Science.gov

Sample records for age work experience

  1. Evaluation of Nontraditional Age Learners' Experiences in Internet-Based Clinical Social Work Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an evaluation of online learners' experiences with two Internet-based clinical social work courses. The evaluation sought to discover whether there were differences in learning between traditional (under 25 years old) and nontraditional age learners (25 years and over) who completed the asynchronous online course. The study…

  2. [Work capacity and aging].

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2000-01-01

    Maintaining a good work ability depends on satisfactory health and employment status, which is supported by suitable working conditions and correct life styles. From the biological perspective, ageing means a foreseeable progressive and overall deterioration of the various physiological systems, but not of such a kind and severity to consider most people over 50 as too old or unfit for work, as has been shown by several studies that assessed work ability not only in terms of biological age, but of functional age and actual work output. From the physio-pathological perspective, we can observe either illnesses associated with the passage of time or age-related changes that might precipitate diseases, as well as environmental changes that modulate ageing and developmental changes that accelerate or retard ageing. From the practical point of view, it should taken into account that job demands often do not follow the natural biological and functional changes of the individual, consequently the relative work load can be higher in older workers. On the other hand, ageing also means a professional growth in terms of strategic ability, shrewdness, wisdom and experience. The high interindividual variability of physical, mental and social conditions that is observed with the increase in age makes it necessary to adopt flexible and personally tailored measures, as shown by recent surveys in some European countries aimed at reducing age discrimination and work disability, and at promoting work ability by means of actions directed towards both improvement of work organisation and support of psycho-physical conditions of older workers. PMID:11098594

  3. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  4. Experiences of aging among immigrants from India to the United States: social work practice in a global context.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Gauri; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2009-07-01

    The aging of immigrants is a critical component in the health dynamics of the nation's aging population. To date, few studies have addressed within-group diversity and linked contemporary contexts of global connectedness with the aging experiences of older immigrants. This study aims to conceptually understand the diversity in aging dynamics within a specific immigrant group: Indian immigrants in New York City. The impact of globalization and transnational connection on aging experiences on 2 within groups-Indians who came to the United States at age of 65 or older (LLIs) and those who came at an early age (ELIs) are analyzed. Implications for social work practice, research and policy are discussed. PMID:19585322

  5. Job tenure and work injuries: a multivariate analysis of the relation with previous experience and differences by age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the consequences of the increasing flexibility in contemporary labour markets is that individuals change jobs more frequently than in the past. Indeed, in many cases, through collecting a lot of contracts, individuals work in the same economic sector or even in the same company, doing the same job in the same way as existing colleagues. A very long literature has established that newly hired workers – whatever the contract type – are more likely to be injured than those with longer job tenures. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to study the relationship between job tenure and injury risk taking into account past experience as a possible confounder; and 2) to evaluate how the effects of past experience and job tenure are modified by age. Methods Using a longitudinal national database, we considered only job contracts starting in 1998–2003 held by men working as blue collars or apprentices in the non-agricultural private sector. We calculated injury rates stratified by job tenure and age. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for background variables and previous experience accrued in the same economic sector of the current job. Results In the study period 58,271 workers who had experienced 10,260 injuries were observed. These people worked on 115,277 contracts in the six years observed (1.98 contracts per worker). Injury rates decrease with job tenure; the trend is the same in each age group; young workers have both the highest injury rate (9.20; CI 95%: 8.95-9.45) and the highest decrease with job tenure. Previous experience is associated with a decreasing injury rate in all age groups and for all job tenures. Multivariate analyses show that, even after checking for previous experience, workers with job tenure of less than 6 months show always higher relative risks compared with job tenure > 2 years: relative risk is 41% higher among under-thirty workers; it is 22% higher among people over forty. Previous experience is protective

  6. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  7. Faculty Reflections on the Institute for Aging and Social Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Mehrotra, Gita R.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research highlights the value of mentorship to the professional development of early career faculty in academia, yet less research focuses on factors motivating individuals to provide formal guidance to junior colleagues. Given that new social work faculty, in particular, may not receive sufficient mentoring, understanding what…

  8. Rethinking Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; And Others

    This book on work experience programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work experience in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work Experience" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…

  9. Aging and Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Harris T.; Waring, Joan M.

    Business firms are an integral part of the age stratification structure of society. Although the age structures of people and roles within the organization are dynamic, these structures yield a fairly stable strata in which norms exist to suggest the various roles expected of certain persons. Those in roles with greater financial rewards, power,…

  10. [THE AGE AND WORK EXPERIENCE DYNAMICS OF INDICES OF HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES--CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL AND NONOCCUPATIONAL RISKS].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, G A

    2016-01-01

    There are reported data of the analysis of parameters of the general morbidity (hypertension, chronic diseases, organs of respiratory and digestive system, adiposity, vertebral osteochondrosis) in dependence on age and work experience of dockers-mechanizators in seaport at various working conditions. Morbidity rate indices were calculated on results of the profound medical examination at annual periodic surveys of workers. There were analyzed ecological and ergonomic indices of working conditions, including an estimation of physiological intensity of the work. The general hygienic assessment of working conditions was executed on the basis of the measurement of rates of gains in the risk of diseases depending on age and the experience of work (an annual gain of risk). The divergence of these rates was used for the determination of occupational and nonoccupational fractions of the general morbidity in employees working in harmful conditions. PMID:27430067

  11. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

  12. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  13. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  14. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  15. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  16. NASA Work Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2015-01-01

    I have had the opportunity to support the analytical laboratories in chemical analysis of unknown samples, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEMEDS), and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). I have assisted in characterizing fibers pulled from a spacecraft, a white fibrous residue discovered in a jet refueler truck, brown residue from a plant habitat slated for delivery to the ISS (International Space Station), corrosion on a pipe from a sprinkler, and air filtration material brought back from the ISS. I also conducted my own fiber study in order to practice techniques and further my understanding of background concepts. Furthermore, I had the opportunity to participate in diverse work assignments, where I was assigned to work with other branches of the engineering department for 1-2 days each. The first was in the Materials Science branch where I participated in the construction of the plant habitat intended for use in research aboard the ISS. The second was in the Testing Design branch where I assisted with tensile and hardness testing of over 40 samples. In addition, I have had the privilege to attend multiple tours of the NASA KSC campus, including to the Astronaut Crew Quarters, the VAB (the main area, the Columbia room, and the catwalk), the Visitor Center housing the shuttle Atlantis, the Saturn-V exhibit, the Prototype laboratory, SWAMP WORKS, the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Crawler, and the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF). Lastly, much of my coursework prepared me for this experience, including numerous laboratory courses with topics diverse as chemistry, physics, and biology.

  17. Age Differences in Mystical Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    Examined age differences in mystical experiences. According to 1988 General Social Survey (n=1,481) mystical experiences were somewhat more common in 1988 than in 1973, and deja vu, clairvoyance, and composite mysticism scores had increased with successively younger age cohorts. Private and subjective religiosity were positively related to overall…

  18. The Curriculum of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes

    Curricular domains relevant to work experience programs are motivation, sequencing, and goals. A case study of a project of institutional collaboration on peer counseling for work experience students (forming a consortium between a city school board of education and a community college) was made through data generated from the Youthwork National…

  19. Work Experience Education Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Bill; And Others

    This instructional guide is designed to provide work experience education coordinators with a series of topical items which can be incorporated into the related instruction portion of a high school student's work experience education program. The activities in this instructional guide represent a common core of concepts and understandings…

  20. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  1. Age Stereotypes about Emotional Resilience at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Cornelia; Goritz, Anja S.; Hertel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In light of an aging workforce, age stereotypes have become an important topic both for researchers and for practitioners. Among other effects, age stereotypes might predict discriminatory behavior at work. This study examined stereotypic beliefs about emotional resilience as a function of both targets' and judges' age. In a web-based study, 4,181…

  2. The Effect of Work Experience on Young Men's Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plantes, Mary Kay

    Most empirical analyses of earnings measure work experience as years since school graduation and cannot, therefore, separate age and experience effects. This study demonstrates that the return to work experience is highly significant in the presence of age variables, but that the returns to experience and schooling are sensitive to the way…

  3. The Argon Geochronology Experiment (AGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Bode, R.; Fennema, A.; Chutjian, A.; MacAskill, J. A.; Darrach, M. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Cremers, D.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Argon Geochronology Experiment (AGE). Potassium-Argon dating is shown along with cosmic ray dating exposure. The contents include a flow diagram of the Argon Geochronology Experiment, and schematic diagrams of the mass spectrometer vacuum system, sample manipulation mechanism, mineral heater oven, and the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Operation with elemental abundances is also described.

  4. (Work on the L* experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1990-09-10

    The traveler spent eleven intense days at CERN, Switzerland. His time was divided between daytime, when he worked mainly on L* issues, and evenings/nights, when he performed shift work during the current run of the WA80 collaboration. It was decided to reduce the size and cost of the proposed L* experiment. Strategy for SSC subsystem proposals was discussed, and several relevant decisions were made.

  5. Effects of age, experience and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins on working memory and neuronal plasticity after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Cynthia M; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) commonly results in cognitive and sensory impairments. Early behavioral experience has been suggested to improve cognitive and sensory outcomes in children and animal models with perinatal neuropathology. In parallel, we previously showed that treatment with immunomodulator Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) improves cellular and behavioral outcomes in neonatal HI injured rats. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influences of early experience and typical maturation in combination with IAIPs treatment on spatial working and reference memory after neonatal HI injury. A second aim was to determine the effects of these variables on hippocampal CA1 neuronal morphology. Subjects were divided into two groups that differed with respect to the time when exposed to eight arm radial water maze testing: Group one was tested as juveniles (early experience, Postnatal day (P) 36-61) and adults (P88-113), and Group two was tested in adulthood only (P88-113; without early experience). Three treatment conditions were included in each experience group (HI+Vehicle, HI+IAIPs, and Sham subjects). Incorrect arm entries (errors) were compared between treatment and experience groups across three error types (reference memory (RM), working memory incorrect (WMI), working memory correct (WMC)). Early experience led to improved working memory performance regardless of treatment. Combining IAIPs intervention with early experience provided a long-term behavioral advantage on the WMI component of the task in HI animals. Anatomically, early experience led to a decrease in the average number of basal dendrites per CA1 pyramidal neuron for IAIP treated subjects and a significant reduction in basal dendritic length in control subjects, highlighting the importance of pruning in typical early life learning. Our results support the hypothesis that early behavioral experience combined with IAIPs improve outcome on a relativity demanding

  6. [Aging nurses. Reorganizing work to retain nurses].

    PubMed

    Curchod, Claude

    2012-03-01

    The nurse population is growing old in most occidental countries. Facing the physical and psychological loud of their job, many nurses aspire to get retired before the legal age. Such a process is likely to increase the present nursing shortage and so to endanger the care access for a part of the population. Different concepts such the Work ability or the Age management have been developed to allow a better response the professionals' needs. Their offer models and tools to redesign the work organization in a way so that nurses would be able to stay at work in good conditions. These approaches require nevertheless a real political and organizational willingness. PMID:22616361

  7. Aging Effect on Visual and Spatial Components of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigneux, Katia; Plaie, Thierry; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging on the storage of visual and spatial working memory according to Logie's model of working memory (1995). In a first experiment young, elderly, and very old subjects carried out two tasks usually used to measure visual span (Visual Patterns Test) and spatial span (Corsi Block Tapping test).…

  8. Ageing populations and changing worlds of work.

    PubMed

    Beach, Brian

    2014-08-01

    Population ageing has reshaped the notion of retirement. The changes carry important implications for aspirations to extend working life. Cultural expectations regarding work and retirement must adapt to the reality posed by longer lives. The modern world is characterised by perpetual - and sometime rapid - change. Transformation throughout the second half of the 20th century brought about substantial shifts in the health and longevity of people in societies across the world. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the impacts of population ageing have gathered greater awareness in public consciousness and within the policy arena. Notions of old age, retirement, and later life have been fundamentally transformed, presenting stark challenges alongside novel opportunities for individuals, communities, and governments. Many of the topics of interest with respect to ageing populations are themselves the result of shifts that were unforeseen. PMID:24931302

  9. Work stress in aging police officers.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Lin, Susan; Li, Xianbin

    2002-02-01

    Data are sparse regarding the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, even for employees working in high-stress occupations, such as law enforcement. To improve our understanding of this issue in older workers, we assessed and characterized work stress, coping strategies, and stress-related health outcomes in a sample of police officers aged 50 years and older (n = 105). The most important risk factors associated with officers' perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviors (e.g., excessive drinking or problem gambling) (odds ratio [OR], 4.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 11.6) and exposure to critical incidents (e.g., shootings) (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.71 to 8.65). In turn, perceived work stress was significantly associated with anxiety (OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 2.81 to 16.65), depression (OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 3.81 to 22.54), somatization (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 2.47 to 13.33), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.29 to 6.47), symptoms of "burnout" (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 2.54 to 13.86), chronic back pain (OR, = 3.55; 95% CI, 1.57 to 8.06), alcohol abuse (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.45 to 7.22), and inappropriately aggressive behavior (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.34 to 11.88). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviors to cope with stress. Given the size of the rapidly aging US workforce and the likelihood that many are employed in high-stress jobs, interventions are urgently needed to address this emerging public health issue. PMID:11851217

  10. [Back pain in the working age population].

    PubMed

    Klipstein, Andreas; Nydegger, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Back pain in the working age population can coincide with work-related activities and may lead to temporary or permanent work disability in the case of functional impairment that interacts with workplace demands. This can lead to economic if not existential problems for the affected individual. Although neurogenic or inflammatory back pain may be the cause, the big majority of all cases is caused by "common" low back pain with or without irradiating pain, the main problem being frequent recurrencies of acute pain episodes (periodic or relapsing course). After early exclusion of specific causes (i. e. "red flags": usually identified through history and simple laboratory findings!) repetitive examinations should be avoided. Structural changes and physical job demands should not be overestimated as causal factors. In the early phase of a work disability more emphasis should be laid however on appropriate information and medication and, in case of persistent impairment, active treatment (after 3 weeks or relapse). Longtime workplace absence has important individual and socioeconomic consequences. The risk for chronification can be estimated through evaluation of "yellow flags" and observation of characteristics of the course in the individual case. An early return to work and to activities of daily life is urgent. In cases at risk for chronification and/or with obstacles to reintegration at work an interdisciplinary work-oriented rehabilitation or social and occupational reintegration should be organised. PMID:23985149

  11. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or...

  12. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or...

  13. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience. 638.507 Section 638.507... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.507 Work experience. (a) The center operator shall emphasize and implement programs of work experience for students through...

  14. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work experience. 638.507 Section 638.507... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.507 Work experience. (a) The center operator shall emphasize and implement programs of work experience for students through...

  15. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or...

  16. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work experience. 638.507 Section 638.507... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.507 Work experience. (a) The center operator shall emphasize and implement programs of work experience for students through...

  17. Quality of Students' Work Experience and Orientation toward Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of school-supervised work experiences on the work attitudes of high school students. Finds that students who report less conflict between their jobs and their academic achievement express more motivation and less cynicism. (FMW)

  18. REPORT OF WORK INJURIES TO MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, A STUDY OF 18 MONTHS' EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY 28 STATES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Standards (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS FURNISHED REPORT FORMS AND GUIDES FOR COMPLETING THEM TO THE 28 PARTICIPATING STATES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MAIL ON A VOLUNTARY REPORTING BASIS DURING THE 18-MONTH PERIOD, JANUARY 1964 THROUGH JUNE 1965. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) A TOTAL OF 16,936 INJURIES TO EMPLOYED MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WAS REPORTED, (2) OF…

  19. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences…

  20. Age differences in visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Gillian; Hasher, Lynn; Turcotte, Josée

    2008-03-01

    In two visuospatial working memory (VSWM) span experiments, older and young participants were tested under conditions of either high or low interference, using two different displays: computerized versions of a 3 x 3 matrix or the standard (randomly arrayed) Corsi block task (P. M. Corsi, 1972). Older adults' VSWM estimates were increased in the low-interference, compared with the high-interference, condition, replicating findings with verbal memory span studies. Young adults showed the opposite pattern, and together the findings suggest that typical VSWM span tasks include opposing components (interference and practice) that differentially affect young and older adults. PMID:18361657

  1. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  2. Work Experience Education Instructional Guide. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Association of Work Experience Educators, Orange.

    This guide provides work experience education coordinators with a framework and a series of topical items that can be incorporated into the classroom-related instruction portion of the student's work experience education program. An introduction lists student outcomes, describes the curriculum framework, and outlines verification activities.…

  3. Does chronological age reduce working ability?

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta

    2006-03-01

    Definitions of so-called older age often are based on a chronological age of 65 years and over, although by some authors aging is the process that starts after the 30th year of life. At the beginning occur changes in the organ functions, followed by anatomical changes as well. Some organs age faster, some slower. For example, kidneys decrease for one third, lungs do not change, liver shrinks a little, prostate increases twice. In some cross-sectional studies, muscle mass in men aged 65 is on average 12 kg less than in the so-called middle age, and in women it is approximately 5 kg less. In the heart the amount of connective tissue increases, lipofuscin is deposited in cardiac muscle, the strength of which is decreasing. In the respiratory tract the number of pathways cilia decreases, along with the alveolar surface, muscles involved in breathing change, lung elasticity is also diminished. But, in regard with the previous body capacity, "physiological aging" can be divided into three types of elderly: the "older" elderly have the highest functional capacity of 2-3 MET (MET--metabolic unit, i.e. the oxygen consumption of 3.5 ml/kg body mass in a minute), the "younger" elderly are the persons of older age having maximal functional capacity of 5-7 MET, while the "sport" elderly have the functional capacity of 9-10 MET, disregarding chronological age. The brain weight diminishes for approximately 7% compared to younger age. In temporal gyrus and area striata even 20-40% of cells are being lost, vacuolar and neuroaxonal degeneration occurs, lipofuscin is being accumulated. The brain blood flow, which is in normal conditions 50-60 ml/min/100 g of tissue, with the increase of biological age decreases to about 40 ml/min/100 g of tissue. However, this usually is not the consequence of biological age but of disease. A chronological age of 65 for the beginning of "elder hood" is a sociopolitical construct developed by social security systems and government organizations to

  4. Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…

  5. Mother, daughter, patient, nurse: women's emotion work in aged care.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, S; Bevan, C

    2000-04-01

    This paper examines emotion work within the predominantly female environment of aged-care nursing, identifying phenomena which must be accounted for in a theory of emotional labour. These phenomena include the blurring of public and private in women's experiences and maternal models of care. Initial findings demonstrate the high levels of stress experienced by staff, related to emotional labour and to conflicts around the erosion of care standards. Sixteen women, from rural Australia, participated in the first stage of the research. The oldest was in her sixties, the youngest in her thirties. Length of aged-care experience ranged from 2 to 33 years. Although most of the women expected to still be in aged care in 5 years' time, they were negative in their attitudes to personal ageing, suggesting an ambivalence in their feelings about working in aged care. Three women nurses are the particular focus of this paper. Their narratives illustrate the intersection of private and public caring in nurses' lives and the implications of this for emotional labour. Phenomena such as dual caring, conflicts in insider-outsider roles, and transference are revealed in their narratives. We argue that the welfare of the recipient of gerontic nursing is linked to the well-being of the nurse-carer but that a cultural change is needed so as to recognize and value emotion work. However, endorsing Staden, we agree that such a change is dependent on the politicization of 'caring'. There is also need for further and broader research concerning the nature of emotional labour and the ethics of care. PMID:10759986

  6. Work Experience and Control Orientation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Michael D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Longitudinal data in St. Paul (Minnesota) for 1,001 ninth graders and 962 of them as tenth graders show that part-time work experience and mastery orientation are reciprocally related for adolescents. Youth more internally oriented in grade 9 had less stressful jobs in grade 10. Extrinsic work conditions are sources of control orientation. (SLD)

  7. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  8. Occupational Work Experience. Manual of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel, employers, parents/guardians, and students in understanding the policies and procedures required to operate effective occupational work experience (OWE) programs. The OWE mission statement appears first. Chapter I describes the OWE program, its structure, types of program organization, and…

  9. When Work Experience Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Legal practitioners find the leap into academia difficult. A much bigger deterrent for lawyers interested in teaching is a laborious, oft-vexing application process that places little value on work experience and interests. They also chide law school hiring committees for a lack of outreach to Asian Pacific Islanders. Law educators emphasize that…

  10. Work Experience. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a work experience program designed for the potential school leaver. The program philosophy is set forth. Program content is then presented. A curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major…

  11. The Way to Work: How to Facilitate Work Experiences for Youth in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecking, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Employment is one of the biggest contributors to quality of life for people with disabilities--and that means well-planned work experiences should be an integral part of transition preparation for every secondary and postsecondary school aged youth. Make that happen with this practical guide, developed to help educators, transition specialists,…

  12. All in a Day's Work: Job Experiences, Self-Esteem, and Fathering in Working-Class Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm-Thomas, Karen; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    1994-01-01

    Examined how working-class fathers' job experiences affected their self-esteem and parenting styles. Conducted home interviews with 59 working-class fathers in dual-earner families and their target child, who was aged 8 to 12 years. Found that more positive fathers' work experiences, higher their self-esteem, which predicted more accepting…

  13. Neurobehavioral performance and work experience in Florida farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Freya; Rowland, Andrew S; Park, Lawrence P; Anger, W Kent; Baird, Donna D; Gladen, Beth C; Moreno, Tirso; Stallone, Lillian; Sandler, Dale P

    2003-11-01

    Farmworkers experience many work-related hazards, including exposure to neurotoxicants. We compared neurobehavioral performance of 288 farmworkers in central Florida who had done farm work for at least 1 month with 51 controls who had not. Most of the farmworkers had worked in one or more of three types of agriculture: ornamental ferns, nurseries, or citrus fruit. We collected information on farm work history in a structured interview and evaluated neurobehavioral performance using a battery of eight tests. Analyses were adjusted for established confounders including age, sex, education, and acculturation. Ever having done farm work was associated with poor performance on four tests--digit span [odds ratio (OR) = 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-3.53], tapping (coefficient = 4.13; 95% CI, 0.00-8.27), Santa Ana test (coefficient = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.29-2.39), and postural sway (coefficient = 4.74; 95% CI, -2.20 to 11.7)--but had little effect on four others: symbol digit latency, vibrotactile threshold, visual contrast sensitivity, and grip strength. Associations with farm work were similar in magnitude to associations with personal characteristics such as age and sex. Longer duration of farm work was associated with worse performance. Associations with fern work were more consistent than associations with nursery or citrus work. Deficits related to the duration of work experience were seen in former as well as current farmworkers, and decreased performance was related to chronic exposure even in the absence of a history of pesticide poisoning. We conclude that long-term experience of farm work is associated with measurable deficits in cognitive and psychomotor function. PMID:14594629

  14. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  15. [Aging of the working population in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, J; Costa, G

    2000-01-01

    The working population over 50 years of age will grow considerably during the next 15 years. After 2010, the number of retired people over 65 years of age will be almost double that of 1995, with a strong impact also on working conditions and the labour market. Work ability is a dynamic process that changes, through its components, throughout life and is the result of the interaction between individual resources (including health, functional capacity, education and skills), working conditions, and the surrounding society. Work ability creates the basis for the employability of an individual, which can be supported by a number of actions (e.g. legislation on work and retirement) and social attitudes (e.g. age discrimination). Consequently, the prevalence of limitations in work ability varies significantly according to how it is evaluated and the frequency of work disability can vary considerably in different times, locations and populations. The Work Ability Index, created and used in a Finnish 11-year longitudinal study, has been proved a useful practical tool for the assessment of workers' fitness and a good predictor of work disability. Measures able to restore, maintain or promote work ability depend on the current work status and the needs of the target groups, and must concentrate on work content, physical work environment and the work community. The actions targeted towards the individual, on the other hand, concentrate on strengthening the health status and functional resources of the workers and developing professional expertise and skills. Correctly targeted and integrated measures improve work ability of ageing workers and therefore lead to improved work quality, increased productivity and also improved quality of life and well-being. They also have positive long-term effects on the "third age", when the worker retires. PMID:11098592

  16. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  17. Work and Nonwork Predictors of Employees' Retirement Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; Glazer, Sharon; Nielson, Norma L.; Farmer, Suzanne J.

    2000-01-01

    Three analyses of data from 197 older employees and their spouses identified work and nonwork factors influencing age of retirement. Finances predicted retirement but health and gender did not. Being tired of working and expecting to work for pay after retirement predicted earlier retirement. (SK)

  18. Aging and the Work Force: Focusing on the Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Malcolm H.

    1983-01-01

    An entirely different approach is needed to manage America's aging work force. Human resource management and acceleration of skill levels are significantly more important as the structure of the economy changes. (SK)

  19. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design. PMID:26010282

  20. Working with Aging and Aged Developmentally Disabled Persons: Training Materials for Caregivers. Instructor's Manual, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Martha Ufford; Thurman, Eunice M.

    This instructor's manual, developed to assist the training instructor of a program entitled "The Aging and Aged Developmentally Disabled," provides information to enhance the skills of inservice and preservice caregivers and other professionals who work with the aging developmentally disabled. The objectives of the two training units,…

  1. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  2. 29 CFR 570.36 - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the following: (i) Permissible occupations. No student shall be assigned to work in any occupation... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work experience and career exploration program. 570.36... and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.36 Work experience and career exploration program....

  3. Work Experience Guide: How to Create a Work Experience Program at Your School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Ellen; Brown, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The intent of this manual is to provide some templates and direction to schools that are looking for ideas of how to incorporate work experience into their curriculum for youth with disabilities. Hamilton Middle School served as a pilot site for one of the Rural Institute Transition Projects from 2006-2008. The school administration eagerly…

  4. Group Work Experiences: Domestic MBA Student Experiences and Outcomes when Working with International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    This article forms part of an exploration into the results of a single-case, embedded study that was conducted to explore how domestic part-time graduate business students in the United States experience group work for summative assessment. Multiple information collection methods were utilised, including open-ended and semi-structured interviews,…

  5. Towards a longer and better working life: a challenge of work force ageing.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this overview is to describe the background of work force ageing and its consequences in the society, to introduce concepts for the solutions, to emphasize the actions needed, to point out the new challenges for occupational health, to review the targets of work life improvements, and to highlight the new innovations needed. Work life must be lengthened for the sake of society. Early retirement and low employment rates of 55-64-years old employees make the dependency ratios an increasingly heavy burden. New innovations and concepts like promotion of work ability and age management training have been effective tools for the increase of employment rates and decrease of age discrimination in Finland. The increase of the prevalence and incidence rates of work-related symptoms and diseases during ageing is a serious challenge for occupational health experts. The better adjustments of the working life with the individual health is a crucial element for a longer career. The European working life has not improved markedly for workers over 45 years between 1996 and 2000. Therefore, evidence based concepts should be widely and effectively implemented and new innovations created. A better co-operation between macro-, meso and micro levels is necessary, social partners should create mutual programmes in work places and a new deal is needed between the generations. Life course approach combines the needs and possibilities of different generations. Age management takes into consideration the different strengths of the diverse work force. PMID:17017338

  6. Intentions to Quit Work among Care Staff Working in the Aged Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karantzas, Gery C.; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya E.; Beaton, Paul; Mrkic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aged care industry experiences high rates of staff turnover. Staff turnover has significant implications for the quality of care provided to care recipients and the financial costs to care agencies. In this study, we applied a model of intention to quit to identify the contextual and personal factors that shape aged care…

  7. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  8. Does Work Contribute to Successful Aging Outcomes in Older Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martha J.; McCready, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    Older workers are the fastest growing segment of the labor force, yet little is known about designing jobs for older workers that optimize their experiences relative to aging successfully. This study examined the contribution of workplace job design (opportunities for decision-making, skill variety, coworker support, supervisor support) to…

  9. The aging work force--helping employees navigate midlife.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Diane

    2007-04-01

    The baby-boom generation is aging and workplace demographics are changing. Employees in this age group are now middle-aged. Occupational health nurses are in a unique position to guide these individuals through decisions that can affect the years ahead. Individuals in midlife may experience both physical and psychological changes, including changing physical appearance, decreased stamina, loss of family or friends, and altered vision. In the workplace, annual assessments can include evaluations to address normal changes, personal expectations, and needed support, counseling, or referrals. Middle-aged men and women are at a predictable turning point in life that offers an opportunity for growth. Education in the workplace can assist these individuals as they adjust to changes in relationships, make health care decisions, and plan for retirement. PMID:17472132

  10. Social Work Professions in an Aging World: Opportunities and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shadi S.; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Sun, Fei; Durkin, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    Given world aging, social workers will be involved in assisting older persons in their home-country and/or abroad in various types of governmental or nongovernmental agencies. This paper identifies potential opportunities for social workers with gerontological backgrounds interested in working in international and cross-cultural settings.…

  11. [Work dominance and its age-related development].

    PubMed

    Kosilov, S A

    1975-06-01

    When studying working industrial processes, peculiar displays of the dominant corresponding to common signs of the Ukhtomsky dominant, were revealed. Some physiological processes characteristic of the dominant were studied in their developing in children of different age and in adolescents. PMID:165987

  12. Graduate Social Work Education and Cognitive Complexity: Does Prior Experience Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which age, education, and practice experience among social work graduate students (N = 184) predicted cognitive complexity, an essential aspect of critical thinking. In the regression analysis, education accounted for more of the variance associated with cognitive complexity than age and practice experience. When…

  13. Working Smart Workbook. An Interactive Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    This workbook accompanies an interactive videodisc used in the Working Smart workplace literacy project prepared for the hotel and food services industry in the Los Angeles, California area. The first instructional unit addresses preparing the work area, including stocking supplies and cleaning the work area. The second instructional unit covers…

  14. Employee age and perceptions of work in self-managing and traditional work groups.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Miller, C; Beyerlein, M M; Johnson, D; Metheny, W; Yeatts, D

    1996-01-01

    Self-managing work groups are a form of work design in which employees take responsibility for the group's tasks and have discretion over decisions which impact group performance. To explore the impact of age and work teams on job attitudes, data from 477 employees suggested that self-managed work group members differed from traditional job holders regarding perceived general job satisfaction, perceived control by supervisors, as well as a number of specific dimensions of the work environment. Moreover, while there was evidence of an age effect on attitudes toward supervisory control, there was no joint effect of age by work design on job attitudes, i.e., one's perceived general job satisfaction. Older employees who were members of self-managed work groups were however, more impacted by this form of work design in reporting more positive perceptions of their access to information essential to the performance of their work. These findings suggest that an "older" work force should not be considered a barrier to implementing a work teams approach to job design. PMID:8835612

  15. Reconciling Two Computational Models of Working Memory in Aging.

    PubMed

    Hoareau, Violette; Lemaire, Benoît; Portrat, Sophie; Plancher, Gaën

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that working memory performance changes with age. Two recent computational models of working memory, TBRS* and SOB-CS, developed from young adults WM performances are opposed regarding the postulated causes of forgetting, namely time-based decay and interference for TBRS* and SOB-CS, respectively. In the present study, these models are applied on a set of complex span data produced by young and older adults. As expected, these models are unable to account for the older adult data. An investigation on the effect of the main parameters of these models showed that the poorer performance of older adults does not come from a weaker encoding of item but rather from difficulties during the free time that immediately follows each distractor, as well as from a higher level of confusion between items. These results are discussed with respect to the current theories of working memory and aging. PMID:26748955

  16. At what age do biomedical scientists do their best work?

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Ierodiakonou, Vrettos; Alexiou, Vangelis G

    2008-12-01

    Several human characteristics that influence scientific research performance, including set goals, mental and physical abilities, education, and experience, may vary considerably during the life cycle of scientists. We sought to answer the question of whether high-quality research productivity is associated with investigator's age. We randomly selected 300 highly cited scientists (50 from each of 6 different biomedical fields, specifically immunology, microbiology, neuroscience, psychology-psychiatry, clinical medicine, and biology-biochemistry). Then, we identified the top 5 highly cited articles (within 10 yr after publication adjusted for the expansion of the literature) as first author of each of them. Subsequently, we plotted the distribution of the 1500 analyzed articles of the 300 studied scientists in the eight 5-year intervals of investigator's age during the year of article publication (21-25 to 55-60 yr of age), adjusted for person-years of contribution of each scientist in the various age groups. Highly cited research productivity plotted a curve that peaked at the age group of 31-35 yr of age and then gradually decreased with advancing age. However, a considerable proportion of this highly cited research was produced by older scientists (in almost 20% of the analyzed articles, researchers were older than 50 yr). The results were similar in another analysis of the single most cited article of each studied scientist. In conclusion, high-quality scientific productivity in the biomedical fields as a function of investigator's age plots an inverted U-shaped curve, in which significant decreases take place from around 40 yr of age and beyond. PMID:18753247

  17. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  18. Youth Voices: The WorkReady Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    WorkReady programs offer young Philadelphians not only their first job, but skills for success. Young people who work during high school often master valuable skills that can help them do better in high school and college; learn new things that open their eyes to career possibilities; and earn more money later in life. When young people learn how…

  19. Children of Working Parents: Experiences and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D., Ed.; Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.

    This report, a continuation of "Families That Work: Children in a Changing World," presents six papers which examine the effects of working parents on the socialization and intellectual development of children. Data were obtained from approximately 75 sources which met the following criteria: information from two or more relevant domains…

  20. Age differences in proactive interference, working memory, and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Emery, Lisa; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel

    2008-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that older adults are especially susceptible to proactive interference (PI) and that this may contribute to age differences in working memory performance. In young adults, individual differences in PI affect both working memory and reasoning ability, but the relations between PI, working memory, and reasoning in older adults have not been examined. In the current study, young, old, and very old adults performed a modified operation span task that induced several cycles of PI buildup and release as well as two tests of abstract reasoning ability. Age differences in working memory scores increased as PI built up, consistent with the hypothesis that older adults are more susceptible to PI, but both young and older adults showed complete release from PI. Young adults' reasoning ability was best predicted by working memory performance under high PI conditions, replicating M. Bunting (2006). In contrast, older adults' reasoning ability was best predicted by their working memory performance under low PI conditions, thereby raising questions regarding the general role of susceptibility to PI in differences in higher cognitive function among older adults. PMID:18808252

  1. Age Management and Sustainable Careers for the Improvement of the Quality of Ageing at Work.

    PubMed

    Marcaletti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Prolonging working careers by increasing the statutory age for retirement has become compulsory in most Western societies in order to tackle the shrinking of the labour force, preserve economic productivity, foster knowledge transfer and reduce the risks of financial imbalances in social security systems. This imperative currently results in working careers that already exceed 40 years and come to an end after the age of 65 (e.g. in Italy). Over the next few decades, both career length and retirement age are expected to rise. Thus, creating more inclusive workplaces by increasing their quality is the precondition of a win-win situation for both employers and employees, regardless of age. A request for support in the development of sustainable careers from both private and public labour organisations has led to innovating the mainstream methodologies and research tools in the field of age management. Based on the key elements of the mainstream "work ability concept" - i.e. health, competencies, motivation and work organisation - the Quality of Ageing at Work questionnaire (QAW-q), developed by a team from the WWELL Research Centre, broadens its perspective by surveying elements bridging intra-organisational dimensions and which affect employees' conditions and external socio-institutional constraints: i.e. work-life balance, economic stability, professional identity and relationships in the workplace. The QAW-q is designed to analyse the influence of the different meanings of age (chronological age, seniority within the company and in the labour market) and correlate them with the different dimensions at individual and organisational levels; all these dimensions are weighted by the effect exerted by the passage of time. The results of the QAW-q survey, taken by employees of both private and public companies, serve as a basis for the implementation of measures addressing all the relevant dimensions of the human resource management cycle. PMID:26630520

  2. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    PubMed

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. PMID:26985577

  3. Work Experience of the Population in 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne McDougall

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses several facets of the labor force based on 1978 data--seasonal and year-round workers; Blacks, Whites, Hispanics; men and women; occupational change; unemployment; and factors such as age--as they relate to employment. Data tables are included. (CT)

  4. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  5. Working Memory and Aging: Separating the Effects of Content and Context

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Kara L.; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that age-related differences in working memory might be due to the inability to bind content with context. Participants were required to find a repeating stimulus within a single series (no context memory required) or within multiple series (necessitating memory for context). Response time and accuracy were examined in two task domains: verbal and visuospatial. Binding content with context led to longer processing time and poorer accuracy in both age groups, even when working memory load was held constant. Although older adults were overall slower and less accurate than younger adults, the need for context memory did not differentially affect their performance. It is therefore unlikely that age differences in working memory are due to specific age-related problems with content-with-context binding. PMID:20025410

  6. An Educational Dilemma: Are Educational Experiments Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakaya, Serhat

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the biased effects which affect scientific researches; although most of the researchers ignore them, and make criticism of the experimental works in the educational field, based on this viewpoint. For this reason, a quasi-experimental process has been carried out with five different student teachers…

  7. Binding and Inhibition in Working Memory: Individual and Age Differences in Short-Term Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), adult age, and the resolution of conflict between familiarity and recollection in short-term recognition tasks. Experiment 1 showed a specific deficit of young adults with low WMC in rejecting intrusion probes (i.e., highly familiar probes) in a modified Sternberg…

  8. Working at Congress : a Sandian's experience.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    During the 110th Congress (calendar years 2007 and 2008), Matthew Allen, a Sandian nuclear scientist, served as a Congressional Fellow on the Committee on Homeland Security in the House of Representatives. This report is an informative account of the role staffers play in assisting the members of Congress in their oversight and legislative duties. It is also a personal account of Matthew Allen's experience as a committee staffer in the House of Representatives.

  9. Age variations in judgments of 'great' art works.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports the results of two large-scale surveys concerning nominations of 'greatness' in the arts. In Study 1, 1088 respondents to a national newspaper survey nominated the greatest art works of the past 1000 years. Analyses indicated that there was some, albeit limited, evidence that older respondents nominated older art works, but no evidence of a tendency to nominate works produced during the participants' adolescence/early adulthood. In Study 2, a very brief questionnaire distributed through a CD retail chain, a national newspaper, and a national TV station asked 12,502 participants to nominate up to three of the greatest pop musicians of all time. Analyses indicated a tendency to nominate musicians who were successful while the participants themselves were in adolescence/early adulthood. These results are discussed in terms of the extent to which age can explain judgments of artistic 'greatness' within different art forms. PMID:12230837

  10. The Promises of Computerization: Nurses' Work Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Lena

    1989-01-01

    In the past two decades computers have been integrated within hospital settings at an ever increasing rate and Nursing Information Systems have been integrated into the day-to-day work of nurses. This study evaluates one hospital setting which has incorporated bedside computers on all its nursing units assessing nurses perceptions of computer usage, location, satisfaction, job satisfaction and perceived abilities to provide caring in this technologized environment.

  11. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  12. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace. PMID:25575323

  13. Optimal experience among teachers: new insights into the work paradox.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Marta; Delle Fave, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Several studies highlighted that individuals perceive work as an opportunity for flow or optimal experience, but not as desirable and pleasant. This finding was defined as the work paradox. The present study addressed this issue among teachers from the perspective of self-determination theory, investigating work-related intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as autonomous and controlled behavior regulation. In Study 1, 14 teachers were longitudinally monitored with Experience Sampling Method for one work week. In Study 2, 184 teachers were administered Flow Questionnaire and Work Preference Inventory, respectively investigating opportunities for optimal experience, and motivational orientations at work. Results showed that work-related optimal experiences were associated with both autonomous regulation and with controlled regulation. Moreover, teachers reported both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation at work, with a prevailing intrinsic orientation. Findings provide novel insights on the work paradox, and suggestions for teachers' well-being promotion. PMID:22931008

  14. Student Work Experience: A Realistic Approach to Merchandising Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relevant and realistic experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)

  15. [Results of operator's work during space flight (experiment "pilot") under different work-and-rest cycles].

    PubMed

    Sal'nitskiĭ, V P; Dudukin, A V; Savchenko, É G; Stepanova, S I; Nesterov, V F; Saraev, I F

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between operator's job quality and crew work-rest cycle (WRC) aboard the International space station was studied. The experiment involved 10 Russian members of ISS missions 17-24 at the age of 35 to 51 yrs. Mission duration varied from 163 to 200 days, averaging 180 days. Each cosmonaut carried out several "pilot" test sessions. The number of sessions per mission ranged from 4 to 6. The procedure consisted of simulating manual operation of transport vehicle Soyuz on the stages of hang-up, berthing and docking with the ISS. Objective job quality parameters were accuracy of the Soyuz and ISS relative motion control and time for completion which actually characterized work rate. WRC intensity was judged by the data of monitoring at the Moscow Mission Control Center. The results lend support to the dependence of operator's efficiency on WRC. In operators aimed at the highest accuracy this dependence manifested itself in work rate parameters; work accuracy but not rate was more WRC-dependent in operators aimed at doing their job fast. In other words, WRC intensity impacted mostly those job qualities that operator considered to be of secondary importance. PMID:23402140

  16. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  17. Age and synchrony effects in visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Gillian; Hasher, Lynn; Turcotte, Josée

    2009-10-01

    Younger and older adults were administered a computerized version of the Corsi Block visuospatial working memory (VSWM) span task at either their peak or off-peak time of day and in either a high-interference (ascending order of administration, starting with short lists first) or low-interference (descending order, starting with longest lists first) format. Young adults' span scores were highest in the ascending format. By contrast, older adults performed better in the low-interference format, replicating findings with verbal memory span studies. Although both age groups benefited from being tested at their peak time, the advantage was far greater for older adults, but only in the low-interference format; their scores on the high-interference format were not helped by peak-time testing. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that young adults' performance on span tasks is influenced by practice and strategies, but the performance of older adults is heavily influenced by interference-which is best controlled at peak times of day. Our findings suggest that both time of testing and interference play critical roles in determining age differences in VSWM span, and both a reduction in interference and peak-time testing may be necessary to optimize older adults' performance and to maximize the reduction in age differences. PMID:19459136

  18. Patterns of Work Experience among High School Students: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Charles; Schneider, Donald O.

    The work experience of high school students is investigated, including type of work, amount of time worked, reasons for jobs away from home, effect of work on school performance and activities, and reasons for not being employed. The sample consisted of 1,227 urban and rural secondary school students in 14 Georgia high schools, 35.9 percent of…

  19. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study.

    PubMed

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement. PMID:24093736

  20. [Deficiencies and resources of working population in relation to age: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Volkoff, S

    2000-01-01

    The aging of the population as a whole and the later age at which young people start work are increasing the percentage of older employees. In situations where the working conditions are highly demanding, as in shiftwork, time-pressure jobs, and adaptation to modern technology or skill diversification, this demographic trend may cause serious problems. The way in which job constraints and demands are withstood at various ages should be considered in relation to health, which is often, whether implicitly or explicitly, a selection criterion in the work place. The connection between work and health can rarely be described by a single causal relationship and requires specific epidemiological methods. Moreover, a health problem linked to age can have a feedback effect on the manner in which a job is performed. While these problems do indeed arise in the areas of work and health, they are nonetheless usually symptoms of modifications that have taken place in the work activity itself. The ergonomic approach nevertheless allows us to improve our understanding of changes in work behavior as age increases, as experience is gained, and as skills are acquired. Men and women on the job are not passive spectators of the good or poor fit between the characteristics of their jobs and their own functional state. Consciously or unconsciously, they modify their operating modes (movements, work pace, posture, etc.), reduce their effort level in some subtasks, make more plans to avoid emergency situations, check the outcome of their actions so as to reduce errors that would be costly to correct, and adjust the distribution of tasks in cooperative and collective work situations. But these strategies can only be implemented if the work conditions and organization foster and promote them. PMID:11098595

  1. Stability through the ages: the GSK experience.

    PubMed

    Blaxill, Zoe; Holland-Crimmin, Sue; Lifely, Rob

    2009-06-01

    It is common knowledge in the pharmaceutical industry that the quality of a company's compound collection has a major influence on the success of biological screening in drug discovery programs. DMSO is the widely accepted solvent of choice for storage of compounds, despite the hygroscopic nature of the solvent, which can lead to stability issues. Other factors that can affect compound stability (e.g., degradation, precipitation) include concentration of compound, intrinsic compound stability, presence of reactive contaminants, storage format-related factors (vessel, sealing, etc.), storage conditions (temperature, humidity, freeze-thaw technique and cycles, etc.), and storage time. To define the best practice for the storage and handling of solution samples, GlaxoSmithKline has undertaken stability experiments over more than a decade, initially to support the implementation of new automated liquid stores (ALS) and, subsequently, to enhance storage and use of compounds in solution through an understanding of compound degradation under storage and assay conditions. The experiments described used a number of technologies, including hyphenated liquid chromatography, electrospray mass spectrometry, flow chemiluminescence nitrogen detection, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Karl Fischer titration. PMID:19470717

  2. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  3. WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION FOR THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUTCHINSON, LINN

    THE WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR THE EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED IS DESIGNED TO PREPARE THE STUDENT FOR ECONOMIC SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN THE ADULT WORLD. THE PROGRAM AIMS TO DEVELOP COMPETENCY IN PERSONAL HABITS, ACADEMIC SKILLS, AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. EACH STUDENT IN THE SPECIAL WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAM PROFITS BY OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION,…

  4. A Framework for STEM Based Work Experience Accreditation: CREST Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jodie

    2009-01-01

    Teachers and employers realise that work experience should be more than just photocopying, answering phones, making the tea, and shadowing office-based staff to "learn about the world of work". The challenge is to ensure the experience is engaging for the student, and worthwhile. The British Science Association has been piloting ways to add value…

  5. Not in Australia. Migration, work and age discrimination.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Simon; Fredvang, Marthe; Haapala, Irja

    2013-06-01

    Perceptions of older people are changing both nationally and internationally, with policy developments that emphasise the value of older workers and the extension of working life to accommodate a longer life-course. For national economies older workers produce benefits of increasing tax dollars and personal savings and reduce claims on the state through pensions. In terms of migration, older adults bring assets and other benefits generated elsewhere into the host economy, as skilled workers or as active retirees. It has also been argued that older societies may be more productive as a consequence of the contribution of older citizens. Nations that create barriers to older migration, such as is currently the case for Australia, run the risk not only of perpetuating age discrimination, but also of failing to take advantage of population change in a global context. The authors critically examine this area and raise a series of questions for future policy. PMID:23773254

  6. Retaining the wisdom: Academic nurse leaders' reflections on extending the working life of aging nurse faculty.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Aging nurse faculty members are vital human resources who serve as educators, researchers, and leaders within baccalaureate nursing (BSN) programs. On average, aging nurse faculty members are over 50 years of age and face key retirement decisions over the next decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to build substantive theory about academic nurse leaders' perceptions of extending the academic working life of aging nurse faculty members. Nine academic nurse leaders from BSN programs nationwide were interviewed in this grounded theory study. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Four categories emerged: valuing aging nurse faculty, enduring environmental challenges, recognizing stakeholder incongruence, and readjusting. Findings reveal that aging nurse faculty members are highly valued by academic nurse leaders, bringing wisdom, experience, and institutional, historical, and cultural awareness to their many roles. Yet, some aging nurse faculty fail to keep knowledge, skills, and teaching modes current, which is problematic given the multiple environmental challenges that academic nurse leaders face. Stakeholder incongruence arises as a mismatch between the needs of the BSN program and the skills and contributions of aging nurse faculty members. BSN programs, program leaders, and aging nurse faculty members can lessen incongruence by readjusting to address the pressures, tensions, and ongoing change. PMID:24503313

  7. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  8. Loss and Grief Experiences of Mentors in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Cross, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring is an important process in educating competent professionals. However, little is known about mentors' experiences in social work higher education. Two social work educators reflect on 21 years of mentoring with over 60 social work students. Data are triangulated from the notes of two cross-interviews, separately prepared written…

  9. Environmental Project Provides Work Experience for Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy L.; Smith, Marilyn; Usinger, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Bootstraps is a 12-week program designed for rural youth, ages 18-21, who are not working and not in school. The program goal is for participants to develop skills and motivation to find meaningful work, which is accomplished through a combination of classroom learning and practical fieldwork. The environmental fieldwork on public lands, funded by…

  10. Poetry Efforts by Aged Deaf: Expression of Life Cycle Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Teena M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a day-long Aging Awareness workshop in which a group of 12 elderly were involved in a poetry-writing exercise focusing on meaningful life change. Ramifications of this positive experience are discussed in view of the cultural/language barrier and traditional aging awareness issues such as reminiscence. (JAC)

  11. School-Age Prework Experiences of Young People with a History of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Young people with specific language impairment (SLI) are at risk for poorer outcomes with respect to employment in adulthood, yet little is known of how early school-age prework experiences prepare them for the job market. This study examined whether young people with SLI engage in similar types of early work experiences as their typically…

  12. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  13. Lived Experiences of College-Age Transsexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the lived experiences of 4 college-age transsexual individuals. A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to investigate their experiences influencing their later educational persistence. Results suggested that level of discomfort, perceived social supports, level of secrecy, and academic achievement all affected…

  14. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vavelidis, M; Andreou, S

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium B.C: . Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals. PMID:18087685

  15. Selection Experiments in the Penna Model for Biological Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, G.; Idiart, M. A.; de Almeida, R. M. C.

    We consider the Penna model for biological aging to investigate correlations between early fertility and late life survival rates in populations at equilibrium. We consider inherited initial reproduction ages together with a reproduction cost translated in a probability that mother and offspring die at birth, depending on the mother age. For convenient sets of parameters, the equilibrated populations present genetic variability in what regards both genetically programmed death age and initial reproduction age. In the asexual Penna model, a negative correlation between early life fertility and late life survival rates naturally emerges in the stationary solutions. In the sexual Penna model, selection experiments are performed where individuals are sorted by initial reproduction age from the equilibrated populations and the separated populations are evolved independently. After a transient, a negative correlation between early fertility and late age survival rates also emerges in the sense that populations that start reproducing earlier present smaller average genetically programmed death age. These effects appear due to the age structure of populations in the steady state solution of the evolution equations. We claim that the same demographic effects may be playing an important role in selection experiments in the laboratory.

  16. Enhancing Student Engagement through Practice Experience in Social Work Education: The Social Work Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alan

    2012-01-01

    It can sometimes be difficult to engage students in "real life experiences" within the classroom. In one Bachelor of Social Work program, the development of a Social Work Studio (the Studio) has provided students with opportunities to engage in simulated social work practice in a safe and supportive environment. This article reports on a small…

  17. Preparing for the World of Work: An Exploratory Study of Disabled Students' Experiences of Work Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Catherine Elizabeth; Espahbodi, Shima; De Souza, Lorraine Hilary

    2012-01-01

    For people with disabilities, one of the best ways to achieve independence is through work. Experience gained by undertaking a work placement whilst a student provides valuable knowledge and understanding of the demands of work, and enhances employability on graduation for both students with disabilities and for their non-disabled peers. The aims…

  18. Postgraduate Study and Managers' Subsequent Work Experience: An Exploratory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Harris, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on an exploratory qualitative study, this article considers the link between business school teaching at graduate level and subsequent work behaviour and experiences of former students. It evaluates the student experience some time "after" graduation. The findings of the retrospective evaluation point to the value of classroom peer…

  19. Learning by Experience, Work and Productivity: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and significance of learning by experience during work, both paid and unpaid. Data about the relationship between costs, especially labour costs, and output have come to be interpreted as evidence of learning by experience, but these grouped data are unable to explain the nature and process of individual experience…

  20. Astronaut William Gregory works with pharmaceutical experiments on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, STS-67 pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids and crystal growth investigations.

  1. Vocational Work Experience in the Hospitality Industry: Characteristics and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Experience in Europe shows that success in work-experience programs requires these key strategies: (1) emphasis on integration; (2) development of training requirements; (3) fine tuning of educational supply with industry demand; (4) local problem-solving procedures; and (5) recognition of the responsibilities of both education and industry. (SK)

  2. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the…

  3. Cooperative Work-Experience Education Programs in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Marcia A.

    1970-01-01

    The combination of course work and related work experience into educational programs at the junior college level represents an attempt by these institutions to meet the changing requirements of today's employers. This Research Review looks at a few aspects of their programs . To begin with, the values of these programs are viewed from the…

  4. Making a Mess of Academic Work: Experience, Purpose and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Janice; Zukas, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Within the policy discourse of academic work, teaching, research and administration are seen as discrete elements of practice. We explore the assumptions evident in this "official story" and contrast it with the messy experience of academic work, drawing upon empirical studies and conceptualisations from our own research and from recent…

  5. Transforming Knowledge to Knowing at Work: The Experiences of Newcomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; McManus, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how newcomers experience their transition to work as they strive to move from a position of "educational" knowledge to professional knowing. Hence, we focus on how newcomers learn to transform knowledge to knowing at work. We do this through the analysis of two ethnographic case studies: one with a focus on new office workers…

  6. THE ROLE OF AFFECTIVE EXPERIENCE IN WORK MOTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN; BARTUNEK, JEAN M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on psychological and neurobiological theories of core affective experience, we identify a set of direct and indirect paths through which affective feelings at work affect three dimensions of behavioral outcomes: direction, intensity, and persistence. First, affective experience may influence these behavioral outcomes indirectly by affecting goal level and goal commitment, as well as three key judgment components of work motivation: expectancy judgments, utility judgments, and progress judgments. Second, affective experience may also affect these behavioral outcomes directly. We discuss implications of our model. PMID:16871321

  7. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  8. The Work on Aging/DD in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Charlotte

    This conference presentation describes New York State programs serving elderly mentally retarded (MR) and developmentally disabled (DD) persons. These service providers offer programming that is sensitive to the impact of the aging process, or provide the opportunity to access community aging programs, or a combination. Linkages are being…

  9. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  10. Strategic Self Development for Successful Aging at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sean M.; Hansson, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies involving 265 participants were conducted to assess the content and range of strategies used by employees to age successfully in the workplace. Study 1 included 64 individuals ranging in age from 23 to 61. These individuals were asked to list up to five activities they have pursued in five potentially important areas of development.…

  11. Work Past Age 65 in Canada: A Socioeconomic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lynn; Wanner, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    Using data from the 1973 Canadian National Mobility Study of over 6,000 men and women, it is found that socioeconomic factors such as age, self-employment, educational attainment, and amount of unearned income are major determinants of employment past age 65. Financial incentive is a prime factor, particularly for older women. (SK)

  12. Mortality Trends Among Working-Age Whites: The Untold Story.

    PubMed

    Squires, David; Blumenthal, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has called attention to an unexpected rise in death rates among middle-aged, white Americans between 1999 and 2014. The full extent of the phenomenon may be underappreciated, however. If one assumes, based on historical trends, that mortality rates should have declined by 1.8 percent per year, then whites in 2014 had higher-than-expected mortality rates from age 19 to age 65. Furthermore, while increased substance abuse and suicides explain the elevated mortality rates for younger adults, middle-aged whites also seem to be experiencing stalled or rising mortality rates for most ailments and diseases. While a national phenomenon, middle-aged whites face much more adverse mortality trends in certain states and regions. The especially broad reach of these negative mortality trends suggests there is an urgent need for further investigation of its causes and potential remedies. PMID:26934757

  13. Group work as an incentive for learning - students' experiences of group work.

    PubMed

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students' ability to learn is still lacking. Similarly, the question of why some group work is successful and other group work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students' experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students' positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students' explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students' experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function, and organization) for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students' learning, as well as impact their experiences with group work

  14. Building Pathways to Working with Collections: Can Internships and Student Work Experience Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Marian

    2011-01-01

    How do internships and work experience, such as volunteering, give students a taste of the environment in which they hope to be employed? How do they provide pathways between educational institutions and the workplace? This paper reports on a qualitative research study about the initial professional learning experiences of individuals newly…

  15. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940–1989

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people’s services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about ‘all age’ or ‘old age’ services and inform decision-making on future mental health services. PMID:26191440

  16. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  1. 29 CFR 570.35a - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work experience and career exploration program. 570.35a Section 570.35a Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor...

  2. Correlates of Root Caries Experience in Middle-Aged and Older Adults within the Northwest PRECEDENT

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Berg, Joel H.; Kim, Amy S.; Scott, JoAnna

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background We examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged (ages 45–64 years) and older adults (ages 65+ years) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged versus older adults. Methods This observational cross-sectional study focused on adult patients ages 45–97 years recruited from the Northwest PRECEDENT (N=775 adults). The outcome variable was any root caries experience (no/yes). Sociodemographic, intraoral, and behavioral factors were hypothesized as potential root caries correlates. We used Poisson regression models to generate overall and age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR) of root caries and Generalized Estimating Equations to account for practice-level clustering of participants. Results About 20% of adults had any root caries. Dentists’ assessment that the patient was at high risk for any caries was associated with greater prevalence of root caries experience in both middle-aged adults (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.63,4.46) and older adults (PR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.19,2.95). The following factors were significantly associated with increased root caries prevalence, but only for middle-aged adults: male sex (P=.02), self-reported dry mouth (P<.0001), exposed roots (P=.03), and increased frequency of eating or drinking between meals (P=.03). No other covariates were related to root caries experience for older adults. Conclusions Within a practice-based research network, the factors associated with root caries experience were different for middle-aged and older adults. Future work should identify relevant root caries correlates for adults ages 65+ years. Clinical Implications Interventions aimed at preventing root caries are likely to be different for middle-aged and older adults. Root caries prevention programs should address the appropriate aged-based risk factors. PMID:23633699

  3. How to Make Cross-Age Tutoring Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1986-01-01

    The Pause, Prompt, and Praise method of tutor training has been used successfully to train older children and parents to provide remedial reading instruction. Tips for putting together a cross-age tutoring program are given. (MT)

  4. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  5. Latina/o Food Industry Employees' Work Experiences: Work Barriers, Facilitators, Motivators, Training Preferences, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Cho, Seonghee; Groves, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the work experiences, job satisfaction, and work behaviors of Latina/o restaurant workers. A total of 10 semistructured focus group (N = 75) interviews were conducted in the Midwest and Southwest. Data were analyzed using a combination of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill, Thompson, &…

  6. Preparing Ohio's Youth through Occupational Work Adjustment and Occupational Work Experience Programs: Prospects for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Aaron J.; Bragg, Debra D.

    A study undertaken to aid administrators in considering program alternatives for administering Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) and Occupational Work Experience (OWE) programs in Ohio examined the Ohio Department of Education's certification of OWA and OWE teachers in light of the state's new minimum standards for elementary and secondary…

  7. Work stress among six professional groups: the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Chan, K B; Lai, G; Ko, Y C; Boey, K W

    2000-05-01

    Recent developments in stress research have called for attention to how social structures influence the stress and coping processes. This paper examines the experience of work stress among professionals in Singapore and argues that workers' experiences in the workplace are influenced not only by individual personality and job nature, but also by structural forces shaping the profession, the social organization of work institutions and the development of the economy. Data were collected from a survey of professionals in Singapore conducted in 1989-1990. The sample consisted of 2570 men and women from six different professions and para-professions, namely general practitioners, lawyers, engineers, teachers, nurses and life insurance personnel. Results showed that performance pressure and work-family conflicts were perceived to be the most stressful aspects of work. These two stressors also significantly contributed to the experience of overall work stress. Further, stress arising from work-family conflicts, performance pressure and poor job prospects was negatively associated with the level of work satisfaction. These findings were discussed in the contexts of increasing professionalization and de-professionalization and the growing emphases on productivity and efficiency in a quickly developing economy. PMID:10741577

  8. Return-to-work experiences of people with cancer.

    PubMed

    Berry, D L

    1993-07-01

    Maintaining employment after a cancer diagnosis and even during therapy is becoming a major challenge for an increasing number of individuals. The purpose of this study was to further understanding of the experience of returning to work after a cancer diagnosis by discovering the nature and processes of the experience's dimensions. This exploratory, longitudinal study systematically analyzed the dimensions of the return-to-work experience that were evident in data from 19 unstructured interviews. Grounded theory methods of study design and constant comparative analysis guided the interviews and data analysis. The core social process suggested by the data is one of mobilizing social support in the work environment. The inceptive theory explains and delineates steps in a process that ultimately facilitates a person's reintegration of normal activities after a cancer diagnosis. The added understanding available in these results can guide nurses to focus not only on related dimensions of the return-to-work experience, such as time off for treatment, but on central concerns, such as the social benefits of returning to work. PMID:8367344

  9. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  10. Clinician Experiences Assessing Work Disability Related to Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Results Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Conclusions Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of “partial disability”. In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability. PMID:25789478

  11. Enjoying work or burdened by it? How personal assistants experience and handle stress at work.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    A personal assistant has to promote equality in living conditions for persons with severe disabilities. The aim of this study was to explore how personal assistants experience their work and what strategies they employ to alleviate work-related stress. Thirty personal assistants were interviewed and latent content analysis was performed. The findings regarding the experiences of work-related stress could be brought together under the theme of "difficulties of being in a subordinate position," and those regarding management strategies could be brought together under the theme of "coming to terms with the work situation." There is a need to empower personal assistants through training programs including tailored education, working communities, and coaching. PMID:22630600

  12. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? Design/Methodology/Approach To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. Findings Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. Implications These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. Originality/Value Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  13. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  14. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  15. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  16. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  17. Writing across the Ages: A Working Writer's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bonnie M.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews a teacher's approaches to her three language arts classes, taught during the same period of time but in different settings and to different ages: a seventh-grade class in an affluent suburb, a college class in a middle-class neighborhood, and a prison class housed behind razor wire. (TB)

  18. When Are Teachers Motivated to Work beyond Retirement Age? The Importance of Support, Change of Work Role and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Visser, Michel S.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the factors influencing the motivation to continue working after retirement among a sample of Dutch teachers. Based on previous research, it was proposed that teachers will be motivated to work after their legal retirement age when organizational support, possibilities to change work roles and financial needs are high.…

  19. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  20. How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skår, Randi

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and illuminates the meaning of nurses' experiences with their work as a learning environment. A qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts of eleven graduate nurses. Three core themes emerged from these informants' descriptions of their…

  1. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  2. The impact of gender and working experience on intertemporal choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Xintian

    2014-09-01

    Intertemporal choice has been drawing attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. In this paper, we experimentally estimate the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction) of intertemporal choice models (exponential, simple hyperbolic, quasi hyperbolic, and q-exponential) for senior undergraduate students and MBA students, respectively. Our results show that (1) regardless of gender or working experience, q-exponential discount model always generates minimum AICc value, and it is thus the optimal discount model; (2) gender affects the degree of inconsistency and fitness of the discount model. Comparing to female participants, male participants have a higher degree of inconsistency while their discount pattern is better explained by q-exponential discount model; (3) working experience has an interaction effect with gender. For male participants, working experience is inversely related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model. On the contrary, for female participants, working experience is positively related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model.

  3. Professional Learning between Past Experience and Future Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the professionalization of human service work. It analyses learning processes and identity development in the emerging profession of child care with concrete examples from empirical research, based on a life history approach. It discusses examples of careers mainly based on students' life experience, pointing out that their…

  4. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  5. Skylab Experiments, Volume 7, Living and Working in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their scope of material selection. The seventh volume deals with the ability of the Skylab crew to live and work effectively in space. The content is…

  6. Industrial Work Experience I. Curriculum Guide. General Related Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    The primary purpose of this guide is to present basic sample instructional materials for the Industrial Work Experience (IWE) Program. It is designed to aid those charged with local administration and coordination of programs in secondary level trade and industrial education, referred to as the IWE training program. The guide contains 10 units of…

  7. Urban Adolescents' Experience of Social Class in Relationships at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Anne E.; Hall, Georgia; Blustein, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study examining two interrelated facets of the school-to-work transition among urban high school students: their relationships with important adults within that transition and the ways they experience the subjective aspects of social class and class-related constructs in those relationships. Participants were…

  8. Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

  9. School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?

    PubMed

    Males, M

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) reduction has not occurred, despite sexuality education and abstinence programs, and intensive publicity and community initiatives. An obstacle to adolescent pregnancy, STD, and childbearing prevention is the assumption that adolescent sexuality is a closed system of activity among peers. When a nation is consumed with the preoccupation of condoms versus chastity debates, and is ignoring high poverty levels and abuse of the young, adolescent girls will seek escape from harsh childhoods in early family formation with young adult men. There is a high correlation between poverty rates and teenage birth, AIDS, and STD rates. Schools are not able to produce magical solutions to teenage pregnancy when adult lawmakers abnegate their responsibility to provide for youth well-being. Adolescent pregnancy will occur regardless of the expansion of curative programs such as school-based clinics; fundamental changes in assumptions, attitudes, and policies are needed. Beneficial aspects of programming appear to be fact-based sexuality and contraceptive education, counseling and referrals for youths with histories of child abuse, and child care classes and flexible school schedules for parenting students. A statistical profile in California indicates that 85% of all fathers of babies born to girls between ages of 11 and 18 years were adults. More than 50% of mothers aged 11-15 years were impregnated by adult men. Fathers' average age for births among junior high school mothers was 15-26 years, when the youngest and the oldest 2.5% of fathers are eliminated. There is a greater likelihood that a man older than 23 years will impregnate a junior high girl than will a junior high boy. The partner age gap is greatest among the very young girls. The California profile of father's age is similar to birth patterns in other states and similar to the national average. An examination of STDs shows a higher rate of STDs among females

  10. Evaluation of a Training Program in Aging Research for Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, we have offered a postgraduate training program in aging research for social work faculty from across the country. The overarching goal of the program is to expand the pool of social work faculty engaged in aging research. This, in turn, will reinvigorate participants' teaching; prepare them to update aging-related content in the…

  11. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social…

  12. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  13. Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

  14. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood. PMID:27029460

  15. The Effects of Age, Years of Experience, and Type of Experience in the Teacher Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David Scott

    2010-01-01

    Paper screening in the pre-selection process of hiring teachers has been the focus in an ongoing series of similar studies starting with Allison in 1981. There have been many independent variables, including, but not limited to, age, gender, ethnic background, years of experience, type of experience, and grade point average, introduced into the…

  16. The virtuous manager. Renewing the experience of work.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, C E

    1997-01-01

    In healthcare, as in any other field, work can become dehumanizing, meaningless drudgery. But good managers can transform their organizations and renew the experience of work. Good management demands not only good business skills, but character, rooted in truthfulness and vision. Three virtues are particularly important: prudence, justice and fortitude. The moral skill of prudence enables healthcare managers to know what is to be done; justice creates honest relationships; and fortitude enables managers to seek a good that is difficult to achieve--to do the right thing. Businesses must also explore their potential for sacramentality and find ways in which employees--and employers--can become better, holier people through their work. Organizations should strive to achieve subsidiarity and keep employees well-informed of their missions. Establishing a sense of connectedness is important, as is open and honest communication. Finally, managers-and healthcare organizations-must always work for the common good. PMID:10168761

  17. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  18. Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. PMID:24797464

  19. School-Age Pregnancy: Why Hasn't Prevention Worked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Neither sexuality education nor abstinence programs have reduced adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease. The article presents recent data, explains why prevention does not work, and describes crucial factors that school and community prevention programs fail to incorporate (adult-teen intercourse, teen-teen intercourse, adult…

  20. The Aging Work Force: A Guide for Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nancy B., Ed.; Krauss, Herbert H., Ed.

    This volume offers 15 papers on the "graying" of the college and university work force in the context of national demographic trends. The papers are arranged in groups which address: growing older, the graying of America, adapting to changing times, retirement and retirement planning, and the corporate example. The following papers are presented:…

  1. Tips for Working with ADHD Students of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Tips for working with students who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include putting them in charge of something, providing structure, giving feedback, using logical consequences for unwanted behavior, being patient, teaching in novel ways, helping them with their gear, pairing them with another student, allowing blow-out time, and…

  2. The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Web has become a major art medium. Investigates ways artists and appreciators of art are using the Web. Discusses the reproduction of art: from hand to mechanical to digital reproduction, focusing on the work of Walter Benjamin. Lists other sites where one can find art on the Web. (SR)

  3. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  4. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  5. Enhanced Work Projects--The Supported Work Approach for Youth. Youth Work Experience. Youth Knowledge Development Report 7.3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Demonstration Research Corp., New York, NY.

    This volume is one of the products of the knowledge development effort implemented under the mandate of the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977. The report focuses on the young school drop-out portion only of the supported work experiment, which also included offenders, ex-addicts, and welfare recipients. The goal of supported…

  6. Children, Families and Interagency Work: Experiences of Partnership Work in Primary Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbourne, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Despite UK government initiatives intended to address social exclusion, those with poor access to social and economic resources continue to experience unresponsive services. In these circumstances, small inter-agency projects may offer accessible alternatives. This article explores the implementation of inter-agency work at a local level, focusing…

  7. Interprofessional education in practice: Evaluation of a work integrated aged care program.

    PubMed

    Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities. PMID:26733460

  8. School-to-work experiences: curriculum as a bridge.

    PubMed

    Bonds, Bobbie Gale

    2003-01-01

    Because workers must be prepared to constantly update their skills and reeducate themselves for new skills, lifelong learning must be a goal for every teacher and student. The curriculum provided during educational experiences should pave the way for attainment of this goal. This is particularly true for deaf and hard of hearing students. School-to-work (STW) has become an umbrella term for activities, experiences and opportunities that prepare students for the world of work, such as youth apprenticeships, mentoring, internships, job shadowing, career exploration, and integration of academic and vocational curriculum. This article provides historical background on STW, laws shaping requirements for STW programs, and research supporting STW components. Recommendations are provided for curricular elements of an STW program, and trends in STW are forecast. PMID:12765089

  9. Astronaut Paul Weitz works with UV Stellar Astronomy Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, works with the UV Stellar Astronomy Experiment S019 in the forward compartment of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer during Skylab training at JSC. The equipment consists of a reflecting telescope, a 35mm camera and an additional mirror. It is mounted in an anti-solar scientific airlock in the side of the OWS.

  10. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender. PMID:21342871

  11. Longitudinal change in working memory as a function of APOE genotype in midlife and old age.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Pamela M; Espeseth, Thomas; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Reinvang, Ivar; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-06-01

    Previous investigations into whether the APOE-ε4 allele exerts cognitive effects at midlife have been inconclusive. We have advanced a "cognitive phenotype" hypothesis arguing that the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is associated with lower efficiency of neuronal plasticity thereby resulting in poorer cognitive performance independently of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (Greenwood et al., ). This hypothesis is best tested at midlife, prior to the neuron loss associated with AD diagnosis. This hypothesis predicts that the ε4 allele would alter cognition regardless of age through plasticity mechanisms, but would not induce longitudinal decline in midlife. The alternative "prodrome" hypothesis predicts that the APOE-ε4 allele would be associated with longitudinal cognitive decline as early as midlife due to prodromal effects of AD. We tested these hypotheses with a working memory task in a large cross-sectional sample of cognitively screened APOE-ε4 carriers and non-carriers and also in a small longitudinal sample over 3 years. The sample was divided into middle-aged (mean age 50, range 40-59) and older (mean age 69, range 60-84) individuals. Cross-sectionally, we observed that older, but not middle-aged, APOE-ε4 carriers had lower accuracy than ε4 non-carriers, mainly under the hardest discrimination condition. Longitudinally, we observed increases in accuracy in middle-aged APOE-ε4 carriers, suggesting a cognitive phenotype that includes ability to benefit from experience. We observed a longitudinal decrease in older APOE-ε4 carriers, suggesting an AD prodrome. PMID:24853824

  12. Cultivating Social Work Leadership in Health Promotion and Aging: Strategies for Active Aging Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Victor W.; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the…

  13. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  14. Work and Career Experiences of Men from Families without College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodside, Marianne; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Davison, John; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of research exists exploring the career and work development of adult men and the influence of family-of-origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the researchers used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of men whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family…

  15. Personnel's Health Surveillance at Work: Effect of Age, Body Mass Index, and Shift Work on Mental Workload and Work Ability Index

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Shahram; Akbari, Jafar; Kazemi, Meghdad; Mououdi, Mohammad Amin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI) and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1) and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI. PMID:23956756

  16. Relationship Between Age, Tenure, and Disability Duration in Persons With Compensated Work-Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Besen, Elyssa; Young, Amanda E.; Gaines, Brittany; Pransky, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among age, tenure, and the length of disability following a work-related injury/illness. Methods: This study utilized 361,754 administrative workers’ compensation claims. The relationships between age, tenure, and disability duration was estimated with random-effects models. Results: The age-disability duration relationship was stronger than the tenure-disability duration relationship. An interaction was observed between age and tenure. At younger ages, disability duration varied little based on tenure. In midlife, disability duration was greater for workers with lower tenure than for workers with higher tenure. At the oldest ages, disability duration increased as tenure increased. Conclusions: Findings indicate that age is a more important factor in disability duration than tenure; however, the relationship between age and disability duration varies based on tenure, suggesting that both age and tenure are important influences in the work-disability process. PMID:26645384

  17. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  18. Cyber incivility @ work: the new age of interpersonal deviance.

    PubMed

    Giumetti, Gary W; McKibben, Eric S; Hatfield, Andrea L; Schroeder, Amber N; Kowalski, Robin M

    2012-03-01

    The current study was designed to extend the interpersonal deviance literature into the online domain by examining the incidence and impact of supervisor cyber incivility and neuroticism on employee outcomes at work. Conservation of Resources (COR) theory was used as the guiding framework because cyber incivility is thought to deplete energetic resources in much the same way that other stressors do, ultimately leading to negative outcomes like burnout. Results indicate that supervisor cyber incivility is positively related to burnout, absenteeism, and turnover intentions. Support was also found for the role of neuroticism as a moderator of the relationship between supervisor cyber incivility and outcomes. In general, the relations between cyber incivility and outcomes were stronger for those individuals reporting higher levels of neuroticism. Results are discussed in terms of COR theory, and possible mechanisms for the role of neuroticism in the stressor-strain relationship are discussed. The current study highlights the importance of understanding workplace online behavior and its impact on employee health and organizational well-being. Future research directions examining online interpersonal deviance are suggested. PMID:22304404

  19. Testing a model of aging in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Tyurin YuN; Yakovlev AYu; Shi, J; Bass, L

    1995-03-01

    A stochastic model of aging is developed in terms of accumulation and expression of intracellular lesions caused by environment or intrinsic genetic program. In contrast to the commonly used Gompertz-Makeham approach to the parametric analysis of mortality data, the model yields a hazard function that is bounded from above. For testing the model in experiments aimed at studying animal longevity, a Kolmogorov-type statistical test is presented with regard to the hypothesis involving unknown parameters. Examples concerning longevity of intact animals of two different species, as well as the effect of a prolonged irradiation at a low dose rate, are given to illustrate the model application and goodness-of-fit testing. The results of the analysis of published data show that the rate of lesion formation is not sustained at a constant level throughout life, though in some cases its variations with age can be considered negligible. PMID:7766791

  20. Graduates' Perspectives on a National Specialized Program in Social Work and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Shpiegel, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the growing need for social workers with specialized training in aging, the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) has developed as a nationwide initiative to enhance aging education for master's-level social work students. This study presents a content analysis of answers to 2 open-ended questions in a national…

  1. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  2. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Elementary School Age Children. Working Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Ann M.; And Others

    Using a nationally representative database of students in grades one through six, this study estimates the effects of number of parents and maternal working on children's school-related achievement. Achievement scores are lower for children from one-parent than from two-parent homes. The effect appears to work primarily through the lower income of…

  3. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  4. Aging at the University of Minnesota's School of Social Work: Historiography of Gerontological Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moone, Rajean P.

    2007-01-01

    With the dramatic shift in the population as the baby boom generation ages, education in gerontology is becoming an important component in schools of social work. Historically, gerontology has not been important in social work programs. This historical analysis examined the incorporation of aging related courses at the University of Minnesota's…

  5. Age Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Not Based on Encoding Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Ricker, Timothy J.; Saults, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Why does visual working memory performance increase with age in childhood? One recent study (Cowan et al., 2010b) ruled out the possibility that the basic cause is a tendency in young children to clutter working memory with less-relevant items (within a concurrent array, colored items presented in one of two shapes). The age differences in memory…

  6. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  7. Age-differences in work motivation and job satisfaction. The influence of age on the relationships between work characteristics and workers' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; de Jong, Ad H J; Janssen, Sara M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were significant. The first interaction showed that the positive correlation between Motivating Potential Score (MPS) and motivation was much stronger for older than for younger employees. So, to remain motivated, older employees seem more in need of intrinsic challenging and fulfilling jobs. The second significant interaction indicated that the positive association between career opportunities and motivation was much stronger for younger employees than for older employees. This means that, especially, younger workers' motivation increases as they are offered more career opportunities. Careful career mentoring by the supervisor as part of an aging policy can contribute to the maintenance of workers of any age. PMID:22474915

  8. Aging embodiment and the somatic work of getting into and out of a car.

    PubMed

    Gish, Jessica A; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the embodied realities and sensory experience of vehicle ingress and egress from the point of view of older drivers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women and three men, aged 57-81, and followed by ride-a-longs whereby the researcher observed participants in interaction with their automobile. Using the perspective of phenomenological gerontology and the concept of somatic work (Vannini, Waskul, & Gottschalk, 2012), older drivers are conceptualized as simultaneously sensing and making sense of somatic experience evoked by aging embodiment and the bodily movements required of entry and exit into an automobile. It is argued that older drivers acquire a sensory auto-biography of incorporated bodily memory regarding vehicle morphology and texture in their past and current life, which informs embodied capacities of movement, awareness, and response relative to practical knowledge about what is attainable (or unattainable) for a sensuous older body. Through reflective and reflexive engagement with the sensory realm and material world, participants report structuring their lives through the haptics of touch, adoption of somatic rules, consumerist practices, as well as, specialized bodily movements and footwork sequences to ensure safety and comfort when using their automobile. PMID:26880603

  9. Working to learn and learning to work: placement experience of Project 2000 nursing students in Scotland.

    PubMed

    May, N; Veitch, L

    1998-11-01

    It is evident that the Scottish colleges have designed and provided very different curricular arrangements to support students' learning to practise in placements. Evaluation has demonstrated that some of these arrangements are of fundamental importance in facilitating or constraining the educational experience of students, including opportunities for reflection on experience, students' preparation for placements, the role of tutors in students' placement learning, the preparation of mentors and the utility of instruments for the assessment of students' practice-based learning. In addition to the formal provision in support of students' learning to work, students have developed their own informal strategies in order to meet their (sometimes conflicting) needs to maximize practical learning opportunities, ease entry into the nursing team and achieve favourable assessment of learning. Some of these involve working in order to learn. This paper is based on the work of the National Board-funded Evaluation of Project 2000 in Scotland (1992-96). The remit of the evaluation was to examine the teaching/learning processes of the Project 2000 nursing programmes and the new midwifery programmes, and their relationship to the educational outcomes for individual students, giving particular emphasis to the experience of students. PMID:10188467

  10. The new organization: Rethinking work in the age of virtuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Duncan B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    long periods of stability punctuated by shorts bursts of 'reorganization,' business enterprises will come to realize that their very survival depends upon their being in a state of continuous organization. The implications of the new organization with respect to how companies approach the planning, design, and management of the technology infrastructure that enables individual learning, self-management, and continuous orgsnization, are both numerous and far-reaching. As part of this technology infrastructure, the white-collar workplace exists in the form it does today as a direct result of management's beliefs about how time, space, and tools ought to be organized and managed in order to accomplish useful intellectual work. Obviously, if these beliefs change radically, as both the new science and the new management thinking suggest is about to happen, then it is almost inevitable that the form and function of the white-collar workplace will change radically, as well. Will there even be a white-collar workplace in the 21st century, in the sense of purpose-built facilities designed to support the co-location of large numbers of white-collar workers? Only time will tell. However, the leading indicators seem to suggest that, as the old saying goes, 'We ain't seen nothin' yet!'

  11. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  12. Aging and work: how do SOC strategies contribute to job performance across adulthood?

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H

    2009-12-01

    The authors examined the impacts of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategies-elective selection, loss-based selection, optimization, and compensation-on job performance across adulthood. A cross-sectional survey (Study 1, N=355) and a 5-day experience sampling study (Study 2, N=87) were conducted to assess Chinese insurance sales workers' global and momentary employment of SOC strategies at work and compare the effectiveness of these strategies in predicting their job performance. Study 1 revealed that the use of compensation predicted higher performance maintenance among older workers, whereas the use of elective selection contributed positively to sales productivity for both age groups, with stronger association for younger workers. Study 2 demonstrated that the positive impact of SOC strategies on global and momentary measures of job performance differed across tasks with various difficulty levels. When the task was perceived as highly difficult, older workers' greater use of elective selection predicted higher self-rated task performance; however, the positive association was weaker among younger workers. Older workers' greater use of the 4 SOC strategies was positively associated with sales increases when the task was not difficult or moderately difficult, yet the relationship was negative when the task was highly difficult. A reverse pattern was observed among younger workers. This article contributes to the understanding of working adults' psychological adaptation to the process of aging and reveals the moderating role of task difficulty on the association between SOC strategies and performance outcomes. PMID:20025407

  13. Ageing and feature binding in visual working memory: The role of presentation time.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Stephen; Parra, Mario A; Logie, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has clearly demonstrated that healthy ageing is accompanied by an associative memory deficit. Older adults exhibit disproportionately poor performance on memory tasks requiring the retention of associations between items (e.g., pairs of unrelated words). In contrast to this robust deficit, older adults' ability to form and temporarily hold bound representations of an object's surface features, such as colour and shape, appears to be relatively well preserved. However, the findings of one set of experiments suggest that older adults may struggle to form temporary bound representations in visual working memory when given more time to study objects. However, these findings were based on between-participant comparisons across experimental paradigms. The present study directly assesses the role of presentation time in the ability of younger and older adults to bind shape and colour in visual working memory using a within-participant design. We report new evidence that giving older adults longer to study memory objects does not differentially affect their immediate memory for feature combinations relative to individual features. This is in line with a growing body of research suggesting that there is no age-related impairment in immediate memory for colour-shape binding. PMID:25993530

  14. Engineering students' experiences from physics group work in learning labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strøm Mellingsæter, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential for how the students experience the learning labs, and how do these aspects relate to the emergence of occurrences termed joint workspace, i.e. the maintenance of content-related dialogues within the group? Programme description: First year mechanical engineering students attended the learning labs as a compulsory part of the physics course. The student groups were instructed to solve physics problems using the interactive whiteboard and then submit their work as whiteboard files. Sample: One group of five male students was followed during their work in these learning labs through one term. Design and methods: Data were collected as video recordings and fieldwork observation. In this paper, a focus group interview with the students was the main source of analysis. The interpretations of the interview data were compared with the video material and the fieldwork observations. Results: The results show that the students' overall experience with the learning labs was positive. They did, however, point to internal aspects of conflicting common and personal goals, which led to a group-work dynamics that seemed to inhibit elaborate discussions and collaboration. The students also pointed to external aspects, such as a close temporal proximity between lectures and exercises, which also seemed to inhibit occurrences termed joint workspace. Conclusions: In order to increase the likelihood of a joint workspace throughout the term in the learning labs, careful considerations have to be made with regard to timing between lectures and exercises, but also with regard to raising the students' awareness about shared and personal goals.

  15. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the grounded theory approach in which themes emerge from iterative readings of the transcripts by a group of investigators. This study identified themes related to excessive workload, familiar work/unfamiliar hazards, cultural tensions, lack of health care, pregnancy, sexual harassment, and family obligations/expectations. The responses of the Latina workers in this study clearly indicated that they live within a complex web of stressors, both as workers and as women. The increased economic opportunities that come with immigration to the United States are accompanied by many opportunities for exploitation, especially if they are undocumented. It is hoped that the findings of this study will raise awareness regarding these issues and spur further work in this area. PMID:26346566

  16. Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexuality with the Aged, Family Members of the Aged, and People Who Work with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles B.; Catania, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    Conducted and evaluated a sexual psychoeducational intervention with older persons, adult family members of older persons, and staff members of nursing homes. Results indicated significant changes in attitudes toward and knowledge about sexuality and aging and sexual behavior. (Author)

  17. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  18. Melody recognition at fast and slow tempos: effects of age, experience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Dowling, W Jay; Bartlett, James C; Halpern, Andrea R; Andrews, W Melinda

    2008-04-01

    Eighty-one listeners defined by three age ranges (18-30, 31-59, and over 60 years) and three levels of musical experience performed an immediate recognition task requiring the detection of alterations in melodies. On each trial, a brief melody was presented, followed 5 sec later by a test stimulus that either was identical to the target or had two pitches changed, for a same-different judgment. Each melody pair was presented at 0.6 note/sec, 3.0 notes/sec, or 6.0 notes/sec. Performance was better with familiar melodies than with unfamiliar melodies. Overall performance declined slightly with age and improved substantially with increasing experience, in agreement with earlier results in an identification task. Tempo affected performance on familiar tunes (moderate was best), but not on unfamiliar tunes. We discuss these results in terms of theories of dynamic attending, cognitive slowing, and working memory in aging. PMID:18459260

  19. Aging reduces experience-induced sensorimotor plasticity. A magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of the mu-alpha and mu-beta spontaneous rhythms reflects plastic neural changes within the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated how aging modifies experience-induced plasticity after learning a motor sequence, looking at post- vs. pre-learning changes in the modulation of mu rhythms during the execution of simple hand movements. Fifteen young (18-30 years) and fourteen older (65-75 years) right-handed healthy participants performed auditory-cued key presses using all four left fingers simultaneously (Simple Movement task - SMT) during two separate sessions. Following both SMT sessions, they repeatedly practiced a 5-elements sequential finger-tapping task (FTT). Mu power calculated during SMT was averaged across 18 gradiometers covering the right sensorimotor region and compared before vs. after sequence learning in the alpha (9/10/11Hz) and the beta (18/20/22Hz) bands separately. Source power maps in the mu-alpha and mu-beta bands were localized using Dynamic Statistical Parametric Mapping (dSPM). The FTT sequence was performed faster at retest than at the end of the learning session, indicating an offline boost in performance. Analyses conducted on SMT sessions revealed enhanced rebound after learning in the right SM1, 3000-3500ms after the initiation of movement, in young as compared to older participants. Source reconstruction indicated that mu-beta is located in the precentral gyrus (motor processes) and mu-alpha is located in the postcentral gyrus (somatosensory processes) in both groups. The enhanced post-movement rebound in young subjects potentially reflects post-training plastic changes in SM1. Age-related decreases in post-training modulatory effects suggest reduced experience-dependent plasticity in the aging brain. PMID:25315784

  20. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed. PMID:26619232

  1. The information age as a work in progress: Implications for technical communicators

    SciTech Connect

    Preecs, B.L.

    1992-07-01

    The commercial media system in the United States is in the midst of radical, even revolutionary changes. Cable television companies are vying with telephone companies to provide advanced communications and information services to both homes and businesses. Recent decisions by the Federal Communications Commission to allow television networks to buy cable television systems create the possibility of bypassing local television stations. Computer companies are planning joint ventures with entertainment companies. The publishing, broadcasting, advertising, communications, and information-services businesses are converging into one universal, digital, interactive industry with annual revenues exceeding $120 billion. The same technology-driven changes also affect government. State and local governments are experimenting with delivering some government services electronically. While early experiments focus on easily delivered services, such as auto licenses, more complex applications are underway, such as creating information networks for economic development or converting property and utility records into computerized maps. The Information Age has arrived, and the implications for Society for Technical Communication (STC) members can hardly be overstated. Technical communicators will face changes in the way they work and how their work is distributed.

  2. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  3. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  4. Age-related changes in working memory and the ability to ignore distraction.

    PubMed

    McNab, Fiona; Zeidman, Peter; Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-05-19

    A weakened ability to effectively resist distraction is a potential basis for reduced working memory capacity (WMC) associated with healthy aging. Exploiting data from 29,631 users of a smartphone game, we show that, as age increases, working memory (WM) performance is compromised more by distractors presented during WM maintenance than distractors presented during encoding. However, with increasing age, the ability to exclude distraction at encoding is a better predictor of WMC in the absence of distraction. A significantly greater contribution of distractor filtering at encoding represents a potential compensation for reduced WMC in older age. PMID:25941369

  5. Effects of modality presentation on working memory in school-age children: evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Danos, Molly A; Nelson, Daniel; Baker, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in elementary school-age children ages 7-13. The experimental paradigm implemented a multitrial learning task incorporating three presentation modalities: Auditory, Visual, and simultaneous Auditory plus Visual. The first experiment compared the learning and memory performance of older and younger elementary school children. The second experiment compared verbal learning and memory performance in elementary school children with major depressive disorder (MDD) to the performance of nondepressed children. All participants benefited from the pictorial presentation of information during learning and recall of information as compared to the auditory presentation alone. Both age and socioeconomic status affected working memory performance in typically developing children. Children with depression demonstrated a more passive learning style during the auditory list acquisition. The present study supports the pictorial superiority hypothesis in verbal learning tasks and the theory that working memory matures during elementary school years. Furthermore, current results indicate that complex working memory measures are not entirely independent of previous experience. PMID:21271411

  6. Personality-informed interventions for healthy aging: conclusions from a National Institute on Aging work group.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-05-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300

  7. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  8. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  9. Operator experiences on working in screen-based control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, L.; Laarni, J.; Savioja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces the results of two interview studies carried out in Finland in four conventional power plants and one nuclear power plant. The aim of the studies was to gather data on user experiences on the effects of control room modernization and digital control room technology on operator work Since the number of completed digitalization projects in nuclear power plants is small supplementary information was gathered by interviewing operators in conventional power plants. Our results suggest that even though the modernization processes have been success stories, they have created new challenges for operator personnel. Examples of these challenges are increased requirements for competence and collaboration, problems in trust calibration and development of awareness of the process state. Some major differences in the digitalization of human-system interfaces between conventional and nuclear power plants were discussed. (authors)

  10. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. PMID:24631800

  11. Changes in Brain Network Efficiency and Working Memory Performance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Simpson, Sean L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory. PMID:25875001

  12. Compensatory effects of pointing and predictive cueing on age-related declines in visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the visuospatial working memory performance of young and older adults would improve if they used a multimodal as compared with a unimodal encoding strategy, and whether or not visual cues would add to this effect. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with trials consisting of an array of squares and an array of circles. They were instructed to point at one type of figure (multimodal encoding strategy) and only to observe the other (unimodal encoding strategy). After each trial, an immediate location recognition test of one of the two arrays followed. In Experiment 2, the same task was used, but a cue was provided, either before or after the encoding phase, indicating which of the two arrays would be tested. Our results showed that a multimodal, as compared with a unimodal, encoding strategy improved visuospatial working memory performance in both young and older adults (Exp. 1), and that adding visual cues to the multimodal but not to the unimodal encoding strategy improved older adults' performance up to the level of young adults (Exp. 2). In both age groups, cueing after encoding led to higher performance in the multimodal than in the unimodal condition when the second array was tested. However, cueing before encoding led to higher performance in the multimodal than in the unimodal condition when the first array of the figure sequence was tested. These results suggest that pointing together with predictive cueing can have beneficial effects on visuospatial working memory, which is especially important for older adults. PMID:27126873

  13. Experiences of identification and differentiation as functions of leprosy, personality and age.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N S; Dhar, U; Singh, Y

    1984-01-01

    It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'. PMID:6548499

  14. A controlled experiment to evaluate the impact of summer research experiences on attitudes towards science in high school aged students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Tcherednichenko, I.; Hamar, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Litizzette, L.

    2006-12-01

    United States funding agencies increasingly are supporting activities designed to increase the enrollment of United States high school students in science, math, or engineering careers. However, in many cases, the likely outcomes of educational activities are unknown. A common approach within the physical and natural sciences is to provide high school aged students with a summer research experience, with the expectation that such experiences will increase student interest in science, possibly as a career choice. With funding support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Investigator Grant program, we conducted a controlled experiment to test this assumption. In collaboration with Mountain Crest High School in Logan, UT, we recruited 40 students currently enrolled in science courses, assessed attitudes towards science (with informed consent), and randomly assigned 20 students to a control group and 20 students to an experimental group. Students in the experimental group were paired with faculty and graduate students in a wide range of field and laboratory research groups in natural resources and biology. Students were employed in at least two different research groups for an average of 30-40 hours per week for eight weeks in the summer of 2006. Following the completion of the summer work experience, we again assessed attitudes towards science in both groups and gathered additional information from the experimental group on satisfaction with the work experience and reasons for participating. Results are presented and discussed.

  15. Repeated survey on changes in musculoskeletal complaints relative to age and work demands.

    PubMed Central

    de Zwart, B C; Broersen, J P; Frings-Dresen, M H; van Dijk, F J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in musculoskeletal complaints over four years in groups of employees relative to age and work demands. METHODS: Repeated questionnaire data of male employees in heavy physical work (exposed group, n = 7324) and mental work (control group, n = 4686), stratified for age (20-9, 30-9, 40-9, 50-9), were analysed. For each employee, data on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints from two surveys with a mean interval of around four years were available. Changes in prevalences over the follow up interval were analysed. Proportions of new, recovered, and chronic cases as well as those free of complaints at both surveys were studied. RESULTS: For most complaints, there were significantly greater increases in prevalences in the exposed group compared with the control group over the follow up interval particularly within the group aged 40-9 for back, neck, and several sites of the upper and lower limbs. The 20-9 year age group also had significantly greater changes for several musculoskeletal complaints. Within the oldest age group (50-9) exposure to heavy physical work demands only affected changes in prevalences of neck and upper arm complaints. After four years in the cohort free of complaints at the start of the follow up the group aged 40-9 had the highest prevalence of complaints of the back, neck, and the upper and lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Middle aged and younger employees develop musculoskeletal complaints as a result of exposure to heavy physical work. In the oldest age group health related selection seems to mask the occupational health risks under study. To prevent the expected increase in musculoskeletal disorders and related work disability in our aging workforce, preventive measures should be taken at all stages of a working life. PMID:9538351

  16. Preparing for an Aging Work Force: A Practical Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARP, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is intended for human resource managers, provides practical guidance regarding preparing for an aging work force. Chapter 1 concerns the relationship between business practices and age neutrality and offers checklists that human resource managers can use to assess their company's general policy development, training,…

  17. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Secondary School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.; And Others

    This paper presents a replication of previous research which estimated a structural equation model relating elementary school age students' achievement to the number of parents and maternal work. The research presented here focuses on secondary school age students, and provides partial support for previous findings in which elementary school age…

  18. Age-related decline of precision and binding in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peich, Muy-Cheng; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Working memory declines with normal aging, but the nature of this impairment is debated. Studies based on detecting changes to arrays of visual objects have identified two possible components to age-related decline: a reduction in the number of items that can be stored, or a deficit in maintaining the associations (bindings) between individual object features. However, some investigations have reported intact binding with aging, and specific deficits arising only in Alzheimer's disease. Here, using a recently developed continuous measure of recall fidelity, we tested the precision with which adults of different ages could reproduce from memory the orientation and color of a probed array item. The results reveal a further component of cognitive decline: an age-related decrease in the resolution with which visual information can be maintained in working memory. This increase in recall variability with age was strongest under conditions of greater memory load. Moreover, analysis of the distribution of errors revealed that older participants were more likely to incorrectly report one of the unprobed items in memory, consistent with an age-related increase in misbinding. These results indicate a systematic decline with age in working memory resources that can be recruited to store visual information. The paradigm presented here provides a sensitive index of both memory resolution and feature binding, with the potential for assessing their modulation by interventions. The findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms underpinning working memory deficits in both health and disease. PMID:23978008

  19. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  20. Return to work after knee replacement: a qualitative study of patient experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bardgett, Michelle; Lally, Joanne; Malviya, Ajay; Deehan, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective An increasing number of patients in the working population are undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for end-stage osteoarthritis. The timing and success of return to work is becoming increasingly important for this group of patients with social and economic implications for patients, employers and society. There is limited understanding of the patient variables that determine the ability to return to work. Our objective was (from the patient's perspective) to gain an insight into the factors influencing return to work following knee replacement. Setting and participants This qualitative study was undertaken in a secondary-care setting in a large teaching hospital in the north of England. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 10 patients regarding their experiences of returning to work following TKR. Outcomes Interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative thematic approach to identify the factors influencing return to work from the patient's perspective. Results Three themes were identified that influenced the process of return to work, from the patient's perspective. These were delays in surgical intervention, limited and often inconsistent advice from healthcare professionals regarding return to work, and finally the absence of rehabilitation to optimise patient's recovery and facilitate return to work. Conclusions There is currently no consistent process to optimise return to work for patients of working age after TKR. The impact of delayed surgical intervention, limited advice regarding return to work, and a lack of work-focused rehabilitation, all contribute to potential delays in successful return to work. There is a need to change the focus of healthcare provision for this cohort of patients, and provide a tailored healthcare intervention to optimise patient outcomes. PMID:26832426

  1. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person’s mindset, which determines what top–down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art. PMID:25566111

  2. Estrogen Restores Multisynaptic Boutons in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex while Promoting Working Memory in Aged Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G M; Rapp, Peter R; Morrison, John H

    2016-01-20

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause- related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We showed previously that presynaptic mitochondrial number and morphology in monkey dlPFC neurons correlate with working memory performance. The current study tested the hypothesis that the types of synaptic connections these boutons form are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys and that these metrics may be coupled with mitochondrial measures and working memory. Using serial section electron microscopy, we examined the frequencies and characteristics of nonsynaptic, single-synaptic, and multisynaptic boutons (MSBs) in the dlPFC. In contrast to our previous observations in the monkey hippocampal dentate gyrus, where MSBs comprised ∼40% of boutons, the vast majority of dlPFC boutons were single-synaptic, whereas MSBs constituted a mere 10%. The frequency of MSBs was not altered by normal aging, but decreased by over 50% with surgical menopause induced by ovariectomy in aged monkeys. Cyclic estradiol treatment in aged ovariectomized animals restored MSB frequencies to levels comparable to young and aged premenopausal monkeys. Notably, the frequency of MSBs positively correlated with working memory scores, as measured by the average accuracy on the delayed response (DR) test. Furthermore, MSB incidence positively correlated with the number of healthy straight mitochondria in dlPFC boutons and inversely correlated with the number of pathological donut-shaped mitochondria. Together, our data suggest that MSBs are coupled to cognitive function and mitochondrial health and are sensitive to estrogen. Significance statement: Many aged menopausal individuals experience deficits in working memory, an executive function reliant on recurrent firing of prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. However, little is known about the organization of presynaptic inputs to these neurons and how

  3. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    PubMed

    Sluiter, Judith K

    2006-07-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in work ability in the context of high-demand jobs. In this paper, the work ability of ageing workers is addressed according to aspects of diversity in specific job demands and the research methods that are needed to shed light upon the relevant associated questions. From the international literature, a body of evidence was elicited concerning rates of chronological ageing in distinct bodily systems and functions. Intra-age-cohort differences in capacities and work ability, however, require (not yet existing) valid estimates of functional age or biological age indices for the specific populations of workers in high-demand jobs. Many studies have drawn on the highly demanding work of fire-fighters, ambulance workers, police officers, medical specialists, pilots/astronauts and submarine officers. Specific job demands in these jobs can be physical, mental or psychosocial in origin but may cause combined task-level loadings. Therefore, the assessment of single demands probably will not reveal enough relevant information about work ability in high-demand jobs and there will be a call for more integrated measures. Existing studies have used a variety of methodologies to address parts of the issue: task analyses for quantifying physical work demands, observations of psychological and physiological parameters, measures of psychosocial work demands and health complaints. Specific details about the work ability of ageing workers in high-demand jobs are scarce. In general, specific demands are more likely to overtax the capacities of older workers than those of younger workers in high-demand jobs, implying greater repercussions for health, although these effects also vary considerably

  4. Work, Aging, and Risks to Family Life: The Case of Australia.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Simon; Carr, Ashley; Haapala, Irja

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between work and family is considered with an emphasis on policy solutions. Australian policy is a case example in the context of international trends. A mismatch between policy initiatives and familial and personal priorities constitutes a new social risk associated with demographic and sociocultural development. Contemporary trends, both nationally and internationally, evidence solutions to the “problem of demographic aging” by adopting a form of economic instrumentalism. This restricts legitimate age identities to those associated with work and work-related activity. When applied to family life, such a focus runs the risk of reducing policy interest in intergenerational engagement to unpaid care roles, while personal development and age-related life priorities are ignored. The need for cultural adaptation to population aging is becoming accepted in policy debate and is considered here as an effective response to the personal, social, and economic risks of population aging and associated impacts on family life. PMID:26144871

  5. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  6. Traditional-Age Students Becoming At-Risk: Does Working Threaten College Students' Academic Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Gross, Jacob P. K.; Dadashova, Afet

    2011-01-01

    Using survey information from undergraduate students who work while attending two urban commuter institutions in Indiana, this study explores evidence that on average undergraduates under 21 years of age worked more than 31 hours a week while also enrolled in a full course load. The findings in this study indicate that grade point average and…

  7. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  8. Maternal Attitudes toward Mother-Child Separation: Working and Nonworking Mothers of School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplik, Elissa K.; Fisher, Celia B.

    Exploring possible similarities and differences between mothers who work outside the home and mothers who do not, this study provides a preliminary investigation of maternal reactions to mother-child separation when children have reached school age. A total of 41 women working outside the home and 48 mothers staying at home responded to a…

  9. Assessing the Professional Development Needs of Arts Instructors Working in Multi-Age Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national survey conducted with 223 arts teachers working in public schools that feature mixed-age classrooms rather than traditional grade levels. The purpose of the survey was to identify the professional development needs of arts teachers working in these unique environments and to offer suggestions for…

  10. Focus on Opportunities as a Mediator of the Relationships between Age, Job Complexity, and Work Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Focus on opportunities" is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age and work performance and…

  11. Correlation between biological and physical availabilities of phenanthrene in soils and soil humin in aging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Hunter, M.; Nam, K.; Pignatello, J.J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-08-01

    The bioavailability of an organic compound in a soil or sediment commonly declines with the soil-chemical contact time (aging). A series of parallel desorption and bioavailability experiments was carried out on phenanthrene previously aged up to {approximately}100 d in Mount Pleasant silt loam (Mt. Pleasant, NY, USA) or Pahokee peat soil to determine as a function of the aging period the degree of correlation between the reduction in bioavailability and the rate and extent of desorption and the influence of soil organic matter composition on availability. The mineralization of phenanthrene by two bacteria and the uptake of phenanthrene by earthworms showed expected declines with aging. Likewise, the rate of phenanthrene desorption in the absence of organisms decreased with aging. The decline in initial rate of mineralization or desorption was nearly an order of magnitude after 50 to 60 d of aging. Plots of normalized rates of mineralization or desorption practically coincided. Similarly, plots of normalized fraction mineralized or fraction desorbed during an arbitrary period gave comparable slopes. The partial removal of organic matter from the peat by extraction with dilute NaOH to leave the humin fraction reduced the biodegradation of phenanthrene aged for 38 and 63 d as compared to the nonextracted peat, but the effect disappeared at longer incubation times. The rate of desorption from samples of peat previously extracted with NaOH or Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} declined with aging and, for a given aging period, was significantly slower than from nonextracted peat. This work shows that the reduction in bioavailability of phenanthrene over time in soil is directly correlated with reduction of its physical availability due to desorption limitations. In addition, this study shows that removal of extractable humic substances leads to a decline in the rate of desorption and in the bioavailability of the substrate.

  12. Social-emotional aspects of male escorting: experiences of men working for an agency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael D; Grov, Christian; Seal, David W; Bernhardt, Nicholas; McCall, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Social situations and emotional correlates associated with male sex work have not been well documented. Most of the research in this area focuses on sexual activity with little mention of other aspects of the job. Yet, research with female sex workers finds significant social and emotional components to sex work. The current study focused on how male sex workers (MSWs) perceived and adapted to the social-emotional aspects of their job. As part of a larger project examining MSWs working for a single escort agency, 40 men (M age, 22.3 years, 75 % Caucasian) located in the mid-Atlantic U.S. participated in semi-structured interviews. The agency owner was also interviewed. Participants reported a range of social and emotional factors regarding sex work and employed a variety of strategies to provide good customer service and adapt to negative experiences. For most, social support was inhibited due to fear of stigmatization that might result if participants disclosed sex work to significant others outside the agency. Instead, interactions within the agency provided core work-related social support for most MSWs. Emotional and relational tasks inherent to escort work grew easier with experience and negativity about the job declined. Our data suggested that socially connected individuals seemed to be more satisfied with sex work. Social and emotional requirements represented a significant but unanticipated component of male sex work to which escorts actively adapted. Escorting may be similar to other service occupations in terms of the social-emotional situations and skills involved. PMID:25119388

  13. Masculinities, work, and retirement among older men who experience depression.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Rasmussen, Brian; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul M; Phinney, Alison; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2013-12-01

    The high incidence of depression among older men has been linked to numerous factors. In this qualitative descriptive study of 30 older, Canadian-based men who experienced depression, we explored the connections between participants' depression, masculinities, work, and retirement. Our analyses revealed three thematic findings. The recursive relationship between depression and work was reflected in depression impeding and emerging from paid work, whereby men's careers and work achievements were negatively impacted by depression amid assertions that unfulfilling work could also invoke depression. Lost or unrealized empires highlighted the centrality of wealth accumulation and negative impact of many participants' unfulfilled paid work aspirations. Retirement as loss and the therapeutic value of work reflected how masculine ideals influenced men to continue working to avoid the losses they associated with retirement. The findings confirm the need to support men's work-related transitions by affirming a diversity of masculine identities beyond traditional workman/breadwinner roles. PMID:24177678

  14. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area. PMID:23455551

  15. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  16. Resting-State Anticorrelations Between Medial and Lateral Prefrontal Cortex: Association with Working Memory, Aging, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Joseph B.; Hedden, Trey; Thompson, Todd W.; Anteraper, Sheeba A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We examined how variation in working memory (WM) capacity due to aging or individual differences among young adults is associated with intrinsic or resting-state anticorrelations, particularly between (1) the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a component of the default-mode network (DMN) that typically decreases in activation during external, attention-demanding tasks, and (2) the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a component of the fronto-parietal control network that supports executive functions and WM and typically increases in activation during attention-demanding tasks. We compared the magnitudes of MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations between healthy younger and older participants (Experiment 1) and related the magnitudes of these anticorrelations to individual differences on two behavioral measures of working memory capacity in two independent groups of young adults (Experiments 1 and 2). Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited reductions in working memory capacity and in MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations. Within younger adults, greater MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelation at rest correlated with greater working memory capacity. These findings show that variation in MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations, whether related to aging or to individual differences, may reflect an intrinsic functional brain architecture supportive of working memory capacity. PMID:25562175

  17. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding. PMID:25216357

  18. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age. PMID:26967593

  19. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Indian educational policy is based on the Gandhian philosophy that personality development and social transformation result from education based on Socially Useful Productive Work; that is, meaningful manual work resulting in goods or services useful to the community. Decentralized work programs plus a core curriculum are basic to secondary…

  20. Preservice Teachers' Objectives and Their Experience of Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivalainen, V.; Asikainen, M. A.; Hirvonen, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers' (n=32) views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The…

  1. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the only work experience is arduous... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant...

  2. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  3. EARLY CHILDHOOD LENGTH-FOR-AGE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORK STATUS OF FILIPINO YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Carba, Delia B.; Tan, Vivencia L.; Adair, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies on childhood health and human capital in developing countries examine how early childhood linear growth relates to later human productivity as reflected in schooling success. Work status is another important human capital outcome related to early child health. This study examines the relationship of linear growth restriction at two years of age to work status in young adults who have, for the most part completed their schooling and further explores whether this relationship differs by gender. The analysis sample of 1,795 was drawn from participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed individuals from birth to age 20–22 years. Work status in 2005 was represented by three categories: not working, working in an informal job, and working in a formal job. Formal work in the Philippines, as in most countries, is associated with regular hours, higher wages and benefits. Analyses were stratified by gender and current school enrolment, and adjusted for socioeconomic status and attained years of schooling. Among males no longer in school, higher length-for-age Z score (LAZ) at age 2 was associated with a 40% increase in likelihood of formal work compared to not working. In females, each 1 unit increase in LAZ was associated with 0.2 higher likelihood of formal vs. informal work. No significant associations were observed in the small sample of young adults still in school. To improve job prospects of young adults, it is important to provide proper nutrition in early childhood and adequate educational opportunities during schooling years. PMID:19261549

  4. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use as Correlates of Adolescents' Subjective Experience of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbeau, Kelly J.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined in a random community-based sample of 664 12-19-year-olds, the relation of subjective experience of age (SEA) with chronological age, dating experience, sexual activity, and substance use. The results revealed a positive linear relation between SEA and chronological age: individuals who were chronologically older felt…

  5. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. PMID:27610236

  6. Effects of aging on interference control in selective attention and working memory.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Guzzon, Daniela; Martinelli, Massimiliano; Barollo, Michele; Casco, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Working memory decay in advanced age has been attributed to a concurrent decrease in the ability to control interference. The present study contrasted a form of interference control in selective attention that acts upon the perception of external stimuli (access) with another form that operates on internal representations in working memory (deletion), in order to determine both of their effects on working memory efficiency in younger and older adults. Additionally, we compared memory performance under these access and deletion functions to performance in their respective control conditions. The results indicated that memory accuracy improved in both age groups from the access functions, but that only young adults benefited from the deletion functions. In addition, intrusion effects in the deletion condition were larger in older than in younger adults. The ability to control the irrelevant perception- and memory-elicited interference did not decline in general with advancing age; rather, the control mechanisms that operate on internal memory representations declined specifically. PMID:21557003

  7. Aging modulates the oscillatory dynamics underlying successful working memory encoding and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Proskovec, Amy L; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is central to the execution of many daily functions and is typically divided into three phases: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. While working memory performance has been repeatedly shown to decline with age, less is known regarding the underlying neural processes. We examined age-related differences in the neural dynamics that serve working memory by recording high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) in younger and older adults while they performed a modified, high-load Sternberg working memory task with letters as stimuli. MEG data were evaluated in the time-frequency domain and significant oscillatory responses were imaged using a beamformer. A hierarchical regression was performed to investigate whether age moderated the relationship between oscillatory activity and accuracy on the working memory task. Our results indicated that the spatiotemporal dynamics of oscillatory activity in language-related areas of the left fronto-temporal cortices were similar across groups. Age-related differences emerged during early encoding in the right-hemispheric homologue of Wernicke's area. Slightly later, group differences emerged in the homologue of Broca's area and these persisted throughout memory maintenance. Additionally, occipital alpha activity during maintenance was stronger, occurred earlier, and involved more cortical tissue in older adults. Finally, age significantly moderated the relationship between accuracy and neural activity in the prefrontal cortices. In younger adults, as prefrontal activity decreased, accuracy tended to increase. Our results are consistent with predictions of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH). Such differences in the oscillatory dynamics could reflect compensatory mechanisms, which would aid working memory performance in older age. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2348-2361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991358

  8. Neurophysiological correlates of age-related changes in working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Mattay, Venkata S; Fera, Francesco; Tessitore, Alessandro; Hariri, Ahmad R; Berman, Karen F; Das, Saumitra; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Goldberg, Terry E; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) capacity decrease with age. To determine the neurophysiological correlates of age-related reduction in working memory capacity, we studied 10 young subjects (<35 years of age; mean age=29) and twelve older subjects (>55 years of age; mean age=59) with whole brain blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI on a 1.5 T GE MR scanner using a SPIRAL FLASH pulse sequence (TE=24 ms, TR=56 ms, FA=60 degrees , voxel dimensions=3.75 mm(3)). Subjects performed a modified version of the "n" back working memory task at different levels of increasing working memory load (1-Back, 2-Back and 3-Back). Older subjects performed as well as the younger subjects at 1-Back (p=0.4), but performed worse than the younger subjects at 2-Back (p<0.01) and 3-Back (p=0.06). Older subjects had significantly longer reaction time (RT) than younger subjects (p<0.04) at all levels of task difficulty. Image analysis using SPM 99 revealed a similar distribution of cortical activity between younger and older subjects at all task levels. However, an analysis of variance revealed a significant group x task interaction in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally; within working memory capacity, as in 1-Back when the older subjects performed as well as the younger subjects, they showed greater prefrontal cortical (BA 9) activity bilaterally. At higher working memory loads, however, when they performed worse then the younger subjects, the older subjects showed relatively reduced activity in these prefrontal regions. These data suggest that, within capacity, compensatory mechanisms such as additional prefrontal cortical activity are called upon to maintain proficiency in task performance. As cognitive demand increases, however, they are pushed past a threshold beyond which physiological compensation cannot be made and, a decline in performance occurs. PMID:16213083

  9. Control and Stabilization: Making Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Hill, Christoph; Heering, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Educational versions of Millikan's oil-drop experiment have frequently been criticized; suggestions for improvement either focus on technical innovations of the setup or on replacing the experiment by other approaches of familiarization, such as computer simulations. In our approach, we have analysed experimental procedures. In doing so, we were…

  10. Integrating Work Experience and Management for College Bound Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Leo V.; Coover, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    St. Viator High School, through a Business Management Seminar, converted job experiences into learning experiences by acknowledging the real value of the job as a laboratory for the study of principles of management and their application to the job. (Author/BP)

  11. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  12. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G.; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees’ well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the

  13. [Aging and work ability of workers of a university hospital's cleaning and hygiene service].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cristiane Batista; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted with the cleaning personnel of a university hospital in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo. These are public employees whose work is mainly physical: cleaning is a job that requires heavy physical work; in addition, workers are also exposed to chemical products. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the work ability of cleaners from different age groups, for which was used the Work Ability Index, an instrument developed by Finnish researchers. The sample was comprised of 69 workers who answered the questionnaire: 21.7% have excellent work ability; 31.9% good; 31.9% moderate; and 14.5% poor. The most frequently reported diseases with medical diagnosis were: lesion due to accidents, musculoskeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. The members of the older group ranked lower in the Work Ability Index and reported a larger number of diseases, which therefore affected their work ability. PMID:17722389

  14. Age-Related Declines in Visuospatial Working Memory Correlate With Deficits in Explicit Motor Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bo, J.; Borza, V.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that older adults exhibit deficits in motor sequence learning, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Our recent work has shown that visuospatial working-memory capacity predicts the rate of motor sequence learning and the length of motor chunks formed during explicit sequence learning in young adults. In the current study, we evaluate whether age-related deficits in working memory explain the reduced rate of motor sequence learning in older adults. We found that older adults exhibited a correlation between visuospatial working-memory capacity and motor sequence chunk length, as we observed previously in young adults. In addition, older adults exhibited an overall reduction in both working-memory capacity and motor chunk length compared with that of young adults. However, individual variations in visuospatial working-memory capacity did not correlate with the rate of learning in older adults. These results indicate that working memory declines with age at least partially explain age-related differences in explicit motor sequence learning. PMID:19726728

  15. Age-related declines in visuospatial working memory correlate with deficits in explicit motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Bo, J; Borza, V; Seidler, R D

    2009-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that older adults exhibit deficits in motor sequence learning, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Our recent work has shown that visuospatial working-memory capacity predicts the rate of motor sequence learning and the length of motor chunks formed during explicit sequence learning in young adults. In the current study, we evaluate whether age-related deficits in working memory explain the reduced rate of motor sequence learning in older adults. We found that older adults exhibited a correlation between visuospatial working-memory capacity and motor sequence chunk length, as we observed previously in young adults. In addition, older adults exhibited an overall reduction in both working-memory capacity and motor chunk length compared with that of young adults. However, individual variations in visuospatial working-memory capacity did not correlate with the rate of learning in older adults. These results indicate that working memory declines with age at least partially explain age-related differences in explicit motor sequence learning. PMID:19726728

  16. The neural correlates of age effects on verbal-spatial binding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of age-related differences in the binding of verbal and spatial information utilizing event-related working memory tasks. Twenty-one right handed younger adults and twenty-one right handed older adults performed two versions of a dual task of verbal and spatial working memory. In the unbound dual task version letters and locations were presented simultaneously in separate locations, while in the bound dual task version each letter was paired with a specific location. In order to identify binding-specific differences, mixed-effects ANOVAs were run with the interaction of age and task as the effect of interest. Although older adults performed worse in the bound task than younger adults, there was no significant interaction between task and age on working memory performance. However, interactions of age and task were observed in brain activity analyses. Older adults did not display the greater unbound than bound task activity that younger adults did at the encoding phase in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right putamen, and globus pallidus as well as at the maintenance phase in the cerebellum. We conclude that the binding of letters and locations in working memory is not as efficient in older adults as it is in younger adults, possibly due to the decline of cognitive control processes that are specific to working memory binding. PMID:24631396

  17. Social Work Internship in Public Housing: An Interdisciplinary Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurren, Oscar; Lister, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Principles shaping the focus of the social work internship program at the University of Hawaii included: an interdisciplinary framework providing for faculty and student development from the Schools of Public Health, Engineering, Architecture, Business Administration, and Social Work; and total responsibility for task assignment, affording…

  18. Experience of Social Support among Working Mothers: A Concept Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…

  19. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  20. Student Group Project Work: A Pioneering Experiment in Interactive Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2001-01-01

    Fully half of the curriculum at Roskilde University in Denmark is student-driven group research project work that is often interdisciplinary. Describes the practice of group project work in the sciences at RUC and evaluates implications for educational practice in the United States. (Author/SAH)

  1. Aging, source memory, and the experience of "remembering".

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Boywitt, C Dennis

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, we found source memory for perceptual features to differentiate between younger but not older adults' reports of recollective ("remember"; R) and "know" (K) experiences. In two experiments with younger (17-30 years) and older (64-81 years) participants, we examined whether memory for meaningful speaker sources would accompany older adults' recollective experience. Indeed, memory for male and female speakers (but not partial memory for gender; Experiment 1) as well as bound memory for speakers and their facial expressions (Experiment 2) distinguished between both younger and older adults' RK reports. Thus, memory for some sources forms a common basis for younger and older adults' retrieval experience. Nonetheless, older adults still showed lower objective source memory and lower subjective source-attribution confidence than younger adults when reporting recollective experiences, suggesting that source memory is less relevant to their retrieval experience than for younger adults. PMID:26653292

  2. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (higher English experience [HEE], higher Spanish experience [HSE]). Children produced 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older…

  3. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work experience as a vocational factor. 220.130 Section 220.130 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.130 Work experience as a vocational factor. (a) General. Work experience...

  4. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are work experiences for youth? 664.460...) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.460 What are work experiences for youth? (a) Work experiences are planned,...

  5. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are work experiences for youth? 664.460...) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.460 What are work experiences for youth? (a) Work experiences are planned,...

  6. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are work experiences for youth? 664.460...) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.460 What are work experiences for youth? (a) Work experiences are planned,...

  7. Biology for Every Kid: 101 Easy Experiments that Really Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancleave, Janice Pratt

    1989-01-01

    Presented are 12 biology experiments suitable for use in intermediate grade classrooms. Topics include plants, protists, fungi, animals, and osmosis. Provided are objectives, lists of materials, procedures, results, and explanations of the results. (CW)

  8. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  9. Shuttle VLBI experiment. Technical working group summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, S. H. (Editor); Roberts, D. H. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The gain in interferometric resolution of extragalactic sources at radio frequencies which can be achieved by placing a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) antenna in space is quantitatively described and a VLBI demonstration experiment using a large deployable antenna, which if realized could be a very acceptable first venture for VLBI in space is discussed. A tutorial on VLBI, a summary of the technology available for the experiment, and a preliminary mission scenario are included.

  10. Undergraduates' Memories of School-Based Work Experience and the Role of Social Class in Placement Choices in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Richard; Harrison, Neil; Hatt, Sue; Chudry, Farooq

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of 49 young first-year UK undergraduates who had undergone one or two weeks of work experience at school between the ages of 14 and 16. Previous studies focusing on the whole school cohort suggested that the nature of work experience placements was strongly predicted by class. In particular, middle class…

  11. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

  12. Graduate Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Harriet; Knight, Carolyn; Khudododov, Khudodod

    2014-01-01

    For decades, group work scholars have described a discrepancy between student preparation for group work practice and opportunities to work with groups in the field practicum and professional practice. Educators in related disciplines such as counseling and psychology have expressed similar concerns. This article reports findings of a study of MSW…

  13. Federal Workplace Laws: Are Business Work Experience Programs in Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Kurth, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews federal laws (Fair Labor Standard Act's child labor regulations, Occupational Safety and Health Act, Immigration Reform and Control Act) for their implications for cooperative education and school-to-work programs. (SK)

  14. A School-Based Work Experience for Accounting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannan, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    The accounting lab at the Pinkerton Academy in Derry, New Hampshire, encompasses the learning of theory, concepts, skills, technology, and work-related competencies, and gives students the opportunity to explore the accounting field.(JOW)

  15. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history. PMID:25602489

  16. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  17. Accounting for Recent Declines in Employment Rates among Working-Aged Men and Women with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bound, John; Waidmann, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    During the 1990s, employment rates of people with disabilities fell and the number of working-age people receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased dramatically, Analysis of Current Population Survey and disability insurance data suggests that growth in the SSDI program accounts for much of the decline in employment…

  18. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  19. Toward a Social Phenomenology of Aging: Studying the Self Process in Biographical Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the established life history approach to the study of aging has been reformulated to include the macrostructural and cultural context. Demonstrates the utility of some core concepts in social phenomenology and ethnomethodology, particularly Schutz's concept of biographical work, for developing this new conception of the self.…

  20. Investigating the Effects of Veridicality on Age Differences in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shake, Matthew C.; Perschke, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…

  1. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  2. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  3. The New Basics: Education and the Future of Work in the Telematic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David

    The increasing globalization of work, coupled with rapid advancement in communications technology, is making age-old teaching methods irrelevant. To thrive in the plugged-in future workplace, students today need to learn a whole new set of fundamental skills. This book starts by presenting the author's assumptions and biases with regard to…

  4. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  5. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

  6. Work reinforcers and explanatory style for women aged 40 to 75 years.

    PubMed

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-07-01

    We examined the relationship between explanatory style and work reinforcers, that is, specific sources in the work environment that appear to promote job satisfaction. Our subjects were 135 employed women aged 40 to 75 years who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Using Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis, weak but significant relationships were found between explanatory style and the work reinforcers of ability utilization, activity, and creativity. Individuals with a depressive explanatory style experienced less job satisfaction in areas related to these reinforcers. PMID:7932292

  7. Binding in working memory and frontal lobe in normal aging: is there any similarity with autism?

    PubMed Central

    Lecouvey, Grégory; Quinette, Peggy; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Bejanin, Alexandre; Gonneaud, Julie; Abbas, Ahmed; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies highlight similarities between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and healthy aging. Indeed, the decline in older individuals’ ability to create a unified representation of the individual features of an event is thought to arise from a disruption of binding within the episodic buffer of working memory (WM) as the same way as observed in ASD. In both cases, this deficit may result from an abnormal engagement of a frontohippocampal network. The objective of the present study is to identify both cognitive processes and neural substrates associated with the deficit of binding in WM in healthy aging. We studied the capacity of binding and the cognitive processes that might subtend its decline in 72 healthy participants aged 18–84 years. We examined the behavioral data in relation to the changes in brain metabolism associated with the age-related decline in a subgroup of 34 healthy participants aged 20–77 years using the resting-state [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). Forward stepwise regression analyses showed that the age-related decline in binding was partially explained by a decline in inhibition and processing speed. PET correlation analyses indicated that metabolism of the frontal regions, anterior and middle cingulate cortices is implicated in this phenomenon. These data suggest that executive functions and processing speed may play a crucial role in the capacity to integrate unified representations in memory in aging. Possible implications are discussed in ASD. PMID:25852510

  8. [Multidisciplinary consultation "Suffering at work": an experience in western Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Besse, Christine; Berset, Denise Grolimund; Studer, Regina; Quarroz, Stéphane; Praz-Christinaz, Sophie-Maria; Rivier, Gaétan; Barlet-Ghaleb, Catherine; Danuser, Brigitta; Bonsack, Charles

    2016-02-01

    Mental health problems at work constitute a challenge in the clinical feld, as well in the professional, the economic and the public health perspective. The total costs they generate in Switzerland are equivalent to 3.2% of the Swiss gross domestic product and they very often lead to dismissal. The vast majority of people are treated by their primary care physician. The Institute for Work and Health features a specialized consultation on the topic of suffering at work, offering the primary care physicians a pluridisciplinary advice or support, in a collaborative care prospect. Its action, adapted to each situation's needs, goes from an advice to a referral to specialists that can strengthen the network on a long-term basis (mental health follow-up, supported employment program, legal or social advice). PMID:26999999

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Eslinger, Jessica G.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S.; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Participants Adults (ages 18–64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). Design and Main Outcome Measures The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. Results ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5–2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42–0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41–0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. Conclusions ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen

  10. New Jersey Graduated Work Incentive Experiment. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica, Princeton, NJ.

    The study is described as a carefully controlled field test of the effects on recipient families of eight different negative income tax or benefit formulas. The most striking finding was that observed changes in labor supply in response to the experimental payments were generally quite small. Chapter One, The Experiment: Background and Choices,…

  11. The Experience of Working with Refugees: Counsellors in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Gillian; Leavey, Gerard; Payne, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The provision of counselling services for refugee and asylum-seeking patients is relatively new in the UK and their complex needs may present considerable challenges within primary care, where access to specialist support resources is often limited. As far as we know, no previous research has attempted to look at the experiences of the counsellors…

  12. My Experience. My Perspective. Transportation to Work Presents Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegers, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Transportation challenges can often be one of the biggest stumbling blocks to having a successful vocational experience. The author presents a personal account of the difficulties people with disabilities encounter in trying to get themselves to their workplaces due to the limitations of various mobility services.

  13. Working Theory into and out of Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2005-01-01

    In this response, I advocate for the value of considering theory in the design-based research that Gersten describes in Behind the Scenes of an Intervention Research Study. I argue that such an emphasis: is consistent with the literature on design experiments, is integral to advancing knowledge building within domains, serves to advance the work…

  14. Engineering Students' Experiences of Transition from Study to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiwne, Elinor Edvardsson; Jungert, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on how students experience their transition from their education to being employed as engineers in relation to the concept of employability. Four cohorts of students in a master's programme in engineering were monitored annually with a "follow-up" one year after graduation. Results show that there were differences in the…

  15. Exploring the Work Experiences of School Counselors of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Baker, Caroline A.; Kassoy, Felice R.; Mayes, Renae D.; Baughman, Amber V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research suggesting the importance of diverse professionals in education (Mattison & Aber, 2007), no studies have explored the professional experiences of school counselors of Color. In this exploratory grounded-theory qualitative study, researchers interviewed 19 school counselors of Color. Responses revealed both positive and…

  16. The Two Sides of Sensory-Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants' ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  17. The Two Sides of Sensory–Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants’ ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory–cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  18. Administrative Experiments: Unlocking What Works Better and What Works for Whom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Scott; Perez-Johnson, Irma; Joyce, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Administrative experiments are increasingly available for public programs with high-quality administrative data to identify what changes make programs and services more effective. Program administrators can run short-term experiments to test improvements in programs and have causally valid impact estimates within a year. Administrative experiments…

  19. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  20. Work Placements for Languages Students: A Transformative Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organ, Alison

    2016-01-01

    A work placement module is compulsory in the second year of most degree programmes at York St John University, as part of an institution-wide strategy to embed employability in the curriculum. As most languages students spend their second year studying abroad, the Languages in the Workplace module was designed in such a way that the setting up of…

  1. Focusing on Doctoral Students' Experiences of Engagement in Thesis Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about what inspires students to be involved in their doctoral process and stay persistent when facing challenges. This study explored the nature of students' engagement in the doctoral work. Altogether, 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students from one top-level research community were interviewed. The interview data were…

  2. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Ministry of Education, Islamabad (Pakistan).

    In Pakistan, academic education is a luxury. Instead, education must be geared to production, solving practical problems, and promoting national development. Since 1951, Pakistan has attempted to bring work and education together and to throw off the structural and attitudinal restrictions of a foreign educational system which strangled tradition,…

  3. Course of Study for the Cooperative Work Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Designed to prepare students (grades 11 and 12) for employment entry through a cooperative work/study program, this course guide assists the teacher-coordinator by providing instructional objectives, suggested performance tasks, sample assessment measures, and activities for each unit of instruction. The instruction covers two broad areas:…

  4. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  5. The Experiences of Teachers Working in Program Improvement Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosine, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Implementation of the curriculum-centered, standards-based federally mandated reform, No Child Left Behind, has placed pressure on teachers, particularly those working in schools comprised of highly diverse and impoverished students, to have their students attain predetermined levels on high stakes, standardized tests. When schools have not met…

  6. Welfare to Work: Does It Work for Kids? Research on Work and Income Welfare Experiments. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Stephanie A.

    Noting that a central tenet of the 1996 welfare reform law was that work was the best way to improve the lives of single parents and their children, this fact sheet summarizes research on the impact of parental work on children in families receiving welfare. The fact sheet delineates key research findings from experimental studies of the effects…

  7. High Performance and the Transformation of Work? The Implications of Alternative Work Practices for the Experience and Outcomes of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godard, John

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 508 Canadian workers showed that moderate levels of high-performance work practices were associated with increased belonging, empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. At higher levels, the association became negative. Work was more stressful with these practices. Team autonomy, just-in-time practices, and…

  8. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30–59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30–59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan’s social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  9. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30-59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30-59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan's social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  10. Balancing Work with Study: Impact on Marketing Students' Experience of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessandro, Steven; Volet, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 57% of students in the United States work while attending college. For most of these students (81%), this is more than 20 hours a week. There has been shown to be a negative relationship between hours worked and academic achievement in studies in the United States as well as the United Kingdom and Australia. There is, however, no…

  11. Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities or Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…

  12. The Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena T.

    2012-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally and professionally prepared for entry into the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability, sometimes it is. When this…

  13. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  14. Experiences with physical conditioning programs in middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.; Stanley, E.

    1969-01-01

    Long term effects of physical exercise and conditioning in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease are studied. Some aspects of the problem are outlined and difficulties encountered in a group of middle aged business executives using a carefully prescribed, but non-regimented and loosely supervised conditioning program employing commonly used forms of exercise (bicycling and jogging), are described.

  15. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  16. Effects of age and environmental support for rehearsal on visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated whether older adults' visuospatial working memory shows effects of environmental support for rehearsal similar to those observed in young adults (Lilienthal, Hale, & Myerson, 2014). When the duration of interitem intervals was 4 s and participants had sufficient time to rehearse, location memory spans were larger in both age groups when environmental support was present than when support was absent. Critically, however, the age-related difference in memory was actually larger when support was provided, suggesting that young and older adults may differ in their rehearsal of to-be-remembered locations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950223

  17. Correlation Between Working Capacity and APDL in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Intellectual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between working capacity and APDL of middle-aged and elderly residents of welfare homes for the intellectually retarded. The subjects were 313 intellectually retarded people over 35 years old. The subjects were chosen from residents of four welfare institutions and job-placement centers for intellectually retarded people in Otaru, Hokkaido. Personal attributes, working capacity, and APDL were investigated in each subject. The items of personal attributes were: gender, chronological age, severity of intellectual impairment, and presence/absence of Down's syndrome. Working capacity was evaluated according to the 6 items. APDL was evaluated according to the 51 items. For statistical analysis of the working capacity of the subjects, the variables were summarized using principal component analysis and scored. Next, a search was made for the common factors in the 51 items of APDL using the principal component method. Finally, the correlation between working capacity and APDL was investigated by multiple regression analysis, with the obtained composite scores as dependent variables and the scores of APDL factors extracted by principal component analysis as independent variables. The following three factors were selected for the subjects: health management, outdoor movement and social activity. The multiple correlation coefficient using these three factors was R=0.63 (F=55.20, p<0.01). This indicates the necessity, from the viewpoints of prevention of senility, to focus not only on the decrease in working capacity of aging residents with intellectual impairment in welfare institutions but to establish various countermeasures based on the interrelationship between working capacity and APDL. PMID:25792909

  18. Organizational culture and work redesign: experiences in three organizations.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Redman, R W

    2000-12-01

    Lack of attention to the organization's culture can mean failure for its strategic initiatives. The authors present the results of three case studies of work redesign initiatives in which organizational culture, as measured by the Competing Values Framework, was assessed before and after project implementation. The organization with a balanced culture at baseline and higher "adhocracy" (developmental) values after implementation was more successful than the two organizations with dominant baseline market and hierarchy cultures. Recommendations for increasing desired values and decreasing undesired ones are provided. PMID:11132349

  19. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  20. Awkward or Amazing: Gender and Age Trends in First Intercourse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Ward, L. Monique; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research continues to highlight significant gender differences in first coital experiences, developmental approaches suggest that some of these patterns may be age-related. Therefore, this study investigated both gender and age differences in first intercourse experiences. Open-ended responses regarding reasons for, and descriptions of,…

  1. Kenyan Student-Teacher Counsellors' Creativity and Its Relationship with Their Gender, Age, and Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinai, Theresia Kavuli

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was: (1) assess creativity of postgraduate student-teacher counselors whose age range was 25-54 years old, and teaching experience of 4-25 years; and (2) to find out whether age, gender, and teaching experience influence creativity. Seventy-two participants (43 females and 29 males) responded to the ICAS (Ibadan Creativity…

  2. Dropping Out of High School among Mexican-Origin Youths: Is Early Work Experience a Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Anane N.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Anane Olatunji examines the effects of work experience on early high school attrition among Mexican-origin adolescents. He proposes a theoretical model that takes assimilation into account as a potential predictor of the consequences of work for this group. In order to estimate the effects of eighth-grade work experience on…

  3. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  4. Models of Career Education Programs: Work Experience, Career Guidance, Placement, and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, David H.; And Others

    The collection of papers contains models of career education programs in work experience, guidance, placement, and curriculum. The first paper, Focusing on the School to Work Transition: Problems and Elements to Be Considered in Developing a Work Experience Program (David H. Hampson), introduces a historical/philosophical perspective of work…

  5. Embodied ageing and categorisation work amongst retirees in the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Róin, Asa

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses ageing and embodiment and explores how age is negotiated in interaction using Membership Categorisation Work. Data were derived from group and individual interviews with home-dwelling retirees in the Faroe Islands. The analysis showed that the interviewees negotiated age by drawing on two contrasting categories, placing themselves and others in the categories of 'old' or 'not old'. Good health was the main predicate tied to the category 'not old' and keeping busy and taking care of oneself were the main activities that the interviewees ascribed to the category 'not old'. The analysis also demonstrated how health as a moral discourse was actualised during the interviews. Staying active and in good health were not just talked about as ways to achieve personal well-being. The interviewees talked about having a responsibility to stay 'fit' for as long as possible to avoid being a burden to the society or to their families. PMID:25456625

  6. The Value of Work Experience in Outcomes for Students: An Investigation into the Importance of Work Experience in the Lives of Female Undergraduates and Postgraduate Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela Joy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from an investigation into the experiences of a single cohort of students, studying on a BA (Hons) degree in Britain. It examines the students' attainment on the degree and relates this to their profile on entry, examining their previous work experiences taken as part of a vocationally focused entry qualification,…

  7. Age effects on load-dependent brain activations in working memory for novel material

    PubMed Central

    Holtzer, Roee; Rakitin, Brian, C.; Steffener, Jason; Flynn, Joe; Kumar, Arjun; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Three competing models of cognitive aging (neural compensation, capacity limitations, neural inefficiency) were examined in relation to working memory for novel non-verbal material. To accomplish this goal young (n=25) and old (n=25) participants performed a delayed item recognition (DIR) task while being scanned with bold fMRI. The stimuli in the DIR task consisted of computer-generated closed-curve shapes with each shape presented only once in the testing conditions of each participant. This ensured that both the novelty and appearance of the shapes maximized visual demands and limited the extent of phonologic processing. Behaviorally, as expected, the old participants were slower and less accurate compared to the young participants. Spatial patterns of brain activation that corresponded to load-dependent (stimulus set size ranged from 1 to 3) fMRI signal during the three phases of the DIR task (memory set presentation, retention delay, probe presentation) were evaluated in both age groups. Support for neural compensation and capacity limitation was evident in retention delay and the probe phase, respectively. Data were inconsistent with the neural inefficiency model. The process specific support for the theories we examined is consistent with a large corpus of research showing that the substrates underlying the encoding, retention and probe phases are different. That is, cognitive aging theories can be specific to the neural networks/regions underlying the different phases of working memory. Delineating how these theories work in concert can increase knowledge of age-related effects on working memory. PMID:18983833

  8. Do Some Interventions Work Better than Others? A Review of Comparative Social Work Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, William J.; Kenaley, Bonnie Davis; Colvin, Julanne

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of which interventions are more efficacious than others for given problems is central to evidence-based practice. Attempts to build this knowledge have been confined largely to reviews and meta-analyses of experiments comparing methods of psychotherapy. This literature has suggested that different methods tend to have equivalent results.…

  9. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Danese, Andrea; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-04-12

    How do adverse childhood experiences get 'under the skin' and influence health outcomes through the life-course? Research reviewed here suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with changes in biological systems responsible for maintaining physiological stability through environmental changes, or allostasis. Children exposed to maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated children. Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated individuals. Despite the clear limitations in making longitudinal claims from cross-sectional studies, work so far suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with enduring changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes are already observable in childhood years and remain apparent in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences induce significant biological changes in children (biological embedding), modifying the maturation and the operating balance of allostatic systems. Their chronic activation can lead to progressive wear and tear, or allostatic load and overload, and, thus, can exert long-term effects on biological aging and health. PMID:21888923

  10. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption. PMID:18592966

  11. The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Binder, Melissa; Krause, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Controlling for human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explained 55-57% of the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers. Mothers faced the highest wage penalty at return to work. High school graduates suffered more prolonged, severe losses than women with lower or higher attainment. Their jobs were less likely to offer flexibility needed…

  12. Perioperative Nurses' Work Experience With Robotic Surgery: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jung; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kang, Hee Sun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the work experience of perioperative nurses involved in robotic surgery. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Participants were 15 nurses who had been on a robotic surgery team at one of five major university hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were one male and 14 female nurses (mean age, 31.33 [SD, 4.19] years; range, 25-41 years). Their experience as robotic surgery nurses ranged from 8 months to 6 years. Nurses' experiences with robotic surgery were categorized within four main themes: (1) constant checking on patients' safety and the robot's functions; (2) unexpected robotic machine errors or malfunctions; (3) feelings of burden in a robotic surgical team; and (4) need and desire for more information and education. This study showed that there are common concerns about patient safety and the possibility of emergencies related to robot system failure among nurses. Offering more support for nurses involved in robotic surgery should be a priority to empower them to play an extended role in robotic surgery. PMID:26848644

  13. Wizards and scientists: the pharmacologic experience in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Rossi, F; Mangrella, M; Loffreda, A; Lampa, E

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark ages, Greco-Roman science survived in the eastern Roman Empire and the most important advances in pharmacology and pharmacy were made in Byzantium. As the Arab empires spread in the 7th and 8th centuries, they incorporated earlier learning, and the most important contribution of Arabic medical writers was probably the introduction of formularies to aid in the preparation of medicines. In turn, the later spread of Arabic knowledge to the West introduced little-known plants and fostered an interest in collecting and cultivating them, and also introduced the palatable dose forms preferred by the Arabic doctors. In the West, however, the Christian Church taught a doctrine of unquestioning faith, and despite the centers of learning, e.g. at Salerno, most ordinary people depended on the healing power of faith, religious relics and traditional folk medicine. Hydrology was also well developed in the Middle Ages. The formularia that survive describe many indigenous plants, but with few illustrations. Their gathering and preparation is generally guided by magic ceremonies and ritual, and plants often took their properties from their habitat, e.g. the wayside plantain was thought good for tired or wounded feet. Concepts of therapeutic plants were also influenced by alchemy and were linked to related metals and planets. PMID:7847474

  14. Workflow in Astronomy : the VO France Workflow Working Group experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Petit, F. L.; Prugniel, P.; Slezak, E.; Surace, C.

    2008-08-01

    The French Action Spécifique Observatoires Virtuels has created the Workflow Working Group in 2005. Its aim is to explore the use of the Workflow paradigm in the astronomical domain. The first consensus was the definition of a Workflow as a sequence of tasks realized in a controlled context (at various levels: intelligence in the choice of the algorithms, flow control, etc.), based on use cases studies, in an architecture which takes into account VO standards. The current roadmap is to provide scientific use cases in several domains (image, spectrum, simulation, data mining, etc.) and to improve them mainly with VO existing tools. Another important point is to develop collaborations with the IT community (links to EGEE, ...). Use cases are useful to compare the pertinence of the possible workflow models and to understand how to implement it as efficiently as possible with the existing tools (ex. : AstroGrid, AÏDA, WebCom-G, etc.). The execution (local machine, cluster, grid) through this kind of tools and the use of VO functionalities (Web Services, Grid, VOSpace, etc.) becomes almost transparent.

  15. Writing, Tables, and Graphs: Experience with Group Discussions in Microbiology Practical Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, H. V.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that microbiology activities/experiments are suitable for teaching skills in designing experiments, manipulating tables/graphs, and the rewriting of work. Shows how students design an experiment using a table and how another experiment provides material for a group discussion on writing and rewriting. (DH)

  16. Neurosurgical Work during the Napoleonic Wars: George James Guthrie's Experience.

    PubMed

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Involved in what is still considered, along with the two world wars of the 20th century, as one of the major conflicts in Europe, George James Guthrie (1785-1856) was the most famous English army surgeon of the Napoleonic wars. After treating the injured throughout the Peninsular Campaign (1808-1814), in 1815 and then in 1842 he published two major books dealing with cranial and brain injuries, among other topics. In these books, we can find, for example, an early description of the plantar reflex further described by Joseph Babinsky, accurate descriptions of the clinical signs of intracranial hypertension, and details of the physiopathology of subdural and epidural haematomas. Skull fractures are also discussed intensively, along with the indications for trepanation, a much-debated issue at the turn of the 19th century. The dura was often the limit of the surgical field for Guthrie. Nevertheless, he tried to rationalize the use of trepanation and favoured its use in two main cases: in cases of depressed skull bones, jammed bone fragments or debris irritating the dura or the brain and in cases of life-threatening cerebral compression caused by supposed blood clots. In their works, Guthrie and his contemporaries did not address neurosurgery in the modern sense of the word, but rather 'cranial surgery' in most cases. Guthrie, who saw so many patients with brain injuries and amputations, failed to understand that cerebral functions could be localized to the cortex and neglected to describe the phantom limb phenomenon, as did most of his contemporaries. PMID:27035714

  17. Narcolepsy in pediatric age - Experience of a tertiary pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Barreto, Maria Inês; Clemente, Vanda; Vasconcelos, Mónica; Estêvão, Maria Helena; Madureira, Núria

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy, a chronic disorder of the sleep-wake cycle of multifactorial etiology, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, often associated with cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Both early clinical suspicion and therapeutic approach are essential for promotion of cognitive development and social integration of these children. The authors present a descriptive retrospective study of a series of eight children in whom symptoms first started between 6.8 and 10.5 years of age. Diagnostic delay ranged from 4 months to 2 years. One child had H1N1 flu vaccination eight months before the clinical onset. The first multiple sleep latency test was positive in 6 of 8 cases. All cases were treated with methylphenidate, and venlafaxine was associated in 4 of them. In one case the initial therapy was exclusively behavioral. In all cases, symptomatic improvement, better school performance and social integration were achieved after therapeutic adjustment. PMID:26483902

  18. Working Memory in Bisphenol-A Treated Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neese, Steven L.; Bandara, Suren B.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of the U.S. population has detectable bisphenol-A (BPA) in their urine according to recent biomonitoring data. BPA is best known for its estrogenic properties, and most rodent research on the nervous system effects of BPA has focused on determining if chronic exposures during pre- and perinatal development have organizational effects on brain development and behavior. Estrogens also have important impacts on brain and behavior during adulthood, particularly in females during aging, but the impact of BPA on the adult brain is less studied. We have published a series of studies documenting that chronic exposure to various estrogens including 17β-estradiol, ERβ selective SERMs and soy phytoestrogens impairs performance of middle-aged female rats on an operant working memory task. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic oral exposure to BPA would alter working memory on this same task. Ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged Long Evans rats were tested on an operant delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task. Rats were treated for 8–10 weeks with either a 0 (vehicle control), 5 or 50 μg/kg bw/day oral bolus of BPA. A subset of the vehicle control rats were implanted with a Silastic implant containing 17β-estradiol (low physiological range) to serve as a positive control. All rats were tested for 25 sessions on the DSA task. BPA treatment did not influence performance accuracy on the DSA task, whereas 17β-estradiol significantly impaired performance, as previously reported. The results of this study suggest that chronic oral exposure to BPA does not alter working memory processes of middle-aged OVX rats assessed by this operant DSA task. PMID:23339879

  19. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant...

  20. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shadowing; (5) The integration of basic academic skills into work activities; (6) Supported work, work adjustment, and other transition activities; (7) Entrepreneurship; (8) Service learning; (9) Paid and unpaid community service; and (10) Other elements designed to achieve the goals of work experiences. (d) In...

  1. Young Children's Learning of Novel Digital Interfaces: How Technology Experience, Age, and Design Come into Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilutz, Shuli

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between age, technology experience, and design factors in determining young children's comprehension of novel digital interfaces. In Experiment 1, 35 preschoolers played three games that varied in complexity and familiarity. Parental questionnaires were used to assess children's previous technology experience.…

  2. Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload.

    PubMed

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

  3. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  4. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  5. 20 CFR 416.965 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations... for you to learn to do it, and was substantial gainful activity. We do not usually consider that work... information could help you to get disability benefits....

  6. Aging influences on working memory for hand movements: a test of the metamemory deficit hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Motohide

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role verbal labels play in working memory for hand movements between young and older adults. All young adults formed verbal labels spontaneously to remember hand movements, whereas only 20% of the older adults did so. After instructed to use verbal labels, the older adults performed at a level close to the level of the young adults. These results indicated an age-related decline of the ability to spontaneously recruit a verbal labeling strategy that can be learned and retained. However, there was no significant interaction between age group and instruction, suggesting the need for further investigation into factors other than verbal labels, including the capacity of the visuospatial memory, interference from earlier items, and fatigue. PMID:17886016

  7. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518

  8. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Wood, Meagan; Black, Sheila; Gilpin, Ansley

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make "safe" rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter's assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT), older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT. PMID:26761023

  9. Workplace-based health and wellness programs: the intersection of aging, work, and health.

    PubMed

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; James, Jacquelyn Boone; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Workplace-based health and wellness programs (HWPs) may be an obvious yet under-utilized strategy for promoting positive health-related behaviors among older workers and for increasing their ability to continue to work. Given the unprecedented number of older adults who extend their labor force attachment beyond traditional retirement ages, a new vision of older adults' economic security and overall quality-of-life should take into account the intersections of aging, work, and health. The purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the workplace as an increasingly important setting that can expand the reach and effectiveness of health promotion efforts; (b) examine current knowledge of barriers and facilitators that can affect older workers' participation in workplace-based HWPs; and (c) suggest new incentive structures that may increase older workers' engagement in these programs. We develop a rationale for our proposition that sustained participation in HWPs may improve the health status of older workers and reduce health care costs. It is our conclusion that there is significant potential for workplace-based HWPs to support older adults who want to or need to work. PMID:26035602

  10. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Meagan; Black, Sheila; Gilpin, Ansley

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make “safe” rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter’s assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT), older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT. PMID:26761023

  11. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment in order to be able to

  12. Processing Speed, Inhibitory Control, and Working Memory: Three Important Factors to Account for Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Gonzalez, Maria Soledad Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory have been identified as the main possible culprits of age-related cognitive decline. This article describes a study of their interrelationships and dependence on age, including exploration of whether any of them mediates between age and the others. We carried out a LISREL analysis of the…

  13. Individual Differences in Negative Group Work Experiences in Collaborative Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Regina; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bray, Diane; Michie, Fran; Street, Becky

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the Negative Group Work Experiences questionnaire (NGWE), an assessment tool for measuring negative experiences of group work. Study 1 involved two samples of undergraduate psychology students (second-year sample n = 425; first-year sample n = 443), who completed research modules incorporating substantial…

  14. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  19. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  20. Exploring the Impact of Work Experience on Part-Time Students' Academic Success in Malaysian Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Freeman, Steven A.; Shelley, Mack C.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the influence of work experience on adult part-time students' academic success as defined by their cumulative grade point average. The sample consisted of 614 part-time students from four polytechnic institutions in Malaysia. The study identified six factors to measure the perceived influence of work experiences--positive…

  1. Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrisani, Paul J.; And Others

    A study was done to examine the influence of several work attitudes on a number of facets of subsequent labor market experience, as well as the influence of labor market experience on the work attitudes. Based on interview data on about 20,000 respondents from the National Longitudinal Surveys representative national samples of men 14 to 24 and 45…

  2. Homelessness and Work Experience: Two Years in Saint Paul. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis R.

    A study explored the role of work experience in addressing problems of homeless people in Saint Paul (Minnesota) during the 1989-91 grant cycles of the McKinney Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program. The program included a number of elements: outreach, intake, assessment and enrollment, orientation, work experience, basic…

  3. Identification of a Dispositional Tendency to Experience Work-Family Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunae; Tay, Louis; Allen, Tammy D.; Stark, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Are individuals predisposed to experience work-family spillover? Despite theoretical relevance and practical implications related to this issue, research on this topic is scarce. With this in mind, we investigated if there is a dispositional tendency to experience work-family spillover using a nationally representative longitudinal sample. We…

  4. The Lived Experience of Psychotherapists Working with Older Clients: An Heuristic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Dianne; Loewenthal, Del

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an heuristic study based on the research question: 'How do psychotherapists experience working with older clients?' The question came from the researchers' experience and interest in working with older clients in general practice. It started from the researchers' desire to examine more closely feelings and…

  5. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6–11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary

  6. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  7. Disability benefit coverage and program interactions in the working-age population.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kalman; Davies, Paul S; Strand, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Over three-fourths of the working-age population in the United States is insured for Disability Insurance (DI); this group is protected against a total loss of earned income typically associated with severe disability. However, little is known about the role the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program plays in protecting against the financial consequences of severe disability for this population. We find that over one-third (36 percent) of the working-age population is covered by SSI in the event of a severe disability. Three important implications follow, which we discuss in sequence below: (1) SSI increases the overall coverage of the working-age population; (2) SSI enhances the bundle of cash benefits available to disabled individuals; and (3) interactions with other programs also enhance the safety net, most notably in the area of health insurance coverage. Ignoring these implications could lead to inaccurate inferences about disability program coverage, health insurance coverage, and the well-being of working-age individuals with disabilities. The first major finding is that SSI substantially increases overall cash benefit coverage. Thus SSI dramatically increases protection against the financial risk of disablement in the working-age population. While roughly 23 percent of the U.S. working-age population was not insured for DI in November 1996, SSI provides coverage for more than half of this seemingly "uncovered" population. An important innovation of our analysis is that we account for the possibility that many of those who appear ineligible for SSI based on current income could become eligible as a result of a disability shock that causes their earnings to drop. Thus the estimated proportion that is protected by SSI increases when the possibility of earnings loss because of disability is considered. Considering DI and SSI together, roughly 90 percent of the working-age population would be potentially covered for benefits in the event of a disability

  8. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  9. Appetite and falls: Old age and lived experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention. PMID:22389651

  10. Age Differences in the Demand–Control Model of Work Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Wang, Mo; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Fisher, Gwenith G.

    2010-01-01

    There have been many tests of Karasek’s demand–control model of work stress. However, no studies have examined how the model may differentially apply to older versus younger workers. Due to age changes in cognitive processing, the psychological demands of jobs may interact differently with controls for younger versus older workers. Therefore, the study uses data from the Eurobarometer to examine how the demand–control model of work stress may function differently for older versus younger workers. The results indicate that different controls may in fact buffer different types of job demands for younger versus older workers. The findings reveal that only the interaction between problem solving and time to complete tasks was significant for younger workers. For older workers, however, the interactions between time deadlines and having sufficient time to complete tasks, autonomy, and the interaction between problem solving and schedule flexibility are significant predictors of self-reported stress. PMID:20948986

  11. The effects of age and experience on memory for visually presented music.

    PubMed

    Meinz, E J; Salthouse, T A

    1998-01-01

    Increased age is often associated with lower levels of performance in tests of memory for spatial information. The primary question in the current study was whether this relationship could be moderated as a function of one's relevant experience and/or knowledge. Stimulus materials consisted of short (7-11 note), visually presented musical melodies and structurally equivalent nonmusical stimuli. Participants (N = 128) were recruited from a wide range of age and experience levels. Although there were strong main effects of age and experience on memory for music, there was no evidence that the age-related differences in memory for these stimuli were smaller for individuals with moderate to large amounts of experience with music. PMID:9469173

  12. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  13. Low back pain beliefs are associated to age, location of work, education and pain-related disability in Chinese healthcare professionals working in China: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Evidence pointing towards a more efficacious model of care using a biopsychosocial approach for LBP management highlights the need to understand the pain-related beliefs of patients and those who treat them. The beliefs held by healthcare professionals (HCPs) are known to influence the treatment advice given to patients and consequently management outcomes. Back pain beliefs are known to be influenced by factors such as culture, education, health literacy, place of work, personal experience of LBP and the sequelae of LBP such as disability. There is currently a knowledge gap among these relationships in non-western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between LBP-related beliefs among Chinese HCPs and characteristics of these HCPs. Methods A convenience sample of 432 HCPs working in various health settings in Shanghai, China, completed a series of questionnaires assessing their demographic characteristics, LBP status, pain-related disability and their beliefs about their own LBP experience, using the Back beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Results Younger Chinese HCPs (20–29 years) held more negative beliefs and attitudes related to LBP compared to older HCPs (>40years; BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: 2.4 [0.9 - 3.9], p = 0.001). HCPs working outside tertiary hospitals had poorer beliefs concerning the inevitable consequences of LBP (BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: −2.4 [−3.8 - −1.0], p = 0.001). HCPs who experienced LBP had higher level of fear avoidance beliefs when experiencing high LBP-related disability (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.8 [1.5 - 4.1], p < 0.001; FABQ-work mean difference [95% CI]: 6.2 [4.0 - 8.4], p < 0.001)) and had lower level of fear avoidance beliefs if they had completed postgraduate study (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.9 [−5.8 - 0.0], p = 0

  14. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  15. Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lorri A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

  16. Empathetic Responses and Attitudes about Older Adults: How Experience with the Aging Game Measures up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Beverly W.; Ozier, Amy D.; Johnson, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of pre-professional education on students' knowledge and attitudes about aging, including the option of a simulated learning activity. Using a mixed design, groups of nursing and nutrition students (n = 127) were randomly assigned to experience the Aging Game. Pre- and posttest observations included measures…

  17. Behavioral and Neural Markers of Flexible Attention over Working Memory in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mok, Robert M; Myers, Nicholas E; Wallis, George; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2016-04-01

    Working memory (WM) declines as we age and, because of its fundamental role in higher order cognition, this can have highly deleterious effects in daily life. We investigated whether older individuals benefit from flexible orienting of attention within WM to mitigate cognitive decline. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in older adults performing a WM precision task with cues during the maintenance period that retroactively predicted the location of the relevant items for performance (retro-cues). WM performance of older adults significantly benefitted from retro-cues. Whereas WM maintenance declined with age, retro-cues conferred strong attentional benefits. A model-based analysis revealed an increase in the probability of recalling the target, a lowered probability of retrieving incorrect items or guessing, and an improvement in memory precision. MEG recordings showed that retro-cues induced a transient lateralization of alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillatory power. Interestingly, shorter durations of alpha/beta lateralization following retro-cues predicted larger cueing benefits, reinforcing recent ideas about the dynamic nature of access to WM representations. Our results suggest that older adults retain flexible control over WM, but individual differences in control correspond to differences in neural dynamics, possibly reflecting the degree of preservation of control in healthy aging. PMID:26865653

  18. EEG and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6–9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital electrode pairs) at both ages. WM-related decreases in HR were only present at 5 months, and WM-related increases in EEG coherence became more localized by 10 months. Regression analyses revealed that baseline-to-task changes in psychophysiology accounted for variability in WM performance at 10, but not 5, months. HR and EEG power (medial frontal and lateral frontal electrodes) were unique predictors of variability in 10-month WM performance. These findings are discussed in relation to frontal lobe development, and represent the first comprehensive longitudinal analysis of age-related changes in the behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of WM. PMID:22148943

  19. Episodic future thinking: the role of working memory and inhibition on age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana; Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The ability to remember past events and imagine future events (episodic future thinking-EFT) has been shown to decline with aging. However, only few studies have analyzed the cognitive mechanisms involved in EFT in both young and older adults. The present study examined the role of working memory and inhibition on age-related differences between young and older adults in EFT, in response to short sentences reflecting common events, some of which were repeated in both conditions (past and future). Thirty-seven young and 36 older adults completed an adapted version of the autobiographical interview, in which sentences were presented. Results showed that processing resources explained a significant part of the variance in the amount of details; in particular, inhibition explained the amount of external details produced in the future condition. In addition, using sentences, the older group did not differ from the young adults in terms of the proportion of internal details recalled in the past condition, whereas they produced a lower proportion of internal details in the future condition. The effect of using structured material was reinforced by repeating some sentences in the past. Further, only older adults rated the remembered episodes as more emotionally salient and relevant than the imagined ones. Age-related differences between young and older adults in EFT appear to depend on the type of material used, on basic mechanisms of cognition, and are characterized by both quantitative and qualitative differences. PMID:25963665

  20. Behavioral and Neural Markers of Flexible Attention over Working Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Robert M.; Myers, Nicholas E.; Wallis, George; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) declines as we age and, because of its fundamental role in higher order cognition, this can have highly deleterious effects in daily life. We investigated whether older individuals benefit from flexible orienting of attention within WM to mitigate cognitive decline. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in older adults performing a WM precision task with cues during the maintenance period that retroactively predicted the location of the relevant items for performance (retro-cues). WM performance of older adults significantly benefitted from retro-cues. Whereas WM maintenance declined with age, retro-cues conferred strong attentional benefits. A model-based analysis revealed an increase in the probability of recalling the target, a lowered probability of retrieving incorrect items or guessing, and an improvement in memory precision. MEG recordings showed that retro-cues induced a transient lateralization of alpha (8–14 Hz) and beta (15–30 Hz) oscillatory power. Interestingly, shorter durations of alpha/beta lateralization following retro-cues predicted larger cueing benefits, reinforcing recent ideas about the dynamic nature of access to WM representations. Our results suggest that older adults retain flexible control over WM, but individual differences in control correspond to differences in neural dynamics, possibly reflecting the degree of preservation of control in healthy aging. PMID:26865653

  1. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  2. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase. PMID:26868677

  3. Teachers' Experience of Working with Socio-Scientific Issues: A Large Scale and in Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekborg, Margareta; Ottander, Christina; Silfver, Eva; Simon, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The research is an investigation of teachers' experience of working with socio-scientific issues (SSI). A large group of teachers (55) chose one of six cases with the characteristics of SSI and were free to organize the work as they found appropriate. The research focuses on how teachers chose content, organized their work and experienced the…

  4. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  5. The Work Experience of Undocumented Mexican Women Migrants in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Rita J.; DeLey, Margo

    1984-01-01

    Undocumented Mexican women workers in Los Angeles were interviewed about their work experience in the United States. Most of them work in factories, not in domestic service. Most earn a salary above minimum wage but below that earned by documented women, and 80 percent believe their treatment at work equals that of other workers. (KH)

  6. No age deficits in the ability to use attention to improve visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of information in mind to the moment-to-moment cognition is accomplished by working memory (WM). WM capacity is reduced in old age, but the nature of this decline is yet not clear. The current study examined the hypothesis that the decline in visual WM performance with age is related to a reduced ability to use attention to control the contents of WM. Young (M = 26 years) and old (M = 71 years) adults performed a color reproduction task in which the precise color of a set of dots had to be maintained in mind over a brief interval and later reproduced using a continuous color wheel. Attention was manipulated by presenting a spatial cue before the onset of the memory array (a precue) or during the maintenance phase (retro-cue). The cue indicated with 100% certainty the item to be tested at the end of the trial. A precue allows the selective encoding of only the relevant item to WM, whereas a retro-cue allows WM contents to be updated by refreshing the relevant (cued) item and removing nonrelevant (noncued) items. Aging was associated with a lower capacity in the baseline (no-cue) condition. Precues and (to a smaller extent) retro-cues improved WM performance (in terms of probability of recall and memory precision). Critically, the benefits of cueing were of similar magnitude in young and older adults showing that the ability to use attention to selectively encode and update the contents of WM is preserved with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253868

  7. AGE (Argon Geochronology Experiment): An Instrument for Geochronology on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Bode, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Kring, D. A.; Williams, M.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Cremers, D. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Baldwin, S. L.

    2003-01-01

    As our knowledge of the planet Mars continues to grow, one parameter that remains elusive is the absolute chronology of the planet s geological history. Although crater counts have provided a robust relative chronology, impactor fluxes are poorly enough known that there are places on Mars where the absolute age is uncertain by a factor of two or more. To resolve these uncertainties, it will be necessary to either analyze well-documented samples returned to the Earth from the Martian surface or to perform in situ measurements with sufficient precision. Sample return is still at least a decade away, and even then it might be from a biologically interesting area that might be geologically complex. Hence an in situ measurement, within an uncertainty of 20% or better, could greatly improve our knowledge of the history of Mars. With funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), we have been working on an instrument to perform potassium-argon (K-Ar) and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) dating in situ on the surface of Mars. For either of these techniques, it is necessary to measure the abundance of one or more major or minor elements (K in the case of KAr; all majors and minors in the case of CRE) and the abundance and isotopes composition of a noble gas (Ar in the case of K-Ar; He, Ne and Ar for CRE dating). The technology for either of these types of measurements exists, but has never before been integrated for a spacecraft. We refer to the instrument as AGE, the Argon Geochronology Experiment (although we will measure the noble gases He and Ne as well for CRE ages). We report here on the basic components that go into such an instrument, both those that use existing technology and those that had to be developed to create the integrated package.

  8. Effects of Age, Gender, College Status, and Computer Experience on Attitudes toward Library Computer Systems (LCS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex A.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of age, gender, college status, and computer experience on students' attitudes toward an online catalog measured student attitudes on three subscales--computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer liking. Results of analysis of variance showed that computer experience was significantly related to computer…

  9. Effectiveness of legislative changes obligating notification of prolonged sickness absence and assessment of remaining work ability on return to work and work participation: a natural experiment in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, J I; Solovieva, S; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Policies have been introduced to reduce sickness absence, but their effectiveness is largely unknown. In a natural experiment, we examined effects of legislative changes on return to work and work participation. Methods The source population consisted of up to 72 164 Finnish public sector employees with a permanent job contract in 2008–2011 (before) and in 2013–2014 (after). We used employees with a continuous sickness absence of at least 30 calendar-days (n=5708–6393), 60 compensated days (n=1481–1655) and 90 compensated days (n=766–932). We examined sustainable return to work (a minimum of 28 consecutive working days) with survival analysis as well as monthly work participation after a sickness absence, and annual gain in work participation after the intervention, using trajectory analyses. Results Sustainable return to work after 60 days of sickness absence occurred earlier after the legislative changes (p value 0.017), although the effect reduced towards the end of the follow-up. There were no differences in return to work after a 30 or 90 days of sickness absence. The largest annual gain, postintervention versus preintervention, in monthly work participation was observed among employees with 60 days of sickness absence and was 230.9 person-years/10 000 employees. The corresponding annual gains among those with 30 days and 90 days of sickness absence were 51.8 and 39.6, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the legislative changes, obligating early notification of prolonged sickness absences as well as assessment of remaining work ability and possibilities to continue working, may enhance sustainable return to work in the short term. Other measures will be needed to enhance work participation, especially in the long term. PMID:26464504

  10. Ten years' experience conducting the Aging Game workshop: was it worth it?

    PubMed

    Pacala, James T; Boult, Chad; Hepburn, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In the Aging Game, medical students experience simulated physical, sensory, and cognitive deficits that are associated with disability from chronic diseases. Since 1994, the University of Minnesota has presented an innovative version of the Aging Game as part of the curriculum in a required clinical clerkship. The experiences conducting the Aging Game over the past decade were reviewed, focusing on the resources necessary to produce it and on its worth as an educational tool. Because many of the reusable props were obtained free as donations, start-up material costs were calculated at 530 dollars. Personnel necessary for each half-day presentation of the Aging Game included two faculty and a minimum of five nonfaculty serving as facilitators; a staff coordinator was also essential. Quantitative student evaluations (N=673) exhibited mean ratings of 1.41, 1.35, and 1.40 (1=excellent) for overall value, teaching effectiveness, and quality of a postsimulation discussion. Written student comments regarding the strengths of the Aging Game centered on three major themes: mode of learning, especially using role playing and simulating deficits (total of 192 comments); attitudinal change, specifically raising awareness and stimulating reflection on the experiences of disabled older adults (121 comments); and educational value, particularly the Aging Game's capacity for creating a memorable impression (56 comments). Despite consuming significant personnel resources, the Minnesota version of the Aging Game is an effective tool for stimulating long-lasting awareness and understanding of key issues related to aging and geriatrics. PMID:16420212

  11. Earning Credit for Work Experience: A Guide to Job Experiences of CETA-Funded Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.

    This guidebook is written for those who question the process of earning credit for experience and what knowledge and skills might lead to a credit award, and should assist educators who are approached for accreditation of knowledge and skills learned on a Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA)-funded job. There are five sections: the…

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  13. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  14. [Structure and function of the heart according to body weight in men of working age].

    PubMed

    Dudar, L V; Honcharenko, L I; Ovdiĭ, M O

    2014-01-01

    The scientific structure and function heart in 65 working age men according to weight and body composition. The shown that the excess body weight observed a significant increase in the size and volume left ventricle of the heart and myocardial mass. The percentage of muscle mass in the body of the patients positively correlated with systolic function of the heart, while the percentage of body fat had a negative correlation with this index. The shown that the individualization of health exercise should take into account the percentage of the active body weight and fat mass in the body, since the high content of fat intense exercise can lead to heart and remodeling worsening left ventricular systolic function heart, while increasing BMI due to muscle does not contribute to the structural and functional reorganization of the heart. PMID:24908966

  15. Effects of Bilingualism and Aging on Executive Function and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Poarch, Gregory; Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which younger and older monolingual and bilingual adults performed executive function tasks. In Study 1, 130 participants performed a Stroop task and bilinguals in both age groups showed less interference than monolinguals with a greater benefit for older adults. In Study 2, 108 participants performed a complex working memory task based on verbal or nonverbal stimuli. Bilinguals showed less interference than monolinguals, with a larger bilingual advantage in the older adult group and in the nonverbal task. Together, these results show that bilingual advantages in executive function depend on characteristics of the participants and features of the tasks, with larger effects found for older than younger adults and for complex tasks using nonverbal material. PMID:25244487

  16. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: Examining the stages of change detection

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old–new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old–new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central–parietal old–new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old–new effect. The younger adults’ early old–new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults’ behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults. PMID:24420648

  17. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  18. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-07-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  19. For Working-Age Cancer Survivors, Medical Debt And Bankruptcy Create Financial Hardships.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Matthew P; Guy, Gery P; de Moor, Janet S; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Virgo, Katherine S; Kent, Erin E; Nutt, Stephanie; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Rechis, Ruth; Yabroff, K Robin

    2016-01-01

    The rising medical costs associated with cancer have led to considerable financial hardship for patients and their families in the United States. Using data from the LIVESTRONG 2012 survey of 4,719 cancer survivors ages 18-64, we examined the proportions of survivors who reported going into debt or filing for bankruptcy as a result of cancer, as well as the amount of debt incurred. Approximately one-third of the survivors had gone into debt, and 3 percent had filed for bankruptcy. Of those who had gone into debt, 55 percent incurred obligations of $10,000 or more. Cancer survivors who were younger, had lower incomes, and had public health insurance were more likely to go into debt or file for bankruptcy, compared to those who were older, had higher incomes, and had private insurance, respectively. Future longitudinal population-based studies are needed to improve understanding of financial hardship among US working-age cancer survivors throughout the cancer care trajectory and, ultimately, to help stakeholders develop evidence-based interventions and policies to reduce the financial hardship of cancer. PMID:26733701

  20. Delays in neural processing during working memory encoding in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Zanto, Theodore P.; Toy, Brain; Gazzaley, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Declines in neural processing speed have been proposed to underlie a broad range of cognitive deficits in older adults. However, the impact of delays in neural processing during stimulus encoding on working memory (WM) performance is not well understood. In the current study, we assessed the influence of aging on the relationship between neural measures of processing speed and WM performance during a selective delayed-recognition task for color and motion stimuli, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in young and older adults. A latency delay was observed for the selection negativity (SN) and alpha band activity (measures of attentional allocation) in older adults during WM encoding of both motion and color stimuli, with the latency and magnitude of the SN predicting subsequent recognition performance. Furthermore, an age-related delay in the N1 latency occurred specifically during the encoding of color stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of both generalized feature-based and feature-specific deficits in the speed of selective encoding of information contributes to WM performance deficits in older adults. PMID:19666036

  1. Semi-Annual Report on Work Supporting the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Brenchley, David L.

    2011-11-30

    During the first six months of this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has provided planning and leadership support for the establishment of the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM). This entailed facilitating the efforts of the Global Steering Committee to prepare the charter, operating guidelines, and other documents for IFRAM. It also included making plans for the Inaugural meeting and facilitating its success. This meeting was held on August 4 5, 2011, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Representatives from Asia, Europe, and the United States met to share information on reactor aging management and to make plans for the future. Professor Tetsuo Shoji was elected chairperson of the Leadership Council. This kick-off event transformed the dream of an international forum into a reality. On August 4-5, 2011, IFRAM began to achieve its mission. The work completed successfully during this period was built upon important previous efforts. This included the development of a proposal for establishing IFRAM and engaging experts in Asia and Europe. The proposal was presented at Engagement workshops in Seoul, Korea (October 2009) and Petten, The Netherlands (May 2010). Participants in both groups demonstrated strong interest in the establishment of IFRAM. Therefore, the Global Steering Committee was formed to plan and carry out the start-up of IFRAM in 2011. This report builds on the initial activities and documents the results of activities over the last six months.

  2. IET. Snaptran2 experiment. Project photographer working on "station c" camera. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Snaptran-2 experiment. Project photographer working on "station c" camera. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: September 22, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4949 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Work-Family Conflict: An Exploration of the Differential Effects of a Dependent Childs Age on Working Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Colette; McCarthy, Alma

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of life cycle stage, specifically parenting stage, on work-family conflict among working parents to determine whether discernible differences are evident among those individuals at the early stage of their parenting cycle compared with those with older children.…

  4. Cognitive experience and its effect on age-dependent cognitive decline in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W

    2003-11-01

    Test-sophisticated beagle dogs show marked age sensitivity in a size discrimination learning task, with old and senior dogs performing significantly more poorly than young dogs. By contrast, age differences in learning were not seen in dogs naive with respect to neuropsychological test experience. These results indicate that old animals benefit less from prior cognitive experience than young animals, which is an example of an age-dependent loss in plasticity. This finding also suggests that behaviorally experienced animals are a more useful model of human cognitive aging than behaviorally naïve animals. We also looked at the effect of a program of behavioral enrichment in aged dogs. One year of enrichment did not lead to significant differences, but after 2 years the behaviorally enriched group performed significantly better than the control group. The effect after 2 years indicates that a prolonged program of cognitive enrichment can serve as an effective intervention in aged dogs. These findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities in aged animals can be modified by providing behavioral experience, indicating that cognitive abilities remain moderately plastic, even in very old animals. PMID:14584821

  5. Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  6. Psychotic Experiences and Working Memory: A Population-Based Study Using Signal-Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo; Zammit, Stanley; Button, Katherine S.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic Experiences (PEs) during adolescence index increased risk for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia in adult life. Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of these disorders. Our objective was to examine the relationship between PEs and WM in a general population sample of young people in a case control study. 4744 individuals of age 17–18 from Bristol and surrounding areas (UK) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study nested within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study. The dependent variable was PEs, assessed using the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview (PLIKSi). The independent variable was performance on a computerized numerical n-back working memory task. Signal-Detection Theory indices, including standardized hits rate, false alarms rate, discriminability index (d’) and response bias (c) from 2-Back and 3-Back tasks were calculated. 3576 and 3527 individuals had complete data for 2-Back and 3-Back respectively. Suspected/definite PEs prevalence was 7.9% (N = 374). Strongest evidence of association was seen between PEs and false alarms on the 2-Back, (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01, 1.35]) and 3-back (OR = 1.35 [1.18, 1.54]) and with c (OR = 1.59 [1.09, 2.34]), and lower d’ (OR = 0.76 [0.65, 0.89]), on the 3-Back. Adjustment for several potential confounders, including general IQ, drug exposure and different psycho-social factors, and subsequent multiple imputation of missing data did not materially alter the results. WM is impaired in young people with PEs in the general population. False alarms, rather than poor accuracy, are more closely related to PEs. Such impairment is consistent with different neuropsychological models of psychosis focusing on signal-to-noise discrimination, probabilistic reasoning and impaired reality monitoring as a basis of psychotic symptoms. PMID:27120349

  7. Wais-III norms for working-age adults: a benchmark for conducting vocational, career, and employment-related evaluations.

    PubMed

    Fjordbak, Timothy; Fjordbak, Bess Sirmon

    2005-02-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scales are routinely used to assess threshold variables which correlate with subsequent job performance. Intellectual testing within educational and clinical settings accommodates natural developmental changes by referencing results to restricted age-band norms. However, accuracy in vocational and career consultation, as well as equity in hiring and promotion requires the application of a single normative benchmark unbiased by chronological age. Such unitary norms for working-age adults (18- to 64-yr.-olds) were derived from the WAIS-III standardization sample in accord with the proportional representation of the seven age-bands subsumed within this age range. Tabular summaries of results are given for the conversion of raw scores to scaled scores for the working-age population which can be used to derive IQ values and Index Scores. PMID:15825898

  8. To cut or not to cut: cosmetic surgery usage and women's age-related experiences.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Shelley J

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86. From these data, this study tested whether women's cosmetic surgery usage would act as a protective factor in age-related experiences related to body image, self-esteem, and aging attitudes. Cosmetic surgery recipients evidenced less body satisfaction, and more appearance investment with age increases while only non-recipients showed improvements in self-esteem ratings with advancing age. Both recipients and non-recipients showed declines in body care with age, a greater felt discrepancy between actual and perceived age, and less aging anxiety--but non-recipients more so than recipients. Thus, despite having undertaken action to improve their appearance through surgical means at some point in their adult lives, cosmetic surgery recipients did not inevitably feel younger than their years, or better about themselves, compared to those who have not pursued surgery. Study limitations and implications are outlined, and given that cosmetic surgery may become normative practice in future cohorts of aging adults, it concludes with a call for nationally-representative studies using matched-control group research designs typical of public health inquiry more generally. PMID:22696841

  9. Poverty and working status in changes of unmet health care need in old age.

    PubMed

    Park, Sojung; Kim, BoRin; Kim, Soojung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined relationships between socioeconomic disadvantage and unmet health care needs among older adults in Korea adjusting for predisposing and health need factors. We examined how older adults' low-income status and working status affect unmet needs for healthcare over time, and how the association varies by reason for unmet needs (i.e. financial or non-financial). We used three waves of data (2009, 2011, 2012) from the Korea Health Panel (KHP) survey and a multinomial logistic mixed model to analyze how low socioeconomic disadvantages affects changes in unmet healthcare needs independently and in combination. Results showed that near-poor elders were more likely to experience increased risk of unmet need due to non-financial constraints over time. When working, near-poor elders risk of unmet healthcare needs due to financial and non-financial factors increases substantially over time. Across societies, different subgroups of older adults may be at risk of unmet healthcare needs, contingent on healthcare policies. Our finding suggests that in Korea, near-poor working elders are the vulnerable subgroup at highest risk of unmet healthcare needs. This finding provides much-needed evidence of heterogeneity of vulnerability in unmet healthcare needs and can be used to design more affordable and accessible programs and services for this group. PMID:27025977

  10. The Voice of the Child in Social Work Assessments: Age-Appropriate Communication with Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Lisa; Dolan, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a child-centred method for engaging with children involved in the child protection and welfare system. One of the primary arguments underpinning this research is that social workers need to be skilled communicators to engage with children about deeply personal and painful issues. There is a wide range of research that maintains play is the language of children and the most effective way to learn about children is through their play. Considering this, the overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of play skills in supporting communication between children and social workers during child protection and welfare assessments. The data collection was designed to establish the thoughts and/or experiences of participants in relation to a Play Skills Training (PST) programme designed by the authors. The key findings of the study reveal that the majority of social work participants rate the use of play skills in social work assessments as a key factor to effective engagement with children. Of particular importance, these messages address how social work services can ensure in a child-centred manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options. PMID:27559222

  11. Working memory and executive function decline across normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kirova, Anna-Mariya; Bays, Rebecca B; Lagalwar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by deficits in episodic memory, working memory (WM), and executive function. Examples of executive dysfunction in AD include poor selective and divided attention, failed inhibition of interfering stimuli, and poor manipulation skills. Although episodic deficits during disease progression have been widely studied and are the benchmark of a probable AD diagnosis, more recent research has investigated WM and executive function decline during mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also referred to as the preclinical stage of AD. MCI is a critical period during which cognitive restructuring and neuroplasticity such as compensation still occur; therefore, cognitive therapies could have a beneficial effect on decreasing the likelihood of AD progression during MCI. Monitoring performance on working memory and executive function tasks to track cognitive function may signal progression from normal cognition to MCI to AD. The present review tracks WM decline through normal aging, MCI, and AD to highlight the behavioral and neurological differences that distinguish these three stages in an effort to guide future research on MCI diagnosis, cognitive therapy, and AD prevention. PMID:26550575

  12. International Students' Experience of Studying and Working at a Northeastern Public University in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwadzo, Moses

    2014-01-01

    This study explores international students' experiences with studying and working at a North Eastern public university. Through phenomenological research approach that utilized face-to-face interview and photo-elicitation techniques, the personal experiences of twenty international students were captured. The findings of this study indicated that…

  13. Being Candidates in a Transitional Vocational Course: Experiences of Self, Everyday Life and Work Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinn, Liv Grethe; Holgersen, Helge; Borg, Marit; Fjaer, Svanaug

    2011-01-01

    Most people with mental health problems want a paid job, but experience difficulties in obtaining one. In-depth knowledge from service users is needed about what supports their work capacity and potentials. This qualitative study aimed to explore the occupational history of people with severe mental-health problems and experiences of being…

  14. Work and Earnings: Cumulative Experience Method of Analysis of Longitudinal Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, John

    1979-01-01

    This paper poses a research question about how a person's work experience affects his or her earnings and shows how the Cumulative Experience Method (CEM) can provide an answer to the question using all available information in a longitudinal data set. (Author/GDC)

  15. Community-Based Summer Work Experiences of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although summer offers a natural context for adolescents to gain community-based work experience, little is known about the extent to which youth with disabilities are accessing these transition-related opportunities. We examined the summer employment experiences of 220 youth with high-incidence disabilities at two time points. Although more than…

  16. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Special Education Teachers Working with Special Needs Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Kristy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the lived experiences of special education teachers. The Giorgi phenomenological model was utilized for this qualitative project. The study looked in detail at the lived experiences of five special education teachers actively working in Pennsylvania schools. Information gathered came from…

  17. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  18. Coffee Cups, Canoes, Airplanes and the Lived Experience: Reflections on the Works of Bertram (Chip) Bruce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A career spent in research, teaching, and engagement with community entails a lifetime of assemblage of meaning from people, resources, technologies and experience. In his work, Bertram (Chip) Bruce has long engaged with how we create such an assemblage of meaning from our formal and found learning, and from the "lived experience" of…

  19. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  20. Learning through Experience: The Transition from Doctoral Student to Social Work Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The researchers conducted an exploratory study using grounded theory qualitative research methods to examine experiences of social work doctoral students as they learned to teach ("N"?=?14). A core category, "learning through experience," representing a basic social process, was identified. The doctoral students experienced…

  1. Employment among Working-Age Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Malachy; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Frain, Michael P.; Tansey, Timothy N.; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Strauser, David; Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States. Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20-65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was…

  2. Studies of the Cost-Effectiveness of Social Work Services in Aging: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Victoria M.; Rowe, Jeannine M.

    2006-01-01

    The American population aged 65 years and older is growing rapidly, creating an increased demand for social workers. Reimbursement structures of Medicare and Medicaid present significant barriers for aging individuals seeking social work services as well as social workers wanting to provide services to the elderly. To build a case for the…

  3. Nursing Students' Intentions to Work in Dementia Care: Influence of Age, Ageism, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen L.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given a projected threefold increase in people living with dementia globally by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2012), attracting nurses to work in this area will be critical to meet demand. This study examined the role of age, positive ageism, negative ageism, and aged-care placement completion in predicting nursing students' intentions to…

  4. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  9. Developing a Competency Framework for the Initial Training of Educational Psychologists Working with Young People Aged 16-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Lang, Jane; Wright, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Children and Families Act (2014) extends statutory protections for young people with special educational needs and disabilities until age 25. Consequently the core curriculum for trainee educational psychologists (TEPs) needs to be developed beyond the current focus of work with early years and school-age children. In order to define requisite…

  10. 20 CFR 416.965 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the last 15 years. You must tell us the dates you worked, all of the duties you did, and any tools... consider that your work experience applies when it was done within the last 15 years, lasted long enough.... If you cannot give us all of the information we need, we may try, with your permission, to get...

  11. Work Experiences, Occupational Commitment, and Intent to Enter the Sport Management Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.; Sagas, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Building from Mever, Allen, & Smith's (1993) work in organizational psychology, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work experiences, affective occupational commitment, and intent to enter the sport management profession among college seniors completing their internship requirements. Results indicate that intent to…

  12. The Lived Experience of Work and Career: Women Whose Parents Lack Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…

  13. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  14. Students' Experience of Working with Socioscientific Issues--A Quantitative Study in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottander, Christina; Ekborg, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    This research project aims to investigate how students in lower secondary school experience work with socioscientific issues (SSI). The six socioscientific cases developed and used in this project are relevant according to characteristics of SSI and to the national curriculum. Approximately 1,500 students in Sweden have worked with one SSI case…

  15. Virtual Experiments or Worked Examples? How to Learn the Control of Variable Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of virtual experiments and worked examples in the learning of the control of variable strategy (CVS). Sixty-nine seventh-grade students participated in this study over a span of 6 weeks and were engaged in worked example learning and/or virtual experimentation to study the knowledge and procedures associated…

  16. First Years in Job: A Three-Wave Analysis of Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfering, Achim; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Kalin, Wolfgang; Bucher, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 423 Swiss job entrants reported major change in general, as well as positive and negative work experiences one, two, and four years after finishing vocational training. Qualitative data analysis showed change in responsibility, increase in decision latitude, acquisition of new status (professional work status, full team member status),…

  17. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  18. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Vocational Considerations § 220.130 Work experience as a vocational..., lasted long enough for him or her to learn to do it, and was substantial gainful activity. This work... disability insured status requirement was last met, if earlier) applies. A gradual change occurs in most...

  19. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  20. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Karen A; Desjardins, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual's cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants' aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person's performance on auditory working memory tests. PMID:26097461

  1. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Karen A.; Desjardins, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual’s cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants’ aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person’s performance on auditory working memory tests. PMID:26097461

  2. Developing leaders' strategic thinking through global work experience: the moderating role of cultural distance.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, Lisa; Oh, In-Sue; Tesluk, Paul E; Moore, Ozias A; VanKatwyk, Paul; Hazucha, Joy

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the challenge of how organizations can develop leaders who can think strategically, we investigate the relation of leaders' global work experiences--that is, those experiences that require the role incumbent to transcend national boundaries--to their competency in strategic thinking. We further examine whether leaders' exposure to a country whose culture is quite distinct from the culture of their own country (i.e., one that is culturally distant) moderates these relationships. Our analyses of 231 upper level leaders reveals that the time they have spent in global work experiences positively relates to their strategic thinking competency, particularly for leaders who have had exposure to a more culturally distant country. We discuss these findings in light of the research on international work experiences and leader development. PMID:24773404

  3. Mechanisms Underlying Age- and Performance-related Differences in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Kirk R.; Chong, Hyemi; Sun, Xue; Tarbi, Elise C.; Riis, Jenna L.; McGinnis, Scott M.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2011-01-01

    This study took advantage of the subsecond temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate mechanisms underlying age- and performance-related differences in working memory. Young and old subjects participated in a verbal n-back task with three levels of difficulty. Each group was divided into high and low performers based on accuracy under the 2-back condition. Both old subjects and low-performing young subjects exhibited impairments in preliminary mismatch/match detection operations (indexed by the anterior N2 component). This may have undermined the quality of information available for the subsequent decision-making process (indexed by the P3 component), necessitating the appropriation of more resources. Additional anterior and right hemisphere activity was recruited by old subjects. Neural efficiency and the capacity to allocate more resources to decision-making differed between high and low performers in both age groups. Under low demand conditions, high performers executed the task utilizing fewer resources than low performers (indexed by the P3 amplitude). As task requirements increased, high-performing young and old subjects were able to appropriate additional resources to decision-making, whereas their low-performing counterparts allocated fewer resources. Higher task demands increased utilization of processing capacity for operations other than decision-making (e.g., sustained attention) that depend upon a shared pool of limited resources. As demands increased, all groups allocated additional resources to the process of sustaining attention (indexed by the posterior slow wave). Demands appeared to have exceeded capacity in low performers, leading to a reduction of resources available to the decision-making process, which likely contributed to a decline in performance. PMID:20617886

  4. Aging With Schizophrenia: A Lifelong Experience of Multidimensional Losses and Suffering.

    PubMed

    Avieli, Hila; Mushkin, Peli; Araten-Bergman, Tal; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the subjective experience of suffering in aging individuals with schizophrenia. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 participants aged 60-69. Phenomenological content analysis was performed. Nine dimensions of suffering emerged: social rejection; familial rejection; the symptoms of schizophrenia; hospitalisation; the side effects of medication; loss of employment potential; loss of independent accommodation; loss of social life, and loss of hope to be a partner and a parent. The suffering of aging people with schizophrenia is cumulative and ongoing and thus evokes issues such as existential loneliness and feelings of homelessness. PMID:26992876

  5. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  6. Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years?

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I.; Wang, Nina J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 year of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age. Methods This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years. Results In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 year of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR 2.1, CI 1.3–3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR 1.8, CI 1.1–2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. Conclusions Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during preschool age independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children’s first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel. PMID:25385683

  7. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  8. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  9. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  10. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume IV. Work/Second Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 19 papers on work and second careers presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles, resources, and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A. Harootyan); "Work/Second…

  11. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  12. Changes in Physiotherapy Utilization in One Workforce: Implications for Accessibility among Canadian Working-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cole, Donald C.; Lee, Hyunmi; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Kennedy, Carol; Subrata, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In debates over access to essential medical care, comparatively little attention has been paid to the provision of outpatient physiotherapy services. We examined physiotherapy utilization for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among approximately 2,000 employees of a large, unionized, Ontario workplace. We obtained MSD-related physiotherapy claims and service data from the public Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, two private medical insurance carriers, a workplace special fund starting in 1995 and a workplace-contracted, on-site physiotherapy clinic starting in 1999. We observed substantial increases in overall physiotherapy utilization for MSDs: a median of 234 services per quarter for 1992–1994 to 1,281 for 1999–2002. With inclusive workplace provision policies, most physiotherapy utilization occurred on-site by 1999–2002 (70%). With a user-pay orientation to outpatient physiotherapy services increasing among working-age adults in Ontario, there is substantial potential for unequal access among those not privately insured or in workplaces with direct service provision. PMID:22294994

  13. Effects of age, sex, prior experience, and intraspecific food variation on diet composition of a tropical folivore (Phasmetodea: Phasmatidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Sandlin, E.A.; Willig, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Recent attention in ecology has focused on factors that influence the foraging behavior of herbivores. We evaluated responses to different arrays of food plants exhibited by an abundant folivore within the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico. Previous work indicates that the walkingstick Lamponius portoricensis Rehn forages on a limited array of plant species and selects habitats that contain high densities of Piper treleaseanum Britton Wilson. We designed three separate experiments to evaluate (1) if walkingsticks of different ages or of different sex have different food preferences, (2) if previous exposure to only one food type affects subsequent diet composition, and (3) if walkingsticks distinguish among leaves of different quality from the same plant. Four plants [Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne Planch, Piper hispidum Sw., P. treleaseanum, and Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud.] known to be forage for this insect were used in food choice experiments. Multi- variate analyses revealed that, at different ages, males and females exhibit different patterns of consumption. Likewise, preexposure to only one food influences subsequent diet differently depending upon preexposure regime and sex. In addition, preferences are shown for different qualities of leaves within single forage species. In particular, lower (older) leaves of P. treleaseanum are preferred, whereas leaves of D. arboreus and U. baccifera are eaten indiscriminately. These results are consistent with the contention that herbivores forage within nutritional constraints. In addition, walkingsticks distinguish between plant species, recognize differences in leaf quality associated with age or position, and modify their diet to reflect past experience.

  14. Does Employment Promote Recovery? Meanings from Work Experience in People Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; Gonzáles, Sergio; Cubero, Rosario

    2016-09-01

    Employment has been highlighted as a determinant of health and as an essential milestone in the recovery process of people with serious mental illness. Different types of programs and public services have been designed to improve the employability of this population. However, there has not been much interest in the meanings attributed to these experiences and the negative aspects of work experience. In this research, we explored the meanings that participants attributed to their work experience and the impact of work on their recovery process. Research participants lived in Andalusia (Spain), a region in southern Europe with a high unemployment rate. Two versions of a semi-structured interview were designed: one for people who were working, and one for unemployed people. Participants' narratives were categorized according to grounded theory and the analyses were validated in group sessions. Apart from several positive effects for recovery, the analysis of the narratives about work experience outlined certain obstacles to recovery. For example, participants mentioned personal conflicts and stress, job insecurity and meaningless jobs. While valid, the idea that employment is beneficial for recovery must be qualified by the personal meanings attributed to these experiences, and the specific cultural and economic factors of each context. PMID:26581838

  15. How Do You Know You're Old? Gender Differences in Cues Triggering the Experience of Personal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Pruett, Jessica H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the gender differences on the experience of aging, 142 individuals 50 years of age and older completed an interview regarding experiences with another individual conveying the message that they were "old." Interviewees were asked about the type of situation, the age and gender of the response person, and the…

  16. [Emotional experience and regulation across the adult lifespan: comparative analysis in three age groups].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, María; Izal Fernández de Trocóniz, María; Montorio Cerrato, Ignacio; Losada Baltar, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    The studies focused on age-related differences in emotional experience are still scarce, and most of them have been conducted with North-American samples. This study explores the presence of age-related differences in some facets of emotional experience (subjective well-being and emotional intensity), as well as in variables related to emotion regulation (subjective emotional control and three emotion-regulation mechanisms: situation selection, emotion suppression, rumination) in the Spanish population. One hundred and sixty people from three age groups (younger, middle-aged and older adults) participated in the study. Older participants reported lower levels of life satisfaction and positive emotional intensity than younger ones, as well as higher levels of perceived emotional control, emotional maturity and leveling of positive affect, and more use of emotion suppression. The results partially support the emotional maturity hypothesis of emotional functioning in old age, but also suggest that older adults' emotional regulation may present important peculiarities which have not yet been addressed in the extant literature, such as the moderation or limitation of emotional experience, especially positive emotions. PMID:18940059

  17. Walter Benjamin in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Aura in Education--A Rereading of "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a key text in the field of Cultural Studies for its relevance to questions about the identity of knowledge in education. The concept of "aura" arises as being of special significance in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" as a way of understanding the change that occurs to art when mass reproduction becomes…

  18. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423

  19. Aging--and Experience-Related Changes in Teacher Attitudes toward the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Richard P.; Goulet, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A wide range of teachers were sampled to study whether attitudes toward the profession change with age and/or generation, or the amount of professional experience. Attitudes concerning the fulfillment of altruistic and pragmatic needs were assessed both for present views and for when the career choice was made. (Author/GDC)

  20. How Do People with Learning Disabilities Experience and Make Sense of the Ageing Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…

  1. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  2. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  3. Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

  4. Personal Experience of Aging in the Children of a Parent with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritsen, Debby; Kuin, Volande; Steverink, Nardi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether adults with a parent with dementia experience their personal aging differently than adults whose parents do not have dementia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 adults who had a parent with dementia and 25 controls. We found that, although in a general sense the two groups were quite similar in their…

  5. The Role of Age and Motivation for the Experience of Social Acceptance and Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitin, Jana; Schoch, Simone; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    A study with n = 55 younger (18-33 years, M = 23.67) and n = 58 older (61-85 years, M = 71.44) adults investigated age-related differences in social approach and avoidance motivation and their consequences for the experience of social interactions. Results confirmed the hypothesis that a predominant habitual approach motivation in younger adults…

  6. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  7. The Advocacy Experiences of Parents of Elementary Age, Twice-Exceptional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnoy, Kevin D.; Swoszowski, Nicole C.; Newman, Jane L.; Floyd, Amanda; Jones, Parrish; Byrne, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    For many parents, successfully advocating for their twice-exceptional child can be intimidating and overwhelming. Using grounded theory, we conducted a study with parents (n = 8) of elementary age, twice-exceptional children to learn about their advocacy experiences. Findings revealed that parents simultaneously advocated for their child's…

  8. Age, flight experience, and risk of crash involvement in a cohort of professional pilots.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P; Grabowski, Jurek G; Qiang, Yandong; McCarthy, Melissa L; Rebok, George W

    2003-05-15

    Federal aviation regulations prohibit airline pilots from flying beyond the age of 60 years. However, the relation between pilot age and flight safety has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. From 1987 to 1997, the authors followed a cohort of 3,306 commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots who were aged 45-54 years in 1987. During the follow-up period, the pilots accumulated a total of 12.9 million flight hours and 66 aviation crashes, yielding a rate of 5.1 crashes per million pilot flight hours. Crash risk remained fairly stable as the pilots aged from their late forties to their late fifties. Flight experience, as measured by total flight time at baseline, showed a significant protective effect against the risk of crash involvement. With adjustment for age, pilots who had 5,000-9,999 hours of total flight time at baseline had a 57% lower risk of a crash than their less experienced counterparts (relative risk = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.87). The protective effect of flight experience leveled off after total flight time reached 10,000 hours. The lack of an association between pilot age and crash risk may reflect a strong "healthy worker effect" stemming from the rigorous medical standards and periodic physical examinations required for professional pilots. PMID:12746239

  9. Role conflict and satisfaction in the work-family context: Age differences in the moderating effect of role commitment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiu Ching; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene H

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age differences in the buffering effects of role commitment on the associations between role conflicts and satisfaction from the within-domain and cross-domain perspectives. Eighty-five working mothers participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that work conflicts were negatively associated with job satisfaction of younger employees but not older employees. Commitment to both work and family buffered against the negative association between family conflicts and family satisfaction for older employees but not younger employees. These findings highlight the importance of role commitment for working mothers across adulthood to cope with the demands in the work-family interface. PMID:26263527

  10. Balancing Work and Family: A Panel Analysis of the Impact of Part-Time Work on the Experience of Time Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurijssen, Ilse; Glorieux, Ignace

    2013-01-01

    In this article we consider the consequences of work-family reconciliation, in terms of the extent to which the adjustment of the labour market career to family demands (by women) contributes to a better work-life balance. Using the Flemish SONAR-data, we analyse how changes in work and family conditions between the age of 26 and 29 are related to…

  11. Training, work experience, and the earnings of men and women scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.G.

    1981-12-01

    This study examines the influence of training and work experience on the earnings of scientists and engineers and measures the effect of different kinds of training and work experience on earnings of scinetists and engineers, with separate estimates developed for men and women. The study focuses on the role of training and work experience differences in determining the relative earnings of men and women. Three surveys of recent graduates in science and engineering conducted for the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1978, 1979, and 1980 are combined to produce estimates of the percent of time devoted to different work activities, by college major and sex. Surveys of experienced scientists and engineers, also conducted for NSF, are used to estimate the effects of a variety of different work activity and training measures on earnings, by sex. Throughout, the analysis is restricted to scientists and engineers below the Ph.D. level who were employed fulltime at the time of the surveys. It was found that training and work experience are significantly related to scientists' earnings, and are important determinants of the earnings gap between experienced men and women scientists. The contribution to the sex differential in earnings comes not from a difference in the return to training and experience received by men and women scientists but rather from the fact that women have fewer years of professional experience than men and spend less of their careers in management activities. Unemployment rates were calculated excluding those of the unemployed who indicated that their job search was restricted by geographic location, family responsibilities, or need for part-time employment. The unemployment rate was 1.1 percent for males and 1.2 percent for females, virtually eliminating the sex differential in unemployment rates. This has implications for the design of affirmative action programs, discussed in the Appendix.

  12. Effects of age and experience on reproductive performance of wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Hepp, G.R. ); Kennamer, R.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Data from a long-term study of Wood Ducks breeding in South Carolina were used to test whether reproductive performance was age specific and to evaluate several hypotheses proposed for age-specific variation. We used known-aged females from 1 through 5 yr of age. Yearling females initiated nests 11-19 d later than older females; heavier females, independent of age, nested earlier than lighter females. One-way analyses of covariance using female body mass and nesting date as covariates indicated that clutch size, mean egg mass, number of ducklings per nest, and the percentage of eggs hatching (hatching success) were independent of female age. Probability of nests producing at least one duckling (nest success) also was not related to female egg. We separately tested effects of breeding experience and female age class (yearling vs. adult) on reproductive performance. In the context of this study, females were considered as experienced if they previously were captured using nest boxes and inexperienced if there was no record of nest box use. Adult females with previous breeding experience initiated nests an average of 26 d earlier than adults without previous experience; body mass of experienced adults was greater than that of inexperienced adults. Adult females designated as [open quotes]inexperienced[close quotes] may have nested previously in natural cavities and were simply changing to nest boxes. Nest-site fidelity is known to affect nesting date, so we also compared nesting dates of inexperienced adults with a subset of of experienced females that changed nest sites.

  13. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed. PMID:27086476

  14. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  15. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  16. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  17. Low back pain patients' experiences of work modifications; a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research indicates that work modifications can reduce sickness absence and work disability due to low back pain. However, there are few studies that have described modified work from the perspective of patients. A greater understanding of their experiences may inform future workplace management of employees with this condition. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-five employed patients who had been referred for back pain rehabilitation. All had expressed concern about their ability to work due to low back pain. Data was analysed thematically. Results Many participants had made their own work modifications, which were guided by the extent of control they had over their hours and duties, colleague support, and their own beliefs and attitudes about working with back pain. A minority of the participants had received advice or support with work modifications through occupational health. Access to these services was limited and usually followed lengthy sickness absence. Implementation largely rested with the manager and over-cautious approaches were common. Conclusions There was little evidence of compliance with occupational health guidance on modified work. There appears to be insufficient expertise among managers and occupational health in modifying work for employees with low back pain and little indication of joint planning. On the whole, workers make their own modifications, or arrange them informally with their manager and colleagues, but remain concerned about working with back pain. More effective and appropriate application of modifications may increase employees' confidence in their ability to work. PMID:21134248

  18. Ups and downs of the expatriate experience? Understanding work adjustment trajectories and career outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Wanberg, Connie R; Harrison, David A; Diehn, Erica W

    2016-04-01

    We examine changes in work adjustment among 179 expatriates from 3 multinational organizations from predeparture through the first 9 months of a new international assignment. Our 10-wave results challenge classic U-shaped theories of expatriate adjustment (e.g., Torbiorn, 1982). Consistent with uncertainty reduction theory, our results instead suggest that expatriates typically experience a gradual increase in work adjustment over time. Two resources that expatriates bring to their assignments (previous culture-specific work experience and core self-evaluations) moderate the trajectory of work adjustment. Trajectory of adjustment predicts Month 9 career instrumentality and turnover intention, as well as career advancement (job promotion) 1.5 years further. Implications for theory, as well as for changes in expatriate management practices, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653527

  19. Provocative work experiences predict the acquired capability for suicide in physicians.

    PubMed

    Fink-Miller, Erin L

    2015-09-30

    The interpersonal psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) offers a potential means to explain suicide in physicians. The IPTS posits three necessary and sufficient precursors to death by suicide: thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability. The present study sought to examine whether provocative work experiences unique to physicians (e.g., placing sutures, withdrawing life support) would predict levels of acquired capability, while controlling for gender and painful and provocative experiences outside the work environment. Data were obtained from 376 of 7723 recruited physicians. Study measures included the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale, the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, the Painful and Provocative Events Scale, and the Life Events Scale-Medical Doctors Version. Painful and provocative events outside of work predicted acquired capability (β=0.23, t=3.82, p<0.001, f(2)=0.09) as did provocative work experiences (β=0.12, t=2.05, p<0.05, f(2)=0.07). This represents the first study assessing the potential impact of unique work experiences on suicidality in physicians. Limitations include over-representation of Caucasian participants, limited representation from various specialties of medicine, and lack of information regarding individual differences. PMID:26216167

  20. The large area crop inventory experiment: An experiment to demonstrate how space-age technology can contribute to solving critical problems here on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The large area crop inventory experiment is being developed to predict crop production through satellite photographs. This experiment demonstrates how space age technology can contribute to solving practical problems of agriculture management.