant correlates of adulthood carotid IMT (standardized to age-, race- and gender-specific z-score) were, in the order of decreasing magnitude, triglyceride and LDL cholesterol in white males; systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and body mass index (BMI) in white females; systolic blood pressure in black males; BMI and systolic blood pressure in black females. In multivariate regression analysis, significant predictors of carotid IMT were triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in white males; systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in white females; systolic blood pressure in black males; and BMI and LDL cholesterol in black females. In conclusion, the predictability of childhood CV risk factors for increased carotid IMT in adulthood varies by race and gender. The prevention implications of these findings need further investigation.

  14. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  15. Nonmedical stimulant use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals aged 12-34 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S; Brady, Kathleen T; Blazer, Dan G; Hoyle, Rick H

    2014-12-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12-34 years in the 2005-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, "Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin" was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; "got them from a friend/relative for free" and "bought them from a friends/relative" were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18-25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations.

  16. Race in virtual environments: competitive versus cooperative games with black or white avatars.

    PubMed

    Vang, Mao H; Fox, Jesse

    2014-04-01

    Often, virtual environments and video games have established goals, and to achieve them, users must either compete or cooperate with others. The common ingroup identity model predicts that individuals maintain multiple identities at any given time based on roles, demographics, and contextual factors, and that they interpret others based on similarity (i.e., perceived ingroup) or dissimilarity (i.e., perceived outgroup) to these identities. In this experiment, we manipulated two aspects of a virtual partner's identity-race and task collaboration-to determine how users would perceive others in a virtual world. White participants (N=99) played an anagram game competitively (outgroup) or cooperatively (ingroup) in a virtual environment with a black (outgroup) or white (ingroup) virtual partner. Contrary to hypotheses, performing either task led to more positive evaluations of black avatars than white avatars.

  17. Black client, white therapist: working with race in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2013-02-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa we speak about race extensively. It permeates our workplace, weaves a thread through the fabric of our professional and personal lives, as well as our private conversations and public interactions with others. From within psychoanalytic theory, the thread weaves through the unknown content of our racialized unconscious. When there is a focus on race in the South African psychoanalytic context it largely takes the form of the struggle to articulate the complexities of working with difference, as Swartz notes, or the struggle to map out issues of race. Such struggles are not localized in South Africa, but strongly reflect a much broader struggle within the global psychoanalytic community, as mirrored in the expanding focus on race. Although the consulting rooms seem far removed from the ongoing political tensions that have recently emerged in South Africa, psychoanalytic psychotherapy remains a space of meaningful engagement with the other, and where the therapeutic dyad is one of racial difference it permits an encounter with our racialized unconscious. This article seeks to document the experience of my black client and my white response to her racial pain and struggle; in doing so, I describe the racial 'contact' between us and within us that triggers a racialized transference and countertransference dynamic, which contains the space for racial healing for both of us.

  18. You Can't Erase Race! Using CRT to Explain the Presence of Race and Racism in Majority White Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Thandeka K.

    2013-01-01

    Employing a critical race analysis of contemporary suburban schooling in the US, the author challenges the ideology of colorblind racial contexts. The concepts of colorblindness, interest-convergence, racial realism, and white privilege are used to explain how federal mandates and common school policies and practices, such as tracking, traditional…

  19. Speaking of Whiteness: Compromise as a Purposeful Pedagogical Strategy toward White Students' Learning about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Roseboro, Donyell L.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses pedagogical issues that arise in higher education when instructors of color teach classes with predominantly white students. We use student interview data collected during one graduate social foundations of education course to argue that in order to be effective, pedagogical decisions in a foundations course centered on race…

  20. Inequality in Black and White High School Students' Perceptions of School Support: An Examination of Race in Context.

    PubMed

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    Supportive relationships with adults at school are critical to student engagement in adolescence. Additional research is needed to understand how students' racial backgrounds interact with the school context to shape their perceptions of school support. This study employed multilevel, latent variable methods with a sample of Black and White students (N = 19,726, 35.8 % Black, 49.9 % male, mean age = 15.9) in 58 high schools to explore variation in perceived caring, equity, and high expectations by student race, school diversity, and socioeconomic context. The results indicated that Black students perceived less caring and equity relative to White students overall, and that equity and high expectations were lower in diverse schools for both Black and White students. Nonetheless, racial disparities were attenuated in more diverse schools. The findings point to the need for intervention to improve perceptions of school support for Black youth and for all students in lower income and more diverse schools.

  1. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  2. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA...

  3. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  4. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  5. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen’s ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true ‘mass participation’ ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the ‘Marathon des Sables’; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ and ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require

  6. Blood Cadmium Levels in Women of Childbearing Age Vary by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  7. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  8. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  9. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  10. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  11. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  12. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and Mixed-Race adolescents 12-17 years of age, using combined datasets from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, 2006-2009, N = 46,675, 48.77 % female). Native American adolescents displayed the highest rate of past-month binge drinking and past-year illicit drug use (14.06 % and 30.91%, respectively). Results of a logistic regression that included seven predictors of social bonding, individual views of substance use, and delinquent peer affiliations showed that friendships with delinquent peers and negative views of substance use were associated significantly with both substance abuse outcomes among White and Mixed-Race adolescents and, to a lesser extent, Native American adolescents. The association of parental disapproval with binge drinking was stronger for White than for Native American adolescents. Greater attention to specific measures reflecting racial groups’ contextual and historical differences may be needed to delineate mechanisms that discourage substance abuse among at-risk minority adolescent populations. PMID:22791181

  13. Association of contextual factors with drug use and binge drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race adolescents in the general population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-11-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and Mixed-Race adolescents 12-17 years of age, using combined datasets from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH 2006-2009, N = 46,675, 48.77 % female). Native American adolescents displayed the highest rate of past-month binge drinking and past-year illicit drug use (14.06 and 30.91 %, respectively). Results of a logistic regression that included seven predictors of social bonding, individual views of substance use, and delinquent peer affiliations showed that friendships with delinquent peers and negative views of substance use were associated significantly with both substance abuse outcomes among White and Mixed-Race adolescents and, to a lesser extent, Native American adolescents. The association of parental disapproval with binge drinking was stronger for White than for Native American adolescents. Greater attention to specific measures reflecting racial groups' contextual and historical differences may be needed to delineate mechanisms that discourage substance abuse among at-risk minority adolescent populations.

  14. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist, David Gillborn. A…

  15. Negotiating Race-Related Tensions: How White Educational Leaders Recognize, Confront, and Dialogue about Race and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…

  16. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Robert, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood.

  17. Nice White Men or Social Justice Allies?: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine How White Male Faculty and Administrators Engage in Ally Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.; Bondi, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Numerous scholars have offered definitions and perspectives for White people to be or become social justice allies. The purpose of this study was to examine the complicated realities that social justice allies in higher education face when working on campus. Using a critical interpretivist approach grounded in critical race theory, the authors…

  18. Differences in skeletal and muscle mass with aging in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M; Mikhail, M; Ma, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies using delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting suggested that the relationship of total body calcium (TBCa) to total body potassium (TBK) (muscle mass, body cell mass) remained constant with age. This led to the hypothesis that the muscle mass and skeletal mass compartments are integrated in their response to aging. It had also been hypothesized that loss of skeletal and muscle mass was similar between races. In the current study, delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting were performed on 90 black and 143 white women 20-69 yr of age. Black women had higher TBCa and TBK values than white women, even when the data were adjusted for age, height, and weight. TBCa was correlated with height and TBK with weight. The estimated decline of skeletal mass (TBCa) from 20 to 70 yr was 18% in black women and 19% in white women. However, the lifetime decline of TBK was only 8% for black women, compared with 22% for white women. Black women may lose TBK more slowly than TBCa with aging, compared with white women. In particular, correlation of TBCa and age was similar for blacks and whites (r = -0.44 and r = -0.54, respectively). However, for TBK these correlations were r = -0.14 and r = -0.42. These data confirm a higher musculoskeletal mass in black women and suggest that the loss of muscle mass with age may be lower in black than in white women. These ethnic differences do not support the hypothesis of an integrated musculoskeletal system, so that these two components should be considered separately. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:10827019

  19. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  20. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  1. A Social Studies Teacher's Sense Making of Controversial Issues Discussions of Race in a Predominantly White, Rural High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Elizabeth Yeager; Humphries, Emma K.

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors first explore the "sense making" of Emma, a former high school teacher (and co-author of this study), with regard to discussion of issues around race that became controversial in her social studies classroom. Her student population comprised predominantly white, rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged…

  2. Conversations among Black Staff Members at a Historically White Afrikaans University Campus on Issues of Race, Social Justice and Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Willy

    2012-01-01

    In an ethnographically designed study, guided by a critical community psychology framework, Black staff members at a historically White Afrikaans university campus conducted email conversations relating to issues of race, social justice and reconciliation. The conversations were initiated by the author (Black) who mainly used prompts found in the…

  3. A Comparison of Black and White Boys on Attitudes Toward Guidance and on Counselor Preference by Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, George V.

    This study investigated attitudes of black and white male students toward guidance and their preference for a counselor on the basis of race and sex. A random sample of 97 boys from two schools participated in the study. All boys in the sample were given the Attitudes Toward a Guidance Program questionnaire and all answered a Counselor Preference…

  4. Changes in Black and White Perceptions of the Army's Race Relations/Equal Opportunity Programs--1972 to 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James A.

    The report compares results of surveys in 1972 and 1974 to determine the perceptions and attitudes of army personnel toward race problems and the army's equal opportunity programs. It was hypothesized that racial attitudes of blacks and whites would have changed in a positive direction during the two year period. Data were collected using the…

  5. Emotional expressions preferentially elicit implicit evaluations of faces also varying in race or age.

    PubMed

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-10-01

    Both facial cues of group membership (race, age, and sex) and emotional expressions can elicit implicit evaluations to guide subsequent social behavior. There is, however, little research addressing whether group membership cues or emotional expressions are more influential in the formation of implicit evaluations of faces when both cues are simultaneously present. The current study aimed to determine this. Emotional expressions but not race or age cues elicited implicit evaluations in a series of affective priming tasks with emotional Caucasian and African faces (Experiments 1 and 2) and young and old faces (Experiment 3). Spontaneous evaluations of group membership cues of race and age only occurred when those cues were task relevant, suggesting the preferential influence of emotional expressions in the formation of implicit evaluations of others when cues of race or age are not salient. Implications for implicit prejudice, face perception, and person construal are discussed. PMID:25046242

  6. The difference isn't black and white: stereotype threat and the race gap on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan P; Day, Eric Anthony

    2006-07-01

    This study addresses recent criticisms aimed at the interpretation of stereotype threat research and methodological weaknesses of previous studies that have examined race differences on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM). African American and White undergraduates completed the APM under three conditions. In two threat conditions, participants received either standard APM instructions (standard threat) or were told that the APM was an IQ test (high threat). In a low threat condition, participants were told that the APM was a set of puzzles and that the researchers wanted their opinions of them. Results supported the stereotype threat interpretation of race differences in cognitive ability test scores. Although African American participants underperformed Whites under both standard and high threat instructions, they performed just as well as Whites did under low threat instructions.

  7. Frequency distribution and discrimination probability of twelve protein genetic variants in human blood as functions of race, sex, and age.

    PubMed

    Grunbaum, B W; Selvin, S; Pace, N; Black, D M

    1978-07-01

    Fresh blood samples were obtained from 6004 whites, 1025 blacks, 1596 Chicano/Amerindians, and 3053 Asians of California and Hawaii. The samples were typed for ABO and Rh groups and were analyzed electrophoretically for ten genetically determined protein variant systems. The effects of race, age, and sex on phenotypic frequencies within each of the twelve genetic systems were investigated. Large frequency differences were found between races but not between different age and sex subgroups within races. It was also demonstrated that the twelve genetic systems behaved statistically independently. Discrimination probabilities were computed for each of the four ethnic groups. These serve as a measure of the effectiveness of the twelve genetic systems examined in individualizing blood samples. The method is discussed for computing the probability that a randomly chosen individual of a given ethnic group possesses the same blood phenotypes as found in a predetermined sample of blood. The results presented here should prove useful in the investigation of civil and criminal cases involving blood samples.

  8. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    PubMed

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah

    2015-11-01

    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ≥13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ≥1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (≥2 medical visits ≥60 days apart); filled ART (filled ≥3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA <200 copies/mL last measured in year). The cascades were stratified by calendar year, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p < 0.05) higher percent linkage, filled ART, and viral suppression for 2010 and 2011 but not for 2012. Women had significantly greater retention for all years. Annually, older age was associated (p < 0.05) with retention, filled ART, and viral suppression but not linkage. Latinos had greater (p < 0.05) retention than whites or blacks in all years, with similar retention comparing blacks and whites. Filled ART and viral suppression was increased (p < 0.05) for whites compared with all racial/ethnic groups in all years. Cascade methodology requiring success at upstream stages before measuring success at later stages (i.e., "dependent" methodology) underreported performance by up to 20% compared with evaluating each stage separately ("independent"). Thus, care results improved over time, but significant differences exist by patient demographics. Specifically, retention efforts should be targeted toward younger patients and blacks; women, blacks, and Latinos require greater ART prescribing.

  9. Age exacerbates HIV-associated white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Gongvatana, Assawin; Woods, Adam J; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric C; Cummings, Tiffany; Correia, Stephen; Tashima, Karen; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-04-01

    Both HIV disease and advanced age have been associated with alterations to cerebral white matter, as measured with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and more recently with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study investigates the combined effects of age and HIV serostatus on WMH and DTI measures, as well as the relationships between these white matter measures, in 88 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 49 seronegative (HIV-) individuals aged 23-79 years. A whole-brain volumetric measure of WMH was quantified from FLAIR images using a semi-automated process, while fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for 15 regions of a whole-brain white matter skeleton generated using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). An age by HIV interaction was found indicating a significant association between WMH and older age in HIV+ participants only. Similarly, significant age by HIV interactions were found indicating stronger associations between older age and decreased FA in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules, cerebral peduncles, and anterior corona radiata in HIV+ vs. HIV- participants. The interactive effects of HIV and age were stronger with respect to whole-brain WMH than for any of the FA measures. Among HIV+ participants, greater WMH and lower anterior corona radiata FA were associated with active hepatitis C virus infection, a history of AIDS, and higher current CD4 cell count. Results indicate that age exacerbates HIV-associated abnormalities of whole-brain WMH and fronto-subcortical white matter integrity.

  10. Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…

  11. Mental health status and diabetes among Whites and Native Americans: is race an effect modifier?

    PubMed

    Sahmoun, Abe E; Markland, Mary J; Helgerson, Steven D

    2007-08-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among patients with diabetes and may have a significant impact on self-management and health outcomes. The prevalence of both depression and diabetes varies by race. We examined whether race is also an effect modifier in the association between mental health rated "not good" and diabetes using the national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2002 to 2005. We found that the prevalence of diabetes among Native American respondents was almost double that among Whites. Respondents with at least two weeks of mental health rated "not good" are significantly higher among diabetic patients than among non-diabetic patients. Native Americans (NAs) with at least two weeks of mental health rated "not good" were more likely to have diabetes. This association is stronger in NAs than in Whites. Future research should focus on a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this plausible association between poor mental health and diabetes. PMID:17675716

  12. Age, training, and previous experience predict race performance in long-distance inline skaters, not anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-02-01

    The association of characteristics of anthropometry, training, and previous experience with race time in 84 recreational, long-distance, inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe (111 km), the Inline One-eleven in Switzerland, was investigated to identify predictor variables for performance. Age, duration per training unit, and personal best time were the only three variables related to race time in a multiple regression, while none of the 16 anthropometric variables were related. Anthropometric characteristics seem to be of no importance for a fast race time in a long-distance inline skating race in contrast to training volume and previous experience, when controlled with covariates. Improving performance in a long-distance inline skating race might be related to a high training volume and previous race experience. Also, doing such a race requires a parallel psychological effort, mental stamina, focus, and persistence. This may be reflected in the preparation and training for the event. Future studies should investigate what motivates these athletes to train and compete.

  13. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  14. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  15. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  16. Negotiating the Gaze and Learning the Hidden Curriculum: A Critical Race Analysis of the Embodiment of Female Students of Color at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the hidden curriculum within a predominantly White institution (PWI) of higher education, and examines how women of color encountered the curriculum. I used critical race theory to explore how race and gender influenced the manner in which women of color negotiated their roles and promoted a culture of femininity that helped…

  17. On Being Named a Black Supremacist and a Race Traitor: The Problem of White Racial Domination and Domestic Terrorism in U.S. Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juárez, Brenda G.; Hayes, Cleveland

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with the preparation of future teachers and the continued Whiteness of teacher education. Using the critical race theory methodology of counter-storytelling, this article presents a composite story to highlight and analyze how race and racism influence the preparation of future teachers in ways that typically sustain…

  18. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key points The relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  19. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with white matter integrity in aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aging is associated with reduced neural integrity, yet there are remarkable individual differences in brain health among older adults (OA). One factor that may attenuate age-related neural decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The primary aim of this study was to link CRF to neural white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in OA. Methods Young adults (YA; n = 32) and OA (n = 27) completed a graded maximal exercise test to evaluate CRF and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural white matter integrity. Results As expected, pervasive age-related declines in white matter integrity were observed when OA were compared to YA. Further, peak VO2 was positively associated with fractional anisotropy (FA), an indicator of white matter integrity, in multiple brain regions in OA, but not YA. In multiple posterior regions such as the splenium, sagittal stratum, posterior corona radiata, and superior parietal white matter, FA values were similar in YA and OA classified as higher fit, with both groups having greater FA than lower fit OA. However, age-related differences in FA values remained in other regions, including the body and genu of the corpus callosum, precuneus, and superior frontal gyrus. Interpretation CRF is positively associated with neural white matter microstructure in aging. The relationship between peak VO2 and FA appears to be tract-specific, as equivalent FA values were observed in higher fit OA and YA in some white matter tracts, but not others. Further, the association between peak VO2 and FA appears to be age-dependent. PMID:26125043

  1. "Abolish the White Race" or "Transfer Economic Power to the People"?: Some Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2012-01-01

    "Race Traitor", a movement founded by Noel Ignatiev and John Garvey, has been given a boost in recent months in three different arenas: the Occupy movement; an antiracist advertising campaign; and in an academic journal. With respect to the last, which is the main focus of this paper, Critical Race Theorists John Preston and Charlotte Chadderton,…

  2. Lessons about Race in Introductory Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritschner, Linda Marie

    2001-01-01

    Uses a relational approach to teach about race showing how it effects whites as well as people of color. Reveals differences in attitudes and feelings on race and age. Uses answers from nine questions submitted by each student as a basis for lecture and guided classroom discussion. (DAJ)

  3. "The Other within": Race/Gender Disruptions to the Professional Learning of White Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Leslie Roman states "white is a colour too". Yet the whiteness of educational leaders is rarely questioned, although masculinism--enduring capacity of different masculinities to remain the norm in leadership--is increasingly under scrutiny. Rarely do white men or women leaders question their whiteness, whereas indigenous and other minority groups,…

  4. Us & Them? Entering a Three-Dimensional Narrative Inquiry Space with White Pre-Service Teachers to Explore Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Lachuk, Amy S.; Mosley, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two white teacher educators illustrate entering into a three-dimensional narrative space with a white pre-service teacher. The authors explore how their histories have led them to practice teacher education pedagogies that are rooted in ideas of social justice and critical race theory. In order to support the goals and aims of…

  5. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  6. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  7. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  8. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  9. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  10. A Way Forward: Nurturing the Imagination at the Intersection of Race, Class, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.

    2016-01-01

    Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…

  11. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  12. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Haybaeck, Johannes; Loitfelder, Marisa; Weis, Serge; Cavalieri, Margherita; Seiler, Stephan; Enzinger, Christian; Ropele, Stefan; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Pantoni, Leonardo; Scheltens, Philip; Fazekas, Franz; Jellinger, Kurt

    2011-08-01

    White matter changes occur endemically in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly persons. MRI appearance and histopathological correlates of white matter changes are heterogeneous. Smooth periventricular hyperintensities, including caps around the ventricular horns, periventricular lining and halos are likely to be of non-vascular origin. They relate to a disruption of the ependymal lining with subependymal widening of the extracellular space and have to be differentiated from subcortical and deep white matter abnormalities. For the latter a distinction needs to be made between punctate, early confluent and confluent types. Although punctate white matter lesions often represent widened perivascular spaces without substantial ischemic tissue damage, early confluent and confluent lesions correspond to incomplete ischemic destruction. Punctate abnormalities on MRI show a low tendency for progression, while early confluent and confluent changes progress rapidly. The causative and modifying pathways involved in the occurrence of sporadic age-related white matter changes are still incompletely understood, but recent microarray and genome-wide association approaches increased the notion of pathways that might be considered as targets for therapeutic intervention. The majority of differentially regulated transcripts in white matter lesions encode genes associated with immune function, cell cycle, proteolysis, and ion transport. Genome-wide association studies identified six SNPs mapping to a locus on chromosome 17q25 to be related to white matter lesion load in the general population. We also report first and preliminary data that demonstrate apolipoprotein E (ApoE) immunoreactivity in white matter lesions and support epidemiological findings indicating that ApoE is another factor possibly related to white matter lesion occurrence. Further insights come from modern MRI techniques, such as diffusion tensor and magnetization transfer imaging, as they

  13. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health.

  14. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  15. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Information Briefs #1 - 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 22 information briefs from the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Four of the briefs provide data on health, available services, income, and employment from a report comparing the well-being of older people in three rural and urban locations. National estimates are provided about the need for meals for older people, and…

  16. Regional white matter hyperintensities: aging, AD risk, and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Birdsill, Alex C; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2013-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin as seen on T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are known to increase with age and are elevated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The cognitive implications of these common markers are not well understood. Previous research has primarily focused on global measures of WMH burden and broad localizations that contain multiple white matter tracts. The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of WMH accumulation with age, risk for AD, and the relationship with cognitive function utilizing a voxel-wise analysis capable of identifying specific white matter regions. Three hundred and forty-nine participants underwent T1-weighted and high-resolution T2FLAIR MRI and neuropsychological testing. Increasing age and lower cognitive speed and flexibility (a component of executive function), were both significantly associated with regional WMH throughout the brain. When age was controlled, lower cognitive speed and flexibility was independently associated with WMH in the superior corona radiata. APOE4 and parental family history of AD were not associated with higher burden of WMH. The results contribute to a larger body of literature suggesting that white matter measures are linked with processing speed, and illustrate the utility of voxel-wise analysis in understanding the effect of lesion location on cognitive function. PMID:24199958

  17. Not just black and white: peer victimization and the intersectionality of school diversity and race.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sycarah; Middleton, Kyndra; Ricks, Elizabeth; Malone, Celeste; Briggs, Candyce; Barnes, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Although bullying is a prevalent issue in the United States, limited research has explored the impact of school diversity on types of bullying behavior. This study explores the relationship between school diversity, student race, and bullying within the school context. The participants were African American and Caucasian middle school students (n = 4,581; 53.4% female). Among the participants, 89.4% were Caucasian and 10.6% were African American. The research questions examined the relationship between school diversity, student race and bullying behaviors, specifically race-based victimization. The findings suggested that Caucasian middle school students experience more bullying than African American students generally, and specifically when minorities in school settings. Caucasian students also experienced almost three times the amount of race-based victimization than African American students when school diversity was held constant. Interestingly, African American students experienced twice the amount of race-based victimization than Caucasian students when in settings with more students of color. The present study provides insight into bullying behaviors across different contexts for different races and highlights the need to further investigate interactions between personal and environmental factors on the bulling experiences of youth.

  18. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Linda S

    2003-01-01

    Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1) to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2) to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120) of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F) measured at oral, skin (simultaneous), immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD) and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm) thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9), 188 pounds (SD 55.3); 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F): oral (0.142 – 0.265), axilla (0.167 – 0.339), groin (0.037 – 0.321), and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111). Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered the gold

  19. The Contribution of Age and Weight to Blood Pressure Levels Among Blacks and Whites Receiving Care in Community-Based Primary Care Practices.

    PubMed

    Kan, Athena Wing-ga; Hussain, Tanvir; Carson, Kathryn A; Purnell, Tanjala S; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Albert, Michael; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether race and age, risk factors for obesity and hypertension, affect the association of obesity with elevated blood pressure (BP). Using electronic medical record data, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients seen at 6 Maryland primary care clinics from September 2011 through June 2012. The risk for higher BP among patients younger than 65 years and in an elevated weight category was greater for both races but was higher for whites than blacks. For patients aged 65 years or older, weight had little impact on systolic BP, suggesting that approaches involving weight loss to address elevated BP should focus on populations younger than 65.

  20. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  1. Seeing, Hearing, and Talking Race: Lessons for White Teachers from Four Teachers of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    As student populations in K-12 schools in the United States continue to diversify and the teaching force remains largely White, cross-cultural teaching is an increasingly common phenomenon. In this article, a White teacher educator draws upon interviews with four teachers of color who work in Chicago public schools to examine ways White teachers…

  2. Voices of Teacher Candidates of Color on White Race Evasion: "I Worried about My Safety!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Yukari Takimoto

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the negative impacts minority teacher candidates receive from white teacher candidates in a required multicultural education class. The findings reveal that four teacher candidates of color had difficulty positioning themselves among the overwhelming silencing power of whiteness in the class. The white students…

  3. An empirical analysis of 30 years of U.S. juvenile and adult sexual homicide offender data: race and age differences in the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Myers, Wade C; Heide, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim-offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976-2005) was used. Analyses of victim-offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91-100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24-82%) and inter-racially (18-76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim-offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling.

  4. WRR4 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR protein that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to four physiological races of Albugo candida.

    PubMed

    Borhan, M Hossein; Gunn, Nick; Cooper, Abigail; Gulden, Sigrun; Tör, Mahmut; Rimmer, S Roger; Holub, Eric B

    2008-06-01

    White blister rust in the Brassicaceae is emerging as a superb model for exploring how plant biodiversity has channeled speciation of biotrophic parasites. The causal agents of white rust across a wide breadth of cruciferous hosts currently are named as variants of a single oomycete species, Albugo candida. The most notable examples include a major group of physiological races that each are economically destructive in a different vegetable or oilseed crop of Brassica juncea (A. candida race 2), B. rapa (race 7), or B. oleracea (race 9); or parasitic on wild crucifers such as Capsella bursa-pastoris (race 4). Arabidopsis thaliana is innately immune to these races of A. candida under natural conditions; however, it commonly hosts its own molecularly distinct subspecies of A. candida (A. candida subsp. arabidopsis). In the laboratory, we have identified several accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana (e.g.,. Ws-3) that can permit varying degrees of rust development following inoculation with A. candida races 2, 4, and 7, whereas race 9 is universally incompatible in Arabidopsis thaliana and nonrusting resistance is the most prevalent outcome of interactions with the other races. Subtle variation in resistance phenotypes is evident, observed initially with an isolate of A. candida race 4, indicating additional genetic variation. Therefore, we used the race 4 isolate for map-based cloning of the first of many expected white rust resistance (WRR) genes. This gene was designated WRR4 and encodes a cytoplasmic toll-interleukin receptor-like nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein that confers a dominant, broad-spectrum white rust resistance in the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Columbia to representative isolates of A. candida races 2, 4, 7, and 9, as verified by transgenic expression of the Columbia allele in Ws-3. The WRR4 protein requires functional expression of the lipase-like protein EDS1 but not the paralogous protein PAD4, and confers full immunity

  5. Age differences in periventricular and deep white matter lesions.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Paul A; Bilgel, Murat; Gottesman, Rebecca; Yanek, Lisa R; Moy, Taryn F; Becker, Lewis C; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Prince, Jerry; Wasserman, Bruce A; Yousem, David M; Becker, Diane M; Kral, Brian G; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2015-04-01

    Deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) and periventricular (PV) white matter lesion volumes are associated with age and subsequent stroke. We studied age differences in these volumes accounting for collinearity and risk factors. Subjects were 563 healthy family members of early-onset coronary artery disease patients. Using 3T magnetic resonance imaging, lesions were classified as DWMH or PV. Age association with lesion classification was analyzed using random effects Tobit regression, adjusting for intracranial volume (ICV) and risk factors. Subjects were 60% women, 36% African-American, mean age 51 ± 11 years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for PV and ICV, DWMH was associated with age (p < 0.001) and female sex (p = 0.003). PV, adjusted for DWMH and ICV, was age associated (p < 0.001). For each age decade, DWMH showed 0.07 log units/decade greater volume (95% CI = 0.04-0.11); PV was 0.18 log units/decade greater (95% CI = 0.14-0.23); slope differences (p < 0.001). In people with a family history of coronary artery disease, PV and DWMH are independently and differentially associated with age controlling for traditional risk factors.

  6. Wives and mothers like ourselves? Exploring white women's intervention in the politics of race, 1920s-1940s.

    PubMed

    Holland, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper takes the issue of the removal of Aboriginal children, and the broader white anxiety over the 'half-caste problem' which underpinned the policy, to explore white women reformers' intervention in the politics of race in the years 1920-40. In these years middle-class women's citizenship was based on maternalism and the defence of motherhood. At the same time the national feminist lobby, the Australian Federation of Women Voters, joined the public debate about the 'Aboriginal problem'. In this context it is necessary to ask: What was the feminist view of Aboriginal women's status? Were they considered 'wives and mothers' like themselves, as Louisa Lawson suggested in the 1890s? What was their view of the 'half-caste problem' and the 'absorption proposal' formulated to solve it? By asking such questions I hope to modify the current feminist historiographical view of white women reformers as 'pro-Aboriginal' and 'radical' and their policies as challenging White Australia in these years. PMID:18159659

  7. Influence of age, gender, and race on nitric oxide release over acupuncture points-meridians

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821

  8. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  9. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  10. Symposium: "Crash": Rhetorically Wrecking Discourses of Race, Tolerance, and White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Vorris L.

    2007-01-01

    From within the milieu of race and identity fatigue emerges "Crash." Winner of three Academy Awards, including Best Picture, "Crash" addresses how the fluidity of identity is pooled, ebbed, blocked, directed, dammed up. How identity and subjectivity are dammed up and mediated through the force of the anxieties, fears, and frustrations of people…

  11. Race and Racism in the Experiences of Black Male Resident Assistants at Predominantly White Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.; Davis, Ryan J.; Jones, David E.; McGowan, Brian L.; Ingram, Ted N.; Platt, C. Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown a nexus between active out-of-class engagement and the accrual of unique race/gender-specific educational outcomes among Black male undergraduates. Yet, rarely explored are the racialized experiences of those who become actively engaged and assume leadership positions on campuses where racial diversity is low, hence the…

  12. A White Veneer: Education Policy, Space and "Race" in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how neo-liberal education policy change and urban renewal in inner Sydney and London has interacted with "raced" and classed educational identities. I draw on two examples of policy change, the "Building the Future" policy development in the inner city area of Sydney and the "Excellence in Cities" partnership programme in East…

  13. Racism, Public Schooling, and the Entrenchment of White Supremacy: A Critical Race Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2011-01-01

    Racism and inequity in U.S. education are pervasive and consistent problems, unavoidable facts of public schooling in this country. This book is a multisite critical race ethnography of institutional relationships and organization in a large, urban, West Coast school district. In this daring and provocative work, Sabina E. Vaught examines the…

  14. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  15. Negative perceptions about condom use in a clinic population: comparisons by gender, race and age.

    PubMed

    Crosby, R; Shrier, L A; Charnigo, R; Sanders, S A; Graham, C A; Milhausen, R; Yarber, W L

    2013-02-01

    We sought to elucidate the associations of 13 items assessing negative perceptions about condom use with gender, age and race in a sample of clinic attendees. Patients from four clinics, in three US cities, were recruited (N = 928). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. The primary measure was a 13-item adapted version of the Condom Barriers Scale. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were employed to relate the 13 items to gender, age and race. Gender, race and age all had significant associations with negative perceptions of condoms and their use. A primary finding was a large number of significant differences between men and women, with negative perceptions more common among women than among men. For African Americans, especially women, negative perceptions were more common among older participants than among younger participants. In conclusion, important demographic differences regarding negative perceptions may inform the tailoring of intervention efforts that seek to rectify negative perceptions about condoms and thus promote condom use among individuals at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the USA. On the other hand, our findings also suggest that the majority of STI clinic attendees may hold positive perceptions about condoms and their use; maintaining and building upon these positive perceptions via education, counselling, and access is also important. PMID:23467292

  16. Variation of Laminar Depth in Normal Eyes With Age and Race

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo; Smith, Brandon; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if laminar depth (LD) and prelaminar tissue volume (PTV) are associated with age and race in healthy human eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces: internal limiting membrane, Bruch's membrane (BM), anterior sclera (AS), and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa. These four surfaces defined the LD and PTV using Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and AS for reference structures. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate whether the effect of age on each outcome was differential by race. Results. When age was analyzed as a continuous variable, the interaction term between age and race was statistically significant for mean LDBMO (P = 0.015) and mean LDAS (P = 0.0062) after adjusting for axial length and BMO area. For every 1-year increase in age, the LDAS was greater on average by 1.78 μm in AD subjects and less by 1.71 μm in ED subjects. Mean PTV was lower in the older subjects (1248 × 106 μm3 AD, 881 × 106 μm3 ED) compared to the younger subjects (1316 × 106 μm3 AD, 1102 × 106 μm3 ED) in both groups. Conclusions. With increasing age, the LD changes differently across racial groups in normal subjects. The LD in ED subjects showed a significantly decreasing slope suggesting that the lamina moves anteriorly with age in this group. PMID:25414182

  17. Race Talk and School Equity in Local Print Media: The Discursive Flexibility of Whiteness and the Promise of Race-Conscious Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villenas, Sofia A.; Angeles, Sophia L.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how a progressive, rural/small city community in the USA wrestles with race, racism, and school equity in the public arena of print media. It inquires into the tensions, limitations, and possibilities for race-conscious discourse in the face of both explicit racist hate speech and benevolent liberal race talk. Based on…

  18. Race, Context, and Privilege: White Adolescents' Explanations of Racial-Ethnic Centrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th-12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the…

  19. The Place of Race in Cultural Nursing Education: The Experience of White BSN Nursing Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Ann Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The growing cultural diversity in the United States confronts human service professions such as nursing with challenges to fundamental values of social justice and caring. Non-White individuals have experienced long-documented and persistent disparities in health outcomes and receipt of health care services when compared to whites. Medical…

  20. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  1. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (≥$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ≥65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking.

  2. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  3. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies found that the athlete’s age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete’s age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. Methods We investigated the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete’s age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. Results The athlete’s ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete’s ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. Conclusion The athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete’s age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete’s age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete’s age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further

  4. Race and the Religious Contexts of Violence: Linking Religion and White, Black, and Latino Violent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that concentrated disadvantage and other measures are strongly associated with aggregate-level rates of violence, including across racial and ethnic groups. Less studied is the impact of cultural factors, including religious contextual measures. The current study addresses several key gaps in prior literature by utilizing race/ethnic-specific arrest data from California, New York, and Texas paired with religious contextual data from the Religious Congregations and Memberships Survey (RCMS). Results suggest that, net of important controls, (1) religious contextual measures have significant crime-reducing associations with violence, (2) these associations are race/ethnic-specific, and (3) religious contextual measures moderate the criminogenic association between disadvantage and violence for Blacks. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24976649

  5. Race and the Religious Contexts of Violence: Linking Religion and White, Black, and Latino Violent Crime.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Jeffery T; Harris, Casey T

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that concentrated disadvantage and other measures are strongly associated with aggregate-level rates of violence, including across racial and ethnic groups. Less studied is the impact of cultural factors, including religious contextual measures. The current study addresses several key gaps in prior literature by utilizing race/ethnic-specific arrest data from California, New York, and Texas paired with religious contextual data from the Religious Congregations and Memberships Survey (RCMS). Results suggest that, net of important controls, (1) religious contextual measures have significant crime-reducing associations with violence, (2) these associations are race/ethnic-specific, and (3) religious contextual measures moderate the criminogenic association between disadvantage and violence for Blacks. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  7. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  8. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  9. A White President of a Predominantly Black College Speaks Out About Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschechtelin, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that racism and white supremacy are threatening America's social, economic, and political stability. Suggests that inviting community dialog on these taboo topics may lead to solutions, and recounts such steps taken at Baltimore City Community College. (VWC)

  10. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-01

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. PMID:27495013

  11. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  12. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  13. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  14. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Benjamin B.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure—one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan—is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a ‘dose-response’ relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast

  15. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  16. From Dialogue to Action: The Impact of Cross-Race Intergroup Dialogue on the Development of White College Students as Racial Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimo, Craig John

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of postsecondary education are poised to leverage the presence of racial diversity to educate for social change. The purpose of this study was to examine how a race/ethnicity intergroup dialogue facilitates the development of confidence and frequency of white college students' engagement in actions that are congruent with the…

  17. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…

  18. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  19. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics. PMID:26252793

  20. Race and Ethnic Differences in Religious Involvement: African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in religious participation and spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) and non-Hispanic Whites. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites. Selected measures of organizational, nonorganizational and subjective religious participation were examined. African American and Caribbean Blacks were largely similar in their reports of religious involvement; both groups generally indicated higher levels of religious participation than non-Hispanic Whites. African Americans were more likely than Black Caribbeans to be official members of their places of worship, engage in activities (choirs, church clubs) at their place of worship and request prayer from others. Black Caribbeans reported reading religious materials more frequently than African Americans. The discussion notes the importance of examining ethnic differences within the black American population of the United States. PMID:20975850

  1. White doctors and black patients: influence of race on the doctor-patient relationship.

    PubMed

    Levy, D R

    1985-04-01

    Effective communication between doctor and patient, a skill not emphasized in medical education programs, is essential for patient satisfaction and optimal patient care. In many teaching hospitals, the doctor is commonly white and middle class and the patient black and indigent. Racial differences, even in the absence of social class differences, may have a negative impact on the quality of the doctor-patient relationship. The impact of racism is reviewed, and recommendations to enhance the relationship between white doctors and black patients, are made.

  2. Examining multicultural counseling competence and race-related attitudes among white marital and family therapists.

    PubMed

    Constantine, M G; Juby, H L; Liang, J J

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the relative contributions of social desirability attitudes, previous number of multicultural counseling courses taken, and racism and White racial identity attitudes together in predicting marital and family therapists' self-reported multicultural counseling competence. Results revealed that, when controlling for social desirability attitudes and the number of multicultural courses taken, racism and White racial identity attitudes in consort accounted for a significant amount of the variance in self-perceived multicultural counseling competence. Implications for marital and family therapy training, practice, and research are discussed.

  3. RACE, COPING STRATEGIES, AND SUBSTANCE USE BEHAVIORS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS EXAMINING WHITE AND AMERICAN INDIAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The association between stress exposure and substance use has been the subject of numerous studies. However, no prior study has explored the role of coping strategies in moderating the stress-substance use association for American Indian adolescents. Our preliminary study of coping strategies and substance use among a sample (n=568) of rural American Indian and white adolescents revealed a number of similarities across both groups, but also some important differences. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that the relationship between an avoidant coping strategy and marijuana use differed for whites and American Indians. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:24041130

  4. Race, coping strategies, and substance use behaviors: a preliminary analysis examining white and American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    McNulty Eitle, Tamela; Eitle, David

    2014-02-01

    The association between stress exposure and substance use has been the subject of numerous studies. However, no prior study has explored the role of coping strategies in moderating the stress-substance use association for American Indian adolescents. Our preliminary study of coping strategies and substance use among a sample (n = 568) of rural American Indian and white adolescents revealed a number of similarities across both groups, but also some important differences. Results of logistic regression analyses revealed that the relationship between an avoidant coping strategy and marijuana use differed for whites and American Indians. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  6. Blinded by the White: Foregrounding Race in a Language and Literacy Course for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Kindel A. Turner

    2012-01-01

    While the teaching population in the U.S. is predominantly (84%) White (National Council of Education Statistics, 2010), students of Color will comprise 41% of the total school population by the year 2020, with 67% in urban areas (NCES, 2010). Studies show that children of Color are regularly disenfranchised through inequitable instructional,…

  7. How White Teachers Experience and Think about Race in Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcy, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The public educational system in the United States fails to proficiently educate a majority of African American, Latino/a, and students from low-income backgrounds. Test score statistics show an average scaled score gap of twenty-six points between African American and White students (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007). The term…

  8. Getting Slammed: White Depictions of Race Discussions as Arenas of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiAngelo, Robin; Sensoy, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    For many educators who lead cross-racial discussions, creating "safe" spaces in which students can express their views is a familiar goal. Yet what constitutes safety is rarely defined or contextualized. In the absence of this contextualization, the goal of safety is most often driven by White participants who complain that they are (or…

  9. Lies, Myths, Stock Stories, and Other Tropes: Understanding Race and Whites' Policy Preferences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnor, Jamel K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being academically unqualified for admission to the University of Texas at Austin, Abigail Fisher, a White female, argued that she was not admitted due to the university's diversity policy. In addition to framing post-secondary admissions as a zero-sum phenomenon, Ms. Fisher intentionally framed students of color who are admitted to the…

  10. What's Race Got to Do with It? Preservice Teachers and White Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Terri; Margolin, Marcia; Fragnoli, Kristi; Bloom, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined changes in student teachers' White racial identity and color-blindness (using scores on the WRCDS-R and CoBRAS), as well as their perceptions of working with students of color, following a semester of student teaching in diverse classrooms. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated student teachers were more color-blind about…

  11. "This Strange White World": Race and Place in Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Aboard a train heading out of Minneapolis toward frontier North Dakota, Era Bell Thompson in her autobiography "American Daughter" (1946) describes a landscape that grows steadily bleaker with each mile farther west: "Suddenly there was snow--miles and miles of dull, white snow, stretching out to meet the heavy, gray sky; deep banks of snow…

  12. White dwarf stars and the age of the Galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The history of the Galaxy is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarf (WD) stars. Significant limits can be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. A wide range of input WD model sequences is used to derive the current limits to the age estimates suggested by fitting to the observed falloff in the WD luminosity function. The results suggest that the star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy has been relatively constant, and that the disk age lies in the range 6-12 billion years, depending upon the assumed structure of WD stars, and in particular on the core composition and surface helium layer mass. Using plausible mixed C/O core input models, the estimates for the disk age range from 8-10.5 Gyr, i.e.,sustantially younger than most age estimates for the halo globular clusters. After speculating on the significance of the results, expected observational and theoretical refinements which will further enhance the reliability of the method are discussed.

  13. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Royle, Natalie A.; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p < 0.0001), with MD providing the largest difference between NAWM and WMH. Receiver operating characteristic analysis on each biomarker showed that MD differentiated best between NAWM and WMH, identifying 94.6% of the lesions using a threshold of 0.747 × 10−9 m2s−1 (area under curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975–0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. PMID:25457555

  14. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  15. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    PubMed

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations.

  16. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    PubMed

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations. PMID:27092388

  17. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age.

    PubMed

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p < 0.01) and processing speed (β = -0.19, p < 0.001). WMH were also associated independently with lower age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p < 0.05) and hypertension. In conclusion, having more WMH is significantly associated with lower cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging.

  18. Differences by race, sex and age in the clinical and immunologic features of recently diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus patients in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G S; Parks, C G; Treadwell, E L; St Clair, E W; Gilkeson, G S; Cohen, P L; Roubey, R A S; Dooley, M A

    2002-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of clinical and immunologic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by race, sex and age in a population-based study of 265 SLE patients. Patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. The median time between diagnosis and study enrollment was 13 months. The clinical and hematologic data were limited to occurrences up to 6 months after the diagnosis date, as documented in medical records. We used sera collected at study enrollment from 244 (92%) patients for serologic testing of autoantibodies. The associations between clinical and immunological features of SLE and age, sex and race were examined using logistic regression. The effect of each of these variables was examined adjusting for the other two demographic factors. Mean age at diagnosis was 6 years younger among African-Americans and other minorities compared with white patients (P < 0.01). Discoid lupus, proteinuria, anti-Sm and anti-RNP autoantibodies were more commonly seen in African-American patients, with odds ratios higher than 3.0. Photosensitivity and mucosal ulcers were noted less often in African-American patients. Proteinuria, leukopenia, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia were approximately three times more common in men compared with women. The prevalence of oral or nasal ulcers and anti-DNA autoantibodies declined with age. The extent to which the differences we observed reflect genetic or environmental influences on the disease process should be investigated.

  19. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  20. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  1. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  2. Years of potential life lost before age 65, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex--United States, 1986-1988.

    PubMed

    Desenclos, J C; Hahn, R A

    1992-11-20

    A substantial proportion of mortality among young persons is preventable. National vital statistics were used to establish a baseline for the surveillance of rates of years of potential life lost before age 65 (YPLL < 65) in the United States. Rates of YPLL < 65 were calculated for 1986 through 1988 for leading causes of preventable death, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex. U.S. racial and ethnic populations differed widely in YPLL < 65. Among males, the rate (per 1,000 population < 65 years) of YPLL < 65 was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (140.0), followed by American Indians/Alaskan Natives (100.9), Hispanics (74.3), non-Hispanic whites (68.3), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (38.2). Among females, the rate was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (73.7), followed by American Indians/Alaskan Natives (52.0), non-Hispanic whites (35.7), Hispanics (32.9), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (23.2). For non-Hispanic blacks, the high rate of YPLL < 65 was due to increased rates for all causes of death considered, particularly homicide. The high rate for American Indians/Alaskan Natives was due principally to deaths from four causes: unintentional injuries, cirrhosis, suicide, and diabetes. Asians/Pacific Islanders had low rates for most causes of death. In setting health-care priorities and prevention strategies to reduce the large racial-ethnic gap in early deaths, it is essential to recognize the differences in causes of premature mortality among sex, racial, and ethnic populations. Periodic reassessment of YPLL < 65 among these groups provides a simple, timely, and representative means of conducting surveillance to measure the impact of intervention strategies on a national basis.

  3. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized.

  4. Connecting Race and Place: A County-Level Analysis of White, Black, and Hispanic HIV Prevalence, Poverty, and Level of Urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Eli; Shouse, R. Luke; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the role of poverty in racial/ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence across levels of urbanization. Methods. Using national HIV surveillance data from the year 2009, we constructed negative binomial models, stratified by urbanization, with an outcome of race-specific, county-level HIV prevalence rates and covariates of race/ethnicity, poverty, and other publicly available data. We estimated model-based Black–White and Hispanic–White prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) across levels of urbanization and poverty. Results. We observed racial/ethnic disparities for all strata of urbanization across 1111 included counties. Poverty was associated with HIV prevalence only in major metropolitan counties. At the same level of urbanization, Black–White and Hispanic–White PRRs were not statistically different from 1.0 at high poverty rates (Black–White PRR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 2.9; Hispanic–White PRR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.1, 1.6). In nonurban counties, racial/ethnic disparities remained after we controlled for poverty. Conclusions. The association between HIV prevalence and poverty varies by level of urbanization. HIV prevention interventions should be tailored to this understanding. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities will require multifactorial interventions linking social factors with sexual networks and individual risks. PMID:24832420

  5. Race and Gender Differences in Perceived Caregiver Availability for Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Howard, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Informal family caregivers are increasingly recognized as critical for meeting the needs of individuals with chronic diseases associated with aging. This study examined race and gender differences in perceived informal caregiver availability for participants aged 45 and older in a large national epidemiological study. Design and Methods:…

  6. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers. PMID:25902554

  7. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers.

  8. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  9. Why Do White Americans Oppose Race-Targeted Policies? Clarifying the Impact of Symbolic Racism.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Joshua L; Sears, David O; Sidanius, Jim; Krosnick, Jon A

    2009-10-01

    Measures of symbolic racism (SR) have often been used to tap racial prejudice toward Blacks. However, given the wording of questions used for this purpose, some of the apparent effects on attitudes toward policies to help Blacks may instead be due to political conservatism, attitudes toward government, and/or attitudes toward redistributive government policies in general. Using data from national probability sample surveys and an experiment, we explored whether SR has effects even when controlling for these potential confounds and whether its effects are specific to policies involving Blacks. Holding constant conservatism and attitudes toward limited government, SR predicted Whites' opposition to policies designed to help Blacks and more weakly predicted attitudes toward social programs whose beneficiaries were racially ambiguous. An experimental manipulation of policy beneficiaries revealed that SR predicted policy attitudes when Blacks were the beneficiary but not when women were. These findings are consistent with the claim that SR's association with racial policy preferences is not due to these confounds.

  10. Aging's effects on marathon performance insights from the New York City race.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.

  11. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Abstracts of the Technical Committee Reports, Mini White House Conference Reports, and State White House Conference Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowell, Daniel D.

    This collection of abstracts, designed to assist White House Conference on Aging delegates involved with research on aging, presents information from 16 Technical Committee Reports which focus on implications of an age-integrated society, employment, support systems, health issues and services, the family, long-term care, older Americans as a…

  12. Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnosis by Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Household Language Among Children with Special Health Care Needs, United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine E; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Tian, Lin H; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A

    2015-08-01

    We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3-17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (≥5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3-4-year-olds. For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups.

  13. Why Do White Americans Oppose Race-Targeted Policies? Clarifying the Impact of Symbolic Racism

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Joshua L.; Sears, David O.; Sidanius, Jim; Krosnick, Jon A.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of symbolic racism (SR) have often been used to tap racial prejudice toward Blacks. However, given the wording of questions used for this purpose, some of the apparent effects on attitudes toward policies to help Blacks may instead be due to political conservatism, attitudes toward government, and/or attitudes toward redistributive government policies in general. Using data from national probability sample surveys and an experiment, we explored whether SR has effects even when controlling for these potential confounds and whether its effects are specific to policies involving Blacks. Holding constant conservatism and attitudes toward limited government, SR predicted Whites' opposition to policies designed to help Blacks and more weakly predicted attitudes toward social programs whose beneficiaries were racially ambiguous. An experimental manipulation of policy beneficiaries revealed that SR predicted policy attitudes when Blacks were the beneficiary but not when women were. These findings are consistent with the claim that SR's association with racial policy preferences is not due to these confounds. PMID:20161542

  14. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  15. Dietary intakes of preschool-aged children in relation to caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation, and demographic characteristics: results from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Berrigan, David; Thompson, Frances E; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of acculturation on dietary behaviors of young children while controlling for other demographic variables. The purpose of this study was to assess reported dietary intakes of preschool-aged children (3-5 years) and subsequent associations with caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation and demographic characteristics, using data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Analysis was restricted to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white caregivers and their preschool-aged children (n = 1,105). Caregivers' acculturation was assessed using place of birth, duration of United States residence, and language spoken at home. Proxy-reports by caregivers to a dietary screener were used to estimate children's intakes of fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables, sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumed. In multivariate analyses, Hispanic caregivers reported their children consumed fewer servings of vegetables than did the children of non-Hispanic white caregivers; there were no other statistically significant differences in children's dietary intakes by caregivers' race/ethnicity. Caregivers' acculturation was associated with caregiver-reported consumption of sweets by children (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.01-0.18). Demographic characteristics that were associated with reported dietary intakes of children included caregivers' age, education, and geographic region of residence. In contrast to past studies of acculturation and diet in older children and adults, this study suggests that for 3-5 year olds, caregivers' level of acculturation does not play as strong a role in the dietary intakes of the younger children under their care.

  16. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  17. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.

  18. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  19. Predictors of Adult Men's Gender-Role Conflict: Race, Class, Unemployment, Age, Instrumentality-Expressiveness, and Personal Strain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillson, Richard W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Men (n=134) of different ages, races, classes, personality characteristics, and work statuses were assessed with Gender Role Conflict Scale, Personal Strain Questionnaire, and Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Two meaningful and independent male constellations linking 9 of 13 demographic, psychological, and strain variables with 3 patterns of…

  20. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  1. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  2. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  3. Mixed-Race School-Age Children: A Summary of Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Alejandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines data on racial identification from the 2000 Census to document the mixed race population of children in the United States. Using California data as an example, the article considers various methods for tabulating multiple-response race data, noting the impact of each on demographic conclusions. Discusses how federal guidelines on race…

  4. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215

  5. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  6. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    PubMed

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age. PMID:26899784

  7. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    PubMed

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age.

  8. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  9. Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns in Women With Gestational Diabetes by Race and Ethnicity and Body Mass Index Categories

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Brown, Susan D.; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns across categories of body mass index (BMI) in five racial and ethnic groups. METHODS This cohort study examined 7,468 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered a live newborn between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The racial and ethnic groups were non-Hispanic white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and Filipina. The BMI was classified using the World Health Organization International guidelines (normal, 18.50–24.99; overweight, 25.00–29.99; obese, 30.00–34.99; obese class II, 35.00 or higher). Having an LGA newborn was defined as birth weight more than 90th percentile for the study population’s race or ethnicity and gestational age–specific birth weight distribution. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of having an LGA newborn by BMI and race and ethnicity. RESULTS Overall prevalence of LGA newborns was highest in African American women (25.1%), lowest in Asians (13.9%), and intermediate among Hispanic (17.3%), white (16.4%), and Filipina women (15.3%). The highest increased risk of LGA newborns was observed among women with class II obesity in most racial and ethnic groups, and African American and Asian women with class II obesity had a four-fold increased risk of LGA newborns compared with women of normal weight in the same racial and ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS African American women with GDM have a greater risk of LGA newborns at a lower BMI than other racial and ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware that among women with GDM, there may be significant racial and ethnic differences in the risk of LGA newborns by BMI threshold. PMID:23812460

  10. Fetal sex differences in human chorionic gonadotropin fluctuate by maternal race, age, weight and by gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, J. J.; Lee, M. K.; Saha, S.; Boscardin, W. J.; Apfel, A.; Currier, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of the placental glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are higher in women carrying female v. male fetuses; yet, the significance of this difference with respect to maternal factors, environmental exposures and neonatal outcomes is unknown. As a first step in evaluating the biologic and clinical significance of sex differences in hCG, we conducted a population-level analysis to assess its stability across subgroups. Subjects were women carrying singleton pregnancies who participated in prenatal and newborn screening programs in CA from 2009 to 2012 (1.1 million serum samples). hCG was measured in the first and second trimesters and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Multivariate linear models were used to estimate hCG means in women carrying female and male fetuses. We report fluctuations in the ratios of female to male hCG by maternal factors and by gestational age. hCG was higher in the case of a female fetus by 11 and 8% in the first and second trimesters, respectively (P <0.0001). There were small (1–5%) fluctuations in the sex difference by maternal race, weight and age. The female-to-male ratio in hCG decreased from 17 to 2% in the first trimester, and then increased from 2 to 19% in the second trimester (P <0.0001). We demonstrate within a well enumerated, diverse US population that the sex difference in hCG overall is stable. Small fluctuations within population subgroups may be relevant to environmental and physiologic effects on the placenta and can be probed further using these types of data. PMID:26242396

  11. Who is black, white, or mixed race? How skin color, status, and nation shape racial classification in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Edward Telles; Paschel, Tianna

    2014-11-01

    Comparative research on racial classification has often turned to Latin America, where race is thought to be particularly fluid. Using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 America's Barometer survey, the authors examine patterns of self-identification in four countries. National differences in the relation between skin color, socioeconomic status, and race were found. Skin color predicts race closely in Panama but loosely in the Dominican Republic. Moreover, despite the dominant belief that money whitens, the authors discover that status polarizes (Brazil), mestizoizes (Colombia), darkens (Dominican Republic), or has no effect (Panama). The results show that race is both physical and cultural, with country variations in racial schema that reflect specific historical and political trajectories. PMID:25848671

  12. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791. PMID:20463732

  13. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791.

  14. Race, Culture and All that: An Exploration of the Perspectives of White Secondary Student Teachers about Race Equality Issues in Their Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Vini

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the racialised perceptions of White students teachers who are preparing to teach in secondary schools in a diverse society. Student teachers' views about Black and minority ethnic (BME) pupils are often cast in the language of otherness. This research was conducted in a post-1992 university in the south of England where the…

  15. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; White, Desiree A

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU.

  16. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  17. Dynamic representations of race: processing goals shape race decoding in the fusiform gyri

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Christian; Ratner, Kyle G.

    2014-01-01

    People perceive and evaluate others on the basis of social categories, such as race, gender and age. Initial processing of targets in terms of visually salient social categories is often characterized as inevitable. In the current study, we investigated the influence of processing goals on the representation of race in the visual processing stream. Participants were assigned to one of two mixed-race teams and categorized faces according to their group membership or skin color. To assess neural representations of race, we employed multivariate pattern analysis to examined neural activity related to the presentation of Black and White faces. As predicted, patterns of neural activity within the early visual cortex and fusiform gyri (FG) could decode the race of face stimuli above chance and were moderated by processing goals. Race decoding in early visual cortex was above chance in both categorization tasks and below chance in a prefrontal control region. More importantly, race decoding was greater in the FG during the group membership vs skin color categorization task. The results suggest that, ironically, explicit racial categorization can diminish the representation of race in the FG. These findings suggest that representations of race are dynamic, reflecting current processing goals. PMID:23196632

  18. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses.

  19. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  20. Treatment of early-stage human epidermal growth factor 2-positive cancers among medicare enrollees: age and race strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Luis, Ines; Lin, Nancy U; Keating, Nancy L; Barry, William T; Lii, Joyce; Burstein, Harold J; Winer, Eric P; Freedman, Rachel A

    2016-08-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is highly efficacious regardless of age. Recent data suggested that many older patients with HER2-positive disease do not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. Nevertheless, some of this 'under-treatment' may be clinically appropriate. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to identify patients aged ≥ 66 with stage ≥ Ib-III, HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed during 2010-2011 (HER2 status available) who did not have a history of congestive heart failure. We described all systemic treatments received and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment patterns. Among 770 women 44.4 % did not receive trastuzumab, including 21.8 % who received endocrine therapy only, 6.3 % who received chemotherapy (±endocrine therapy) and 16.2 % who did not receive any systemic therapy. In addition to age and grade, race was strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab (64.4 % of Non-Hispanic blacks vs. 43.6 % of whites did not receive trastuzumab, adjusted ORNon-Hispanic black vs. white = 3.14, 95 %CI = 1.38-7.17), and many patients with stage III disease did not receive trastuzumab. Further, 16.2 % of patients did not receive any systemic treatment and this occurred more frequently for black patients. Over 40 % of older patients with indication to receive adjuvant trastuzumab did not receive it and nearly 20 % of these patients did not receive any other treatment. Although treatment omission may be appropriate in some cases, we observed concerning differences in trastuzumab receipt, particularly for black women. Strategies to optimize care for older patients and to eliminate treatment disparities are urgently needed. PMID:27484879

  1. Race and Ancestry in the Age of Inclusion: Technique and Meaning in Post-Genomic Science

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Janet K.; Ackerman, Sara L.; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so, by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals’ genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251

  2. Race and ancestry in the age of inclusion: technique and meaning in post-genomic science.

    PubMed

    Shim, Janet K; Ackerman, Sara L; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals' genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251

  3. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  4. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  5. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  6. Niggers No More: A Critical Race Counternarrative on Black Male Student Achievement at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2009-01-01

    A methodological approach popularized by critical race theorists is used in this article to oppose dominant discourse concerning the social and educational status of Black men in America. Specifically, this counternarrative on student achievement was derived from face-to-face individual interviews with 143 Black male undergraduates at 30…

  7. There Is No "Race" in the Schoolyard: Color-Blind Ideology in an (Almost) All-White School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Amanda E.

    2001-01-01

    Using ethnographic techniques and formal interviews with 12 students, examined the racial messages and lessons students got from parents and teachers in one suburban elementary school community. Explicit color-blind "race talk" masked a reality of racialized practices and color-conscious understandings. Discusses this apparent paradox in the…

  8. Multiculturalism or Multibodism: On the Impossible Intersections of Race and Gender in the American White Feminist and Black Nationalist Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyewumi, Oyeronke

    1999-01-01

    Examines the discounting of African American women in both feminist and black nationalist discourses, despite the civil rights and women's movements of the 1960s and the rhetoric of multiculturalism and identity politics that developed following these movements. Accounts for the marginalization of African American women in race and gender…

  9. Effects of stereotype threat, perceived discrimination, and examiner race on neuropsychological performance: simple as black and white?

    PubMed

    Thames, April D; Hinkin, Charles H; Byrd, Desiree A; Bilder, Robert M; Duff, Kimberley J; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Streiff, Vanessa

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive roles of stereotype threat and perceived discrimination and the mediating role of examiner-examinee racial discordance on neuropsychological performance in a non-clinical sample of African American and Caucasian individuals. Ninety-two African American (n = 45) and Caucasian (n = 47) adults were randomly assigned to either a stereotype threat or non-threat condition. Within each condition, participants were randomly assigned to either a same race or different race examiner. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and completed a measure of perceived discrimination. African Americans in the stereotype threat condition performed significantly worse on global NP (Mz = -.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.07, -0.67] than African Americans in the non-threat condition (Mz = 0.09, CI [0.15, 0.33]. African Americans who reported high levels of perceived discrimination performed significantly worse on memory tests when tested by an examiner of a different race, Mz = -1.19, 95% CI [-1.78, -.54], than African Americans who were tested by an examiner of the same race, Mz = 0.24, 95% CI [-0.24, 0.72]. The current study underscores the importance of considering the role of contextual variables in neuropsychological performance, as these variables may obscure the validity of results among certain racial/ethnic groups.

  10. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  11. Parental Race as Symbolic and Social Capital: Teacher Evaluations of Part-White Biracial and Monoracial Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of biracial individuals in the US continues to grow, so does research focused on them. While some of this literature examines how biracials fare on a host of social outcomes, little research examines whether part-white biracials are able to use their whiteness as a resource to gain additional resources or rewards. This research seeks…

  12. Dopamine transporter availability in clinically normal aging is associated with individual differences in white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Anna; Hedden, Trey; Younger, Alayna P; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-02-01

    Aging-related differences in white matter integrity, the presence of amyloid plaques, and density of biomarkers indicative of dopamine functions can be detected and quantified with in vivo human imaging. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether these imaging-based measures constitute independent imaging biomarkers in older adults, which would speak to the hypothesis that the aging brain is characterized by multiple independent neurobiological cascades. We assessed MRI-based markers of white matter integrity and PET-based marker of dopamine transporter density and amyloid deposition in the same set of 53 clinically normal individuals (age 65-87). A multiple regression analysis demonstrated that dopamine transporter availability is predicted by white matter integrity, which was detectable even after controlling for chronological age. Further post-hoc exploration revealed that dopamine transporter availability was further associated with systolic blood pressure, mirroring the established association between cardiovascular health and white matter integrity. Dopamine transporter availability was not associated with the presence of amyloid burden. Neurobiological correlates of dopamine transporter measures in aging are therefore likely unrelated to Alzheimer's disease but are aligned with white matter integrity and cardiovascular risk. More generally, these results suggest that two common imaging markers of the aging brain that are typically investigated separately do not reflect independent neurobiological processes. Hum Brain Mapp 37:621-631, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Magnified effects of the COMT gene on white-matter microstructure in very old age.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Lövdén, Martin; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Keller, Lina; Graff, Caroline; Köhncke, Ylva; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Genetic factors may partly account for between-person differences in brain integrity in old age. Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the dopaminergic system is implicated in the modulation of white-matter integrity. We investigated whether a genetic variation in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which influences dopamine availability in prefrontal cortex, contributes to interindividual differences in white-matter microstructure, as measured with diffusion-tensor imaging. In a sample of older adults from a population-based study (60-87 years; n = 238), we found that the COMT polymorphism affects white-matter microstructure, indexed by fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, of several white-matter tracts in the oldest age group (81-87 years), although there were no reliable associations between COMT and white-matter microstructure in the two younger age groups (60-66 and 72-78 years). These findings extend previous observations of magnified genetic effects on cognition in old age to white-matter integrity.

  14. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  15. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Papers Prepared by the Gerontological Society of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerontological Society, Washington, DC.

    This document contains eight papers presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Each paper begins with a statement of a Congressional finding relevant to the topic under consideration, followed by a presentation and discussion of important issues related to each topic. The first paper, "Research on the Aging Process," explores the scope…

  16. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  17. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  18. White Matter Changes in Tinnitus: Is It All Age and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Bin; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tinnitus is a condition characterized by the perception of auditory phantom sounds. It is known as the result of complex interactions between auditory and nonauditory regions. However, previous structural imaging studies on tinnitus patients showed evidence of significant white matter changes caused by hearing loss that are positively correlated with aging. Current study focused on which aspects of tinnitus pathologies affect the white matter integrity the most. We used the diffusion tensor imaging technique to acquire images that have higher contrast in brain white matter to analyze how white matter is influenced by tinnitus-related factors using voxel-based methods, region of interest analysis, and deterministic tractography. As a result, white matter integrity in chronic tinnitus patients was both directly affected by age and also mediated by the hearing loss. The most important changes in white matter regions were found bilaterally in the anterior corona radiata, anterior corpus callosum, and bilateral sagittal strata. In the tractography analysis, the white matter integrity values in tracts of right parahippocampus were correlated with the subjective tinnitus loudness.

  19. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  20. Association of Race Consciousness With the Patient–Physician Relationship, Medication Adherence, and Blood Pressure in Urban Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Race consciousness (the frequency with which one thinks about his or her own race) is a measure that may be useful in assessing whether racial discrimination negatively impacts blood pressure (BP). However, the relation between race consciousness and BP has yet to be empirically tested, especially within the context of the patient–physician relationship and medication adherence. METHODS Race-stratified generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of race consciousness on BP, measures of the patient–physician relationship, and self-reported medication adherence, controlling for patients being nested within physicians and for patient age and sex. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 61.3 years, 62% were black, and 65% were women. Black patients were more likely to ever think about race than were white patients (49% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). Race-conscious blacks had significantly higher diastolic BP (79.4 vs. 74.5mm Hg; P = 0.004) and somewhat higher systolic BP (138.8 vs. 134.7mm Hg; P = 0.13) than blacks who were not race conscious. Race-conscious whites were more likely to perceive respect from their physician (57.1% vs. 25.8%; P = 0.01) but had lower medication adherence (62.4% vs. 82.9%; P = 0.05) than whites who were not race-conscious. CONCLUSIONS Among blacks, race consciousness was associated with higher diastolic BP. In contrast, among whites, there was no association between race consciousness and BP, but race consciousness was associated with poor ratings of adherence, despite more favorable ratings of the patient–physician relationship. Future work should explore disparities in race consciousness and its impact on health and health-care disparities. PMID:23864583

  1. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to recognize that the…

  2. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  3. The Legal Construction of Race: Mexican-Americans and Whiteness. Occasional Paper No. 54. Latino Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, George A.

    Mexican Americans were legally defined as Whites as a result of treaty obligations with Mexico that expressly allowed Mexicans to become U.S. citizens. Federal laws of the time required that an alien be White to become a U.S. citizen. The government of Mexico and the U.S. Department of State pressured the U.S. Census Bureau to reclassify Mexican…

  4. Achilles tendon ruptures stratified by age, race, and cause of injury among active duty U.S. Military members.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J; Mason, K T; Clark, D A

    1999-12-01

    A total of 865 members of the U.S. military underwent repair of Achilles tendon ruptures at U.S. military hospitals during calendar years 1994, 1995, and 1996. The discharge summaries of these patients were analyzed for patient demographic information, including age, race, and causative activity. Patients were then stratified by age, race, and cause of injury. Blacks were at increased risk for undergoing repair of the Achilles tendon compared with nonblacks (overall relative risk = 4.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.63, 4.74; summary odds ratio controlling for age = 3.69, CI = 3.25, 4.19). Participation in the game of basketball accounted for 64.9% of all injuries in black patients and 34.0% of all injuries in nonblack patients. Among those injured, blacks had a significantly increased risk for injury related to playing basketball than nonblacks (relative risk = 1.82, CI = 1.58, 2.10). This finding suggests that there may be other predisposing factor(s) that result in a higher risk of Achilles tendon ruptures in black individuals.

  5. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  6. Cardiac Output and Performance during a Marathon Race in Middle-Aged Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    Billat, Véronique L.; Petot, Hélène; Landrain, Morgan; Meilland, Renaud; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost). Methods. We measured the SV, heart rate (HR), CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3 hr 30 min ± 45 min). Results. Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively). Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO × m−1) (r = −0.65, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the runner's ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r = 0.83, P < 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners. PMID:22645458

  7. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  8. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  9. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  10. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  11. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced white matter damage in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Okauchi, Masanobu; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Gu, Yuxiang; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2015-10-01

    Iron contributes to c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation in young rats and white matter injury in piglets after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we examined the effect of deferoxamine on ICH-induced white matter injury and JNK activation and in aged rats. Male Fischer 344 rats (18months old) had either an intracaudate injection of 100μl of autologous blood or a needle insertion (sham). The rats were treated with deferoxamine or vehicle with different regimen (dosage, duration and time window). White matter injury and activation of JNK were examined. We found that a dose of DFX should be at more than 10mg/kg for a therapeutic duration more than 2days with a therapeutic time window of 12h to reduce ICH-induced white matter loss at 2months. ICH-induced white matter injury was associated with JNK activation. The protein levels of phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK) were upregulated at day-1 after ICH and then gradually decreased. P-JNK immunoreactivity was mostly located in white matter bundles. ICH-induced JNK activation was reduced by DFX treatment. This study demonstrated that DFX can reduce ICH-induced JNK activation and white matter damage.

  12. Superficial white matter as a novel substrate of age-related cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Nazeri, Arash; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Rajji, Tarek K; Felsky, Daniel; Rotenberg, David J; Mason, Mikko; Xu, Li N; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Voineskos, Aristotle N

    2015-06-01

    Studies of diffusion tensor imaging have focused mainly on the role of deep white matter tract microstructural abnormalities associated with aging and age-related cognitive decline. However, the potential role of superficial white matter (SWM) in aging and, by extension, cognitive-aging, is less clear. Healthy individuals (n = 141; F/M: 66/75 years) across the adult lifespan (18-86 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging and a battery of cognitive testing. SWM was assessed via a combination of probabilistic tractography and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). A widespread inverse relationship of fractional anisotropy (FA) values in SWM with age was observed. SWM-FA adjacent to the precentral gyri was associated with fine-motor-speed, whereas performance in visuomotor-attention/processing speed correlated with SWM-FA in all 4 lobes of the left-hemisphere and in right parieto-occipital SWM-FA (family-wise error corrected p < 0.05). Independent of deep white matter-FA, right frontal and right occipital SWM-FA-mediated age effects on motor-speed and visuomotor-attention/processing speed, respectively. Altogether, our results indicate that SWM-FA contributes uniquely to age-related cognitive performance, and should be considered as a novel biomarker of cognitive-aging. PMID:25834938

  13. The neuroscience of race.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516

  14. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis.

  15. Minority-Serving Institutions, Race-Conscious "Dwelling," and Possible Futures for Basic Writing at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamos, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This essay looks to Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) for strategies that can be implemented in order to combat contemporary neoliberal attacks against the programmatic and institutional spaces of basic writing within Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Working from Nedra Reynolds' notion of thirdspace-oriented "dwelling"…

  16. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  17. Age related changes in microglial phenotype vary between CNS regions: grey versus white matter differences.

    PubMed

    Hart, Adam D; Wyttenbach, Andreas; Perry, V Hugh; Teeling, Jessica L

    2012-07-01

    Subtle regional differences in microglial phenotype exist in the adult mouse brain. We investigated whether these differences were amplified during ageing and following systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We studied microglial morphology and phenotype in young (4mo) and aged (21mo) C57/BL6 mice using immunohistochemistry and quantified the expression levels of surface molecules on microglia in white and grey matter along the rostral-caudal neuraxis. We detected significant regional, age dependent differences in microglial phenotypes, with the microglia of white matter and caudal areas of the CNS exhibiting greater upregulation of CD11b, CD68, CD11c, F4/80 and FcγRI than grey matter and rostral CNS areas. Upregulation of CD11c with age was restricted to the white matter, as was the appearance of multinucleated giant cells. Systemic LPS caused a subtle upregulation of FcγRI after 24 h, but the other markers examined were not affected. Burrowing behaviour and static rod assays were used to assess hippocampal and cerebellar integrity. Aged mice exhibited exaggerated and prolonged burrowing deficits following systemic LPS injection, while in the absence of an inflammatory challenge aged mice performed significantly worse than young mice in the static rod test. Taken together, these findings show that the effects of age on microglial phenotype and functional integrity vary significantly between CNS compartments, as do, albeit to a lesser extent, the effects of systemic LPS.

  18. Predictors of Age of Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of a Consistent Source of Medical Care, Race, and Condition Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Natacha D.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Neece, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent…

  19. Age and Sex Effects on White Matter Tracts in Psychosis from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwehm, Andrew; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    There is controversy regarding specificity of white matter abnormalities in psychosis, their deviation from healthy aging, and the influence of sex on these measures. We used diffusion tensor imaging to characterize putative white matter microstructure in 224 patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers across the age range of 15-64 years. Sixty-five younger (age <30 years; 47M/18F) patients with psychosis (all experiencing a first episode of illness) and 48 older (age ⩾30 years; 30M/18F) patients were age-matched to younger and older healthy volunteer groups (N=63 (40M/23F) and N=48 (29M/19F), respectively). The trajectories of two inter-hemispheric (splenium and genu), two projection (cortico-pontine and anterior thalamic), and five bilateral association (inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal, superior longitudinal, cingulum, and uncinate) tracts were quantified using tractography to derive measures of fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in all patients compared with all healthy volunteers, with comparable effect sizes observed in both the younger and older patients compared with their respective healthy volunteer groups. Moreover, age-associated differences in fractional anisotropy within these tracts were comparable between groups across the age span. In addition, female patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy across all tracts compared with female controls regardless of age. Our findings demonstrate comparable putative white matter abnormalities in two independent samples of patients with psychosis and argue against their progression in patients. These data further highlight the novel and potentially underappreciated role of sex in understanding white matter dysfunction in the neurobiology of psychosis. PMID:27067129

  20. Strategic white matter tracts for processing speed deficits in age-related small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno; Seiler, Stephan; Pirpamer, Lukas; Gonik, Mariya; Hofer, Edith; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral small vessel disease is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment and typically manifests with slowed processing speed. We investigated the impact of lesion location on processing speed in age-related small vessel disease. Methods: A total of 584 community-dwelling elderly underwent brain MRI followed by segmentation of white matter hyperintensities. Processing speed was determined by the timed measure of the Trail Making Test part B. The impact of the location of white matter hyperintensities was assessed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and graph-based statistical models on regional lesion volumes in major white matter tracts. Results: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified multiple voxel clusters where the presence of white matter hyperintensities was associated with slower performance on the Trail Making Test part B. Clusters were located bilaterally in the forceps minor and anterior thalamic radiation. Region of interest–based Bayesian network analyses on lesion volumes within major white matter tracts depicted the same tracts as direct predictors for an impaired Trail Making Test part B performance. Conclusions: Our findings highlight damage to frontal interhemispheric and thalamic projection fiber tracts harboring frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits as a predictor for processing speed performance in age-related small vessel disease. PMID:24793184

  1. Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer dementia in blacks and whites: a report from the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B; Zimmerman, Molly E; Sanders, Amy E; Verghese, Joe; Dickson, Dennis W; Derby, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    As the population ages, the need to characterize rates of cognitive impairment and dementia within demographic groups defined by age, sex, and race becomes increasingly important. There are limited data available on the prevalence and incidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) from population-based studies. The Einstein Aging Study, a systematically recruited community-based cohort of 1944 adults aged 70 or older (1168 dementia free at baseline; mean age, 78.8 y; average follow-up, 3.9 y), provides the opportunity to examine the prevalence and incidence rates for dementia, Alzheimer dementia (AD), aMCI, and naMCI by demographic characteristics. Dementia prevalence was 6.5% (4.9% AD). Overall dementia incidence was 2.9/100 person-years (2.3/100 person-years for AD). Dementia and AD rates increased with age but did not differ by sex. Prevalence of aMCI was 11.6%, and naMCI prevalence was 9.9%. aMCI incidence was 3.8 and naMCI incidence was 3.9/100 person-years. Rates of aMCI increased significantly with age in men and in blacks; sex, education, and race were not significant risk factors. In contrast, naMCI incidence did not increase with age; however, blacks were at higher risk compared with whites, even when controlling for sex and education. Results highlight the public health significance of preclinical cognitive disease.

  2. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity*

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Methods Utilizing data from the 2002–2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Results Between 2002–2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p<0.001). The prevalence of past year non-daily (p<0.001) and daily use varied significantly during this time (p<0.001). Controlling for survey year and other confounders, characteristics associated with increased odds of perceived great risk of regular cannabis use included: female sex; Non-White race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000–49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12–17 and 18–25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008–2012. Conclusions Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. PMID:25735467

  3. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  4. Hypertension-related alterations in white matter microstructure detectable in middle age.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Linda K; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Eyler, Lisa T; Franz, Carol E; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Panizzon, Matthew S; Rinker, Daniel A; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Most studies examining associations between hypertension and brain white matter microstructure have focused on older adults or on cohorts with a large age range. Because hypertension effects on the brain may vary with age, it is important to focus on middle age, when hypertension becomes more prevalent. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine differences in white matter diffusion metrics as a function of hypertension in a well-characterized cohort of middle-aged men (n=316; mean, 61.8 years; range, 56.7-65.6). Diffusion metrics were examined in 9 tracts reported to be sensitive to hypertension in older adults. Relative to normotensive individuals, individuals with long-standing hypertension (>5.6 years) showed reduced fractional anisotropy or increased diffusivity in most tracts. Effects were stronger among carriers than among noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for 2 tracts connecting frontal regions with other brain areas. Significant differences were observed even after adjustment for potentially related lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. Shorter duration of hypertension or better blood pressure control among hypertensive individuals did not lessen the adverse effects. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter alterations appear early in the course of hypertension and may persist despite adequate treatment. Although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest that prevention-rather than management-of hypertension may be vital to preserving brain health in aging.

  5. HYPERTENSION-RELATED ALTERATIONS IN WHITE MATTER MICROSTRUCTURE DETECTABLE IN MIDDLE AGE

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Linda K.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Eyler, Lisa T.; Franz, Carol; Hagler, Donald J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Rinker, Daniel A; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies examining associations between hypertension and brain white matter microstructure have focused on older adults or on cohorts with a large age range. Since hypertension effects on the brain may vary with age it is important to focus on middle age, when hypertension becomes more prevalent. We used linear mixed effect models to examine differences in white matter diffusion metrics as a function of hypertension in a well-characterized cohort of middle-aged men (N=316, mean 61.8 years; range 56.7–65.6). Diffusion metrics were examined in nine tracts reported to be sensitive to hypertension in older adults. Relative to normotensive individuals, individuals with longstanding hypertension (> 5.6 years) showed reduced fractional anisotropy or increased diffusivity in most tracts. Effects were stronger among carriers than non-carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for two tracts connecting frontal regions with other brain areas. Significant differences were observed even after adjustment for potentially-related lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. Shorter duration of hypertension or better blood pressure control among hypertensive individuals did not lessen the adverse effects. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter alterations appear early in the course of hypertension and may persist despite adequate treatment. Although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest that prevention—rather than management—of hypertension may be vital to preserving brain health in aging. PMID:26056337

  6. Race, Gender, and Conceptualizations of Fear

    PubMed Central

    Muroff, Jordana; Spencer, Michael S.; Ross, Abigail M.; Williams, David R.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods and quantitative statistical analyses to examine whether race and gender are associated with reasons for which adults perceive a situation or object as fearful. The sample consists of 197 African-American and White adults (ages 18–85) recruited through a convenience sample and community sources in the Midwest. A cognitive interviewing instrument was utilized to examine respondents understanding of words and phrases from a mental health instrument. Using qualitative methods, free-response answers were content coded using 5 “fear-codes” (i.e., harm/danger, external locus of control, self-perception, and past experience), developed by the researchers. Results from logistic regression analyses indicate that race significantly predicts usage of specific fear codes (p<.05). In addition, a race by gender interaction was found. PMID:26538802

  7. Aging in deep gray matter and white matter revealed by diffusional kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Gong, Nan-Jie; Wong, Chun-Sing; Chan, Chun-Chung; Leung, Lam-Ming; Chu, Yiu-Ching

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging has already been extensively used to probe microstructural alterations in white matter tracts, and scarcely, in deep gray matter. However, results in literature regarding age-related degenerative mechanisms in white matter tracts and parametric changes in the putamen are inconsistent. Diffusional kurtosis imaging is a mathematical extension of diffusion tensor imaging, which could more comprehensively mirror microstructure, particularly in isotropic tissues such as gray matter. In this study, we used the diffusional kurtosis imaging method and a white-matter model that provided metrics of explicit neurobiological interpretations in healthy participants (58 in total, aged from 25 to 84 years). Tract-based whole-brain analyses and regions-of-interest (anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, fornix, genu and splenium of corpus callosum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus) analyses were performed to examine parametric differences across regions and correlations with age. In white matter tracts, evidence was found supportive for anterior-posterior gradient and not completely supportive for retrogenesis theory. Age-related degenerations appeared to be broadly driven by axonal loss. Demyelination may also be a major driving mechanism, although confined to the anterior brain. In terms of deep gray matter, higher mean kurtosis and fractional anisotropy in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and red nucleus reflected higher microstructural complexity and directionality compared with the putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. In particular, the unique age-related positive correlations for fractional anisotropy, mean kurtosis, and radial kurtosis in the putamen opposite to those in other regions call for further investigation of exact underlying mechanisms. In summary, the results suggested that diffusional kurtosis can provide measurements in a new dimension that

  8. Race and incarceration in an aging cohort of Vietnam veterans in treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.

  9. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-22

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  10. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  11. Black nurse in white space? Rethinking the in/visibility of race within the Australian nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Mapedzahama, Virginia; Rudge, Trudy; West, Sandra; Perron, Amelie

    2012-06-01

    This article presents an analysis of data from a critical qualitative study with 14 skilled black African migrant nurses, which document their experiences of nurse-to-nurse racism and racial prejudice in Australian nursing workplaces. Racism generally and nurse-to-nurse racism specifically, continues to be under-researched in explorations of these workplaces; when racism is researched, the focus is nurse-to-patient racism and racial prejudice. Similarly, research on the experiences of migrant nurses from a variety of ethnicities in Australia has tended to neglect their experiences of the social dynamics of the workplace, thus reinforcing their racialisation. When racialised, the migrant nurse becomes 'the problem' through a focus on English language competency and ensuing communication barriers. This paper applies Essed's framework of 'everyday racism' to theorise narratives of racism by black African migrant nurses in Australia. In so doing, it not only brings to the fore silenced discussions of nurse-to-nurse racism in Australia, but also exposes the subtle, mundane nature of contemporary racism. For this reason, while the data we present must be read within their context, that is, the Australian nursing workplace, it has significance for advancing a critical analysis of racialised minority groups' experiences of racism within seemingly 'race-less' nursing workplaces internationally.

  12. Scope and Conceptual Issues in Testing the Race-Crime Invariance Thesis: Black, White, and Hispanic Comparisons*

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffrey T.; Feldmeyer, Ben; Harris, Casey T.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in this article is to contribute conceptually and empirically to assessments of the racial invariance hypothesis, which posits that structural disadvantage predicts violent crime in the same way for all racial and ethnic groups. Conceptually, we elucidate the scope of the racial invariance hypothesis and clarify the criteria used for evaluating it. Empirically, we use 1999–2001 averaged arrest data from California and New York to extend analyses of the invariance hypothesis within the context of the scope and definitional issues raised in our conceptual framing – most notably, by including Hispanic comparisons with blacks and whites, by examining the invariance assumption for homicide as well as the violent crime index, by using discrete as well as composite disadvantage measures, and by using census place localities as the study unit. The mixed findings we report from our comparisons (across whites, blacks, and Hispanics; offense types; type of disadvantage) suggest caution and uncertainty about the notion that structural sources of violence affect racial/ethnic groups in uniform ways. We conclude that the hypothesis should be regarded as provisional and its scope remains to be established as to whether it applies only under narrow conditions or is a principle of general applicability. PMID:25408558

  13. Scope and Conceptual Issues in Testing the Race-Crime Invariance Thesis: Black, White, and Hispanic Comparisons*

    PubMed

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffrey T; Feldmeyer, Ben; Harris, Casey T

    2010-11-01

    Our goal in this article is to contribute conceptually and empirically to assessments of the racial invariance hypothesis, which posits that structural disadvantage predicts violent crime in the same way for all racial and ethnic groups. Conceptually, we elucidate the scope of the racial invariance hypothesis and clarify the criteria used for evaluating it. Empirically, we use 1999-2001 averaged arrest data from California and New York to extend analyses of the invariance hypothesis within the context of the scope and definitional issues raised in our conceptual framing - most notably, by including Hispanic comparisons with blacks and whites, by examining the invariance assumption for homicide as well as the violent crime index, by using discrete as well as composite disadvantage measures, and by using census place localities as the study unit. The mixed findings we report from our comparisons (across whites, blacks, and Hispanics; offense types; type of disadvantage) suggest caution and uncertainty about the notion that structural sources of violence affect racial/ethnic groups in uniform ways. We conclude that the hypothesis should be regarded as provisional and its scope remains to be established as to whether it applies only under narrow conditions or is a principle of general applicability.

  14. Four-month enriched environment prevents myelinated fiber loss in the white matter during normal aging of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    White matter degenerates with normal aging and accordingly results in declines in multiple brain functions. Previous neuroimaging studies have implied that the white matter is plastic by experiences and contributory to the experience-dependent recovery of brain functions. However, it is not clear how and how far enriched environment (EE) plays a role in the white matter remodeling. Male rats exhibit earlier and severer age-related damages in the white matter and its myelinated fibers than female rats; therefore, in this current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) and 24 old-aged (24-month-old) male SD rats were randomly assigned to an EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months prior to Morris water maze tests. Five rats from each group were then randomly sampled for stereological assessment of the white matter. Results revealed that EE could somewhat induce improvement of spatial learning and significantly increase the white matter volume, the myelinated fiber volume and the myelinated fiber length during normal aging. The EE-induced improvement of spatial learning ability was significantly correlated with the EE-induced increase of the white matter and its myelinated fibers. We suggested that exposure to an EE could delay the progress of age-related changes in the white matter and the effect could extend to old age.

  15. Differences in ovarian aging patterns between races are associated with ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovarian aging patterns differ between races, and appear to affect fertility treatment outcomes. What causes these differences is, however, unknown. Variations in ovarian aging patterns have recently been associated with specific ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. We, therefore, attempted to determine differences in how functional ovarian reserve (FOR) changes with advancing age between races, and whether changes are associated with differences in distribution of ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. Methods We determined in association with in vitro fertilization (IVF) FOR in 62 young Caucasian, African and Asian oocyte donors and 536 older infertility patients of all three races, based on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and oocyte yields, and investigated whether differences between races are associated with differences in distribution of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes. Results Changes in distribution of mean FSH, AMH and oocyte yields between young donors and older infertility patients were significant (all P < 0.001). Donors did not demonstrate significant differences between races in AMH and FSH but demonstrated significant differences in oocyte yields [F(2,59) = 4.22, P = 0.019]: Specifically, African donors demonstrated larger oocyte yields than Caucasians (P = 0.008) and Asians (P = 0.022). In patients, AMH levels differed significantly between races [F (2,533) = 4.25, P = 0.015]. Holm-Sidak post-hoc comparisons demonstrated that Caucasians demonstrated lower AMH in comparison to Asians (P = 0.007). Percentages of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes in patients varied significantly between races, with Asians demonstrating fewer het-norm/low sub-genotypes than Caucasians and Africans (P = 0.012). Conclusion FOR changes in different races at different rates, and appears to parallel ovarian FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotype distributions. Differences

  16. Accelerated changes in white matter microstructure during aging: a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Claire E; Walhovd, Kristine B; Storsve, Andreas B; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars T; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-11-12

    It is well established that human brain white matter structure changes with aging, but the timescale and spatial distribution of this change remain uncertain. Cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies indicate that, after a period of relative stability during adulthood, there is an accelerated decline in anisotropy and increase in diffusivity values during senescence; and, spatially, results have been discussed within the context of several anatomical frameworks. However, inferring trajectories of change from cross-sectional data can be challenging; and, as yet, there have been no longitudinal reports of the timescale and spatial distribution of age-related white matter change in healthy adults across the adult lifespan. In a longitudinal DTI study of 203 adults between 20 and 84 years of age, we used tract-based spatial statistics to characterize the pattern of annual change in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity and examined whether there was an acceleration of change with age. We found extensive and overlapping significant annual decreases in fractional anisotropy, and increases in axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity. Spatially, results were consistent with inferior-to-superior gradients of lesser-to-greater vulnerability. Annual change increased with age, particularly within superior regions, with age-related decline estimated to begin in the fifth decade. Charting white matter microstructural changes in healthy aging provides essential context to clinical studies, and future studies should compare age trajectories between healthy participants and at-risk populations and also explore the relationship between DTI rates of change and cognitive decline.

  17. The Association of Aging with White Matter Integrity and Functional Connectivity Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Albert C.; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Huang, Chu-Chung; Lin, Ching-Po

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with reduced cerebral structural integrity and altered functional brain activity, yet the association of aging with the relationship between structural and functional brain changes remains unclear. Using combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) modalities, we hypothesized that aging-related changes in white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy) was associated with the short- or long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) in hub regions. We tested this hypothesis by using a healthy aging cohort comprised of 140 younger adults aged 20–39 years and 109 older adults aged 60–79 years. Compared with the younger group, older adults exhibited widespread reductions in white matter integrity with selective preservation in brain stem tracts and the cingulum connected to the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, whereas FCD mapping in older adults showed a reduced FCD in the visual, somatosensory, and motor functional networks and an increased FCD in the default mode network. The older adults exhibited significantly increased short- or long-range FCD in functional hubs of the precuneus, posterior, and middle cingulate, and thalamus, hippocampus, fusiform, and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, DTI-fMRI relationship were predominantly identified in older adults in whom short- and long-range FCD in the left precuneus was negatively correlated to structural integrity of adjacent and nonadjacent white matter tracts, respectively. We also found that long-range FCD in the left precuneus was positively correlated to cognitive function. These results support the compensatory hypothesis of neurocognitive aging theory and reveal the DTI-fMRI relationship associated with normal aging. PMID:27378915

  18. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  19. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  20. Sublethal effects of aged oil sands-affected water on white sucker (Catostomus commersonii).

    PubMed

    Arens, Collin J; Hogan, Natacha S; Kavanagh, Richard J; Mercer, Angella G; Kraak, Glen J Van Der; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    To investigate impacts of proposed oil sands aquatic reclamation techniques on benthic fish, white sucker (Catostomus commersonii Lacépède, 1803) were stocked in 2 experimental ponds-Demonstration Pond, containing aged fine tailings capped with fresh water, consistent with proposed end-pit lake designs, and South Bison Pond, containing aged unextracted oil sands material-to examine the effects of unmodified hydrocarbons. White sucker were stocked from a nearby reservoir at both sites in May 2010 and sampled 4 mo later to measure indicators of energy storage and utilization. Comparisons were then made with the source population and 2 reference lakes in the region. After exposure to aged tailings, white sucker had smaller testes and ovaries and reduced growth compared with the source population. Fish introduced to aged unextracted oil sands material showed an increase in growth over the same period. Limited available energy, endocrine disruption, and chronic stress likely contributed to the effects observed, corresponding to elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids, aromatic compounds in bile, and increased CYP1A activity. Because of the chemical and biological complexity of these systems, direct cause-effect relationships could not be identified; however, effects were associated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and high pH. Impacts on growth have not been previously observed in pelagic fishes examined in these systems, and may be related to differences in sediment interaction. PMID:25545538

  1. Unbiased Stereological Analysis of Reactive Astrogliosis to Estimate Age-Associated Cerebral White Matter Injury.

    PubMed

    McNeal, David W; Brandner, Dieter D; Gong, Xi; Postupna, Nadia O; Montine, Thomas J; Keene, C Dirk; Back, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) contributes to cognitive dysfunction associated with pathological aging. Because reactive astrocyte-related factors contribute to remyelination failure after WMI, we sought accurate, cost-effective, and reproducible histopathological approaches for quantification of morphometric features of reactive astrogliosis in aged human white matter in patients with vascular brain injury (VBI). We compared 7 distinct approaches to quantify the features of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes in the prefrontal white matter of brains from patients with VBI (n = 17, mean age 88.8 years) and controls that did not exhibit VBI (n = 11, mean age 86.6 years). Only modern stereological techniques (ie, optical fractionator and spaceballs) and virtual process thickness measurements demonstrated significant changes in astrocyte number, process length, or proximal process thickness in cases with VBI relative to controls. The widely employed methods of neuropathological scoring, antibody capture assay (histelide), area fraction fractionator, and Cavalieri point counting failed to detect significant differences in GFAP expression between the groups. Unbiased stereological approaches and virtual thickness measurements provided the only sensitive and accurate means to quantify astrocyte reactivity as a surrogate marker of WMI in human brains with VBI. PMID:27142644

  2. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  3. Threonine requirement of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age.

    PubMed

    Xie, M; Zhang, L; Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Huang, W; Hou, S S

    2014-01-01

    1. A dose-response experiment with 5 dietary threonine concentrations (5.0, 5.8, 6.6, 7.4 and 8.2 g/kg) was conducted to estimate the threonine requirement of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. 2. A total of 240 one-d-old male White Pekin ducks were allotted to 5 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 6 replicate pens with 8 ducks per pen. Ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 21 d of age. At 21 d of age, growth performance and intestinal morphology were determined. 3. The weight gain and feed intake of Pekin ducks increased and feed/gain of these birds decreased linearly or quadratically as dietary threonine increased from 5.0 to 8.2 g threonine/kg. Compared to ducks fed on diets containing 5.0 g threonine/kg, ducks given diets containing 7.4 g threonine/kg had higher villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. 4. The threonine requirements for weight gain of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age was estimated to be 6.72 g/kg when dietary crude protein concentration was 189.8 g/kg and threonine supply was critical for maintaining intestinal structure of these birds.

  4. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  5. White Matter Changes are Associated with Ventricular Expansion in Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Goldblatt, Alison; Rosas, H Diana; Salat, David H

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions are highly prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although these lesions are presumed to be of vascular origin and linked to small vessel disease in older adults, little information exists about their relationship to markers of classical AD neurodegeneration. Thus, we examined the link between these white matter changes (WMC) segmented on T1-weighted MRI and imaging markers presumed to be altered due to primary AD neurodegenerative processes. Tissue microstructure of WMC was quantified using diffusion tensor imaging and the relationship of WMC properties and volume to neuroimaging markers was examined in 219 cognitively healthy older adults and individuals with mild cognitive impairment and AD using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. No significant group differences in WMC properties were found. However, there were strong associations between diffusivity of WMC and ventricular volume, volume of WMC and total WM volume. In comparison, group differences in parahippocampal white matter microstructure were found for all diffusion metrics and were largely explained by hippocampal volume. Factor analysis on neuroimaging markers suggested two independent sets of covarying degenerative changes, with potentially age- and vascular-mediated tissue damage contributing to one factor and classical neurodegenerative changes associated with AD contributing to a second factor. These data demonstrate two potentially distinct classes of degenerative change in AD, with one factor strongly linked to aging, ventricular expansion, and both volume and tissue properties of white matter lesions, while the other factor related to classical patterns of cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration in AD.

  6. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Feiyan; Wang, Yishi; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  7. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Chang, Feiyan; Zhang, Zhenxia; Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline. PMID:27332713

  8. Correlates of Three Year Transfer Student Retention Rates with Race, Gender, Age, Credit Hours, and Place of Residence at a Regional Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationship between the three year academic success of transfer students and the variables of race, gender, age, number of transfer credit hours, and place of residence. The study was conducted at Midwestern State University, a public, regional four-year institution and followed the incoming transfer classes of the…

  9. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  10. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  11. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  12. White and grey matter changes in the language network during healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanhui; Dai, Bohan; Howell, Peter; Wang, Xianling; Li, Kuncheng; Lu, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Neural structures change with age but there is no consensus on the exact processes involved. This study tested the hypothesis that white and grey matter in the language network changes during aging according to a "last in, first out" process. The fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter and cortical thickness of grey matter were measured in 36 participants whose ages ranged from 55 to 79 years. Within the language network, the dorsal pathway connecting the mid-to-posterior superior temporal cortex (STC) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) was affected more by aging in both FA and thickness than the other dorsal pathway connecting the STC with the premotor cortex and the ventral pathway connecting the mid-to-anterior STC with the ventral IFC. These results were independently validated in a second group of 20 participants whose ages ranged from 50 to 73 years. The pathway that is most affected during aging matures later than the other two pathways (which are present at birth). The results are interpreted as showing that the neural structures which mature later are affected more than those that mature earlier, supporting the "last in, first out" theory.

  13. Black and white women's attitudes toward interracial marriage.

    PubMed

    Paset, P S; Taylor, R D

    1991-12-01

    50 white women and 50 black women, US citizens between the ages 18 and 23 years, were asked to rate their attitudes about interracial marriage on a 10-point response scale. The white women were somewhat more favorable, if not significantly so, than the black women about men and women of their race marrying persons of another race. However, scorers at the extremes of the scale were significantly different. The white women tended to cluster at the scale extreme favoring interracial marriage, whereas the black women tended to cluster at the other unfavorable extreme. Implications and research needs are discussed.

  14. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  15. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P < 0.001). γH2Ax showed a similar, although attenuated difference among groups (P = 0.03). Expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and p16 suggested induction of senescence mechanisms in glia. Oxidative DNA damage and a DNA damage response are features of WML pathogenesis and suggest candidate mechanisms for glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined.

  16. Guggenheim for Governor: Antisemitism, Race, and the Politics of Gilded Age Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1893 financial panic struck Colorado. The price of silver, in a protracted downward spiral since the conclusion of the Civil War, finally crashed. With economic and political turmoil come angry responses, as people search for scape-goats to explain their new and unexpected poverty. And in Gilded Age Colorado, one of those angry…

  17. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  18. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  19. Aging White Matter and Cognition: Differential Effects of Regional Variations in Diffusion Properties on Memory, Executive Functions, and Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on…

  20. Race and blood pressure status influences cardiovascular responses to challenge.

    PubMed

    Saab, P G; Tischenkel, N; Spitzer, S B; Gellman, M D; Pasin, R D; Schneiderman, N

    1991-03-01

    The influence of race and blood pressure status on cardiovascular responses to three challenges (interview, video game and cold pressor) was investigated in 50 healthy normotensive and 30 unmedicated mild-to-moderate hypertensive black and white men, aged 25-44 years old. Group differences were obtained for two tasks. The interview evoked race and blood pressure status differences: higher heart rate responses were elicited from normotensives compared with hypertensives and larger diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses were elicited from whites compared with blacks. For the video game, black hypertensives displayed larger DBP responses than white hypertensives and greater systolic blood pressure and DBP responses than black normotensives. The video game heart rate response of white normotensives exceeded that of black normotensives and white hypertensives. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to challenge are affected by race and blood pressure status. The blood pressure hyperresponsiveness of black hypertensives compared with black normotensives to a psychological challenge (video game) provides generality to previous research conducted only on whites. PMID:1851788

  1. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  2. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D During Pregnancy & Small-for-Gestational Age in Black and White Infants

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Huh, Susanna Y.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In a prospective prenatal cohort study, we examined associations of second trimester and cord plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) with small-for-gestational age (SGA), and the extent to which vitamin D might explain black/white differences in SGA. Methods We studied 1067 white and 236 black mother-infant pairs recruited from 8 obstetrical offices early in pregnancy in Massachusetts. We analyzed 25(OH)D levels using an immunoassay and performed multivariable logistic models to estimate the odds of SGA by category of 25(OH)D level. Results Mean (standard deviation [SD]) second trimester 25(OH)D level was 60 nmol/L (21) and was lower for black (46 nmol/L [22]) than white (62 nmol/L [20]) women. 59 infants were SGA (4.5%) and more black than white infants were SGA (8.5% vs. 3.7%). The odds of SGA were higher with maternal 25(OH)D levels <25 vs. ≥25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.16, 8.63). The increased odds of SGA among black vs. white participants decreased from an OR of 2.04(1.04, 4.04) to 1.68(0.82, 3.46) after adjusting for 25(OH)D. Conclusions Second trimester 25(OH)D levels <25 nmol/L were associated with higher odds of SGA. Our data raise the possibility that Vitamin D status may contribute to racial disparities in SGA. PMID:22658824

  3. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  4. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  5. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack.

  6. Constraints on the age and evolution of the Galaxy from the white dwarf luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The white dwarf disk luminosity function is explored using observational results of Liebert et al. (1988, 1989) as a template for comparison, and the cooling curves of Wood (1990, 1991) as the input basis functions for the integration. The star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy is found to be constant to within an order of magnitude, and the disk age lies in the range 6-13.5 Gyr, where roughly 40 percent of the uncertainty is due to the observational uncertainties. Using the best current estimates as inputs to the integration, the disk ages range from 7.5 to 11 Gyr, i.e., they are substantially younger than most estimates for the halo globular clusters but in reasonable agreement with those for the disk globular clusters and open clusters. The ages of these differing populations, taken together, are consistent with the pressure-supported collapse models of early spiral Galactic evolution.

  7. Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Hernández, Maria del C. Valdés; Bastin, Mark E.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. However, many studies are cross-sectional or have relatively short follow-up periods, making it difficult to relate GCs directly to changes in cognitive ability with increasing age. Moreover, studies combining endocrine, MRI and cognitive variables are scarce, measurement methods vary considerably, and formal tests of the underlying causal hypothesis (cortisol → brain → cognition) are absent. In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years, provided measures of fluid intelligence, processing speed and memory, diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol and two measures of white matter (WM) structure (WM hyperintensity volume from structural MRI and mean diffusivity averaged across 12 major tracts from diffusion tensor MRI), hippocampal volume, and also cognitive ability at age 11. We tested whether negative relationships between cognitive ageing differences (over more than 60 years) and salivary cortisol were significantly mediated by WM and hippocampal volume. Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73 (r = −.28 to −.36, p < .05) were partially mediated by both WM structural measures, but not hippocampal volume. Cortisol-WM relationships were modest, as was the degree to which WM structure attenuated cortisol–cognition associations (<15%). These data support the hypothesis that GCs contribute to cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain WM structure. PMID:26298692

  8. Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; MacPherson, Sarah E; Ferguson, Karen J; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Hernández, Maria Del C Valdés; Bastin, Mark E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-12-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. However, many studies are cross-sectional or have relatively short follow-up periods, making it difficult to relate GCs directly to changes in cognitive ability with increasing age. Moreover, studies combining endocrine, MRI and cognitive variables are scarce, measurement methods vary considerably, and formal tests of the underlying causal hypothesis (cortisol→brain→cognition) are absent. In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years, provided measures of fluid intelligence, processing speed and memory, diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol and two measures of white matter (WM) structure (WM hyperintensity volume from structural MRI and mean diffusivity averaged across 12 major tracts from diffusion tensor MRI), hippocampal volume, and also cognitive ability at age 11. We tested whether negative relationships between cognitive ageing differences (over more than 60 years) and salivary cortisol were significantly mediated by WM and hippocampal volume. Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73 (r=-.28 to -.36, p<.05) were partially mediated by both WM structural measures, but not hippocampal volume. Cortisol-WM relationships were modest, as was the degree to which WM structure attenuated cortisol-cognition associations (<15%). These data support the hypothesis that GCs contribute to cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain WM structure. PMID:26298692

  9. Synergistic Effects of Age on Patterns of White and Gray Matter Volume across Childhood and Adolescence1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Krongold, Mark; Cooper, Cassandra; Lebel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human brain develops with a nonlinear contraction of gray matter across late childhood and adolescence with a concomitant increase in white matter volume. Across the adult population, properties of cortical gray matter covary within networks that may represent organizational units for development and degeneration. Although gray matter covariance may be strongest within structurally connected networks, the relationship to volume changes in white matter remains poorly characterized. In the present study we examined age-related trends in white and gray matter volume using T1-weighted MR images from 360 human participants from the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development. Images were processed through a voxel-based morphometry pipeline. Linear effects of age on white and gray matter volume were modeled within four age bins, spanning 4-18 years, each including 90 participants (45 male). White and gray matter age-slope maps were separately entered into k-means clustering to identify regions with similar age-related variability across the four age bins. Four white matter clusters were identified, each with a dominant direction of underlying fibers: anterior–posterior, left–right, and two clusters with superior–inferior directions. Corresponding, spatially proximal, gray matter clusters encompassed largely cerebellar, fronto-insular, posterior, and sensorimotor regions, respectively. Pairs of gray and white matter clusters followed parallel slope trajectories, with white matter changes generally positive from 8 years onward (indicating volume increases) and gray matter negative (decreases). As developmental disorders likely target networks rather than individual regions, characterizing typical coordination of white and gray matter development can provide a normative benchmark for understanding atypical development. PMID:26464999

  10. Synergistic Effects of Age on Patterns of White and Gray Matter Volume across Childhood and Adolescence(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Bray, Signe; Krongold, Mark; Cooper, Cassandra; Lebel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The human brain develops with a nonlinear contraction of gray matter across late childhood and adolescence with a concomitant increase in white matter volume. Across the adult population, properties of cortical gray matter covary within networks that may represent organizational units for development and degeneration. Although gray matter covariance may be strongest within structurally connected networks, the relationship to volume changes in white matter remains poorly characterized. In the present study we examined age-related trends in white and gray matter volume using T1-weighted MR images from 360 human participants from the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development. Images were processed through a voxel-based morphometry pipeline. Linear effects of age on white and gray matter volume were modeled within four age bins, spanning 4-18 years, each including 90 participants (45 male). White and gray matter age-slope maps were separately entered into k-means clustering to identify regions with similar age-related variability across the four age bins. Four white matter clusters were identified, each with a dominant direction of underlying fibers: anterior-posterior, left-right, and two clusters with superior-inferior directions. Corresponding, spatially proximal, gray matter clusters encompassed largely cerebellar, fronto-insular, posterior, and sensorimotor regions, respectively. Pairs of gray and white matter clusters followed parallel slope trajectories, with white matter changes generally positive from 8 years onward (indicating volume increases) and gray matter negative (decreases). As developmental disorders likely target networks rather than individual regions, characterizing typical coordination of white and gray matter development can provide a normative benchmark for understanding atypical development.

  11. Synergistic Effects of Age on Patterns of White and Gray Matter Volume across Childhood and Adolescence(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Bray, Signe; Krongold, Mark; Cooper, Cassandra; Lebel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The human brain develops with a nonlinear contraction of gray matter across late childhood and adolescence with a concomitant increase in white matter volume. Across the adult population, properties of cortical gray matter covary within networks that may represent organizational units for development and degeneration. Although gray matter covariance may be strongest within structurally connected networks, the relationship to volume changes in white matter remains poorly characterized. In the present study we examined age-related trends in white and gray matter volume using T1-weighted MR images from 360 human participants from the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development. Images were processed through a voxel-based morphometry pipeline. Linear effects of age on white and gray matter volume were modeled within four age bins, spanning 4-18 years, each including 90 participants (45 male). White and gray matter age-slope maps were separately entered into k-means clustering to identify regions with similar age-related variability across the four age bins. Four white matter clusters were identified, each with a dominant direction of underlying fibers: anterior-posterior, left-right, and two clusters with superior-inferior directions. Corresponding, spatially proximal, gray matter clusters encompassed largely cerebellar, fronto-insular, posterior, and sensorimotor regions, respectively. Pairs of gray and white matter clusters followed parallel slope trajectories, with white matter changes generally positive from 8 years onward (indicating volume increases) and gray matter negative (decreases). As developmental disorders likely target networks rather than individual regions, characterizing typical coordination of white and gray matter development can provide a normative benchmark for understanding atypical development. PMID:26464999

  12. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  13. Changes in perceptual speed and white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract are associated in very old age.

    PubMed

    Lövdén, Martin; Köhncke, Ylva; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Salami, Alireza; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-11-15

    The integrity of the brain's white matter is important for neural processing and displays age-related differences, but the contribution of changes in white matter to cognitive aging is unclear. We used latent change modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of very old adults (aged 81-103 years) assessed twice with a retest interval of 2.3 years. Using diffusion-tensor imaging, we probed white matter microstructure by quantifying mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of six major white matter tracts. Measures of perceptual speed, episodic memory, letter fluency, category fluency, and semantic memory were collected. Across time, alterations of white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract were associated with decreases of perceptual speed. This association remained significant after statistically controlling for changes in white matter microstructure in the entire brain, in the other demarcated tracts, and in the other cognitive abilities. Changes in brain volume also did not account for the association. We conclude that white matter microstructure is a potent correlate of changes in sensorimotor aspects of behavior in very old age, but that it is unclear whether its impact extends to higher-order cognition.

  14. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  15. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education. PMID:21547828

  16. The changing geography of major causes of death among middle age white Americans, 1939-1981.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1987-01-01

    Urban areas, especially the Northeast, are assumed to have the highest death rates from chronic diseases in the United States. Based on analysis of age-adjusted death rates of the white population 35-64 from 1939-1941 through 1979-1981, it is shown that chronic disease rates in the urban Northeast and Midwest have declined compared to the rest of the United States. High rates of chronic as well as traumatic causes of death now characterize the South. Hypotheses are offered to explain these changes, including changes in lifestyle, differences in state government policies, the changing geography of industry and ethnic populations, and the spread of medical care.

  17. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  18. Hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome at mean age of 10 years in black and white schoolgirls and development of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus by mean age of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years

  19. Quantitative Tract-Based White Matter Development from Birth to Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiujuan; Gouttard, Sylvain; Sharma, Anuja; Gu, Hongbin; Styner, Martin; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Gilmore, John H

    2012-01-01

    Few large-scale studies have been done to characterize the normal human brain white matter growth in the first years of life. We investigated white matter maturation patterns in major fiber pathways in a large cohort of healthy young children from birth to age two using diffusion parameters fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (RD). Ten fiber pathways, including commissural, association and projection tracts, were examined with tract-based analysis, providing more detailed and continuous spatial developmental patterns compared to conventional ROI based methods. All DTI data sets were transformed to a population specific atlas with a group-wise longitudinal large deformation diffeomorphic registration approach. Diffusion measurements were analyzed along the major fiber tracts obtained in the atlas space. All fiber bundles show increasing FA values and decreasing radial and axial diffusivities during the development in the first two years of life. The changing rates of the diffusion indices are faster in the first year than the second year for all tracts. RD and FA show larger percentage changes in the first and second years than AD. The gender effects on the diffusion measures are small. Along different spatial locations of fiber tracts, maturation does not always follow the same speed. Temporal and spatial diffusion changes near cortical regions are in general smaller than changes in central regions. Overall developmental patterns revealed in our study confirm the general rules of white matter maturation. This work shows a promising framework to study and analyze white matter maturation in a tract-based fashion. Compared to most previous studies that are ROI-based, our approach has the potential to discover localized development patterns associated with fiber tracts of interest. PMID:22510254

  20. Learning and Living While Black: Black Students, White Universities, and the Age of Post-Affirmative Action and Post-Racialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaves, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    With Critical Race Theory (CRT) and social justice serving as complementary conceptual frames, this ethnographic study investigates the learning and living experiences of ten African American students of a predominantly White university in the Midwest. While several studies have investigated Black students' experiences at PWIs, most notably…

  1. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). On the other hand, as dietary choline increased, the total lipid and triglyceride in liver decreased linearly and liver phospholipid increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the lipotropic activity of choline may be associated with increasing phospholipid at a high dietary choline level. According to broken-line regression, the choline requirements for weight gain and feed intake were 810 and 823 mg/kg, respectively, but higher requirement should be considered to prevent perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely.

  2. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged.

  3. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  4. Poverty, race, and hospitalization for childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Wissow, L S; Gittelsohn, A M; Szklo, M; Starfield, B; Mussman, M

    1988-01-01

    This study uses Maryland hospital discharge data for the period 1979-82 to determine whether Black children are more likely to be hospitalized for asthma and whether this difference persists after adjustment for poverty. The average annual asthma discharge rate was 1.95/1000 children aged 1-19; 3.75/1000 for Black children, and 1.25/1000 for White. Medicaid-enrolled children of both races had increased discharge rates for asthma compared to those whose care was paid for by other sources: 5.68/1000 vs 2.99/1000 for Blacks, and 3.10/1000 vs 1.11/1000 for Whites. When ecologic analyses were performed, populations of Black and White children had nearly equal asthma discharge rates after adjustment for poverty. The statewide adjusted rate was 2.70/1000 (95% CL = 1.93, 3.78) for Black children and 2.10/1000 (1.66, 2.66) for White children. Among Maryland counties and health planning districts, variation in asthma discharge rates was not associated with the supply of hospital beds or the population to primary-care physician ratio. We conclude that Black children are at increased risk of hospitalization for asthma, but that some or all of this increase is related to poverty rather than to race. PMID:3381951

  5. Imaging Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay…

  6. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  7. White House Conference on Aging (Washington, D.C., November 30-December 3, 1981). Final Report. Volume 1: A National Policy on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This first volume of three of the final report of the 1981 White House Conference on Aging contains the response to the congressional charge to the Conference that the final report propose a national policy on aging not only for the minority who need aid but also for the majority of older adults who live in comfort and security. The report is…

  8. Race Preferences in Children: Insights from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Katz, Rachel C.; Tredoux, Colin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Minority-race children in North America and Europe often show less own-race favoritism than children of the majority (White) race, but the reasons for this asymmetry are unresolved. The present research tested South African children in order to probe the influences of group size, familiarity, and social status on children's race-based social…

  9. White matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Ryan, John; Zgibor, Janice C.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Costacou, Tina; Maynard, John D.; Miller, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although microvascular complications are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), few studies have quantified the severity, risk factors, and implications of cerebral microvascular damage in these patients. As life expectancy in patients with T1DM increases, patients are exposed to age- and disease-related factors that may contribute to cerebral microvascular disease. Methods: Severity and volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts were quantified in 97 middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM (mean age and duration: 50 and 41 years, respectively) and 81 non-T1DM adults (mean age: 48 years), concurrent with cognitive and health-related measures. Results: Compared with non-T1DM participants, patients had more severe WMH (Fazekas scores 2 and 3 compared with Fazekas score 1, p < 0.0001) and slower information processing (digit symbol substitution, number correct: 65.7 ± 10.9 and 54.9 ± 13.6; pegboard, seconds: 66.0 ± 9.9 and 88.5 ± 34.2; both p < 0.0001) independent of age, education, or other factors. WMH were associated with slower information processing; adjusting for WMH attenuated the group differences in processing speed (13% for digit symbol, 11% for pegboard, both p ≤ 0.05). Among patients, prevalent neuropathies and smoking tripled the odds of high WMH burden, independent of age or disease duration. Associations between measures of blood pressure or hyperglycemia and WMH were not significant. Conclusions: Clinically relevant WMH are evident earlier among middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM and are related to the slower information processing frequently observed in T1DM. Brain imaging in patients with T1DM who have cognitive difficulties, especially those with neuropathies, may help uncover cerebral microvascular damage. Longitudinal studies are warranted to fully characterize WMH development, risk factors, and long-term effects on cognition. PMID:25904692

  10. What can we learn from the age- and race/ethnicity- specific rates of inflammatory breast carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Il'yasova, Dora; Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Akushevich, Igor; Akushevich, Lucy; Spector, Neil; Schildkraut, Joellen

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma (IBC), the most aggressive type of breast tumor with unique clinicopathological presentation, is hypothesized to have distinct etiology with a socioeconomic status (SES) component. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program data for 2004-2007, we compare incidence rates of IBC to non-inflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) among racial/ethnic groups with different SES. The analysis includes women 20-84 years of age. To examine evidence for the distinct etiology of IBC, we analyzed age-distribution patterns of IBC and non-inflammatory LABC, using a mathematical carcinogenesis model. Based on the Collaborative Staging Extension codes, 2,942 incident IBC cases (codes 71 and 73) and 5,721 non-inflammatory LABC cases (codes 40-62) were identified during the four-year study period. Age-adjusted rates of IBC among non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women were similar (2.5/100,000 in both groups). Similar rates were also found in non-inflammatory LABC in these two groups (4.8/100,000 and 4.2/100,000, respectively). In African-American women, the IBC (3.91/100,000) and non-inflammatory LABC (8.47/100,000) rates were greater compared with other ethnic/racial sub-groups. However, the ratio of rates of IBC/non-inflammatory LABC was similar among all the racial/ethnic groups, suggesting that African-American women are susceptible to aggressive breast tumors in general but not specifically to IBC. The mathematical model successfully predicted the observed age-specific rates of both examined breast tumors and revealed distinct patterns. IBC rates increased until age 65 and then slightly decreased, whereas non-inflammatory LABC rates steadily increased throughout the entire age interval. The number of critical transition carcinogenesis stages (m-stages) predicted by the model were 6.3 and 8.5 for IBC and non-inflammatory LABC, respectively, supporting different etiologies of these breast tumors.

  11. Sharing Race, the Personal, and the Political from Multiple Social Locations at an HBCU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Mazhani, Tjazha

    2009-01-01

    Aline Gubrium, a young White woman teaching Introduction To Comparative Women's Studies at a historically Black women's college, and Tjazha Mazhani, a young Black woman who has taken Gubrium's course, enact a play--about their multiple positions and perspectives (in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, age, and rank) in the pedagogical process of…

  12. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population.

  13. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C.; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C.; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. PMID:25186429

  14. Effect of ethnicity and race on cognitive and language testing at 18 – 22 months in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andrea Freeman; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Das, Abhik; Lowe, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of race/ethnicity to cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd edition (BSID-III) in extremely preterm toddlers (<28+0 weeks’ estimated gestational age). Study design Extremely preterm toddlers at NICHD Neonatal Research Network Centers evaluated at 18–22 months adjusted age from 3 race/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic-White) were included in this cohort study. Multivariable regression modeling was used to identify race/ethnic differences adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors. Results Children included 369 Whites, 352 Blacks and 144 Hispanic-Whites. Cognitive scores differed between groups in unadjusted analysis (p=<0.001), but not after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors (p=0.13). Language scores differed in adjusted and unadjusted analyses. Whites scored higher than Blacks or Hispanic-Whites, and Blacks scored higher than Hispanic-Whites. Conclusions A combination of medical variables and primary caretaker education accounted for differences in BSID-III cognitive scores between groups. Black and Hispanic-White toddlers had lower language scores than Whites, even after adjustment. Early intervention should be targeted to these identified risk factors. Assessment of early language development among minority groups may be warranted. PMID:22269248

  15. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  16. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism.

  17. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  18. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  19. White LED compared with other light sources: age-dependent photobiological effects and parameters for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rebec, Katja Malovrh; Klanjšek-Gunde, Marta; Bizjak, Grega; Kobav, Matej B

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic science at work and living places should appraise human factors concerning the photobiological effects of lighting. Thorough knowledge on this subject has been gained in the past; however, few attempts have been made to propose suitable evaluation parameters. The blue light hazard and its influence on melatonin secretion in age-dependent observers is considered in this paper and parameters for its evaluation are proposed. New parameters were applied to analyse the effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources and to compare them with the currently applied light sources. The photobiological effects of light sources with the same illuminance but different spectral power distribution were determined for healthy 4-76-year-old observers. The suitability of new parameters is discussed. Correlated colour temperature, the only parameter currently used to assess photobiological effects, is evaluated and compared to new parameters. PMID:26647954

  20. White noise and synchronization shaping the age structure of the human population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, Stanislaw; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Kula, Mateusz

    2007-06-01

    We have modified the standard diploid Penna model of ageing in such a way that instead of threshold of defective loci resulting in genetic death of individuals, the fluctuation of environment and "personal" fluctuations of individuals were introduced. The sum of the both fluctuations describes the health status of the individual. While environmental fluctuations are the same for all individuals in the population, the personal component of fluctuations is composed of fluctuations corresponding to each physiological function (gene, genetic locus). It is rather accepted hypothesis that physiological parameters of any organism fluctuate highly nonlinearly. Transition to the synchronized behaviors could be a very strong diagnostic signal of the life threatening disorder. Thus, in our model, mutations of genes change the chaotic fluctuations representing the function of a wild gene to the synchronized signals generated by mutated genes. Genes are switched on chronologically, like in the standard Penna model. Accumulation of defective genes predicted by Medawar's theory of ageing leads to the replacement of uncorrelated white noise corresponding to the healthy organism by the correlated signals of defective functions. As a result we have got the age distribution of population corresponding to the human demographic data.

  1. Quantitative T2 mapping of white matter: applications for ageing and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Knight, Michael J; McCann, Bryony; Tsivos, Demitra; Dillon, Serena; Coulthard, Elizabeth; Kauppinen, Risto A

    2016-08-01

    In MRI, the coherence lifetime T2 is sensitive to the magnetic environment imposed by tissue microstructure and biochemistry in vivo. Here we explore the possibility that the use of T2 relaxometry may provide information complementary to that provided by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ageing of healthy controls (HC), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). T2 and diffusion MRI metrics were quantified in HC and patients with MCI and mild AD using multi-echo MRI and DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to evaluate quantitative MRI parameters in white matter (WM). A prolonged T2 in WM was associated with AD, and able to distinguish AD from MCI, and AD from HC. Shorter WM T2 was associated with better cognition and younger age in general. In no case was a reduction in T2 associated with poorer cognition. We also applied principal component analysis, showing that WM volume changes independently of  T2, MRI diffusion indices and cognitive performance indices. Our data add to the evidence that age-related and AD-related decline in cognition is in part attributable to WM tissue state, and much less to WM quantity. These observations suggest that WM is involved in AD pathology, and that T2 relaxometry is a potential imaging modality for detecting and characterising WM in cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:27384985

  2. Children with cerebral palsy and periventricular white matter injury: does gestational age affect functional outcome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrienne R; Randall, Melinda; Reid, Susan M; Lee, Katherine J; Imms, Christine; Rodda, Jillian; Eldridge, Beverley; Orsini, Francesca; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in functional profiles and movement disorder patterns in children aged 4-12 years with cerebral palsy (CP) and periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) born >34 weeks gestation compared with those born earlier. Eligible children born between 1999 and 2006 were recruited through the Victorian CP register. Functional profiles were determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF). Movement disorder and topography were classified using the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) classification. 49 children born >34 weeks (65% males, mean age 8 y 9 mo [standard deviation (SD) 2 y 2 mo]) and 60 children born ≤ 34 weeks (62% males, mean age 8 y 2 mo [SD 2 y 2 mo]) were recruited. There was evidence of differences between the groups for the GMFCS (p=0.003), FMS 5, 50 and 500 (p=0.003, 0.002 and 0.012), MACS (p=0.04) and CFCS (p=0.035), with a greater number of children born ≤ 34 weeks more severely impaired compared with children born later. Children with CP and PWMI born >34 weeks gestation had milder limitations in gross motor function, mobility, manual ability and communication compared with those born earlier.

  3. Effects of Long-Term Mindfulness Meditation on Brain's White Matter Microstructure and its Aging

    PubMed Central

    Laneri, Davide; Schuster, Verena; Dietsche, Bruno; Jansen, Andreas; Ott, Ulrich; Sommer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Although research on the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) is increasing, still very little has been done to address its influence on the white matter (WM) of the brain. We hypothesized that the practice of MM might affect the WM microstructure adjacent to five brain regions of interest associated with mindfulness. Diffusion tensor imaging was employed on samples of meditators and non-meditators (n = 64) in order to investigate the effects of MM on group difference and aging. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to estimate the fractional anisotrophy of the WM connected to the thalamus, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The subsequent generalized linear model analysis revealed group differences and a group-by-age interaction in all five selected regions. These data provide preliminary indications that the practice of MM might result in WM connectivity change and might provide evidence on its ability to help diminish age-related WM degeneration in key regions which participate in processes of mindfulness. PMID:26834624

  4. Quantitative T2 mapping of white matter: applications for ageing and cognitive decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Tsivos, Demitra; Dillon, Serena; Coulthard, Elizabeth; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2016-08-01

    In MRI, the coherence lifetime T2 is sensitive to the magnetic environment imposed by tissue microstructure and biochemistry in vivo. Here we explore the possibility that the use of T2 relaxometry may provide information complementary to that provided by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ageing of healthy controls (HC), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). T2 and diffusion MRI metrics were quantified in HC and patients with MCI and mild AD using multi-echo MRI and DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to evaluate quantitative MRI parameters in white matter (WM). A prolonged T2 in WM was associated with AD, and able to distinguish AD from MCI, and AD from HC. Shorter WM T2 was associated with better cognition and younger age in general. In no case was a reduction in T2 associated with poorer cognition. We also applied principal component analysis, showing that WM volume changes independently of  T2, MRI diffusion indices and cognitive performance indices. Our data add to the evidence that age-related and AD-related decline in cognition is in part attributable to WM tissue state, and much less to WM quantity. These observations suggest that WM is involved in AD pathology, and that T2 relaxometry is a potential imaging modality for detecting and characterising WM in cognitive decline and dementia.

  5. Relationship between Age and Peripheral White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Parsa, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Total white blood cells (WBCs) decrease slightly in the elderly. In response to an acute infection, the number of WBCs increases and in sepsis, the increase is very dramatic. There are some reports about the effects of increased number of WBCs as a predisposing factor of bacteremia. An association between neutrophilia and eucopenia and increased mortality rate in the elderly has also been observed. We compared peripheral WBC counts in young and elderly patients with sepsis. Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 130 admitted patients who were divided into two groups based on age, ≥ 65 years (case group) and < 65 years (control group). All patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of sepsis in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran, 2001-2006. Results: Mean WBC counts at admission time were 17061.5 ± 14240.2 /μl in the case group and 13567.7 ± 9888.0 /ml in the control group. There were statistically significant associations between age and history of infection and history of hospitalization during the last month in the case group and also between age and source of infection (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The history of infection and the history of hospitalization during the last month with sepsis are important risk factors in elders. PMID:22174963

  6. Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Johnson, Nathan F; Powell, David K

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging.

  7. Genetics of ageing-related changes in brain white matter integrity - a review.

    PubMed

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C; Mather, Karen A; Wen, Wei; Schofield, Peter R; Kwok, John B J; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2013-01-01

    White matter (WM) plays a vital role in the efficient transfer of information between grey matter regions. Modern imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have enabled the examination of WM microstructural changes across the lifespan, but there is limited knowledge about the role genetics plays in the pattern and aetiology of age-related WM microstructural changes. Family and twin studies suggest that the heritability of WM integrity measures changes over the lifespan, with the common DTI measure, fractional anisotropy (FA), showing moderate to high heritability in adults. However, few heritability studies have been undertaken in older adults. Linkage studies in middle-aged adults suggest that specific regions on chromosomes 3 and 15 may harbour genetic variants for WM integrity. A number of studies have investigated candidate genes, with the APOE ɛ4 polymorphism being the most frequently studied. Although these candidate gene studies suggest associations of particular genes with WM integrity measures in some specific brain regions, the findings remain inconsistent due to differences in their methodologies, samples and the outcome measures used. The APOE ɛ4 allele has been associated with decreased WM integrity (FA) in the cingulum, corpus callosum and parahippocampal gyrus. Only one genome-wide association study of global WM integrity measures in older adults has been published, and reported suggestive single nucleotide polymorphisms await replication. Overall, genetic age-related WM integrity studies are lacking and a concerted effort to examine the genetic determinants of age-related decline in WM integrity is clearly needed to improve our understanding of the ageing brain.

  8. Peer attitudes effects on adolescent substance use: the moderating role of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J; Mennis, Jeremy; Linker, Julie; Bares, Cristina; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2014-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of their close friends' attitudes about substance use, and their own use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Using data from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a multistage area probability sample sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (n = 17,865), we tested the direct and moderating effects of subgroups of race and gender on perceptions of adolescents' close friends on past month substance use. Significant effects were found on peer attitudes influencing substance use for all race and gender subgroups. Close friends' attitudes of indifference were associated with increased substance use and disapproval associated with reduced use, controlling for age, income, family structure, and adolescents' own attitudes of risk of substance use. Significant moderating effects of peer attitudes on cigarette and marijuana use were found for both gender and race moderators. Conditional effects of the moderation by race were also examined for gender subgroups. The moderating effect of race on close friends' attitudes impacting cigarette and marijuana use was stronger in magnitude and significance for females compared to males. Female marijuana and cigarette use was more influenced by close friends' attitudes than males, and whites were more influenced by their close friends than Hispanics and blacks. White females are more susceptible to close friends' attitudes on cigarette use as compared to white males and youth of other races. Implications for socially oriented preventive interventions are discussed.

  9. Profiles of Youth. 1971 White House Conference on Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Youth, Washington, DC.

    This resource book is a compilation of data about youth which was prepared for the participants of the White House Conference on Youth. The tabular data are divided into eleven sections. In the first section, the youth population, ages 14 through 24, is contrasted with the general population with respect to geographic location, race, marital…

  10. Serum androgen concentrations in young men: a longitudinal analysis of associations with age, obesity, and race. The CARDIA male hormone study.

    PubMed

    Gapstur, Susan M; Gann, Peter H; Kopp, Peter; Colangelo, Laura; Longcope, Christopher; Liu, Kiang

    2002-10-01

    Serum testosterone concentration appears to be higher in black men than white men, particularly at younger ages. The higher incidence of prostate cancer in blacks has been attributed, at least in part, to this difference. Other factors associated with androgen levels in men include age and obesity. However, most of the studies of adult androgen levels are limited by their cross-sectional design. We conducted longitudinal analyses (Generalized Estimating Equation) of the associations of age, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference with total and free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations during an 8-year period and compared these hormonal factors between black (n = 483) and white (n = 695) male participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. For men ages 24 years and older at the time of the first hormone measurement, increasing age was associated with a statistically significant decrease in serum total and free testosterone and an increase in SHBG (P < 0.05). BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated with total testosterone and SHBG, but only BMI was inversely associated with free testosterone. After adjustment for age and BMI, total testosterone was higher in blacks (0.21 ng/ml; P = 0.028) than whites, an approximately 3% difference. However, after further adjustment for waist circumference, there was no black-white difference (0.05 ng/ml; P = 0.62). These results indicate that the age-associated decrease in circulating testosterone and increase in SHBG begin during the 3rd decade of life, and that increasing obesity, particularly central obesity, is associated with decreasing total testosterone and SHBG. Results also suggest that the previously observed difference in total testosterone between black and white men could be attributed, for the most part, to racial differences in abdominal obesity.

  11. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  12. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  13. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Ship, J A

    1995-02-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  14. Regional, racial, and gender differences in colorectal cancer screening in middle-aged African-Americans and Whites.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Suzuki, Rie

    2012-12-01

    African-Americans have higher incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer than non-African-Americans. Early detection with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces untimely death because the test can detect abnormalities and precancerous polyps in the colon and rectum. However, African-Americans aged 50 and older continue to have low CRC screening adherence. A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine trends in self-reported CRC screening by geographic region, race, and gender. African-Americans, particularly men, were less likely to have been screened for colon cancer compared to all races and genders in this study. Individuals in the south were more likely to receive CRC screening than other regions. Colon cancer education and interventions are needed among low-adherent groups to promote the benefits of early detection with CRC screening.

  15. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  16. Otitis media in a population of black American and white American infants, 0-2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Casselbrant, M L; Mandel, E M; Kurs-Lasky, M; Rockette, H E; Bluestone, C D

    1995-08-01

    To determine the incidence of otitis media (OM) and the bacteriology of acute otitis media (AOM) in a clinic population of young children in Pittsburgh, 138 black infants and 60 white infants were followed from birth to 2 years of age, examined at monthly intervals and whenever an upper respiratory tract infection (URI) or OM intervened. By 24 months of age the cumulative incidence of episodes of AOM was 43% and 42%, and of episodes of middle-ear effusion (MEE) was 86% and 85% in black and white infants, respectively. The average rate of episodes of AOM was 0.41 and 0.39 and of episodes of MEE was 1.68 and 1.70 in black and white infants, respectively. Tympanocentesis was performed for episodes of AOM and the following organisms were isolated from black and white infants, respectively: Streptococcus pneumoniae 43% and 43% of episodes; Moraxella catarrhalis 24% and 24%; non-typable Haemophilus influenzae 18% and 24%; and Haemophilus influenzae type b 5% and 0%. In both black and white infants first born children had less ear disease. We found no difference in the incidence of otitis media during the first 2 years of life between black and white infants. PMID:7558637

  17. Parent status and generativity within the context of race.

    PubMed

    Newton, Nicky J; Baltys, Izora H

    2014-01-01

    Generativity, or providing for the next generation (Erikson, 1950), is usually associated with midlife, and related to parenting. However, the extent to which grandparenting or non-parenting are associated with generativity, especially within the context of race, is less well known. The current study uses narrative data from the Foley Longitudinal Study of Adulthood (FLSA; N = 150) to examine the relationship between generativity and parent status--parents, grandparents, as well as non-parents--in midlife African Americans and Whites. Responses to questions concerning future plans in Life Story narratives were coded for four subtypes of generative expression: general generativity, productive generativity, generative caring, and generative need to be needed; these subtypes of generativity were associated with parent status in different ways for middle-aged men and women of each race group. The findings highlight the importance of context, providing a glimpse of expressions of generativity at the intersection of parent status and race. PMID:24956924

  18. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  19. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  20. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  1. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  2. Childhood socioeconomic status and race are associated with adult sleep.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne M; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2010-01-01

    Race and current socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with sleep. Parental education, a commonly studied component of childhood SES, is predictive of adult health outcomes; yet, its impact on adult sleep remains unclear. In this study, the sleep of 128 Black and White adults was investigated. Participants with lower childhood SES (assessed via parental education) spent more time in Stage 2 sleep and less time in slow-wave sleep (SWS) than those with higher childhood SES. In addition, women from low childhood SES backgrounds took longer to fall asleep than women from high SES backgrounds. Black participants spent less time in SWS than their White counterparts, and an Age × Race interaction was detected in the prediction of subjective sleep quality. Results were not mediated via current SES or health practices.

  3. Health Care Access and Utilization Among Adults Aged 18-64, by Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Michael E; Ward, Brian W; Adams, Patricia F

    2015-07-01

    In 2014, U.S. adults could buy a private health insurance plan through the Health Insurance Marketplace or state-based exchanges established as part of the Affordable Care Act. Moreover, some states opted to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income adults. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are used to describe recent changes in health insurance coverage and selected measures of health care access and utilization for adults aged 18–64, by race and Hispanic origin.

  4. Measuring Race and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Campus Climate and Intentions to Leave College: An Analysis in Black and White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2013-01-01

    Student perceptions of campus climate environments and intentions to leave college were examined for 391 participants. Differences by race were found for perceptions of the campus climate being cold and uncaring and for expectations to encounter racism in college. Perceptions of campus climate were related to African American students' intent…

  5. The Temperature and Cooling Age of the White Dwarf Companion to the Millisecond Pulsar PSR B1855+09.

    PubMed

    van Kerkwijk MH; Bell; Kaspi; Kulkarni

    2000-02-10

    We report on Keck and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the binary millisecond pulsar PSR B1855+09. We detect its white dwarf companion and measure mF555W=25.90+/-0.12 and mF814W=24.19+/-0.11 (Vega system). From the reddening-corrected color, (mF555W-mF814W&parr0;0=1.06+/-0.21, we infer a temperature Teff=4800+/-800 K. The white dwarf mass is known accurately from measurements of the Shapiro delay of the pulsar signal, MC=0.258+0.028-0.016 M middle dot in circle. Hence, given a cooling model, one can use the measured temperature to determine the cooling age. The main uncertainty in the cooling models for such low-mass white dwarfs is the amount of residual nuclear burning, which is set by the thickness of the hydrogen layer surrounding the helium core. From the properties of similar systems, it has been inferred that helium white dwarfs form with thick hydrogen layers, with mass greater, similar3x10-3 M middle dot in circle, which leads to significant additional heating. This is consistent with expectations from simple evolutionary models of the preceding binary evolution. For PSR B1855+09, though, such models lead to a cooling age of approximately 10 Gyr, which is twice the spin-down age of the pulsar. It could be that the spin-down age were incorrect, which would call the standard vacuum dipole braking model into question. For two other pulsar companions, however, ages well over 10 Gyr are inferred, indicating that the problem may lie with the cooling models. There is no age discrepancy for models in which the white dwarfs are formed with thinner hydrogen layers ( less, similar3x10-4 M middle dot in circle). PMID:10642200

  6. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew H.; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R.; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject’s whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  7. The Role of White Matter Hyperintensities and Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Age-Related Executive Dysfunctioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Vogels, Raymond L. C.; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; Poggesi, Anna; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Various studies support an association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and deficits in executive function in nondemented ageing. Studies examining executive functions and WMH have generally adopted executive function as a phrase including various functions such as flexibility, inhibition, and working memory. However, these functions…

  8. Aging and large-scale functional networks: white matter integrity, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity in the resting state.

    PubMed

    Marstaller, L; Williams, M; Rich, A; Savage, G; Burianová, H

    2015-04-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by neurobiological changes that affect the brain's functional organization and the individual's cognitive abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of global age-related differences in the cortical white and gray matter on neural activity in three key large-scale networks. We used functional-structural covariance network analysis to assess resting state activity in the default mode network (DMN), the fronto-parietal network (FPN), and the salience network (SN) of young and older adults. We further related this functional activity to measures of cortical thickness and volume derived from structural MRI, as well as to measures of white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], and radial diffusivity [RD]) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. First, our results show that, in the direct comparison of resting state activity, young but not older adults reliably engage the SN and FPN in addition to the DMN, suggesting that older adults recruit these networks less consistently. Second, our results demonstrate that age-related decline in white matter integrity and gray matter volume is associated with activity in prefrontal nodes of the SN and FPN, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms. We suggest that age-related differences in gray and white matter properties differentially affect the ability of the brain to engage and coordinate large-scale functional networks that are central to efficient cognitive functioning.

  9. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Health-Related and Medical Care Issues of the Elderly. Eighteen Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 18 papers on health-related and medical care issues of the elderly that were presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. The materials focus on the following topics: physical mobility, death, heart disease, nutrition, injury, senile dementia, post-menopausaul women, gerontological nursing, learning and memory,…

  10. Engaging White College Students in Productive Conversations about Race and Racism: Avoiding Dominant-Culture Projection and Condescension-Judgment Default

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deKoven, Aram

    2011-01-01

    Conversations about racism and White privilege are rarely easy, but are necessary in order to have a more equitable society. Through honest and properly facilitated dialogues, people can work through their prejudices toward other people. In this article the author explores two ways in which White preservice educators inadvertently halt classroom…

  11. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  12. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  13. Serum immunoglobulins G, A and M in White and Black adults on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Shulman, G; Gilich, G C; Andrew, M J

    1975-07-12

    Blood donors and hospital inpatients of the same sex and race group showed similar concentrations of serum immunoglobulins G and M. Serum IgA levels were significantly higher in three of four hospital patient groups as compared with blood donor groups matched for sex and race. Age was shown to be responsible for this difference, since on average the blood donors were younger and analysis of all subjects in age groups showed a progressive rise in IgA with increasing age. Lower IgA levels occurred in women than in men of comparable age and race group. A sex difference with higher IgM levels in women was confirmed. All values in Black adults were much higher than in Whites. It is therefore of importance to consider the ranges of values for any individual's age, sex and race when interpreting results of serum immunoglobulin assay.

  14. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  15. Maternal race, demography and health care disparities impact risk for IVH in preterm neonates

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Lin, Aiping; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Zhang, Heping; O’Shea, T. Michael; Bada, Henrietta S.; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.; Lifton, Richard P.; Bauer, Charles R.; Ment, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether risk factors associated with Grade (Gr) 2–4 intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) differs between African ancestry and white subjects. Study design Inborn, appropriate for gestational age (GA) infants with birth weights (BW) 500–1250 grams and exposed to >1 dose of antenatal steroids were enrolled in 24 neonatal intensive care units. Cases had Gr 2–4 IVH and controls matched for site, race and BW range had 2 normal ultrasounds read centrally. Multivariate logistic regression modeling identified factors associated with IVH across African ancestry and white race. Results Subjects included 579 African ancestry or white race infants with Gr 2–4 IVH and 532 controls. Mothers of African ancestry children were less educated, and white case mothers were more likely to have > 1 prenatal visit and have a multiple gestation (P ≤.01 for all). Increasing GA (P =.01), preeclampsia (P < .001), complete antenatal steroid exposure (P = .02), cesarean delivery (P < .001) and white race (P = .01) were associated with decreased risk for IVH. Chorioamnionitis (P = .01), Apgar< 3 at 5 min (P < .004), surfactant (P < .001) and high frequency ventilation (P < .001) were associated with increased risk for IVH. Among African ancestry infants, having >1 prenatal visit was associated with decreased risk (P = .02). Among white infants, multiple gestation was associated with increased risk (P < .001) and higher maternal education with decreased IVH risk (P < .05). Conclusion Risk for IVH differs between African ancestry and white infants and may be attributable to both race and health care disparities. PMID:24589078

  16. Developmental craniofacial anthropometry: Assessment of Race effects

    PubMed Central

    Durtschi, Reid B.; Chung, Dongjun; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.; Vorperian, Houri K.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in craniofacial anatomy among racial groups have been documented in a variety of structures but the oral and maxillofacial regions have been shown to be a particularly defining region of variability between different racial/ethnic groups. Such comparisons are informative, but they neither address developmental changes of the craniofacial anatomy, nor do they assess or take into account the natural variability within individual races that may account for similar reported, across-group variations. The purpose of this report was to compare – using medical imaging studies – the growth trend of select race sensitive craniofacial variables in the oral and pharyngeal regions when all races: White, Asian, Black, and Hispanic (AR) are included versus only a single race category: White (WR). Race effect was tested by comparing sex specific growth fits (4th degree polynomial model) for AR versus WR data. Findings indicate that the inclusion of all races versus a single race did not significantly alter the growth model fits. Thus, the inclusion of all races permits the advancement of general growth models; however, methodologically it is best to treat the race variable as a covariate in all future analysis to test for both potential all race effects or individual race effects, on general growth models. PMID:19753647

  17. Age-Related Modifications of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters and White Matter Hyperintensities as Inter-Dependent Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Amandine; Periot, Olivier; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Hiba, Bassem; Bordessoules, Martine; Chanraud, Sandra; Pérès, Karine; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Microstructural changes of White Matter (WM) associated with aging have been widely described through Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) parameters. In parallel, White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH) as observed on a T2-weighted MRI are extremely common in older individuals. However, few studies have investigated both phenomena conjointly. The present study investigates aging effects on DTI parameters in absence and in presence of WMH. Diffusion maps were constructed based on 21 directions DTI scans of young adults (n = 19, mean age = 33 SD = 7.4) and two age-matched groups of older adults, one presenting low-level-WMH (n = 20, mean age = 78, SD = 3.2) and one presenting high-level-WMH (n = 20, mean age = 79, SD = 5.4). Older subjects with low-level-WMH presented modifications of DTI parameters in comparison to younger subjects, fitting with the DTI pattern classically described in aging, i.e., Fractional Anisotropy (FA) decrease/Radial Diffusivity (RD) increase. Furthermore, older subjects with high-level-WMH showed higher DTI modifications in Normal Appearing White Matter (NAWM) in comparison to those with low-level-WMH. Finally, in older subjects with high-level-WMH, FA, and RD values of NAWM were associated with to WMH burden. Therefore, our findings suggest that DTI modifications and the presence of WMH would be two inter-dependent processes but occurring within different temporal windows. DTI changes would reflect the early phase of white matter changes and WMH would appear as a consequence of those changes. PMID:26834625

  18. Age at onset and seizure frequency affect white matter diffusion coefficient in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Szilvia A; Horváth, Réka; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Barsi, Péter; John, Flóra; Horváth, Andrea; Kovács, Norbert; Bogner, Péter; Ábrahám, Hajnalka; Bóné, Beáta; Gyimesi, Csilla; Dóczi, Tamás; Janszky, József

    2016-08-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), structural abnormalities are present not only in the hippocampus but also in the white matter with ipsilateral predominance. Although the timing of epilepsy onset is commonly associated with clinical and semiological dissimilarities, limited data exist regarding white matter diffusion changes with respect to age at epilepsy onset. The aim of this study was to investigate diffusion changes in the white matter of patients with unilateral MTLE-HS with respect to clinical parameters and to compare them with an age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were derived using monoexponential approaches from 22 (11 early and 11 late age at onset) patients with unilateral MTLE-HS and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects after acquiring diffusion-weighted images on a 3T MRI system. Data were analyzed using two-tailed t-tests and multiple linear regression models. In the group with early onset MTLE-HS, ADC was significantly elevated in the ipsilateral hemispheric (p=0.04) and temporal lobe white matter (p=0.01) compared with that in controls. These differences were not detectable in late onset MTLE-HS patients. Apparent diffusion coefficient of the group with early onset MTLE-HS was negatively related to age at epilepsy onset in the ipsilateral hemispheric white matter (p=0.03) and the uncinate fasciculus (p=0.03), while in patients with late onset MTLE-HS, ADC was no longer dependent on age at epilepsy onset itself but rather on the seizure frequency in the ipsilateral uncinate fasciculus (p=0.03). Such diffusivity pattern has been associated with chronic white matter degeneration, reflecting myelin loss and higher extracellular volume which are more pronounced in the frontotemporal regions and also depend on clinical features. In the group with early onset MTLE-HS, the timing of epilepsy seems to be the major cause of white matter abnormalities while in late

  19. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions – normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  20. Elder Mistreatment: Priorities for Consideration by the White House Conference on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Connolly, Marie-Therese; Breckman, Risa; Spreng, Nathan; Lachs, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is recognized internationally as a prevalent and growing problem, meriting the attention of policymakers, practitioners, and the general public. Studies have demonstrated that elder mistreatment is sufficiently widespread to be a major public health concern and that it leads to a range of negative physical, psychological, and financial outcomes. This article provides an overview of key issues related to the prevention and treatment of elder mistreatment, focusing on initiatives that can be addressed by the White House Conference on Aging. We review research on the extent of mistreatment and its consequences. We then propose 3 challenges in preventing and treating elder mistreatment that relate to improving research knowledge, creating a comprehensive service system, and developing effective policy. Under each challenge, examples are provided of promising initiatives that can be taken to eliminate mistreatment. To inform the recommendations, we employed recent data from the Elder Justice Roadmap Project, in which 750 stakeholders in the field of elder mistreatment were surveyed regarding research and policy priorities. PMID:26035609

  1. Fatness, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged white men.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Gary; Kearney, Edward; Sherwood, Roy; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that traditional and novel cardiometabolic risk factors would be significantly different in groups of men of different fatness and fitness. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, fibrinogen, and insulin resistance were assessed in 183 nonsmoking white men aged 35 to 53 years, including 62 who were slim and fit (waist girth ≤90 cm and maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max] above average), 24 who were slim and unfit (waist girth ≤90 cm and VO(2)max average or below), 39 who were fat and fit (waist girth ≥100 cm and VO(2)max above average), and 19 who were fat and unfit (waist girth ≥100 cm and VO(2)max average or below). Seventy-six percent gave blood on 2 occasions, and the average of 1 or 2 blood tests was used in statistical tests. Waist girth (centimeters) and fitness (milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of fat-free mass) were associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, and insulin resistance after adjustment for age, saturated fat intake, and total energy intake. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin resistance were significantly different in men who were fat and fit and those who were fat and unfit. These data suggest that differences in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, liver function, and insulin resistance may explain why the risks of chronic disease are lower in men who are fat and fit than those who are fat and unfit. PMID:21820133

  2. White Matter Integrity Supports BOLD Signal Variability and Cognitive Performance in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing–moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)—to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network “hubs” that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity. PMID:25853882

  3. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  4. White Matter Integrity and Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability in Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jonathan D.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.; Head, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the RT distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging. PMID:22172547

  5. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26955787

  7. Examination of ancestral informative markers and self-reported race with tumor characteristics of breast cancer among black and white women

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Kahsai, Orsalem; Chen, Christina C.; McDavid, Andrew; Doody, David R.; Chen, Chu; Ornelas, India; Lowe, Kimberly; Bernstein, Leslie; Weiss, Linda; McDonald, Jill A.; Simon, Michael S.; Strom, Brian; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Burkman, Ronald; Spirtas, Robert; Liff, Jonathan M.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Background African American (AA) women have a higher mortality from breast cancer (BC) compared to European American (EA) women. This may be due to the higher proportion of AA women with tumors that are diagnosed at more advanced stages and are characterized as being estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/ progesterone receptor negative (PR-). Our study sought to determine whether self-reported race and percent African ancestry were associated with BC tumor characteristics. Methods In a multi-center, population-based case-control study of BC, we determined percent African ancestry using ancestry informative markers (AIM) among women self-reporting race as AA or Black. Results BC tumor characteristics were associated with self-reported race (including a 30% reduction in ER+/PR+ tumors [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-0.9] and a 1.5-fold increased risk of high grade [95% CI: 1.2-1.9] for AA women compared to EA women). AIMs among AA women were not associated with BC tumor characteristics (AA women with ≥ 95% versus < 80% African ancestry, odds ratio [OR]=1.0 for ER+/PR+ [95% CI: 0.6-1.8] and OR=0.9 for high-grade tumors [95% CI: 0.6-1.4]). Similar findings were observed for BC stage. Conclusion While BC subtypes were associated with self-reported race, BC subtypes were not associated with percent African ancestry. Impact These study results suggest that subtle differences in percent African ancestry are less important than the overall presence of African ancestry in relation to BC tumor characteristics. PMID:22648732

  8. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2016-08-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighborhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are "natural" clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main sequence companions. Since the progenitors of white dwarfs and the main sequence stars were born at the same time, WDMS binaries provide a unique opportunity to observationally constrain in a robust way the properties of the AMR. In this work we present the AMR derived from analysing a pilot sample of 23 WDMS binaries and provide clear observational evidence for the lack of correlation between age and metallicity at young and intermediate ages (0-7 Gyrs).

  9. Age-related changes in the topological organization of the white matter structural connectome across the human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tengda; Cao, Miao; Niu, Haijing; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Evans, Alan; He, Yong; Dong, Qi; Shu, Ni

    2015-10-01

    Lifespan is a dynamic process with remarkable changes in brain structure and function. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated age-related microstructural changes in specific white matter tracts during development and aging. However, the age-related alterations in the topological architecture of the white matter structural connectome across the human lifespan remain largely unknown. Here, a cohort of 113 healthy individuals (ages 9-85) with both diffusion and structural MRI acquisitions were examined. For each participant, the high-resolution white matter structural networks were constructed by deterministic fiber tractography among 1024 parcellation units and were quantified with graph theoretical analyses. The global network properties, including network strength, cost, topological efficiency, and robustness, followed an inverted U-shaped trajectory with a peak age around the third decade. The brain areas with the most significantly nonlinear changes were located in the prefrontal and temporal cortices. Different brain regions exhibited heterogeneous trajectories: the posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices displayed prolonged maturation/degeneration compared with the prefrontal cortices. Rich-club organization was evident across the lifespan, whereas hub integration decreased linearly with age, especially accompanied by the loss of frontal hubs and their connections. Additionally, age-related changes in structural connections were predominantly located within and between the prefrontal and temporal modules. Finally, based on the graph metrics of structural connectome, accurate predictions of individual age were obtained (r = 0.77). Together, the data indicated a dynamic topological organization of the brain structural connectome across human lifespan, which may provide possible structural substrates underlying functional and cognitive changes with age.

  10. Race and Gender Differences in Correlates of Death Anxiety Among Elderly in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Death anxiety among elderly is a major public health concern. Few studies, however, have been conducted on factors associated with death anxiety. Objectives This study investigated race and gender differences in psychosocial correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the US. Materials and Methods With a cross-sectional design, we used data of the Religion, Aging, and Health survey. 1,074 White and Black elderly (age > 65 years, 615 women, 359 men) were entered to this study. Demographic (age, gender, and race), socio-economic (family income, perceived financial difficulty), health (number of chronic medical conditions and self-rated health), and psychological (perceived control over life) factors were measured. Death anxiety was measured using four items. We used linear regressions to determine factors associated with death anxiety based on race and gender. Results Although race and gender did not have main effects on death anxiety (P > 0.05), they altered correlates of death anxiety. Age was a predictor of death anxiety among women (B = 0.165, P = 0.002) but not men (B = 0.082, P = 0.196). Self-rated health was associated with death anxiety among Whites (B = - 0.120, P = 0.050) but not Blacks (B = - 0.077, P = 0.268). Total family income was only associated with death anxiety among White men. Conclusions Demographic, socio-economic, health, and psychological determinants of death anxiety in United States differ based on race, gender, and their intersection. Findings advocate that geriatric psychiatrists and gerontologists who wish to reduce death anxiety among elderly people may need to tailor their interventions to race and gender. PMID:27803717

  11. Race Effects on Conditioned Pain Modulation in Youth.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Walker, Lynn; Bruehl, Stephen; Hellman, Natalie; Sherman, Amanda L; Rao, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Race and ethnicity shape the experience of pain in adults. African Americans typically exhibit greater pain intensity and evoked pain responsiveness than non-Hispanic whites. However, it remains unclear whether there are racial differences in conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and if these are present in youth. CPM refers to a reduction in perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus and may be especially relevant in determining risk for chronic pain. The present study assessed CPM to evoked thermal pain in 78 healthy youth (ages 10-17 years), 51% of whom were African American and 49% of whom were non-Hispanic white. African American youth reported lower mean conditioning pain ratings than non-Hispanic white youth, controlling for mean preconditioning pain ratings, which is consistent with stronger CPM. Multilevel models demonstrated stronger CPM effects in African American than non-Hispanic white youth, as evident in more rapid within-person decreases in pain ratings during the conditioning phase. These findings suggest that diminished CPM likely does not account for the enhanced responsiveness to evoked thermal pain observed in African American youth. These results may have implications for understanding racial differences in chronic pain experienced in adulthood. Perspective: This study evaluated conditioned pain modulation to evoked thermal pain in African American and non-Hispanic white youth. Findings could have implications for the development of personalized chronic pain treatment strategies that are informed by race and ethnicity.

  12. The Impact of Drivers' Race, Gender, and Age during Traffic Stops: Assessing Interaction Terms and the Social Conditioning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Rob; Engel, Robin S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that minority drivers receive disparate traffic stop outcomes compared with similarly situated White drivers. This research, however, is often not grounded within a theoretical framework and fails to examine specific combinations of driver demographics. This study addresses those shortcomings by examining research…

  13. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  14. A tale of 10 plutons - Revisited: Age of granitic rocks in the White Mountains, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Conrad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis and conventional K-Ar age determinations on plutonic rocks of the White Mountains define two stages of magmatic emplacement: Late Cretaceous, between ca. 90 Ma and 75 Ma, and Middle-Late Jurassic, between ca. 180 and 140 Ma. The Jurassic stage can be divided into two substages, 180-165 Ma and 150-140 Ma. Thermal effects of the younger plutons on the older granitoids partially to completely reset ages, making it difficult to determine the age of emplacement and cooling of several of the plutons even by 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analyses. New data together with published ages and regional geochronological synthesis of the Sierra Nevada batholith indicate that regions within the batholith have coherent periods or episodes of magmatic activity. In the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada directly to the west there was little or no activity in Early Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time; magmatism took place during relatively short intervals of 15 m.y. or less in the Middle and Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous periods. The new K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses of granitoids from the White Mountains help, but do not completely clarify the complex history of emplacement, cooling, and reheating of the batholith.

  15. Prostate cancer treatment in black and white men: the need to consider both stage at diagnosis and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed Central

    Polednak, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the population-based Connecticut Tumor Registry, this study examined stage-specific treatment for prostate cancers diagnosed from 1988 through 1992 by age at diagnosis, poverty rate of census tract of residence, and race (black versus white). For local or regional stage prostate cancers, the prevalence of radical prostatectomy was less frequent among blacks than whites within three age groups, but race was not a statistically significant independent predictor when age and poverty rate were included in logistic regression models. For distant stage cancers, endocrine surgery was more prevalent in blacks than whites but race was not a statistically significant independent predictor in logistic regression models. Thus, both stage at diagnosis and socioeconomic status should be considered in studies of racial differences in prostate cancer treatment. PMID:9510624

  16. Single-cell network profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors reveals age- and race-associated differences in immune signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Putta, Santosh; Evensen, Erik; Ptacek, Jason; Cordeiro, James; Wang, Ena; Pos, Zoltan; Hawtin, Rachael E; Marincola, Francesco M; Cesano, Alessandra

    2012-02-15

    A greater understanding of the function of the human immune system at the single-cell level in healthy individuals is critical for discerning aberrant cellular behavior that occurs in settings such as autoimmunity, immunosenescence, and cancer. To achieve this goal, a systems-level approach capable of capturing the response of the interdependent immune cell types to external stimuli is required. In this study, an extensive characterization of signaling responses in multiple immune cell subpopulations within PBMCs from a cohort of 60 healthy donors was performed using single-cell network profiling (SCNP). SCNP is a multiparametric flow cytometry-based approach that enables the simultaneous measurement of basal and evoked signaling in multiple cell subsets within heterogeneous populations. In addition to establishing the interindividual degree of variation within a broad panel of immune signaling responses, the possible association of any observed variation with demographic variables including age and race was investigated. Using half of the donors as a training set, multiple age- and race-associated variations in signaling responses in discrete cell subsets were identified, and several were subsequently confirmed in the remaining samples (test set). Such associations may provide insight into age-related immune alterations associated with high infection rates and diminished protection following vaccination and into the basis for ethnic differences in autoimmune disease incidence and treatment response. SCNP allowed for the generation of a functional map of healthy immune cell signaling responses that can provide clinically relevant information regarding both the mechanisms underlying immune pathological conditions and the selection and effect of therapeutics.

  17. Race, Social Class, and IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr-Salapatek, Sandra

    1971-01-01

    Environmental influences were important determiners of aptitude and ability as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills in a twin study using black and white students. There were insufficient data to determine the relative contribution of environmental and genetic variance between races. (AL)

  18. Effect of short ageing on lees on the mannoprotein content, aromatic profile, and sensorial character of white wines.

    PubMed

    Juega, Marta; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Martinez-Rodriguez, Adolfo J

    2015-02-01

    In Albariño white wines, aging of wines on lees is a technique not used or only used empirically by some producers to obtain a distinctive character in the final wine. This study analyzes the influence of a short aging on lees on the chemical and sensorial parameters of this young white wine. Albariño grape must was inoculated with a locally selected yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1) and the effect of a short aging on lees was studied during different times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 d). Mannoprotein content and the aromatic profile were determined and a sensorial analysis of the wines was conducted. Results showed that aging time was correlated with the concentration of some key aroma compounds and mannoproteins in Albariño wines. The best sensorial character was obtained in wines aged 20 d on lees. Further aging times decreased the sensorial quality of Albariño wine and modified its volatile profile and mannoprotein concentration.

  19. Variation in Response to a Home Intervention to Support Daily Function by Age, Race, Sex, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Dennis, Marie P.; Hauck, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional difficulty is associated with increased frailty and poor life quality, with the oldest old, women, African Americans and less educated at greatest risk of disablement. This study examines whether these at-risk groups benefit differentially from an in-home intervention previously found to effectively reduce functional difficulties. Methods 319 community-living functionally vulnerable adults 70 years or older were randomized to usual care or an intervention involving occupational and physical therapy home instruction in problem-solving, device use, energy conservation, safety, fall recovery, balance and muscle strengthening instruction. Outcome measures at six and 12 months included difficulty level in ambulation, instrumental (IADLs) and activities of daily living (ADLs), self-efficacy, and fear of falling. Results At six-months, for ADLs, individuals ≥80 years (p=.022), women (p=.036), and less educated (p=.028) intervention participants improved compared to their control group counterparts. For mobility, women (p=.048) and the oldest (p=.001) intervention participants improved relative to their counterparts. For self-efficacy, women (p=.036) and less educated (p=.016) intervention participants benefited more. For fear of falling, those less educated improved more (p=.001). A similar pattern was found at 12 months. For IADLs, Whites improved more than non-Whites at 12 months. Conclusions Treatment benefits varied by specific participant characteristics, with individuals at greatest disability riskbeing most responsive to the intervention. Both White and non-White participants benefited similarly except in IADL functioning. Future research should control for participant characteristics, identify underlying mechanisms for variation in treatment effects, and tailor treatment to patient characteristics and desired outcomes. PMID:18693230

  20. Another cost of being a young black male: Race, weaponry, and lethal outcomes in assaults.

    PubMed

    Felson, Richard B; Painter-Davis, Noah

    2012-09-01

    We examine the effect of the race, age, and gender of victims of assault on the offenders' use of weapons and lethal intent. Evidence from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) suggests that offenders are particularly likely to use guns against young black men-a three-way interaction - and to kill black males and young black adults. Black offenders respond more strongly to the victim's race than do white offenders. As a result of these effects, a violent incident between two young black men is about six times more likely to involve a gun than a violent incident between two young white men. We suggest that adversary effects, i.e., an offender's tactical response to the threat posed by adversaries, help explain why violence in black communities tends to be much more serious than violence in white communities.

  1. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities.

  2. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities. PMID:22228388

  3. Age related differences in reaction time components and diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiqin; Bender, Andrew R; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the white matter (WM) is viewed as the neural substrate of age differences in speed of information processing (reaction time, RT). However, the relationship between WM and RT components is rarely examined in healthy aging. We assessed the relationship between RT components derived from the Ratcliff diffusion model and micro-structural properties of normal-appearing WM (NAWM) in 90 healthy adults (age 18-82 years). We replicated all major extant findings pertaining to age differences in RT components and WM: lower drift rate, greater response conservativeness, longer non-decision time, lower fractional anisotropy (FA), greater mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were associated with advanced age. Age differences in anterior regions of the cerebral WM exceeded those in posterior regions. However, the only relationship between RT components and WM was the positive association between DR in the body of the corpus callosum and non-decision time. Thus, in healthy adults, age differences in NAWM diffusion properties are not a major contributor to age differences in RT components. Longitudinal studies with more precise and specific estimates of regional myelin content and evaluation of the contribution of age-related vascular risk factors are necessary to understand cerebral substrates of age-related cognitive slowing.

  4. Black, White, and Rainbow [of Desire]: The Colour of Race-Talk of Pre-Service World Language Educators in Boalian Theatre Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Jennifer; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how Boalian Theatre of the Oppressed exercises helped instructors and pre-service teachers navigate the consequences of ventriloquized, racialized discourses in a pre-service world language teacher education classroom. Applying a critical and performative approach, we analyse the mostly White student-actors' varying…

  5. Race, Charter Schools, and Conscious Capitalism: On the Spatial Politics of Whiteness as Property (and the Unconscionable Assault on Black New Orleans)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Kristen L. Buras examines educational policy formation in New Orleans and the racial, economic, and spatial dynamics shaping the city's reconstruction since 2005. More specifically, Buras draws on the critical theories of whiteness as property, accumulation by dispossession, and urban space economy to describe the strategic…

  6. The Threat of Captivity: Hollywood and the Sexualization of Race Relations in "The Girls of the White Orchid" and "The Bitter Tea of General Yen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the captivity tale as an outgrowth of two fundamental contradictions within patriarchal ideology. Considers American popular thought in relation to this tale. Relates xenophobia in the 1980s to the sexual and racial politics of "The Girls of the White Orchid." Discusses the racial, sexual, and textual ambivalence in "The Bitter Tea of…

  7. Variation in child body mass index patterns by race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status in the United States and England.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Melissa L; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines body mass index (BMI) trajectories among children from different race/ethnic and maternal nativity backgrounds in the United States and England from early- to middle-childhood. This study is the first to examine race/ethnic and maternal nativity differences in BMI trajectories in both countries. We use two longitudinal birth cohort studies-The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 3,285) for the United States and the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 6,700) for England to estimate trajectories in child BMI by race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status using multilevel growth models. In the United States our sample includes white, black, and Hispanic children; in England the sample includes white, black, and Asian children. We find significant race/ethnic differences in the initial BMI and BMI trajectories of children in both countries, with all non-white groups having significantly steeper BMI growth trajectories than whites. Nativity differences in BMI trajectories vary by race/ethnic group and are only statistically significantly higher for children of foreign-born blacks in England. Disparities in BMI trajectories are pervasive in the United States and England, despite lower overall BMI among English children. Future studies should consider both race/ethnicity and maternal nativity status subgroups when examining disparities in BMI in the United States and England. Differences in BMI are apparent in early childhood, which suggests that interventions targeting pre-school age children may be most effective at stemming childhood disparities in BMI.

  8. Individualizing Colonoscopy Screening by Gender and Race

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Boer, Rob; Wilschut, Janneke; Winawer, Sidney J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increasing discussion whether colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines should be individualized by gender and race. OBJECTIVES To determine individualized colonoscopic screening guidelines by gender and race for the average-risk population and to compare the cost-effectiveness of this approach to that of uniform guidelines for all. DESIGN We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate life-expectancy and lifetime CRC screening and treatment costs in a US cohort of black and white men and women at average risk for CRC. We compared the base case strategy of no screening and 3 competing colonoscopy strategies: (1) the currently recommended “uniform 10-yearly colonoscopy from age 50”, (2) with a shorter interval “uniform 8- yearly colonoscopy from age 51”, and (3) “individualized screening according to gender and race”. RESULTS The base case strategy of no screening was the least expensive, yet least effective. The uniform 10-yearly colonoscopy strategy was dominated. The uniform 8- yearly colonoscopy and individualized strategies both increased life-expectancy by 0.0433-0.0435 years per individual at a cost of $15,565 per life-year gained. In the individualized strategy, African Americans began screening 6 years earlier with a 1 year shorter interval compared to whites. The individualized policies were essentially the same for men and women, because the higher CRC risk in men is offset by their shorter life-expectancy. The results were robust for changes in model assumptions. CONCLUSIONS The improvements in costs and effects of individualizing on a population level were only marginal. Individualized guidelines, however, could contribute to decreasing disparities between African Americans and whites. The acceptability and feasibility of individualized guidelines should therefore be explored. PMID:19467539

  9. Pay Equity: An Issue of Race, Ethnicity, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    While the continuing wage gap between men and women, Whites and non-Whites has been well documented, the purpose of this study was to examine the role which discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity as well as sex plays in the setting of wages. Whether pay equity is an effective means of remedying race-based wage discrimination was also…

  10. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  11. Constructions of Race among Religiously Conservative College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The "Whites as victims" motif in conversations about race has been well documented in recent decades. When discussing affirmative action hiring policies, a common belief expressed by Whites is that people of color have been permitted to progress unfairly at the expense of harder working Whites. Whites using this discourse see themselves as victims…

  12. Performing Race in Four Culturally Diverse Fourth Grade Classrooms: Silence, Race Talk, and the Negotiation of Social Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Rebecca; Skinner, Debra G.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses how preadolescents produce and perform race through an ethnographic study of 8- to 11-year-old students in four fourth grade classrooms in the southeastern United States. Although Asian, Latino, and white students tended to avoid explicit talk of race, many white students constructed black students as disruptive…

  13. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J.; Ndung’u, Michael N.; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J. L.; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J.; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Allan, Louise M.; Oakley, Arthur E.; O’Brien, John T.; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  14. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  15. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  16. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension.

  17. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. PMID:23726211

  18. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  19. The development of race-based perceptual categorization: skin color dominates early category judgments.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Yarrow; Stepanova, Elena V; Dotsch, Ron; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Prior research on the development of race-based categorization has concluded that children understand the perceptual basis of race categories from as early as age 4 (e.g. Aboud, 1988). However, such work has rarely separated the influence of skin color from other physiognomic features considered by adults to be diagnostic of race categories. In two studies focusing on Black-White race categorization judgments in children between the ages of 4 and 9, as well as in adults, we find that categorization decisions in early childhood are determined almost entirely by attention to skin color, with attention to other physiognomic features exerting only a small influence on judgments as late as middle childhood. We further find that when skin color cues are largely eliminated from the stimuli, adults readily shift almost entirely to focus on other physiognomic features. However, 6- and 8-year-old children show only a limited ability to shift attention to facial physiognomy and so perform poorly on the task. These results demonstrate that attention to 'race' in younger children is better conceptualized as attention to skin color, inviting a reinterpretation of past work focusing on children's race-related cognition.

  20. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility.

  1. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: Differences by age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  2. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  3. White Institutional Presence: The Impact of Whiteness on Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusa, Diane Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, Diane Gusa highlights the salience of race by scrutinizing the culture of Whiteness within predominately White institutions of higher education. Using existing research in higher education retention literature, Gusa examines embedded White cultural ideology in the cultural practices, traditions, and perceptions of…

  4. Sex, Race, and Reactions to Injustice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persico, Barbara; And Others

    The present study examines the reactions to injustice between individuals as a function of the race and sex of the subject. Two contrasting hypotheses derived from research on altruism and personality differences indicate that white females/black males and white males/black females differ in their response to inequity. The study supports the…

  5. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from critical…

  6. Racing Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  7. Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Jenee

    2009-01-01

    In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…

  8. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  9. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  10. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period.

  11. Obesity, regional fat distribution, and syndrome X in obese black versus white adolescents: race differential in diabetogenic and atherogenic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bacha, Fida; Saad, Rola; Gungor, Neslihan; Janosky, Janine; Arslanian, Silva A

    2003-06-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children is increasing with the increasing prevalence of obesity, particularly in African-American children. We hypothesized that African-American obese adolescents are more insulin resistant than their white peers, but have lower insulin secretion, thus increasing their risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated insulin sensitivity and secretion, visceral adiposity (VAT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in black obese adolescents (BOA) vs. white obese adolescents (WOA). Twenty-four BOA and 26 WOA underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity, a hyperglycemic clamp to determine insulin secretion, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition and computed tomography scan at L4-L5 to measure VAT and sc abdominal adipose tissue. Fasting lipid and automated blood pressure measurements were obtained. The WOA and BOA groups were divided into low VAT and high VAT groups. BOA compared with WOA of similar body mass index and percent body fat had less visceral adiposity, lower hepatic glucose production, and lower lipid levels. Visceral adiposity was associated with lower insulin sensitivity in both groups [low vs. high VAT; BOA, 2.9 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 micromol/kg x min per pmol/liter (P = 0.016); WOA, 2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 (P = 0.032)]. However, this was compensated by higher insulin secretion in whites (low VAT, 934.8 +/- 121.8; high VAT, 1590.6 +/- 232.8 pmol/liter; P = 0.037), but not in blacks (low VAT, 1398.9 +/- 214.0; high VAT, 1423.7 +/- 108.7 pmol/liter). Glucose disposition index (insulin sensitivity x first phase insulin) was lower in high VAT vs. low VAT BOA, but not in WOA. In each racial group, high VAT groups had elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but dyslipidemia was worse in WOA with high VAT. In conclusion, a given level of body mass index confers different metabolic risks for WOA vs. BOA. Although differences

  12. TVA–based assessment of attentional capacities–associations with age and indices of brain white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Espeseth, Thomas; Vangkilde, Signe A.; Petersen, Anders; Dyrholm, Mads; Westlye, Lars T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the primary aims were to characterize the effects of age on basic components of visual attention derived from assessments based on a theory of visual attention (TVA) in 325 healthy volunteers covering the adult lifespan (19–81 years). Furthermore, we aimed to investigate how age-related differences on TVA parameters are associated with white matter (WM) microstructure as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Finally, we explored how TVA parameter estimates were associated with complex, or multicomponent indices of processing speed (Digit-symbol substitution, DSS) and fluid intelligence (gF). The results indicated that the TVA parameters for visual short-term memory capacity, K, and for attentional selectivity, α, were most strongly associated with age before the age of 50. However, in this age range, it was the parameter for processing speed, C, that was most clearly associated with DTI indices, in this case fractional anisotropy (FA), particularly in the genu and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, differences in the C parameter partially mediated differences in DSS within this age range. After the age of 50, the TVA parameter for the perceptual threshold, t0, as well as K, were most strongly related to participant age. Both parameters, but t0 more strongly so than K, were associated WM diffusivity, particularly in projection fibers such as the internal capsule, the sagittal stratum, and the corona radiata. Within this age range, t0 partially mediated age-related differences in gF. The results are consistent with, and provide novel empirical support for the neuroanatomical localization of TVA computations as outlined in the neuronal interpretation of TVA (NTVA). Furthermore, the results indicate that to understand the biological sources of age-related changes in processing speed and fluid cognition, it may be useful to employ methods that allow for computational fractionation of these multicomponent measures. PMID:25374549

  13. Race-specific WBC and neutrophil count reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Lim, E-M; Cembrowski, George; Cembrowski, M; Clarke, G

    2010-12-01

    Healthy African Americans are known to have reduced white blood cell counts (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) compared with European Americans, with little agreement about the levels in reference intervals. The objective is to establish race-specific reference intervals for WBC and ANC using US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of 2000-2003. A total of 14,184 civilian noninstitutionalized US citizens participated in NHANES 2000-2003 had complete blood count, red cell distribution width, platelet count and automated WBC differential determined on a Coulter MAXM. The exclusion criteria were used: ferritin <12 ng/ml, pregnancy, body mass index >30, diastolic blood pressure >100 mm Hg, creatinine >2.5 mg/dl, glucose >126 mg/dl. Data were separated into six sex/race categories: female non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHBF)], Mexican American; male non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHBM), Mexican American and two age groupings (12-18 and >18 years). NHB 2.5-97.5 percentile WBC and (ANC) limits follow (units: × 10⁹ /l): NHBM, ages 12-18: 3.2-9.3 (1.0-6.2); NHBF, ages 12-18: 3.7-10.1 (1.2-6.6); adult NHBM: 3.1-9.9 (1.3-6.6); adult NHBF: 3.4-11 (1.4-7.5). NHB limits are significantly lower than the NHW and MA limits. In most US healthcare organizations, insufficient agreement exists because of large differences in reference intervals for different ethnicities. In areas with peoples of African descent (>10--20%), race-specific WBC and ANC reference intervals must be provided for proper diagnosis and clinical research.

  14. Age-Related Differences in White Matter Integrity in Healthy Human Brain: Evidence from Structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Rishu; Rallabandi, V.P. Subramanyam; Roy, Prasun K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to investigate the relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) diffusivity indices and macrostructural WM volume (WMV) among healthy individuals (20–85 years). Whole-brain diffusion measures were calculated from diffusion tensor imaging using FMRIB software library while WMV was estimated through voxel-based morphometry, and voxel-based analysis was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics. Our results revealed that mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity had shown good correlation with WMV but not for fractional anisotropy (FA). Voxel-wise tract-based spatial statistics analysis for FA showed a significant decrease in four regions for middle-aged group compared to young-aged group, in 22 regions for old-aged group compared to middle-aged group, and in 26 regions for old-aged group compared to young-aged group (P < 0.05). We found significantly lower WMV, FA, and mean diffusivity values in females than males and inverted-U trend for FA in males. We conclude differential age- and gender-related changes for structural WMV and WM diffusion indices. PMID:27279747

  15. Comparison of information on death certificates and matching 1960 census records: age, marital status, race, nativity and country of origin.

    PubMed

    Hambright, T Z

    1969-11-01

    A sample of death certificates matched with 1960 Census records permitted comparison of response data for items asked on both records. Estimates of bias in death rates which are based on information from the two records are derived from the comparison data. Most of the comparisons yielded small discrepancies of inconsequential effect on the mortality rates. Some large inconsistencies, however, of potentially serious impact on the death rates were observed. The comparisons are examined and the implications of the results for the relevant mortality rates are discussed. In addition, age-specific death rates "corrected" for the disparities found in the age information on the two records are presented.

  16. Full disclosure of financial costs and options to patients: the roles of race, age, health insurance, and usual source for care.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Arbelaez, Jose J; Dixon, Bruce W

    2004-02-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with financial discussions and financial disclosure of medical costs within a low-income urban community. The method used was a cross-sectional community-based survey in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted door-to-door and at area food pantries. Two hundred and twenty six adults were interviewed. Overall, 76.1% reported having a usual source for care and 73.0% had health insurance. Thirty nine and four tenths percent reported having been asked about their ability to pay for health services; this was more common among African Americans (OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.73-15.84), those with no health insurance (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.01-17.89), and those less than 45 years old (OR:2.9; 95% CI 1.03-8.28). Only 10.6% reported being told how much a health visit would cost. Overall, 30.1% reported their provider made payment allowances for medical bills, with white respondents 2.5 times more likely and those persons identifying an ambulatory site for care 2.6 times more likely to report this. Overall, 30.5% reported being referred to a collection agency for unpaid medical bills; this was 2.4 times more common among those individuals identifying a non-ambulatory usual site for care. Significant race and socio-economic disparities exist in discussions about and access to financial resources to pay for medical care. Expanding the availability of financial assistance is critical to improving access to health care.

  17. Children's Assessments of Corporal Punishment and Other Disciplinary Practices: The Role of Age, Race, SES, and Exposure to Spanking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Holden, George W.

    2010-01-01

    African-American and Anglo-American children's assessments of four disciplinary methods (spanking, reasoning, withdrawing privileges, and time-out) were investigated with 108 children ages 6-10 years old and one of their parents. Children watched videos depicting a child being disciplined and then rated each discipline method. Reasoning was rated…

  18. Perceived weight discrimination in the CARDIA study: Differences by race, sex, and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Lewis, Tené T.; Durant, Nefertiti; Halanych, Jewell; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Sidney, Stephen; Kim, Yongin; Lewis, Cora E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported weight discrimination and differences based on race, sex, and BMI in a biracial cohort of community-based middle-aged adults. Design and Methods We report on 3,466 participants (mean age=50 years, mean BMI=30 kg/m2) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who completed the 25-year examination of this epidemiological investigation in 2010–11. The sample included normal weight, overweight, and obese participants. CARDIA participants are distributed into four race-sex groups, with about half being African-American and half White. Participants completed a self-reported measure of weight discrimination. Results Among overweight/obese participants, weight discrimination was lowest for White men (12.0%) and highest for White women (30.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for weight discrimination in those with class 2/3 obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) versus the normal-weight was most pronounced: African American men, 4.59(1.71–12.34); African American women, 7.82(3.57–17.13); White men, 6.99(2.27–21.49); and White women, 18.60(8.97–38.54). Being overweight (BMI=25–29.9 kg/m2) vs. normal weight was associated with increased discrimination in White women only: 2.10(1.11–3.96). Conclusions We provide novel evidence for a race-sex interaction on perceived weight discrimination, with White women more likely to report discrimination at all levels of overweight and obesity. Pychosocial mechanisms responsible for these differences deserve exploration. PMID:23512948

  19. Family identity: black-white interracial family health experience.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.

  20. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates.

  1. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

  2. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  3. 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mire, Amina

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women's skin, and replace it with ageless skin, free from pigmentation. In order to contextualize the investigation of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening practice and discourse, this article draws from the literature in colonial commodity culture, colonial tropical medicine, the contemporary anti-ageing discourse, and advertisements for anti-ageing skin-whitening products. First, it argues that the framing of the biomedicalization of ageing as a pigmentation problem caused by deteriorating environmental conditions and unhealthy lifestyle draws tacitly from European colonial concerns with the European body's susceptibility to tropical diseases, pigmentation disorders, and racial degeneration. Second, the article argues that the rise of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening commodities that promise to whiten, brighten, and purify the ageing skin of women and frames the visible signs of ageing in terms of pigmentation pathology. PMID:24817918

  4. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  5. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  6. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  7. "Destiny Has Thrown the Negro and the Filipino under the Tutelage of America": Race and Curriculum in the Age of Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2009-01-01

    The article brings together the fields of curriculum studies, history of education, and ethnic studies to chart a transnational history of race, empire, and curriculum. Drawing from a larger study on the history of education in the Philippines under U.S. rule in the early 1900s, it argues that race played a pivotal role in the discursive…

  8. Correlates of Anemia in American Blacks and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Zakai, Neil A.; McClure, Leslie A.; Prineas, Ronald; Howard, George; McClellan, William; Holmes, Chris E.; Newsome, Britt B.; Warnock, David G.; Audhya, Paul

    2009-01-01

    For unclear reasons, anemia is more common in American blacks than whites. The authors evaluated anemia prevalence (using World Health Organization criteria) among 19,836 blacks and whites recruited in 2003–2007 for the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Renal Ancillary study and characterized anemia by 3 anemia-associated conditions (chronic kidney disease, inflammation, and microcytosis). They used multivariable models to assess potential causes of race differences in anemia. Anemia was 3.3-fold more common in blacks than whites, with little attenuation after adjusting for demographic variables, socioeconomic factors, and comorbid conditions. Increasing age, residence in the US southeast, lower income, vascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and never smoking were associated with anemia. Age, diabetes, and vascular disease were stronger correlates of anemia among whites than blacks (P < 0.05). Among those with anemia, chronic kidney disease was less common among blacks than whites (22% vs. 34%), whereas inflammation (18% vs. 14%) and microcytosis (22% vs. 11%) were more common. In this large, geographically diverse cohort, anemia was 3-fold more common in blacks than whites with different characteristics and correlates. Race differences in anemia prevalence were not explained by the factors studied. Future research into the causes and consequences of anemia in different racial groups is needed. PMID:19066309

  9. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across

  10. The effects of defendant race, victim race, and juror gender on evidence processing in a murder trial.

    PubMed

    Forsterlee, Robert; Forsterlee, Lynne; Horowitz, Irwin A; King, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The effects of defendant race, victim race, and juror gender on sentencing and information processing were examined within the context of a murder trial. A sample consisting of 96, jury eligible White Australians read one of four versions of a real trial transcript, in which the race of a male defendant and female victim were varied. The participants imposed the severest sentences on the Indigenous (Black) defendant. Jurors were most lenient with White defendants who killed a White victim. Female jurors were more punitive than the males toward the Indigenous defendant. Jurors processed evidence systematically in same-race trials, but used both systematic and heuristic processing in mixed-race trials. In these instances, female jurors employed significantly more emotive responses, especially when the victim was Black. The effects of subtle racism and the black processing effect when the victim was non-White are considered.

  11. Tending to the Heart of Communities of Color: Towards Critical Race Teacher Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; Liou, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Critical Race Theory and Critical Whiteness Studies assert colorblindness flourishes when most urban teachers who are White feel emotionally uncomfortable to engage in dynamics of race in the classroom. Colorblind ideology distorts urban teaching because it presumes (a) many White teachers are missionaries trained to save and (b) urban schools are…

  12. The impact of race and fractures on mortality in a postmenopausal Medicaid population.

    PubMed

    Kotzan, J A; Martin, B C; Reeves, J H; Wade, W

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to model fractures and survival by age and race in a large postmenopausal Medicaid population. All Georgia Medicaid claims were abstracted for the years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Claims for postmenopausal women (> or =50 years of age) were retained, and patients with fractures were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for fracture. A survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier estimators to evaluate the effect of fracture, age, and race on 3-year survival. A total of 159,400 white and black postmenopausal women were identified. The cohort with fracture totaled 5933 patients, with femoral fractures constituting 46% of all fractures. Discounting those with fracture before the study, the fracture incidence was approximately 1.2% in this postmenopausal female cohort. The survival analysis suggested that after age was accounted for, black postmenopausal women had a 42% increased risk of death within 3 years of fracture, compared with 13% for white women. However, postmenopausal black women were approximately 50% less likely to experience a fracture, and postmenopausal black women without fracture had better survival rates than comparable white women. Mortality crossover and the diminished likelihood of fracture mask the true nature of fracture survival in postmenopausal black women. Postmenopausal black women with fracture are at greater risk of dying than their white counterparts.

  13. Gender and the Neighborhood Location of Mixed-Race Couples

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Steven; Ellis, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Gender asymmetry in mixed-race heterosexual partnerships and marriages is common. For instance, black men marry or partner with white women at a far higher rate than white men marry or partner with black women. This article asks if such gender asymmetries relate to the racial character of the neighborhoods in which households headed by mixed-race couples live. Gendered power imbalances within households generally play into decisions about where to live or where to move (i.e., men typically benefit more than women), and we find the same in mixed-race couple arrangements and residential attainment. Gender interacts with race to produce a measurable race-by-gender effect. Specifically, we report a positive relationship between the percentage white in a neighborhood and the presence of households headed by mixed-race couples with a white male partner. The opposite holds for households headed by white-blacks and white-Latinos if the female partner is white; they are drawn to predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods. The results have implications for investigations of residential location attainment, neighborhood segregation analysis, and mixed-race studies. PMID:23073752

  14. Ice-age endurance: DNA evidence of a white spruce refugium in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynn L; Hu, Feng Sheng; Nelson, David M; Petit, Rémy J; Paige, Ken N

    2006-08-15

    Paleorecords offer key information for evaluating model simulations of species migration in response to forecast climatic change. However, their utility can be greatly compromised by the existence of glacial refugia that are undetectable in fossil records (cryptic refugia). Despite several decades of investigation, it remains controversial whether Beringia, the largely unglaciated area extending from northeastern Siberia to the Yukon Territory, harbored small populations of certain boreal tree species during the last glaciation. Here, we present genetic evidence for the existence of a glacial refuge in Alaska that helps to resolve this long-standing controversy. We sequenced chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant boreal tree species, in 24 forest stands across northwestern North America. The majority of cpDNA haplotypes are unique, and haplotype diversity is relatively high in Alaska, arguing against the possibility that this species migrated into the region from areas south of the Laurentide Ice Sheet after the end of the last glaciation. Thus, white spruce apparently survived long glacial episodes under climatic extremes in a heterogeneous landscape matrix. These results suggest that estimated rates of tree migration from fossil records may be too high and that the ability of trees to track anthropogenic warming may be more limited than previously thought.

  15. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  16. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  17. Patterns of Antibacterial Use and Impact of Age, Race-Ethnicity, and Geographic Region on Antibacterial Use in an Outpatient Medicaid Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gahbauer, Alice M.; Gonzales, Marco L.; Guglielmo, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES To describe patterns of outpatient antibacterial use among California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) fee-for-service system beneficiaries, and to investigate the influence of demographic factors—age, race-ethnicity, state county, and population density—on those patterns. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data. DATA SOURCE Medi-Cal fee-for-service system claims database. PATIENTS All outpatient Medi-Cal fee-for-service system beneficiaries enrolled between 2006 and 2011 who had at least one systemic antibacterial claim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Rates of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of broad-spectrum antibacterial use were measured over the study period and among age, racial-ethnic and geographic (county) groups. Of the 10,018,066 systemic antibacterial claims selected for analysis, antibacterial prescribing rates decreased from 542 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2006 to 461 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2011 (r = –0.971, p = 0.0012; τ-b = –1.00, p = 0.009). Among age groups, children had the highest rate of use (605 claims/1000 beneficiaries, χ2 (2) = 320,000, p < 0.001); among racial-ethnic groups, Alaskan Natives and Native Americans had the highest rate of use (1086/1000 beneficiaries, χ2 (5) = 197,000, p < 0.001). Broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing increased from 28.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.1–28.2%) to 32.7% (95% CI 32.6–32.8%) over the study period. Senior age groups and Caucasians received the highest proportions of broad-spectrum agents (53.4% [95% CI 52.5–54.3%] and 36.6% [95% CI 36.6–36.7%], respectively). Population density was inversely related to both overall antibacterial use (ρ = –0.432, p = 0.0018) and broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing (ρ = –0.359, p < 0.001). The rate of prescribing decreased over the study period for all antibacterial classes with the exception of macrolides and sulfonamides. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed agent. CONCLUSION

  18. The prognostic significance of race and survival from laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Roach, M.; Alexander, M.; Coleman, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data suggest that blacks with laryngeal carcinoma have a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than whites. Most of this difference persists despite adjustment for "crude stage." To evaluate possible factors contributing to this residual survival deficit, 190 white and 23 black patients treated at the Martinez Veterans Administration Hospital between 1968 and 1988 were studied. The independent impact of race on survival rate was analyzed with respect to various prognostic factors including treatment delay, elapsed time (diagnosis to treatment), age, stage, cancer subsites, and type of therapy. No independent prognostic significance could be attributed to race. The differences noted in SEER data probably reflect a tendency for the use of crude stage to underestimate the impact of prognostic groups within the categories of "local" and "regional" disease, the independent prognostic significance of subsites (glottic versus supraglottic), and the variable distribution of these subsites in different populations. This study suggests that when stage, subsite, and quality of care are adequately considered, survival from laryngeal cancer in blacks is comparable to that of whites. PMID:1507256

  19. If at first you don't succeed, try, try again: understanding race, age, and gender differences in retesting score improvement.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Deidra J; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Morgeson, Frederick P; Campion, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    This article explores the intersection of 2 critical and timely concerns in personnel selection-applicant retesting and subgroup differences-by exploring demographic differences in retest effects across multiple assessments. Results from large samples of applicants taking 3 written tests (N = 7,031) and 5 performance tests (N = 2,060) revealed that Whites showed larger retest score improvements than Blacks or Hispanics on several of the assessments. However, the differential improvement of Whites was greater on the written tests than on the performance tests. In addition, women and applicants under 40 years of age showed larger improvements with retesting than did men and applicants over 40. We offer some preliminary theoretical explanations for these demographic differences in retesting gains, including differences in ability, testing attitudes and motivation, and receptivity to feedback. In terms of practical implications, the results suggest that allowing applicants to retake selection tests may, in some cases, exacerbate levels of adverse impact, which can have distinct implications for retesting policy and practices in organizations.

  20. Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

  1. Differential age-dependent associations of gray matter volume and white matter integrity with processing speed in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhaoping; Ng, Kwun Kei; Sim, Sam K Y; Ngeow, Mei Yi; Zheng, Hui; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L; Zhou, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Slower processing speed (PS), a highly robust feature of cognitive aging, is associated with white matter (WM) deterioration and gray matter volume (GMV) loss. Traditional linear regression models assume a constant relationship between brain structure and cognition over time. To probe for variation in the association between WM and GMV and PS over time, we used a novel sparse varying coefficient model on data collected from 126 relatively healthy older adults (67 females, aged 58-85years) evaluated with MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test-battery. We found that WM microstructural differences indexed by fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-striatal tracts (internal and external capsule) showed a stronger association with PS before the age of 70years. Contrastingly, GMV values of the left putamen and middle occipital gyrus were more strongly correlated with PS after 70years. Additionally, within GM and WM compartments, there was heterogeneity in the temporal sequence in which different cortical and subcortical elements were most strongly associated with PS. Together, these observations provide a more nuanced account of the relationships between different structural components of the aging brain and processing speed, a key cognitive domain affected in relatively healthy older adults. PMID:26302672

  2. Oppression And Privilege: Toward a Relational Conceptualization of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucal, Betsy

    1996-01-01

    Outlines the components of a teaching model on race that focuses on white privilege, white supremacy, and the ideology that upholds them. Recommends addressing issues of class privilege and power as a way to help white students understand this without alienating them. Discusses classroom preparation and teaching strategies. (MJP)

  3. Teaching about Race and Class in Early American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Before the 2008 presidential election, when an African American friend asked him whether he thought whites would vote for Barack Obama, the author found himself answering by going back to the 17th century, to the invention of the white race as a buffer class to keep those at the bottom divided, and the way that his own white working-class people…

  4. Who is Most Susceptible to Movie Smoking Effects? Exploring the Impacts of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674

  5. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category.

  6. Gendered race: are infants' face preferences guided by intersectionality of sex and race?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hojin I; Johnson, Kerri L; Johnson, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female), and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each) that differed according to sex (Female or Male) or race (Asian, Black, or White). All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants' social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants' preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  7. Race/Ethnic Disparities in Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in a Tri-Ethnic Community Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial-ethnic disparities exist in cardiovascular risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is a predictor of mortality and of cardiovascular outcome including incident heart failure. We sought to assess whether race-ethnic differences in diastolic function exist. Such differences may contribute to the observed disparities in cardiovascular outcomes. Methods Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 760 participants (539 Hispanic, 117 non-Hispanic black, 104 non-Hispanic white) from the Cardiac Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. LV diastolic function was assessed by standard Doppler flow profile and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Early (E) and late (A) trans-mitral diastolic flow, and mitral annulus early diastolic velocities (E’) were recorded and E/A and E/E’ ratios were calculated. Results Blacks and Hispanics had higher body mass index (p=0.04, p<0.01), higher prevalence of hypertension (both p≤0.05) and diabetes (both p<0.01), and lower level of education (both p<0.01) compared to whites. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, Hispanics and blacks showed worse indices of diastolic function than whites. Hispanics had lower E/A ratio (p=0.01), lower E’ and higher E/E’ (both p<0.01) than whites, whereas blacks had lower E’ (p<0.05) and a trend toward a higher E/E’ ratio (p=0.09) compared with whites. These race-ethnic differences in diastolic function were attenuated in multivariate models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Differences in LV diastolic function exist between race-ethnic groups. However, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and socio-demographic variables, rather than intrinsic race-ethnic heterogeneity, seem to explain most of the observed differences. PMID:20598986

  8. On non-invasive 2D and 3D Chromatic White Light image sensors for age determination of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-10-10

    The feasibility of 2D-intensity and 3D-topography images from a non-invasive Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor for the age determination of latent fingerprints is investigated. The proposed method might provide the means to solve the so far unresolved issue of determining a fingerprints age in forensics. Conducting numerous experiments for an indoor crime scene using selected surfaces, different influences on the aging of fingerprints are investigated and the resulting aging variability is determined in terms of inter-person, intra-person, inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Main influence factors are shown to be the sweat composition, temperature, humidity, wind, UV-radiation, surface type, contamination of the finger with water-containing substances, resolution and measured area size, whereas contact time, contact pressure and smearing of the print seem to be of minor importance. Such influences lead to a certain experimental variability in inter-person and intra-person variation, which is higher than the inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Comparing the aging behavior of 17 different features using 1490 time series with a total of 41,520 fingerprint images, the great potential of the CWL technique in combination with the binary pixel feature from prior work is shown. Performing three different experiments for the classification of fingerprints into the two time classes [0, 5 h] and [5, 24 h], a maximum classification performance of 79.29% (kappa=0.46) is achieved for a general case, which is further improved for special cases. The statistical significance of the two best-performing features (both binary pixel versions based on 2D-intensity images) is manually shown and a feature fusion is performed, highlighting the strong dependency of the features on each other. It is concluded that such method might be combined with additional capturing devices, such as microscopes or spectroscopes, to a very promising age estimation scheme. PMID:22658793

  9. On non-invasive 2D and 3D Chromatic White Light image sensors for age determination of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-10-10

    The feasibility of 2D-intensity and 3D-topography images from a non-invasive Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor for the age determination of latent fingerprints is investigated. The proposed method might provide the means to solve the so far unresolved issue of determining a fingerprints age in forensics. Conducting numerous experiments for an indoor crime scene using selected surfaces, different influences on the aging of fingerprints are investigated and the resulting aging variability is determined in terms of inter-person, intra-person, inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Main influence factors are shown to be the sweat composition, temperature, humidity, wind, UV-radiation, surface type, contamination of the finger with water-containing substances, resolution and measured area size, whereas contact time, contact pressure and smearing of the print seem to be of minor importance. Such influences lead to a certain experimental variability in inter-person and intra-person variation, which is higher than the inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Comparing the aging behavior of 17 different features using 1490 time series with a total of 41,520 fingerprint images, the great potential of the CWL technique in combination with the binary pixel feature from prior work is shown. Performing three different experiments for the classification of fingerprints into the two time classes [0, 5 h] and [5, 24 h], a maximum classification performance of 79.29% (kappa=0.46) is achieved for a general case, which is further improved for special cases. The statistical significance of the two best-performing features (both binary pixel versions based on 2D-intensity images) is manually shown and a feature fusion is performed, highlighting the strong dependency of the features on each other. It is concluded that such method might be combined with additional capturing devices, such as microscopes or spectroscopes, to a very promising age estimation scheme.

  10. A Rebuttal to Jack Niemonen's "Whither the White Working Class?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Prof. Niemonen claims that the concept of white privilege is "anti-sociological" and "mask[s] complex race-class interactions." He highlights the importance of including social class in discussions of white privilege but focuses exclusively on the white working class, neglecting how race and social class also intersect for…

  11. Race Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Bryan Lee, a senior at the University of California, Irvine, has noticed that some of his classmates adamantly declare their multiracial heritage while others choose not to identify themselves as being any particular ethnicity. The half-Korean, half-White biomedical engineering major is co-president of the university's Mixed Students Organization…

  12. [Race and inequality among women: an example in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Olinto, M T; Olinto, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study uses epidemiological data to investigate socioeconomic proportions of distinctions raised by "racism" in Brazilian society. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 2,779 women ages 14 through 49, living in a southern Brazilian city. Black and mixed-race women had less schooling, lower family income, and worse housing conditions than white women. They also used contraceptive methods less frequently, had more children, and had higher spontaneous abortion and stillbirth rates than white women. Virtually all of the results show a linear relationship between such categories, i.e., the "darker" the woman's skin color, the worse her socioeconomic and reproductive conditions. We also observed that black women were either separated, divorced, or widowed, another apparent factor for black women's impoverishment, related mainly to their limited employment opportunities. The results of the current study indicate that racial relations among women are an issue that should foster a discussion concerning citizenship in Brazil.

  13. Association of BPD and IVH with early neutrophil and white counts in VLBW neonates with gestational age <32 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Mari; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Carlton, David P

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between early low neutrophil count from routine blood samples, white blood count (WBC), pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes for very low birth weight infants (VLBW ≤1500g) with gestational age <32 weeks. Patients and Methods Information was abstracted on all infants admitted to level III NICUs in Wisconsin 2003-2004. 1002 (78%) had differential and corrected total white counts within 2 ½ hours of birth. Data analyses included frequency tables, binary logistic, ordinal logistc and ordinary regression. Results Low neutrophil count (<1000/μL) was strongly associated with low WBC, pregnancy complications and antenatal steroids. Low neutrophil count predicted bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity level (BPD) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.7) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) grade (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.8). Conclusions Early neutrophil counts may have multiple causes interfering with their routine use as an inflammatory marker. Nonetheless, low neutrophil count has consistent independent associations with outcomes. PMID:18563166

  14. A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17 years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-α diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50 years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-α diol G levels compared to other profiles (p<0.05). Non-Hispanic Black, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (>30 kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

  15. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  16. Black-white differences in risk of becoming disabled and recovering from disability in old age: a longitudinal analysis of two EPESE populations.

    PubMed

    Mendes de Leon, C F; Beckett, L A; Fillenbaum, G G; Brock, D B; Branch, L G; Evans, D A; Berkman, L F

    1997-03-15

    This study compared the odds of becoming disabled and recovering from disability among blacks and whites aged 65 years and over in two sites of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) project. The authors examined the influence of mortality differences, socioeconomic status, and health-related factors on racial differences in risk of disability and recovery. A Markov model was employed using nine waves of data from the New Haven, Connecticut, site (529 blacks, 2,219 whites) and seven waves of the North Carolina (Piedmont) site (2,260 blacks, 1,876 whites), collected between 1982 and 1992. Blacks below age 75 years had an increased risk of developing disability relative to whites in New Haven (odds ratio (OR) at age 65 years = 3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.13-5.22) as well as in North Carolina (OR at age 65 years = 1.58, 95% CI 1.25-1.99). This excess risk diminished with increasing age, and crossed over in New Haven (OR at age 85 years = 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.95), but not in North Carolina (OR at age 85 years = 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.51). Adjustment for socioeconomic and health-related factors only partially reduced the excess disability risk among blacks below age 75 years in New Haven, but eliminated the difference in disability risk between blacks and whites in North Carolina. Blacks below age 75 years also had higher mortality risks at both sites. There were no consistent racial differences in recovery from disability.

  17. Extracting and summarizing white matter hyperintensities using supervised segmentation methods in Alzheimer’s disease risk and aging studies

    PubMed Central

    Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Lindner, Christopher; Austin, Benjamin P.; Hinrichs, Chris; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Precise detection and quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed in T2–weighted Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is of substantial interest in aging, and age related neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is mainly because WMH may reflect comorbid neural injury or cerebral vascular disease burden. WMH in the older population may be small, diffuse and irregular in shape, and sufficiently heterogeneous within and across subjects. Here, we pose hyperintensity detection as a supervised inference problem and adapt two learning models, specifically, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests, for this task. Using texture features engineered by texton filter banks, we provide a suite of effective segmentation methods for this problem. Through extensive evaluations on healthy middle–aged and older adults who vary in AD risk, we show that our methods are reliable and robust in segmenting hyperintense regions. A measure of hyperintensity accumulation, referred to as normalized Effective WMH Volume, is shown to be associated with dementia in older adults and parental family history in cognitively normal subjects. We provide an open source library for hyperintensity detection and accumulation (interfaced with existing neuroimaging tools), that can be adapted for segmentation problems in other neuroimaging studies. PMID:24510744

  18. Race and reproductive coercion: A qualitative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajski, Cara; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather; Akers, Aletha; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Freedman, Lori; Steinberg, Julia; Ibrahim, Said; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is common and disproportionately occurs among low-income and African American (AA) women. Male partners may influence women’s risk of unintended pregnancy through reproductive coercion, although studies have not assessed whether racial differences in reproductive coercion impact AA women’s disparate risk for unintended pregnancy. We sought to describe women’s experiences with pregnancy-promoting behaviors by male partners and explore differences in such experiences by race. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with low-income, AA and white women aged 18–45 recruited from reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania to explore contextual factors that shape women’s contraceptive behaviors. Narratives were analyzed using content analysis and the constant comparison method. Findings Among the 66 participants (36 AA and 30 white), 25 (38%) described experiences with male partner reproductive coercion. Narratives provided accounts of contraceptive sabotage, verbal pressure to promote pregnancy and specific pregnancy outcomes, and potential motives behind these behaviors. AA women in the sample reported experiences of reproductive coercion more often than white women (53% and 20%, respectively). AA women were also more likely than white women to attribute a current or prior pregnancy to reproductive coercion. AA women identified relationship transiency and impending incarceration as potential motivations for men to secure a connection with a female partner via pregnancy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that reproductive coercion may be a factor contributing to disparities in unintended pregnancy. More research, including population-level studies, is needed to determine the impact of reproductive coercion on unintended pregnancy and to understand the social and structural factors associated with pregnancy-promoting behaviors. PMID:25748823

  19. The effect of age and microstructural white matter integrity on lap time variation and fast-paced walking speed.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Shardell, Michelle D; Landman, Bennett A; Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2016-09-01

    Macrostructural white matter damage (WMD) is associated with less uniform and slower walking in older adults. The effect of age and subclinical microstructural WM degeneration (a potentially earlier phase of WM ischemic damage) on walking patterns and speed is less clear. This study examines the effect of age on the associations of regional microstructural WM integrity with walking variability and speed, independent of macrostructural WMD. This study involved 493 participants (n = 51 young; n = 209 young-old; n = 233 old-old) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. All completed a 400-meter walk test and underwent a concurrent brain MRI with diffusion tensor imaging. Microstructural WM integrity was measured as fractional anisotropy (FA). Walking variability was measured as trend-adjusted variation in time over ten 40-meter laps (lap time variation, LTV). Fast-paced walking speed was assessed as mean lap time (MLT). Multiple linear regression models of FA predicting LTV and MLT were adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, and WM hyperintensities. Independent of WM hyperintensities, lower FA in the body of the corpus callosum was associated with higher LTV and longer MLT only in the young-old. Lower FA in superior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital, and uncinate fasciculi, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the anterior corona radiate was associated with longer MLT only in the young-old. While macrostructural WMD is known to predict more variable and slower walking in older adults, microstructural WM disruption is independently associated with more variable and slower fast-paced walking only in the young-old. Disrupted regional WM integrity may be a subclinical contributor to abnormal walking at an earlier phase of aging.

  20. Juror sensitivity to the cross-race effect.

    PubMed

    Abshire, Jordan; Bornstein, Brian H

    2003-10-01

    Black and White mock jurors' sensitivity to the cross-race effect was investigated by varying the race of the eyewitness in a simulated murder trial of a Black defendant. Participants heard an audiotape of a trial after which they rendered a verdict and rated the credibility of the witnesses. White participants found the prosecution witnesses (including the eyewitness) more credible, and the defense witness less credible, than did Black participants; they were also more likely to find the defendant guilty. The Black eyewitness was perceived as more credible than was the White eyewitness, but eyewitness race had no effect on verdict. These results are consistent with the literature indicating that jurors of different races reach different verdicts, and also that jurors are relatively insensitive to factors that affect eyewitness testimony, such as the cross-race effect. PMID:14593793