Science.gov

Sample records for age work experience

  1. A study on the relationships between age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaeyeop; Park, Juhyung; Cho, Milim; Park, Yunhee; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Dongju; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted using 100 subjects who were over 55 years old and worked in heavy industry. To obtain data, we first had the subjects complete the MoCA-K test and Work Ability Index (WAI). The data were then analyzed by frequency and correlation using statistical software (SPSS 21.0). [Results] Through this study, we discovered a significant positive correlation between WAI and MoCA-K, age, and work experience. [Conclusion] This study revealed that work ability in older employees increases not with the number of years worked but with the enhancement of cognitive ability. Special management that focuses on cognition is therefore required for senior employees working in the field of heavy industry.

  2. Social work faculty interest in aging: impact of education, knowledge, comfort, and experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donna; Ihara, Emily; Chonody, Jill; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    As the need for gerontological social workers increases, it is important to assess faculty interest in strengthening and bolstering this area in the classroom and curriculum. This study sought to compare training and experience of social work faculty that identified aging as a teaching or research interest with faculty who did not, and to identify predictors of aging interest among faculty. A national sample of social work faculty members was recruited, and a total of 609 individuals participated in the study. The findings reveal that faculty with an interest in aging differed from nonaging faculty in the areas of knowledge of older adults, personal and paid experience, and graduate and continuing education. In addition, predictors of interest in aging included taking a graduate course, continuing education units, having paid and volunteer experience, level of knowledge of older adults, and comfort level of covering content on aging in the classroom. The connection between social work faculty and student interest in aging are discussed as implications for further social work research and education.

  3. Evaluation of Nontraditional Age Learners' Experiences in Internet-Based Clinical Social Work Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2015-01-01

    This study involves an evaluation of online learners' experiences with two Internet-based clinical social work courses. The evaluation sought to discover whether there were differences in learning between traditional (under 25 years old) and nontraditional age learners (25 years and over) who completed the asynchronous online course. The study…

  4. Experiences of aging among immigrants from India to the United States: social work practice in a global context.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Gauri; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2009-07-01

    The aging of immigrants is a critical component in the health dynamics of the nation's aging population. To date, few studies have addressed within-group diversity and linked contemporary contexts of global connectedness with the aging experiences of older immigrants. This study aims to conceptually understand the diversity in aging dynamics within a specific immigrant group: Indian immigrants in New York City. The impact of globalization and transnational connection on aging experiences on 2 within groups-Indians who came to the United States at age of 65 or older (LLIs) and those who came at an early age (ELIs) are analyzed. Implications for social work practice, research and policy are discussed.

  5. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  6. Health, disability, and life insurance experiences of working-age persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, L I; Ngo, L

    2007-05-01

    Working-age Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS) may face considerable financial insecurities when they become unable to work and lack the health, disability, and life insurance typically offered through employers. In order to estimate the rates of having these insurance policies, as well as how insurance status affects reports of financial stress, we conducted half-hour telephone interviews with 983 working-age persons across the US, who reported being diagnosed with MS. The interviews occurred from May through November 2005, and among the sampled individuals contacted and confirmed eligible, 93.2% completed the interview. The study population was largely female (78.9%), Caucasian (86.4%), married (68.6%), with at least some college education (71.5%), and unemployed (60.2%). Overall, 96.3% had some health insurance (40.3% with public health insurance, primarily Medicare), 56.7% had long-term disability insurance (36.4% with public programs), and 68.3% had life insurance. Notably, 27.4% indicated that, since being diagnosed with MS, health insurance concerns had significantly affected employment decisions. In addition, 16.4% reported considerable difficulty paying for health care, 27.4% put off or postponed seeking needed health care because of costs, and 22.3% delayed filling prescriptions, skipped medication doses, or split pills because of costs. Overall, 26.6% reported considerable worries about affording even basic necessities, such as food, utilities, and housing.

  7. Job tenure and work injuries: a multivariate analysis of the relation with previous experience and differences by age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the consequences of the increasing flexibility in contemporary labour markets is that individuals change jobs more frequently than in the past. Indeed, in many cases, through collecting a lot of contracts, individuals work in the same economic sector or even in the same company, doing the same job in the same way as existing colleagues. A very long literature has established that newly hired workers – whatever the contract type – are more likely to be injured than those with longer job tenures. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to study the relationship between job tenure and injury risk taking into account past experience as a possible confounder; and 2) to evaluate how the effects of past experience and job tenure are modified by age. Methods Using a longitudinal national database, we considered only job contracts starting in 1998–2003 held by men working as blue collars or apprentices in the non-agricultural private sector. We calculated injury rates stratified by job tenure and age. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for background variables and previous experience accrued in the same economic sector of the current job. Results In the study period 58,271 workers who had experienced 10,260 injuries were observed. These people worked on 115,277 contracts in the six years observed (1.98 contracts per worker). Injury rates decrease with job tenure; the trend is the same in each age group; young workers have both the highest injury rate (9.20; CI 95%: 8.95-9.45) and the highest decrease with job tenure. Previous experience is associated with a decreasing injury rate in all age groups and for all job tenures. Multivariate analyses show that, even after checking for previous experience, workers with job tenure of less than 6 months show always higher relative risks compared with job tenure > 2 years: relative risk is 41% higher among under-thirty workers; it is 22% higher among people over forty. Previous experience is protective

  8. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and...

  9. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.426 Determining total disability: Age, education, and...

  10. Faculty Reflections on the Institute for Aging and Social Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Mehrotra, Gita R.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research highlights the value of mentorship to the professional development of early career faculty in academia, yet less research focuses on factors motivating individuals to provide formal guidance to junior colleagues. Given that new social work faculty, in particular, may not receive sufficient mentoring, understanding what…

  11. Rethinking Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; And Others

    This book on work experience programs in the United Kingdom begins with "History and Policy Context" (Ian Jamieson, Andrew Miller), which reviews the development of work experience in the United Kingdom, considers the current policy framework, and poses possible future scenarios. "The Concept of Work Experience" (A. G. Watts) explores the concept…

  12. [THE AGE AND WORK EXPERIENCE DYNAMICS OF INDICES OF HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES--CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL AND NONOCCUPATIONAL RISKS].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, G A

    2016-01-01

    There are reported data of the analysis of parameters of the general morbidity (hypertension, chronic diseases, organs of respiratory and digestive system, adiposity, vertebral osteochondrosis) in dependence on age and work experience of dockers-mechanizators in seaport at various working conditions. Morbidity rate indices were calculated on results of the profound medical examination at annual periodic surveys of workers. There were analyzed ecological and ergonomic indices of working conditions, including an estimation of physiological intensity of the work. The general hygienic assessment of working conditions was executed on the basis of the measurement of rates of gains in the risk of diseases depending on age and the experience of work (an annual gain of risk). The divergence of these rates was used for the determination of occupational and nonoccupational fractions of the general morbidity in employees working in harmful conditions. PMID:27430067

  13. [THE AGE AND WORK EXPERIENCE DYNAMICS OF INDICES OF HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES--CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONAL AND NONOCCUPATIONAL RISKS].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, G A

    2016-01-01

    There are reported data of the analysis of parameters of the general morbidity (hypertension, chronic diseases, organs of respiratory and digestive system, adiposity, vertebral osteochondrosis) in dependence on age and work experience of dockers-mechanizators in seaport at various working conditions. Morbidity rate indices were calculated on results of the profound medical examination at annual periodic surveys of workers. There were analyzed ecological and ergonomic indices of working conditions, including an estimation of physiological intensity of the work. The general hygienic assessment of working conditions was executed on the basis of the measurement of rates of gains in the risk of diseases depending on age and the experience of work (an annual gain of risk). The divergence of these rates was used for the determination of occupational and nonoccupational fractions of the general morbidity in employees working in harmful conditions.

  14. Does Work Experience Actually Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2012-01-01

    As unemployment levels rise, so education and training move into the policy spotlight. For the government, this is a very uncomfortable place to be right now. A number of large companies have withdrawn from the flagship Work Programme--under which jobseekers are invited to take up unpaid work placements of between two and eight weeks--amid…

  15. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  16. Work Experience Program Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeser, Robert; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: High School. SUBJECT MATTER: Work experience program. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE/ The introductory material outlines the program philosophy, rationale, and objectives. There are six units, the first two given in detail, the remainder in outline only: a) orientation, b) career development, c) social living and health…

  17. Evaluation of a Multicomponent Intervention Package to Increase Summer Work Experiences for Transition-Age Youth with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Early work experiences have been advocated as an important avenue for equipping youth with disabilities with the skills, attitudes, opportunities, and aspirations needed to transition successfully to meaningful careers after high school. We examined the efficacy and social validity of a multicomponent intervention package--composed of…

  18. Work Experience Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program provides supervised vocational personnel with work experience opportunities. The primary function and purpose of this program is the development and/or refinement of vocational competencies in occupational careers. In the introduction, the first of seventeen sections, course options and requirements are outlined. Criteria for the…

  19. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  20. Career Education. Cooperative Work Experience/Work Study Program Objectives for Students Ages 14-20. DS Manual 2880.1 [and] Approved List of Essential Textbooks/Instructional Materials for Cooperative Work Experience Work Study Ages 14-20. DS Manual 2880.2; Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This manual describes the cooperative work experience program for the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). The first of three sections included in the guide provides a definition and philosophy of the DoDDS cooperative work experience program. The second part of the manual provides a one-paragraph description of the cooperative work…

  1. Shift work, safety, and aging.

    PubMed

    Folkard, Simon

    2008-04-01

    It has long been recognized that older shift workers may have shorter and more disturbed day sleeps between successive night shifts than their younger colleagues. This has given rise to considerable concern over the safety of aging shift workers because of the increasing age of the work force and increases in retirement age. Because there have been no direct studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on safety, the present paper begins by reviewing the literature relating safety to features of shift systems. It then considers the general effect of age on occupational injury rates before examining existing evidence of the combined effects of shift work and age on performance capabilities. The results of the literature review indicate that when the a priori risk is constant, there is reasonably clear evidence that injury rates are higher at night, and that they increase over successive night shifts more rapidly than over successive day shifts. Further, although occupational injuries are less frequent in older workers, those that do occur tend to be more serious. Finally, there is some suggestive evidence from studies of objectively measured performance capabilities that older workers may be less able to both maintain their performance over the course of a night shift and cope with longer spans of successive night shifts. It is concluded that it seems possible, even though unproven as yet, that older workers may be at greater risk both to injury and accident on the night shift. There is a strong need for future epidemiological studies of the combined effects of shift work and age on injuries and accidents, and that these should attempt to separate the effects of age per se from those of generation. PMID:18484360

  2. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  3. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  4. NASA Work Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2015-01-01

    I have had the opportunity to support the analytical laboratories in chemical analysis of unknown samples, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEMEDS), and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). I have assisted in characterizing fibers pulled from a spacecraft, a white fibrous residue discovered in a jet refueler truck, brown residue from a plant habitat slated for delivery to the ISS (International Space Station), corrosion on a pipe from a sprinkler, and air filtration material brought back from the ISS. I also conducted my own fiber study in order to practice techniques and further my understanding of background concepts. Furthermore, I had the opportunity to participate in diverse work assignments, where I was assigned to work with other branches of the engineering department for 1-2 days each. The first was in the Materials Science branch where I participated in the construction of the plant habitat intended for use in research aboard the ISS. The second was in the Testing Design branch where I assisted with tensile and hardness testing of over 40 samples. In addition, I have had the privilege to attend multiple tours of the NASA KSC campus, including to the Astronaut Crew Quarters, the VAB (the main area, the Columbia room, and the catwalk), the Visitor Center housing the shuttle Atlantis, the Saturn-V exhibit, the Prototype laboratory, SWAMP WORKS, the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Crawler, and the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF). Lastly, much of my coursework prepared me for this experience, including numerous laboratory courses with topics diverse as chemistry, physics, and biology.

  5. Age and physical work capacity.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1999-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decrement in various components of physical work capacity, including aerobic power and capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and the tolerance of thermal stress. A part of the functional loss can be countered by regular physical activity, control of body mass, and avoidance of cigarette smoking. Nevertheless, athletes who continue to train regularly still show a substantial aging of both physiological function and competitive performance, reflecting a deterioration of cardiac pump function, a decrease of muscle strength, and a progressive impairment of heat tolerance. These various changes are of concern to the occupational physician, because of the rising average age of the labor force. In theory, an over-taxing of the heart and skeletal muscles might be thought to lead to a decrease of productivity, manifestations of worker fatigue such as absenteeism, accidents, and industrial disputes, and an increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injuries, heart attacks, and strokes. However, in practice, the productivity, health, and safety of the older worker pose relatively few problems. Reasons for this paradox are discussed, and it is stressed that in general there is no longer need to push workers to their physical limits because of automation-related changes in methods of production.

  6. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  7. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  8. [Aging at work and musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D

    2000-01-01

    By means of a critical review of the international literature and of their own published experiences, the Authors discuss the influence of the "age" factor on work related musculoskeletal disorders of the spine and upper limbs. Regarding the spine, the lumbosacral spine in particular, there is evidence (both in relation to pathways and from epidemiological data) of the influence of age in determining a progressive increase in the occurrence of spondyloarthropathy with clear radiological signs. For upper limb disorders the influence of the "age" factor is still under debate and in any case does not seem of great importance. As far prevention is concerned for elderly workers subject to fixed postures and repetitive movements of the upper limbs it seems sufficient, to adopt the general measures used for the whole working population. However, specific measures should be adopted for elderly workers exposed to manual material handling (MMH). These consist in using reference values for the recommended weight that are lower than those adopted for younger workers (aged 18-45 years) and in implementing specific programs of active health surveillance.

  9. Age Stereotypes about Emotional Resilience at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Cornelia; Goritz, Anja S.; Hertel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In light of an aging workforce, age stereotypes have become an important topic both for researchers and for practitioners. Among other effects, age stereotypes might predict discriminatory behavior at work. This study examined stereotypic beliefs about emotional resilience as a function of both targets' and judges' age. In a web-based study, 4,181…

  10. (Work on the L* experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1990-09-10

    The traveler spent eleven intense days at CERN, Switzerland. His time was divided between daytime, when he worked mainly on L* issues, and evenings/nights, when he performed shift work during the current run of the WA80 collaboration. It was decided to reduce the size and cost of the proposed L* experiment. Strategy for SSC subsystem proposals was discussed, and several relevant decisions were made.

  11. The Argon Geochronology Experiment (AGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Bode, R.; Fennema, A.; Chutjian, A.; MacAskill, J. A.; Darrach, M. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Cremers, D.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Argon Geochronology Experiment (AGE). Potassium-Argon dating is shown along with cosmic ray dating exposure. The contents include a flow diagram of the Argon Geochronology Experiment, and schematic diagrams of the mass spectrometer vacuum system, sample manipulation mechanism, mineral heater oven, and the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Operation with elemental abundances is also described.

  12. Effects of age, experience and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins on working memory and neuronal plasticity after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Cynthia M; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) commonly results in cognitive and sensory impairments. Early behavioral experience has been suggested to improve cognitive and sensory outcomes in children and animal models with perinatal neuropathology. In parallel, we previously showed that treatment with immunomodulator Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) improves cellular and behavioral outcomes in neonatal HI injured rats. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influences of early experience and typical maturation in combination with IAIPs treatment on spatial working and reference memory after neonatal HI injury. A second aim was to determine the effects of these variables on hippocampal CA1 neuronal morphology. Subjects were divided into two groups that differed with respect to the time when exposed to eight arm radial water maze testing: Group one was tested as juveniles (early experience, Postnatal day (P) 36-61) and adults (P88-113), and Group two was tested in adulthood only (P88-113; without early experience). Three treatment conditions were included in each experience group (HI+Vehicle, HI+IAIPs, and Sham subjects). Incorrect arm entries (errors) were compared between treatment and experience groups across three error types (reference memory (RM), working memory incorrect (WMI), working memory correct (WMC)). Early experience led to improved working memory performance regardless of treatment. Combining IAIPs intervention with early experience provided a long-term behavioral advantage on the WMI component of the task in HI animals. Anatomically, early experience led to a decrease in the average number of basal dendrites per CA1 pyramidal neuron for IAIP treated subjects and a significant reduction in basal dendritic length in control subjects, highlighting the importance of pruning in typical early life learning. Our results support the hypothesis that early behavioral experience combined with IAIPs improve outcome on a relativity demanding

  13. Effects of age, experience and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins on working memory and neuronal plasticity after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Cynthia M; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) commonly results in cognitive and sensory impairments. Early behavioral experience has been suggested to improve cognitive and sensory outcomes in children and animal models with perinatal neuropathology. In parallel, we previously showed that treatment with immunomodulator Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) improves cellular and behavioral outcomes in neonatal HI injured rats. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influences of early experience and typical maturation in combination with IAIPs treatment on spatial working and reference memory after neonatal HI injury. A second aim was to determine the effects of these variables on hippocampal CA1 neuronal morphology. Subjects were divided into two groups that differed with respect to the time when exposed to eight arm radial water maze testing: Group one was tested as juveniles (early experience, Postnatal day (P) 36-61) and adults (P88-113), and Group two was tested in adulthood only (P88-113; without early experience). Three treatment conditions were included in each experience group (HI+Vehicle, HI+IAIPs, and Sham subjects). Incorrect arm entries (errors) were compared between treatment and experience groups across three error types (reference memory (RM), working memory incorrect (WMI), working memory correct (WMC)). Early experience led to improved working memory performance regardless of treatment. Combining IAIPs intervention with early experience provided a long-term behavioral advantage on the WMI component of the task in HI animals. Anatomically, early experience led to a decrease in the average number of basal dendrites per CA1 pyramidal neuron for IAIP treated subjects and a significant reduction in basal dendritic length in control subjects, highlighting the importance of pruning in typical early life learning. Our results support the hypothesis that early behavioral experience combined with IAIPs improve outcome on a relativity demanding

  14. Age-related differences in updating working memory.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, M; Brédart, S; Beerten, A

    1994-02-01

    Age-related differences in updating working memory were investigated in two experiments using a running memory task. In the first experiment, the task of the young and elderly subjects was to watch strings of four to 10 consonants and then to recall serially the four most recent items. Results revealed no age effect. A second experiment was then carried out using a memory load that was close to memory span: lists of six to 12 consonants were presented and subjects had to recall the last six items. Age interacted with list length but not with serial position. This dissociation is discussed in terms of Baddeley's (1986) model.

  15. Ageism, age relations, and garment industry work in Montreal.

    PubMed

    McMullin, J A; Marshall, V W

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the complexities of age relations at work. Garment workers believed that their fate was linked to ageism and that their work experience was discounted by management. Managers wanted to be rid of older workers because they commanded higher wages than younger workers. The issue was cost reduction, and age was implicated unintendedly. Still, managers seemed to use stereotypical images to discourage older workers and they did not organize work routines to facilitate the adaptation of them. Instead, they subcontracted the easy jobs, relying on the experience of the older employees for difficult work while not adapting the workplace. Theoretically, the authors argue that ageism and age discrimination can best be understood through a recognition of the importance of structured age relations and human agency.

  16. Aging Effect on Visual and Spatial Components of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigneux, Katia; Plaie, Thierry; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging on the storage of visual and spatial working memory according to Logie's model of working memory (1995). In a first experiment young, elderly, and very old subjects carried out two tasks usually used to measure visual span (Visual Patterns Test) and spatial span (Corsi Block Tapping test).…

  17. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or...

  18. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or...

  19. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or...

  20. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work experience. 638.507 Section 638.507... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.507 Work experience. (a) The center operator shall emphasize and implement programs of work experience for students through...

  1. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work experience. 638.507 Section 638.507... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.507 Work experience. (a) The center operator shall emphasize and implement programs of work experience for students through...

  2. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience. 638.507 Section 638.507... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.507 Work experience. (a) The center operator shall emphasize and implement programs of work experience for students through...

  3. Preventing adverse changes of work with age.

    PubMed

    Welford, A T

    1988-01-01

    Many people who change their jobs in middle age have been found to move to less skilled and lower paid work. Two methods of preventing this are discussed. First, training by methods designed to take account of learning difficulties in those past normal apprenticeship age has, when sensitively applied, been successful in equipping people with new skills. Second, applying principles of ergonomics--"fitting the job to the worker"--could often remove key difficulties for older workers and thus prevent the need for moves resulting from failing capacity. This could also open up a wider range of potential jobs for those who have to move by reason of redundancy or technological change. It is emphasized that both the training and ergonomic approaches need to be based on, and can contribute significantly to, fundamental research on performance in relation to age.

  4. The Value of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and…

  5. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences…

  6. Organizational citizenship behavior and work experience.

    PubMed

    Kegans, Loyd; McCamey, Randy B; Hammond, Honor

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared the relationship of elements of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and years of work experience of registered nurses in the state of Texas. Work experience research has shown a relationship between OCB and work experience through mediating roles of various work related characteristics does exist. Work experience is described as the overall length of time in an occupation or workforce. Civic virtue was the only element of organizational citizenship behavior to have a statistically significant correlation with years of work experience in this study. Other elements were found to have no statistically significant correlation with years of work experience. Further research should be undertaken to determine if correlations between these two constructs holds up when the population under study is further refined by job classification, such as management and staff, or industry segment.

  7. REPORT OF WORK INJURIES TO MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, A STUDY OF 18 MONTHS' EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY 28 STATES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Standards (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS FURNISHED REPORT FORMS AND GUIDES FOR COMPLETING THEM TO THE 28 PARTICIPATING STATES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MAIL ON A VOLUNTARY REPORTING BASIS DURING THE 18-MONTH PERIOD, JANUARY 1964 THROUGH JUNE 1965. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) A TOTAL OF 16,936 INJURIES TO EMPLOYED MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WAS REPORTED, (2) OF…

  8. Student Attitudes about Experiences with Work Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalupa, Marilyn R.; Sormunen, Carolee; Charles, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    After 110 business students participated in collaborative learning activities, male attitudes toward work groups became significantly more positive, females' less. Those reporting mostly positive group experiences preferred collaborative working styles; those rating the experience as "just OK" preferred working alone or with one other person. (SK)

  9. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  10. Getting to Grips with Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals responsible for organizing student placements in work experience programs in Australia, provides an overview of the basic issues regarding work experience programs. The following are among the topics discussed in the 14 sections: (1) understanding the characteristics and purposes of industry…

  11. Compulsory Work Experience Programs: Hindrance or Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A recent survey of studies on the school to work transition was particularly critical of English and Swedish compulsory work experience programs. This article reports on an Australian case study that reaches the opposite conclusion. The majority of participants in the Work for the Dole program are young people under 25 who are struggling to find…

  12. Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laila, Akhmetova

    2016-01-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012 started work on formation of literacy in the field of media education for journalists, educators, and youth. Studied publishing foreign scientists, work experience in different countries, manuals, seminars and workshops, publishes scientific works in the Kazakh and Russian languages, and considers issues of…

  13. Class position, work experience, and health.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, M L; Staples, C L

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops a Marxist analysis of the relationships between class position, work experience, the psychological effects of this experience, and subsequent health outcomes. Specifically, it is argued that the structural imperatives of capitalist production make work for those in working-class positions subject to greater routinization and less control than work for those in other class positions. Routinization and control are argued, in turn, to predictably affect two key psychological variables, self-esteem and stress, which are further argued to affect health in predictable ways. Position in the capitalist labor process is thus linked to health via the psychological consequences of the immediate work experience it engenders. Survey data from workers, managers, supervisors, and semi-autonomous employees in five capitalist firms are used to test the descriptive adequacy of this model linking capitalism to ill health for those in working-class positions.

  14. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  15. Creating Better School-Age Care Jobs: Model Work Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haack, Peggy

    Built on the premise that good school-age care jobs are the cornerstone of high-quality services for school-age youth and their families, this guide presents model work standards for school-age care providers. The guide begins with a description of the strengths and challenges of the school-age care profession. The model work standards are…

  16. Adolescent Work Experience and Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cunnien, Keith A.; MartinRogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this paper To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents’ confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. Research limitations/Implications This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. Practical implications In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. Original value of paper This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth’s developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence. PMID:19750144

  17. A field work experience in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, G R

    1976-01-01

    A graduate student specializing in mental retardation found few pertinent electives as well as little opportunity for field work experience. A special arrangement was made for appropriate field work experiences in three types of settings--a large residential institution, school programs, and nursing care facilities. There was little time to view client changes, and rapport with patients and staff was difficult to develop. The advantages included more time with her supervisor, more exposure to organizational and administrative duties, and more exposure to a variety of settings and to the professional roles of numerous therapists. More such field work experiences should be developed to encourage new therapists to choose mental retardation as a specialty. PMID:984162

  18. When Work Experience Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Legal practitioners find the leap into academia difficult. A much bigger deterrent for lawyers interested in teaching is a laborious, oft-vexing application process that places little value on work experience and interests. They also chide law school hiring committees for a lack of outreach to Asian Pacific Islanders. Law educators emphasize that…

  19. Industry Work Experience Leave for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Don R.

    Working leaves for faculty in two-year diploma programs provide colleges with more experienced and current faculty, provide industry with new employees or consultants with fresh ideas, and present faculty with opportunities to use up-to-date technologies and methodologies and share those experiences with students. At the University College of the…

  20. Occupational Work Experience. Manual of Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel, employers, parents/guardians, and students in understanding the policies and procedures required to operate effective occupational work experience (OWE) programs. The OWE mission statement appears first. Chapter I describes the OWE program, its structure, types of program organization, and…

  1. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  2. The Way to Work: How to Facilitate Work Experiences for Youth in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecking, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Employment is one of the biggest contributors to quality of life for people with disabilities--and that means well-planned work experiences should be an integral part of transition preparation for every secondary and postsecondary school aged youth. Make that happen with this practical guide, developed to help educators, transition specialists,…

  3. All in a Day's Work: Job Experiences, Self-Esteem, and Fathering in Working-Class Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm-Thomas, Karen; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    1994-01-01

    Examined how working-class fathers' job experiences affected their self-esteem and parenting styles. Conducted home interviews with 59 working-class fathers in dual-earner families and their target child, who was aged 8 to 12 years. Found that more positive fathers' work experiences, higher their self-esteem, which predicted more accepting…

  4. Social Work Leadership and Aging: Meeting the Demographic Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia; Gorin, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 nine aging and social work organizations--Council on Social Work Education, NASW, the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work, the Association of Baccalaureate Program Directors, the Society for Social Work and Research, Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research, the Action Network for Social Work…

  5. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  6. Neurobehavioral performance and work experience in Florida farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Freya; Rowland, Andrew S; Park, Lawrence P; Anger, W Kent; Baird, Donna D; Gladen, Beth C; Moreno, Tirso; Stallone, Lillian; Sandler, Dale P

    2003-11-01

    Farmworkers experience many work-related hazards, including exposure to neurotoxicants. We compared neurobehavioral performance of 288 farmworkers in central Florida who had done farm work for at least 1 month with 51 controls who had not. Most of the farmworkers had worked in one or more of three types of agriculture: ornamental ferns, nurseries, or citrus fruit. We collected information on farm work history in a structured interview and evaluated neurobehavioral performance using a battery of eight tests. Analyses were adjusted for established confounders including age, sex, education, and acculturation. Ever having done farm work was associated with poor performance on four tests--digit span [odds ratio (OR) = 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-3.53], tapping (coefficient = 4.13; 95% CI, 0.00-8.27), Santa Ana test (coefficient = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.29-2.39), and postural sway (coefficient = 4.74; 95% CI, -2.20 to 11.7)--but had little effect on four others: symbol digit latency, vibrotactile threshold, visual contrast sensitivity, and grip strength. Associations with farm work were similar in magnitude to associations with personal characteristics such as age and sex. Longer duration of farm work was associated with worse performance. Associations with fern work were more consistent than associations with nursery or citrus work. Deficits related to the duration of work experience were seen in former as well as current farmworkers, and decreased performance was related to chronic exposure even in the absence of a history of pesticide poisoning. We conclude that long-term experience of farm work is associated with measurable deficits in cognitive and psychomotor function. PMID:14594629

  7. 29 CFR 570.36 - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work experience and career exploration program. 570.36... and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.36 Work experience and career exploration program. (a... work-experience and career exploration program which meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of...

  8. 29 CFR 570.35a - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work experience and career exploration program. 570.35a... Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.35a Work experience and career exploration... and school-administered work-experience and career exploration program which meets the requirements...

  9. [Aging of the working population in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, J; Costa, G

    2000-01-01

    The working population over 50 years of age will grow considerably during the next 15 years. After 2010, the number of retired people over 65 years of age will be almost double that of 1995, with a strong impact also on working conditions and the labour market. Work ability is a dynamic process that changes, through its components, throughout life and is the result of the interaction between individual resources (including health, functional capacity, education and skills), working conditions, and the surrounding society. Work ability creates the basis for the employability of an individual, which can be supported by a number of actions (e.g. legislation on work and retirement) and social attitudes (e.g. age discrimination). Consequently, the prevalence of limitations in work ability varies significantly according to how it is evaluated and the frequency of work disability can vary considerably in different times, locations and populations. The Work Ability Index, created and used in a Finnish 11-year longitudinal study, has been proved a useful practical tool for the assessment of workers' fitness and a good predictor of work disability. Measures able to restore, maintain or promote work ability depend on the current work status and the needs of the target groups, and must concentrate on work content, physical work environment and the work community. The actions targeted towards the individual, on the other hand, concentrate on strengthening the health status and functional resources of the workers and developing professional expertise and skills. Correctly targeted and integrated measures improve work ability of ageing workers and therefore lead to improved work quality, increased productivity and also improved quality of life and well-being. They also have positive long-term effects on the "third age", when the worker retires.

  10. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  11. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  12. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design. PMID:26010282

  13. Creating disability inclusive work environments for our aging nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Matt, Susan B; Fleming, Susan E; Maheady, Donna C

    2015-06-01

    The workforce is aging, and the implications of an older nursing workforce are profound. As nurses age, injuries and disabilities are more prevalent. If disabilities were more commonly recognized and accommodated in the design of our nursing work environments, we could meet future needs. This article explores the literature on accommodations for an aging workforce, reports disabilities commonly seen in this population, and introduces universal design.

  14. What is Still Working in Working Memory in Old Age: Dual Tasking and Resistance to Interference Do Not Explain Age-Related Item Loss After a Focus Switch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. In 2 experiments, we examined the oft-replicated finding of age-related differences in accuracy at retrieving items stored in working memory, but outside the focus of attention. Specifically, we investigated whether such differences could be explained by (a) age-related differences in coping with the dual-task nature of swapping items into and out of the focus of attention and/or (b) age-related differences in resistance to interference. Method. We used a modified version of the N-Back task with stimuli of different levels of difficulty, and experimental manipulations aimed at isolating the dual-task and interference effects. Results. We found both explanations lacking: We obtained a dual-task cost (Experiment 1) and an interference cost (Experiment 2), as well as a large age effect (Cohen’s d = 1.6 in Experiment 1 and 0.7 in Experiment 2) but neither the dual task nor the interference effect was sensitive to age. Discussion. These findings, combined with previous failures to find an explanation for the age effects, suggest that item availability after a focus switch might be an important new and fundamental variable—a cognitive primitive—potentially necessary for a full understanding of age effects in higher order cognition. PMID:23254887

  15. Group Work Experiences: Domestic MBA Student Experiences and Outcomes when Working with International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    This article forms part of an exploration into the results of a single-case, embedded study that was conducted to explore how domestic part-time graduate business students in the United States experience group work for summative assessment. Multiple information collection methods were utilised, including open-ended and semi-structured interviews,…

  16. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  17. Work demands and need for recovery from work in ageing seafarers.

    PubMed

    Bridger, R S; Brasher, K; Dew, A

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted on a population of seafarers serving in the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA), the organisation providing support at sea to the Royal Navy. An investigation into work-related fatigue in RFA personnel onboard ships was carried out following changes to the regulations concerning maximum retirement age, to determine whether age was associated with recovery from work demands. A total of 322 personnel aged from 19 to 61 years were interviewed onboard seven RFA ships. The Need for Recovery scale was used to measure fatigue and work demands exposure was measured using the Baecke questionnaire and the NASA Task Load Index. It was found that older personnel did not have higher work-related fatigue than younger personnel. A measure of frustration at work was found to be most strongly related to work-related fatigue, even in seafarers who carried out physically demanding jobs. Work-related fatigue was found to accumulate over time in personnel who continued to be exposed to work demands onboard a ship. Finally, a relatively high level of work-related fatigue was found in the RFA sample as a whole, which may hold implications for management interventions. It was concluded that older personnel in the RFA can cope with the day-to-day demands of working life as well as younger personnel, possibly due to a 'survivor effect', whereby those personnel who do not cope as well with work demands leave and find a different job, leaving only those who successfully deal with the demands of working life at sea. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: In order to manage work demands in seafarers, it is important to identify the most fatiguing demands. Age is of interest because of the demographic ageing of the workforce. Age was not associated with a higher need for recovery. Psychological work demands had a greater effect on need for recovery than physical work demands.

  18. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  19. HOW A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM WORKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN ALLEN, ROACH

    A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM INCLUDING SPELLING, LISTENING, READING, WRITING, AND SPEAKING IS DISCUSSED. THE TEACHER HELPS EACH CHILD BECOME INCREASINGLY SENSITIVE TO HIS ENVIRONMENT AND SUCCEED THROUGH A VARIETY OF LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES. TWENTY LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES ARE GROUPED INTO THREE CATEGORIES TO AID THE TEACHER IN SELECTING APPROPRIATE…

  20. Working Smart Workbook. An Interactive Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Adult and Occupational Education.

    This workbook accompanies an interactive videodisc used in the Working Smart workplace literacy project prepared for the hotel and food services industry in the Los Angeles, California area. The first instructional unit addresses preparing the work area, including stocking supplies and cleaning the work area. The second instructional unit covers…

  1. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  2. Graduate Social Work Education and Cognitive Complexity: Does Prior Experience Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which age, education, and practice experience among social work graduate students (N = 184) predicted cognitive complexity, an essential aspect of critical thinking. In the regression analysis, education accounted for more of the variance associated with cognitive complexity than age and practice experience. When…

  3. Intentions to Quit Work among Care Staff Working in the Aged Care Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karantzas, Gery C.; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya E.; Beaton, Paul; Mrkic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aged care industry experiences high rates of staff turnover. Staff turnover has significant implications for the quality of care provided to care recipients and the financial costs to care agencies. In this study, we applied a model of intention to quit to identify the contextual and personal factors that shape aged care…

  4. Does Work Contribute to Successful Aging Outcomes in Older Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martha J.; McCready, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    Older workers are the fastest growing segment of the labor force, yet little is known about designing jobs for older workers that optimize their experiences relative to aging successfully. This study examined the contribution of workplace job design (opportunities for decision-making, skill variety, coworker support, supervisor support) to…

  5. Youth Voices: The WorkReady Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    WorkReady programs offer young Philadelphians not only their first job, but skills for success. Young people who work during high school often master valuable skills that can help them do better in high school and college; learn new things that open their eyes to career possibilities; and earn more money later in life. When young people learn how…

  6. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  7. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  8. We Know Co-op Experiences Work -- But Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    An examination of why cooperative work experiences work in light of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors can be helpful in maintaining and improving the experiences. Cooperative work experiences are successful because they satisfy two types of student needs (deficiency needs and growth needs). These…

  9. Social Work Professions in an Aging World: Opportunities and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shadi S.; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Sun, Fei; Durkin, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    Given world aging, social workers will be involved in assisting older persons in their home-country and/or abroad in various types of governmental or nongovernmental agencies. This paper identifies potential opportunities for social workers with gerontological backgrounds interested in working in international and cross-cultural settings.…

  10. Work Experience of the Population in 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne McDougall

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses several facets of the labor force based on 1978 data--seasonal and year-round workers; Blacks, Whites, Hispanics; men and women; occupational change; unemployment; and factors such as age--as they relate to employment. Data tables are included. (CT)

  11. The aging work force--helping employees navigate midlife.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Diane

    2007-04-01

    The baby-boom generation is aging and workplace demographics are changing. Employees in this age group are now middle-aged. Occupational health nurses are in a unique position to guide these individuals through decisions that can affect the years ahead. Individuals in midlife may experience both physical and psychological changes, including changing physical appearance, decreased stamina, loss of family or friends, and altered vision. In the workplace, annual assessments can include evaluations to address normal changes, personal expectations, and needed support, counseling, or referrals. Middle-aged men and women are at a predictable turning point in life that offers an opportunity for growth. Education in the workplace can assist these individuals as they adjust to changes in relationships, make health care decisions, and plan for retirement.

  12. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  13. Prefrontal Cortical GABAergic Dysfunction Contributes to Age-Related Working Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Cristina; Beas, B. Sofia; McQuail, Joseph A.; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Frazier, Charles J.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Working memory functions supported by the prefrontal cortex decline in normal aging. Disruption of corticolimbic GABAergic inhibitory circuits can impair working memory in young subjects; however, relatively little is known regarding how aging impacts prefrontal cortical GABAergic signaling and whether such changes contribute to cognitive deficits. The current study used a rat model to evaluate the effects of aging on expression of prefrontal GABAergic synaptic proteins in relation to working memory decline, and to test whether pharmacological manipulations of prefrontal GABAergic signaling can improve working memory abilities in aged subjects. Results indicate that in aged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), expression of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT was unchanged; however, there was a significant increase in expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67, and a significant decrease in the primary neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1 and in both subunits of the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Expression of VGAT, GAD67, and GAT-1 was not associated with working memory ability. In contrast, among aged rats, GABA(B)R expression was significantly and negatively associated with working memory performance, such that lower GABA(B)R expression predicted better working memory. Subsequent experiments showed that systemic administration of a GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP55845, dose-dependently enhanced working memory in aged rats. This enhancing effect of systemic CGP55845 was reproduced by direct intra-mPFC administration. Together, these data suggest that age-related dysregulation of GABAergic signaling in prefrontal cortex may play a causal role in impaired working memory and that targeting GABA(B)Rs may provide therapeutic benefit for age-related impairments in executive functions. PMID:24599447

  14. An Educational Dilemma: Are Educational Experiments Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakaya, Serhat

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the biased effects which affect scientific researches; although most of the researchers ignore them, and make criticism of the experimental works in the educational field, based on this viewpoint. For this reason, a quasi-experimental process has been carried out with five different student teachers…

  15. Healthful Work Experience in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crochet, Carolyn

    1978-01-01

    Students at Riveria Middle School in St. Petersburg, Florida, who complete an 18-week exploratory health occupations course, are given an opportunity to work as aides in the school's clinic. Students have the chance to learn more about the health field and help to meet the needs of the school. (JH)

  16. Age Management and Sustainable Careers for the Improvement of the Quality of Ageing at Work.

    PubMed

    Marcaletti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Prolonging working careers by increasing the statutory age for retirement has become compulsory in most Western societies in order to tackle the shrinking of the labour force, preserve economic productivity, foster knowledge transfer and reduce the risks of financial imbalances in social security systems. This imperative currently results in working careers that already exceed 40 years and come to an end after the age of 65 (e.g. in Italy). Over the next few decades, both career length and retirement age are expected to rise. Thus, creating more inclusive workplaces by increasing their quality is the precondition of a win-win situation for both employers and employees, regardless of age. A request for support in the development of sustainable careers from both private and public labour organisations has led to innovating the mainstream methodologies and research tools in the field of age management. Based on the key elements of the mainstream "work ability concept" - i.e. health, competencies, motivation and work organisation - the Quality of Ageing at Work questionnaire (QAW-q), developed by a team from the WWELL Research Centre, broadens its perspective by surveying elements bridging intra-organisational dimensions and which affect employees' conditions and external socio-institutional constraints: i.e. work-life balance, economic stability, professional identity and relationships in the workplace. The QAW-q is designed to analyse the influence of the different meanings of age (chronological age, seniority within the company and in the labour market) and correlate them with the different dimensions at individual and organisational levels; all these dimensions are weighted by the effect exerted by the passage of time. The results of the QAW-q survey, taken by employees of both private and public companies, serve as a basis for the implementation of measures addressing all the relevant dimensions of the human resource management cycle.

  17. Age Management and Sustainable Careers for the Improvement of the Quality of Ageing at Work.

    PubMed

    Marcaletti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Prolonging working careers by increasing the statutory age for retirement has become compulsory in most Western societies in order to tackle the shrinking of the labour force, preserve economic productivity, foster knowledge transfer and reduce the risks of financial imbalances in social security systems. This imperative currently results in working careers that already exceed 40 years and come to an end after the age of 65 (e.g. in Italy). Over the next few decades, both career length and retirement age are expected to rise. Thus, creating more inclusive workplaces by increasing their quality is the precondition of a win-win situation for both employers and employees, regardless of age. A request for support in the development of sustainable careers from both private and public labour organisations has led to innovating the mainstream methodologies and research tools in the field of age management. Based on the key elements of the mainstream "work ability concept" - i.e. health, competencies, motivation and work organisation - the Quality of Ageing at Work questionnaire (QAW-q), developed by a team from the WWELL Research Centre, broadens its perspective by surveying elements bridging intra-organisational dimensions and which affect employees' conditions and external socio-institutional constraints: i.e. work-life balance, economic stability, professional identity and relationships in the workplace. The QAW-q is designed to analyse the influence of the different meanings of age (chronological age, seniority within the company and in the labour market) and correlate them with the different dimensions at individual and organisational levels; all these dimensions are weighted by the effect exerted by the passage of time. The results of the QAW-q survey, taken by employees of both private and public companies, serve as a basis for the implementation of measures addressing all the relevant dimensions of the human resource management cycle. PMID:26630520

  18. Strategic self development for successful aging at work.

    PubMed

    Robson, Sean M; Hansson, Robert O

    2007-01-01

    Two studies involving 265 participants were conducted to assess the content and range of strategies used by employees to age successfully in the workplace. Study 1 included 64 individuals ranging in age from 23 to 61. These individuals were asked to list up to five activities they have pursued in five potentially important areas of development. Content analyses on these activities were then conducted for purposes of item development. In the second study, the sample was limited to 201 older workers, defined as employees age 40 and older. Participants completed several scales examining the frequency with which they engaged in activities related to successful aging at work. Factor analyses indicated seven major types of strategies: 1) Relationship Development, 2) Security, 3) Continuous Learning, 4) Stress-Relief, 5) Skill Extension, 6) Career Management, and 7) Conscientiousness. Analyses indicated that each strategy domain was positively related to perceived success. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Security, Relationship Development, Continuous Learning, and Career Management strategies were predictive of success above and beyond important characteristics of the individual or employing organization. The results also indicated that age moderated the relationship between strategy use and perceived success for two strategy domains. Relationship Development and Skill Extension strategies were less strongly related to perceived success as employees aged. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to theory development, application, and future research.

  19. Working at Congress : a Sandian's experience.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    During the 110th Congress (calendar years 2007 and 2008), Matthew Allen, a Sandian nuclear scientist, served as a Congressional Fellow on the Committee on Homeland Security in the House of Representatives. This report is an informative account of the role staffers play in assisting the members of Congress in their oversight and legislative duties. It is also a personal account of Matthew Allen's experience as a committee staffer in the House of Representatives.

  20. Graduate nurse perceptions of the work experience.

    PubMed

    Halfer, Diana; Graf, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    Findings from a longitudinal study on the perceptions of the work environment and job satisfaction for new graduate nurses in the first 18 months of employment at a Magnet Midwestern urban academic pediatric medical center are described. The findings indicated that orientation assisted the new graduate to become confident in his/her clinical competence and work management. By 18 months, the new graduate felt satisfied with access to resources and the ability to participate in professional development opportunities. The results suggest that the new graduate nurse's career adjustment extends beyond mastering clinical skills and includes a lifestyle adjustment to a profession that requires service 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. PMID:16786830

  1. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  2. Advocacy and Age: Issues, Experiences, Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Paul A., Ed.

    This monograph seeks to bring understanding to one component of the advocacy field, that of advocacy and the aged, by overviewing this component through a series of articles. (Advocacy is an activity by which changes can be effected in a power structure to improve a subgroup's situation.) There are four parts to the document: part 1, entitled…

  3. Optimal experience among teachers: new insights into the work paradox.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Marta; Delle Fave, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Several studies highlighted that individuals perceive work as an opportunity for flow or optimal experience, but not as desirable and pleasant. This finding was defined as the work paradox. The present study addressed this issue among teachers from the perspective of self-determination theory, investigating work-related intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as autonomous and controlled behavior regulation. In Study 1, 14 teachers were longitudinally monitored with Experience Sampling Method for one work week. In Study 2, 184 teachers were administered Flow Questionnaire and Work Preference Inventory, respectively investigating opportunities for optimal experience, and motivational orientations at work. Results showed that work-related optimal experiences were associated with both autonomous regulation and with controlled regulation. Moreover, teachers reported both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation at work, with a prevailing intrinsic orientation. Findings provide novel insights on the work paradox, and suggestions for teachers' well-being promotion. PMID:22931008

  4. Student Work Experience: A Realistic Approach to Merchandising Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relevant and realistic experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)

  5. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  6. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace. PMID:25575323

  7. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study.

    PubMed

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement. PMID:24093736

  8. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  9. A Framework for STEM Based Work Experience Accreditation: CREST Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jodie

    2009-01-01

    Teachers and employers realise that work experience should be more than just photocopying, answering phones, making the tea, and shadowing office-based staff to "learn about the world of work". The challenge is to ensure the experience is engaging for the student, and worthwhile. The British Science Association has been piloting ways to add value…

  10. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  11. Self-Efficacy, Curriculum Content, Practicum Experience, and the Interest of Social Work Students in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the linkages among perceptions of self-efficacy, curriculum, and field experience on students' attitudes and interest in working with older adults. Graduate level social work students were surveyed regarding perceived self-efficacy to intervene with older adult clients, the amount of aging content in the master of social…

  12. Working memory for braille is shaped by experience.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Henri; Scherzer, Peter; Viau, Robert; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Tactile working memory was found to be more developed in completely blind (congenital and acquired) than in semi-sighted subjects, indicating that experience plays a crucial role in shaping working memory. A model of working memory, adapted from the classical model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch1 and Baddeley2 is presented where the connection strengths of a highly cross-modal network are altered through experience.

  13. [Deficiencies and resources of working population in relation to age: a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Volkoff, S

    2000-01-01

    The aging of the population as a whole and the later age at which young people start work are increasing the percentage of older employees. In situations where the working conditions are highly demanding, as in shiftwork, time-pressure jobs, and adaptation to modern technology or skill diversification, this demographic trend may cause serious problems. The way in which job constraints and demands are withstood at various ages should be considered in relation to health, which is often, whether implicitly or explicitly, a selection criterion in the work place. The connection between work and health can rarely be described by a single causal relationship and requires specific epidemiological methods. Moreover, a health problem linked to age can have a feedback effect on the manner in which a job is performed. While these problems do indeed arise in the areas of work and health, they are nonetheless usually symptoms of modifications that have taken place in the work activity itself. The ergonomic approach nevertheless allows us to improve our understanding of changes in work behavior as age increases, as experience is gained, and as skills are acquired. Men and women on the job are not passive spectators of the good or poor fit between the characteristics of their jobs and their own functional state. Consciously or unconsciously, they modify their operating modes (movements, work pace, posture, etc.), reduce their effort level in some subtasks, make more plans to avoid emergency situations, check the outcome of their actions so as to reduce errors that would be costly to correct, and adjust the distribution of tasks in cooperative and collective work situations. But these strategies can only be implemented if the work conditions and organization foster and promote them.

  14. Field Practicum Experiences of Bilingual Social Work Students Working with Limited English Proficiency Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, David W.; Min, Jong Won; Gamble, Lara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the field internship experiences of bilingual graduate social work students who worked with limited English proficiency (LEP) clients. Data were collected via a Web-based survey from 55 bilingual social work students. Respondents reported that LEP clients required more time and work and generally had more complicated cases than…

  15. Past Experience Influences Object Representation in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagar, B.M.; Dixon, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of object representation in working memory is vital to establishing the capacity of working memory, which in turn shapes the limits of visual cognition and awareness. Although current theories discuss whether representations in working memory are feature-based or object-based, no theory has considered the role of past experience.…

  16. Environmental Project Provides Work Experience for Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy L.; Smith, Marilyn; Usinger, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Bootstraps is a 12-week program designed for rural youth, ages 18-21, who are not working and not in school. The program goal is for participants to develop skills and motivation to find meaningful work, which is accomplished through a combination of classroom learning and practical fieldwork. The environmental fieldwork on public lands, funded by…

  17. Not in Australia. Migration, work and age discrimination.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Simon; Fredvang, Marthe; Haapala, Irja

    2013-06-01

    Perceptions of older people are changing both nationally and internationally, with policy developments that emphasise the value of older workers and the extension of working life to accommodate a longer life-course. For national economies older workers produce benefits of increasing tax dollars and personal savings and reduce claims on the state through pensions. In terms of migration, older adults bring assets and other benefits generated elsewhere into the host economy, as skilled workers or as active retirees. It has also been argued that older societies may be more productive as a consequence of the contribution of older citizens. Nations that create barriers to older migration, such as is currently the case for Australia, run the risk not only of perpetuating age discrimination, but also of failing to take advantage of population change in a global context. The authors critically examine this area and raise a series of questions for future policy. PMID:23773254

  18. Effect of cognitive load on working memory forgetting in aging.

    PubMed

    Baumans, Christine; Adam, Stephane; Seron, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Functional approaches to working memory (WM) have been proposed recently to better investigate "maintenance" and "processing" mechanisms. The cognitive load (CL) hypothesis presented in the "Time-Based Resource-Sharing" model (Barrouillet & Camos, 2007) suggests that forgetting from WM (maintenance) can be investigated by varying the presentation rate and processing speed (processing). In this study, young and elderly participants were compared on WM tasks in which the difference in processing speed was controlled by CL manipulations. Two main results were found. First, when time constraints (CL) were matched for the two groups, no aging effect was observed. Second, whereas a large variation in CL affected WM performance, a small CL manipulation had no effect on the elderly. This suggests that WM forgetting cannot be completely accounted for by the CL hypothesis. Rather, it highlights the need to explore restoration times in particular, and the nature of the refreshment mechanisms within maintenance. PMID:22617311

  19. Poetry Efforts by Aged Deaf: Expression of Life Cycle Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Teena M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a day-long Aging Awareness workshop in which a group of 12 elderly were involved in a poetry-writing exercise focusing on meaningful life change. Ramifications of this positive experience are discussed in view of the cultural/language barrier and traditional aging awareness issues such as reminiscence. (JAC)

  20. Teaching demography: strategies that work with students of all ages.

    PubMed

    Crews, K

    1992-01-01

    Teaching demography is appropriate for all ages depending on how lessons are designed and concrete information is provided. The advice for teaching elementary students is to begin in the 3rd or 4th grades by integrating demography into concepts about the world and the geography of different countries and regions. Population size distribution and structure are appropriate topics. In grades 4-6, tools for understanding size can be integrated into math classes, i.e., reading graphs, learning percentages, and working with place values in the billions. Science classes might focus on environmental problems due to population pressure. Resources from the Population Reference Bureau that are helpful are noted. Comparisons can be made between countries, regions, and states. An assignment might be to create a statistical portrait of a child in a selected country. Population growth might be demonstrated with each child representing a unit, such as 500 million persons; the class should stand in rows in a pyramidal shape expressing different time frames and population growth. Secondary school education may provide conceptualization of complex charts of population growth and global issues. Teenagers are able to manipulate data better even though the materials used are the same for elementary grades. The example is given of a 10th grade class using the tabled data and the MacAtlas software to construct a choropleth map of population concentration in Africa. The indicator was analyzed and compared with 6 countries outside Africa. At the college level it is expected that few have a grasp of population concepts. Students might be asked to analyze projections, discuss data collection processes, or speculate about future trends in any set of indicators. An assignment might be to break the classes into groups representing regions of the world, and select countries that fit the definition of developed or developing (least or moderately). More detailed mapping work is also possible

  1. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940-1989.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people's services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about 'all age' or 'old age' services and inform decision-making on future mental health services.

  2. Retaining the wisdom: Academic nurse leaders' reflections on extending the working life of aging nurse faculty.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Aging nurse faculty members are vital human resources who serve as educators, researchers, and leaders within baccalaureate nursing (BSN) programs. On average, aging nurse faculty members are over 50 years of age and face key retirement decisions over the next decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to build substantive theory about academic nurse leaders' perceptions of extending the academic working life of aging nurse faculty members. Nine academic nurse leaders from BSN programs nationwide were interviewed in this grounded theory study. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Four categories emerged: valuing aging nurse faculty, enduring environmental challenges, recognizing stakeholder incongruence, and readjusting. Findings reveal that aging nurse faculty members are highly valued by academic nurse leaders, bringing wisdom, experience, and institutional, historical, and cultural awareness to their many roles. Yet, some aging nurse faculty fail to keep knowledge, skills, and teaching modes current, which is problematic given the multiple environmental challenges that academic nurse leaders face. Stakeholder incongruence arises as a mismatch between the needs of the BSN program and the skills and contributions of aging nurse faculty members. BSN programs, program leaders, and aging nurse faculty members can lessen incongruence by readjusting to address the pressures, tensions, and ongoing change. PMID:24503313

  3. Lived Experiences of College-Age Transsexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the lived experiences of 4 college-age transsexual individuals. A qualitative study using grounded theory was conducted to investigate their experiences influencing their later educational persistence. Results suggested that level of discomfort, perceived social supports, level of secrecy, and academic achievement all affected…

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  5. Normative and Structural Perspectives on Age in a Work Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara S.

    Age grading, the differentiation of social groups by members' age judgments, is widely regarded to be a universal aspect of social life. Most studies have examined age structurally (demographically), rather than normatively (modally). This study presents survey data measuring employees' age judgments of managerial careers collected from an…

  6. Preparing for the World of Work: An Exploratory Study of Disabled Students' Experiences of Work Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Catherine Elizabeth; Espahbodi, Shima; De Souza, Lorraine Hilary

    2012-01-01

    For people with disabilities, one of the best ways to achieve independence is through work. Experience gained by undertaking a work placement whilst a student provides valuable knowledge and understanding of the demands of work, and enhances employability on graduation for both students with disabilities and for their non-disabled peers. The aims…

  7. Past experience influences object representation in working memory.

    PubMed

    Wagar, Brandon M; Dixon, Mike J

    2005-04-01

    The nature of object representation in working memory is vital to establishing the capacity of working memory, which in turn shapes the limits of visual cognition and awareness. Although current theories discuss whether representations in working memory are feature-based or object-based, no theory has considered the role of past experience. However, work with humans and non-human primates suggests that once participants learn which features are important for category membership, these diagnostic features become more salient than non-diagnostic features in long-term memory and object recognition. Critically, the brain areas involved in this diagnosticity effect are also recruited during working memory tasks. We report two experiments testing whether a diagnosticity effect exists in working memory; and whether it is present when visual information is encoded into working memory, or if it is the result of maintenance within working memory. Results showed a diagnosticity effect which was present at encoding. Maintenance did not influence the nature of object representation in working memory. These findings show that the meaning we glean from our past experience has a profound influence on the nature of object representation in working memory.

  8. Postgraduate Study and Managers' Subsequent Work Experience: An Exploratory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Harris, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on an exploratory qualitative study, this article considers the link between business school teaching at graduate level and subsequent work behaviour and experiences of former students. It evaluates the student experience some time "after" graduation. The findings of the retrospective evaluation point to the value of classroom peer…

  9. Learning by Experience, Work and Productivity: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and significance of learning by experience during work, both paid and unpaid. Data about the relationship between costs, especially labour costs, and output have come to be interpreted as evidence of learning by experience, but these grouped data are unable to explain the nature and process of individual experience…

  10. Astronaut William Gregory works with pharmaceutical experiments on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, STS-67 pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids and crystal growth investigations.

  11. Selection Experiments in the Penna Model for Biological Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, G.; Idiart, M. A.; de Almeida, R. M. C.

    We consider the Penna model for biological aging to investigate correlations between early fertility and late life survival rates in populations at equilibrium. We consider inherited initial reproduction ages together with a reproduction cost translated in a probability that mother and offspring die at birth, depending on the mother age. For convenient sets of parameters, the equilibrated populations present genetic variability in what regards both genetically programmed death age and initial reproduction age. In the asexual Penna model, a negative correlation between early life fertility and late life survival rates naturally emerges in the stationary solutions. In the sexual Penna model, selection experiments are performed where individuals are sorted by initial reproduction age from the equilibrated populations and the separated populations are evolved independently. After a transient, a negative correlation between early fertility and late age survival rates also emerges in the sense that populations that start reproducing earlier present smaller average genetically programmed death age. These effects appear due to the age structure of populations in the steady state solution of the evolution equations. We claim that the same demographic effects may be playing an important role in selection experiments in the laboratory.

  12. Cooperative Work-Experience Education Programs in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Marcia A.

    1970-01-01

    The combination of course work and related work experience into educational programs at the junior college level represents an attempt by these institutions to meet the changing requirements of today's employers. This Research Review looks at a few aspects of their programs . To begin with, the values of these programs are viewed from the…

  13. Experiences from Work and Leisure Related to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, Urban

    A Swedish study was conducted to examine how the experiences of work and leisure affect expectancy and valence in relation to interest in participating in adult education. A cross sectional sample of 945 persons with short previous formal education was interviewed. The results indicated the existence of an integrated relationship between work and…

  14. Crossing Boundaries: Challenges of Academics Working in Professional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Cornu, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    One of the perennial challenges for academics working in the area of professional experiences (practicum) is how to negotiate the constantly moving and contradictory boundaries around their work. A number of questions arise. Firstly, how do they cope with the "shifting, changing landscape" (Clandinin, 2008) of the university and at the same time…

  15. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Reflected in priorities of secondary vocational training, agricultural education, and nonformal short courses, Thailand's education policy of "productive work experience" helps solve the problems of those who have an incomplete general education, have negative work attitudes and habits, are untrained dropouts, or are vocationally trained but…

  16. Teachers' Leadership and Students' Experience of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva; Granstrom, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Group work is used as a means of learning at all levels of most educational systems. However, teachers often use group work without considering its "pros and cons." Such a mode of non-reflected application may sometimes end up in positive experiences and learning, but the likelihood is that the outcome will be the opposite. The aim of this…

  17. Transforming Knowledge to Knowing at Work: The Experiences of Newcomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; McManus, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how newcomers experience their transition to work as they strive to move from a position of "educational" knowledge to professional knowing. Hence, we focus on how newcomers learn to transform knowledge to knowing at work. We do this through the analysis of two ethnographic case studies: one with a focus on new office workers…

  18. THE ROLE OF AFFECTIVE EXPERIENCE IN WORK MOTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN; BARTUNEK, JEAN M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on psychological and neurobiological theories of core affective experience, we identify a set of direct and indirect paths through which affective feelings at work affect three dimensions of behavioral outcomes: direction, intensity, and persistence. First, affective experience may influence these behavioral outcomes indirectly by affecting goal level and goal commitment, as well as three key judgment components of work motivation: expectancy judgments, utility judgments, and progress judgments. Second, affective experience may also affect these behavioral outcomes directly. We discuss implications of our model. PMID:16871321

  19. Parents' Working Hours: Adolescent Children's Views and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jane; Noden, Philip; Sarre, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    As dual-earner families have become the norm, the different kinds of "time" children spend with parents has become an important issue. We use the 2000 Time Use Survey to identify adolescent children spending time alone at home, and interviews with 50 children aged 14 and 15 to explore young people's experiences. We investigate their views on their…

  20. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  1. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  2. Group work as an incentive for learning - students' experiences of group work.

    PubMed

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students' ability to learn is still lacking. Similarly, the question of why some group work is successful and other group work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students' experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students' positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students' explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students' experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function, and organization) for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students' learning, as well as impact their experiences with group work

  3. Building Pathways to Working with Collections: Can Internships and Student Work Experience Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Marian

    2011-01-01

    How do internships and work experience, such as volunteering, give students a taste of the environment in which they hope to be employed? How do they provide pathways between educational institutions and the workplace? This paper reports on a qualitative research study about the initial professional learning experiences of individuals newly…

  4. Preparing Ohio's Youth through Occupational Work Adjustment and Occupational Work Experience Programs: Prospects for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Aaron J.; Bragg, Debra D.

    A study undertaken to aid administrators in considering program alternatives for administering Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) and Occupational Work Experience (OWE) programs in Ohio examined the Ohio Department of Education's certification of OWA and OWE teachers in light of the state's new minimum standards for elementary and secondary…

  5. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  6. Latina/o Food Industry Employees' Work Experiences: Work Barriers, Facilitators, Motivators, Training Preferences, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Cho, Seonghee; Groves, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the work experiences, job satisfaction, and work behaviors of Latina/o restaurant workers. A total of 10 semistructured focus group (N = 75) interviews were conducted in the Midwest and Southwest. Data were analyzed using a combination of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill, Thompson, &…

  7. 29 CFR 570.36 - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.36 Work experience and career exploration program. (a... therefore is not deemed to be oppressive child labor. (b)(1) A school-supervised and...

  8. 29 CFR 570.36 - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.36 Work experience and career exploration program. (a... therefore is not deemed to be oppressive child labor. (b)(1) A school-supervised and...

  9. 29 CFR 570.36 - Work experience and career exploration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.36 Work experience and career exploration program. (a... therefore is not deemed to be oppressive child labor. (b)(1) A school-supervised and...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1565 - Your work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Your work experience as a vocational factor. 404.1565 Section 404.1565 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational...

  15. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  16. Clinician Experiences Assessing Work Disability Related to Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Results Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Conclusions Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of “partial disability”. In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability. PMID:25789478

  17. The Work on Aging/DD in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Charlotte

    This conference presentation describes New York State programs serving elderly mentally retarded (MR) and developmentally disabled (DD) persons. These service providers offer programming that is sensitive to the impact of the aging process, or provide the opportunity to access community aging programs, or a combination. Linkages are being…

  18. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  19. Strategic Self Development for Successful Aging at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sean M.; Hansson, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies involving 265 participants were conducted to assess the content and range of strategies used by employees to age successfully in the workplace. Study 1 included 64 individuals ranging in age from 23 to 61. These individuals were asked to list up to five activities they have pursued in five potentially important areas of development.…

  20. Correlates of Root Caries Experience in Middle-Aged and Older Adults within the Northwest PRECEDENT

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Berg, Joel H.; Kim, Amy S.; Scott, JoAnna

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background We examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged (ages 45–64 years) and older adults (ages 65+ years) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged versus older adults. Methods This observational cross-sectional study focused on adult patients ages 45–97 years recruited from the Northwest PRECEDENT (N=775 adults). The outcome variable was any root caries experience (no/yes). Sociodemographic, intraoral, and behavioral factors were hypothesized as potential root caries correlates. We used Poisson regression models to generate overall and age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR) of root caries and Generalized Estimating Equations to account for practice-level clustering of participants. Results About 20% of adults had any root caries. Dentists’ assessment that the patient was at high risk for any caries was associated with greater prevalence of root caries experience in both middle-aged adults (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.63,4.46) and older adults (PR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.19,2.95). The following factors were significantly associated with increased root caries prevalence, but only for middle-aged adults: male sex (P=.02), self-reported dry mouth (P<.0001), exposed roots (P=.03), and increased frequency of eating or drinking between meals (P=.03). No other covariates were related to root caries experience for older adults. Conclusions Within a practice-based research network, the factors associated with root caries experience were different for middle-aged and older adults. Future work should identify relevant root caries correlates for adults ages 65+ years. Clinical Implications Interventions aimed at preventing root caries are likely to be different for middle-aged and older adults. Root caries prevention programs should address the appropriate aged-based risk factors. PMID:23633699

  1. Age-Related Differences in Learning Disabled and Skilled Readers' Working Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether age-related working memory deficits in learning disabled (LD) readers across four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 20) reflected retrieval efficiency or storage capacity problems. Found that LD readers' working memory performance was inferior to skilled readers' on verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks across all ages.…

  2. Enjoying work or burdened by it? How personal assistants experience and handle stress at work.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    A personal assistant has to promote equality in living conditions for persons with severe disabilities. The aim of this study was to explore how personal assistants experience their work and what strategies they employ to alleviate work-related stress. Thirty personal assistants were interviewed and latent content analysis was performed. The findings regarding the experiences of work-related stress could be brought together under the theme of "difficulties of being in a subordinate position," and those regarding management strategies could be brought together under the theme of "coming to terms with the work situation." There is a need to empower personal assistants through training programs including tailored education, working communities, and coaching. PMID:22630600

  3. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  4. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? Design/Methodology/Approach To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. Findings Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. Implications These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. Originality/Value Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  5. [Individual-typological distinctions of mental work capacity in aging].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, N A

    2004-01-01

    Investigated age and personal features of mental serviceability. It is revealed that psychological stability of the person renders stronger influence on mental serviceability than age. It is shown that mental serviceability depends not only on properties of temperament, but also on character traits. In this connection paramount value has formation of the emotional--strong-willed character traits, and also such properties of character, as self-esteem, advantage, independence, confidence of the abilities, social maturity that will promote preservation of mental serviceability at ageing. PMID:15754965

  6. Food worker experiences with and beliefs about working while ill.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, L Rand; Green, Alice L; Norton, Dawn M; Frick, Roberta; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Reimann, David W; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David C; Egan, Jessica S; Everstine, Karen; Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Transmission of foodborne pathogens from ill food workers to diners in restaurants is an important cause of foodborne illness outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that food workers with vomiting or diarrhea (symptoms of foodborne illness) be excluded from work. To understand the experiences and characteristics of workers who work while ill, workplace interviews were conducted with 491 food workers from 391 randomly selected restaurants in nine states that participated in the Environmental Health Specialists Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Almost 60% of workers recalled working while ill at some time. Twenty percent of workers said that they had worked while ill with vomiting or diarrhea for at least one shift in the previous year. Factors significantly related to workers having said that they had worked while ill with vomiting or diarrhea were worker sex, job responsibilities, years of work experience, concerns about leaving coworkers short staffed, and concerns about job loss. These findings suggest that the decision to work while ill with vomiting or diarrhea is complex and multifactorial.

  7. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research. PMID:27713711

  8. The impact of gender and working experience on intertemporal choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Zhuang, Xintian

    2014-09-01

    Intertemporal choice has been drawing attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. In this paper, we experimentally estimate the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction) of intertemporal choice models (exponential, simple hyperbolic, quasi hyperbolic, and q-exponential) for senior undergraduate students and MBA students, respectively. Our results show that (1) regardless of gender or working experience, q-exponential discount model always generates minimum AICc value, and it is thus the optimal discount model; (2) gender affects the degree of inconsistency and fitness of the discount model. Comparing to female participants, male participants have a higher degree of inconsistency while their discount pattern is better explained by q-exponential discount model; (3) working experience has an interaction effect with gender. For male participants, working experience is inversely related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model. On the contrary, for female participants, working experience is positively related to the degree of inconsistency and the fitness of q-exponential discount model.

  9. Industrial Work Experience I. Curriculum Guide. General Related Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    The primary purpose of this guide is to present basic sample instructional materials for the Industrial Work Experience (IWE) Program. It is designed to aid those charged with local administration and coordination of programs in secondary level trade and industrial education, referred to as the IWE training program. The guide contains 10 units of…

  10. Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

  11. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  12. Professional Learning between Past Experience and Future Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the professionalization of human service work. It analyses learning processes and identity development in the emerging profession of child care with concrete examples from empirical research, based on a life history approach. It discusses examples of careers mainly based on students' life experience, pointing out that their…

  13. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  14. Establishing a Work Experience Program in Building Trades Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilli, Angelo C., Sr.; Gilli, Lynne M.

    A project was undertaken to establish a cooperative work experience program in building trades entrepreneurship. The first phase of the program, which was implemented in Baltimore, Maryland, involved the formation of a task force that included representatives of the school, business, industry, and public sectors. Eventually, two Baltimore…

  15. Skylab Experiments, Volume 7, Living and Working in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their scope of material selection. The seventh volume deals with the ability of the Skylab crew to live and work effectively in space. The content is…

  16. Undergraduate Work Experience: An Alternative Approach Using Micro Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of undergraduate placements in two microbusinesses--a printer and a video store--revealed key factors contributing to the efficacy of work experience in small enterprises: preplacement preparation, mentoring for students and employers, and postplacement support for reflection. The need for a learning network of students, teachers, and…

  17. Urban Adolescents' Experience of Social Class in Relationships at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Anne E.; Hall, Georgia; Blustein, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study examining two interrelated facets of the school-to-work transition among urban high school students: their relationships with important adults within that transition and the ways they experience the subjective aspects of social class and class-related constructs in those relationships. Participants were…

  18. The Walls Within: Work, Experience, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Eleanor; And Others

    This document reports Huron Institute's three-year implementation study (1976-80) of Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE), a high school school-and-work program developed by four regional education laboratories. Two major questions addressed by the study are: How effectively has EBCE been implemented? and What explains the differences in the…

  19. Work experience, work environment, and blood exposure among home care and hospice nurses.

    PubMed

    Leiss, Jack K

    2012-01-01

    Blood exposure rates among home care and hospice nurses (RNs) in the United States are markedly lower for nurses with more home care/hospice experience, whether or not they have more total years of nursing experience (i.e., in other work environments). This study examined whether the protective effect of home care/hospice experience was greater for nurses who worked under three types of circumstances that are typical of the home care/hospice work environment and conducive to blood exposure. A mail survey was conducted in 2006 among home care/hospice nurses in North Carolina, a largely rural state in the southeastern U.S. The adjusted response rate was 69% (n=833). Blood exposure rates were higher among nurses with ≤5 years' experience in home care/hospice. Contrary to expectations, the protective effect of more experience was greater among nurses who did not have limited access to safety devices/personal protective equipment, did not have to rush during home visits, and did not often visit homes with unrestrained pets, unruly children, poor lighting, or extreme clutter. These results suggest that characteristics of the home care/hospice work environment limit nurses' ability to use their experience to prevent blood exposure.

  20. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  1. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  2. When Are Teachers Motivated to Work beyond Retirement Age? The Importance of Support, Change of Work Role and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Visser, Michel S.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the factors influencing the motivation to continue working after retirement among a sample of Dutch teachers. Based on previous research, it was proposed that teachers will be motivated to work after their legal retirement age when organizational support, possibilities to change work roles and financial needs are high.…

  3. When People with Pre-Existing Disabilities Age in Place: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Stephen French; Netting, F. Ellen

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on a population of disabled people who are aging with pre-existing physical disabilities. Distinguishes between those who experience prolonged aging and those who experience accelerated aging. Provides four case examples to illustrate the practice implications faced by social workers in partnering with people with pre-existing…

  4. Writing across the Ages: A Working Writer's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bonnie M.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews a teacher's approaches to her three language arts classes, taught during the same period of time but in different settings and to different ages: a seventh-grade class in an affluent suburb, a college class in a middle-class neighborhood, and a prison class housed behind razor wire. (TB)

  5. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  6. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W.

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  7. Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

  8. When people with pre-existing disabilities age in place: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Gilson, S F; Netting, F E

    1997-11-01

    We focus on a population of people with disabilities who are "aging in place," that is, individuals aging with pre-existing physical disabilities. We distinguish between those who experience prolonged aging and others who experience accelerated aging. A brief overview of people aging with disabilities and selected background information on the increasing linkages between the aging and disability communities is provided. Four case examples illustrate the practice implications faced by social workers in partnering with people with pre-existing disabilities and in being sensitive to their desires concerning aging in place.

  9. School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?

    PubMed

    Males, M

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) reduction has not occurred, despite sexuality education and abstinence programs, and intensive publicity and community initiatives. An obstacle to adolescent pregnancy, STD, and childbearing prevention is the assumption that adolescent sexuality is a closed system of activity among peers. When a nation is consumed with the preoccupation of condoms versus chastity debates, and is ignoring high poverty levels and abuse of the young, adolescent girls will seek escape from harsh childhoods in early family formation with young adult men. There is a high correlation between poverty rates and teenage birth, AIDS, and STD rates. Schools are not able to produce magical solutions to teenage pregnancy when adult lawmakers abnegate their responsibility to provide for youth well-being. Adolescent pregnancy will occur regardless of the expansion of curative programs such as school-based clinics; fundamental changes in assumptions, attitudes, and policies are needed. Beneficial aspects of programming appear to be fact-based sexuality and contraceptive education, counseling and referrals for youths with histories of child abuse, and child care classes and flexible school schedules for parenting students. A statistical profile in California indicates that 85% of all fathers of babies born to girls between ages of 11 and 18 years were adults. More than 50% of mothers aged 11-15 years were impregnated by adult men. Fathers' average age for births among junior high school mothers was 15-26 years, when the youngest and the oldest 2.5% of fathers are eliminated. There is a greater likelihood that a man older than 23 years will impregnate a junior high girl than will a junior high boy. The partner age gap is greatest among the very young girls. The California profile of father's age is similar to birth patterns in other states and similar to the national average. An examination of STDs shows a higher rate of STDs among females

  10. Evaluation of a Training Program in Aging Research for Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, we have offered a postgraduate training program in aging research for social work faculty from across the country. The overarching goal of the program is to expand the pool of social work faculty engaged in aging research. This, in turn, will reinvigorate participants' teaching; prepare them to update aging-related content in the…

  11. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social…

  12. Children, Families and Interagency Work: Experiences of Partnership Work in Primary Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbourne, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Despite UK government initiatives intended to address social exclusion, those with poor access to social and economic resources continue to experience unresponsive services. In these circumstances, small inter-agency projects may offer accessible alternatives. This article explores the implementation of inter-agency work at a local level, focusing…

  13. Enhanced Work Projects--The Supported Work Approach for Youth. Youth Work Experience. Youth Knowledge Development Report 7.3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Demonstration Research Corp., New York, NY.

    This volume is one of the products of the knowledge development effort implemented under the mandate of the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977. The report focuses on the young school drop-out portion only of the supported work experiment, which also included offenders, ex-addicts, and welfare recipients. The goal of supported…

  14. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  15. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  16. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  17. Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

  18. Resident work hour restrictions impact chief resident operative experience.

    PubMed

    Christmas, A Britton; Brintzenhoff, Rita A; Sing, Ronald F; Schmelzer, Thomas M; Bolton, Sandra D; Miles, William S; Thomason, Michael H

    2009-11-01

    Since the institution of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident work restrictions, much discussion has arisen regarding the potential effect on surgical resident training. We undertook this study to examine the effects on resident operative experience. We retrospectively analyzed chief residents' Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs before (PRE) and after (POST) the 80-hour work restriction. Overall, 22 resident logs were evaluated, six PRE and 16 POST. Four case categories were examined: total major cases, total trauma operative cases, total chief cases, and total teaching assistant cases. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Comparing the PRE and POST groups demonstrated a trend toward fewer total major cases (1061 vs 964, P = 0.38) and fewer total trauma operative cases (55 vs 47, P = 0.37). Teaching assistant cases increased from 67 to 91 but also failed to reach significance (P = 0.37). However, further comparison between the PRE and POST groups yielded a statistically significant decrease in the number of total chief cases (494 vs 333, P = 0.0092). The significant decrease in the number of total chief cases demonstrates that the work hour restriction most affected the chief year operative experience. Further evaluation of resident participation in nonoperative facets may reveal additional deficiencies of surgical training under work hour restrictions.

  19. New Challenges in Working with Traditional-Aged College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keup, Jennifer R.

    2008-01-01

    Although the transition from high school to college is a predictable rite of passage for students in their late teens and early twenties, much about the nature of these students and their environments is changing. In this chapter, the author focuses on four of the many new issues that have an effect on the transition experience of today's…

  20. Working conditions in mid-life and mental health in older ages.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David; Bartley, Mel; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This article illustrates the importance of previous working conditions during mid-life (between 40 and 55) for mental health among older retired men and women (60 or older) across 13 European countries. We link information on health from the second wave (2006-2007) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with information on respondents' working life collected retrospectively in the SHARELIFE interview (2008-2009). To measure working conditions, we rely on core assumptions of existing theoretical models of work stress (the demand-control-support and the effort-reward imbalance model) and distinguish four types of unhealthy working conditions: (1) a stressful psychosocial work environment (as assessed by the two work stress models) (2) a disadvantaged occupational position throughout the whole period of mid-life, (3) experience of involuntary job loss, and (4) exposure to job instability. Health after labour market exit is measured using depressive symptoms, as measured by the EURO-D depression scale. Main results show that men and women who experienced psychosocial stress at work or had low occupational positions during mid-life had significantly higher probabilities of high depressive symptoms during retirement. Additionally, men with unstable working careers and an involuntary job loss were at higher risks to report high depressive symptoms in later life. These associations remain significant after controlling for workers' health and social position prior mid-life. These findings support the assumption that mental health of retirees who experienced poor working conditions during mid-life is impaired. PMID:24797464

  1. Work and Career Experiences of Men from Families without College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodside, Marianne; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Davison, John; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of research exists exploring the career and work development of adult men and the influence of family-of-origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the researchers used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of men whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family…

  2. The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Web has become a major art medium. Investigates ways artists and appreciators of art are using the Web. Discusses the reproduction of art: from hand to mechanical to digital reproduction, focusing on the work of Walter Benjamin. Lists other sites where one can find art on the Web. (SR)

  3. Tips for Working with ADHD Students of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Tips for working with students who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include putting them in charge of something, providing structure, giving feedback, using logical consequences for unwanted behavior, being patient, teaching in novel ways, helping them with their gear, pairing them with another student, allowing blow-out time, and…

  4. The Aging Work Force: A Guide for Higher Education Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nancy B., Ed.; Krauss, Herbert H., Ed.

    This volume offers 15 papers on the "graying" of the college and university work force in the context of national demographic trends. The papers are arranged in groups which address: growing older, the graying of America, adapting to changing times, retirement and retirement planning, and the corporate example. The following papers are presented:…

  5. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  6. The effects of age and experience on accidents with injuries: should the licensing age be raised?

    PubMed

    Laberge-Nadeau, C; Maag, U; Bourbeau, R

    1992-04-01

    In Canadian Provinces and in several states of the United States the minimal legal age to drive a motor vehicle is 16 years old and in some, it is 15. The excess mortality and morbidity registered by 15 to 24-year-old drivers is well known. Several studies have reported that accident rates decrease with experience, but the effect of the age of new drivers has not been well documented. The objective is to study injury accident rates in terms of the age and experience factors. The data sources are computer files of the Government Insurance Corporation (Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec), which covers all Quebec drivers. For each driver, the file contains birth date, sex, year and month of first license, involvement in accidents, and other parameters. The yearly rates (1970-1984) of new permits per age last birthday and sex show an increase over time, particularly for 16-year-old men. For the period 1979-1984, injury accident involvement rates were computed for all Quebec drivers by age, sex, and driving experience. An experienced driver has been defined as a person who has been licensed for at least one year. The results show, for experienced as well as inexperienced young men (16-18), a high injury accident rate that decreases with age. For women, the rates are much lower and decrease more gradually than for men. This study does not take into account the kilometers driven. Since young drivers (16-18) have the highest accident rates, the question of regulating access to first licensing for such drivers must be examined as a possible strategy for injury prevention. PMID:1558618

  7. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  8. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  9. Interprofessional education in practice: Evaluation of a work integrated aged care program.

    PubMed

    Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities. PMID:26733460

  10. [GLIATILIN CORRECTION OF WORKING AND REFERENCE SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN AGED RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the influence of gliatilin administration on the spatial memory in aged rats. Cognitive function and spatial memory in animals was evaluated using radial (8-beam) maze test. Errors of working spatial memory and reference memory were used as indicators of impaired cognitive function. It was found that aged (24-month) rats compared with younger (6-months) age group exhibited cognitive impairment, as manifested by deterioration of short- and long-term memory processes. Course administration of gliatilin in rats of the older age group at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement of the working and reference spatial memory in aged rats.

  11. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  12. [Biologic age as a criterion for work evaluation (exemplified by titanium alloys production)].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with results of studies concerning biologic age of workers (males) under occupational hazards of titanium alloys (jeopardy classes 3.3, 3.4.4) in Verkhne-Saldinsky metallurgic production association. Based on mathematic statistic analysis, the authors worked out an equation of multiple regression for ageing pace to forecast the ageing with consideration of age, length of service, occupation. The authors determined occupational groups characterized by premature ageing and increased risk of health disorders.

  13. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  14. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).

  15. The work of fault growth in laboratory sandbox experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Justin W.; Cooke, Michele L.; Souloumiac, Pauline; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Mary, Baptiste C. L.; Maillot, Bertrand

    2015-12-01

    Contractional sandbox experiments that simulate crustal accretion and direct shear tests both provide direct data on the amount of work required to create faults (Wprop) in granular materials. Measurements of force changes associated with faulting reveal the work consumed by fault growth, which can be used to predict fault growth path and timing. Within the contractional experiments, the sequence and style of early faulting is consistent for the range of sand pack thicknesses tested, from 12 to 30 mm. Contrary to expectations that Wprop is only a material property, the experimental data show that for the same material, Wprop increases with sand pack thickness. This normal stress dependence stems from the frictional nature of granular materials. With the same static and sliding friction values, incipient faults initiated deeper in the sand pack have larger shear stress drops, due to increased normal compression, σn. For CV32 sand, the relationship between Wprop and σn, calculated from the force drop data as Wprop (J/m2) = 2.0 ×10-4 (m)σn (Pa), is consistent with the relationship calculated from direct shear test data as Wprop (J/m2) = 2.4 ×10-4 (m)σn (Pa). Testing of different materials within the contractional sandbox (fine sand and glass beads) shows the sensitivity of Wprop to material properties. Both material properties and normal stress should be considered in calculations of the work consumed by fault growth in both analog experiments and crustal fault systems.

  16. The psychological experience of security officers who work with executions.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Michael J; Osofsky, Howard J

    2002-01-01

    Open-ended interviews were conducted with members of the "Execution Team" in Louisiana in order to understand the roles, experiences, and effects of carrying out the death penalty. Fifty of a potential 52 correctional officers who work with executions were interviewed and asked to complete mental health inventories. While emphasizing the importance of security and their professional responsibilities in carrying out the death penalty, the officers stress their respect and decency toward the inmates and all others involved with the process. Although expectably reporting high incidences of exposure to trauma and death, they generally are not clinically depressed. They rely upon religious beliefs, group identity, administrative support, and their capacity to dissociate and rely on diffusion of responsibility to suppress painful emotions. Nevertheless, the officers experience conflicted feelings and frequently report having a hard time carrying out society's "ultimate punishment."

  17. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  18. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggerth, Donald E.; DeLaney, Sheli C.; Flynn, Michael A.; Jacobson, C. Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the grounded theory approach in which themes emerge from iterative readings of the transcripts by a group of investigators. This study identified themes related to excessive workload, familiar work/unfamiliar hazards, cultural tensions, lack of health care, pregnancy, sexual harassment, and family obligations/expectations. The responses of the Latina workers in this study clearly indicated that they live within a complex web of stressors, both as workers and as women. The increased economic opportunities that come with immigration to the United States are accompanied by many opportunities for exploitation, especially if they are undocumented. It is hoped that the findings of this study will raise awareness regarding these issues and spur further work in this area. PMID:26346566

  19. Engineering students' experiences from physics group work in learning labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strøm Mellingsæter, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential for how the students experience the learning labs, and how do these aspects relate to the emergence of occurrences termed joint workspace, i.e. the maintenance of content-related dialogues within the group? Programme description: First year mechanical engineering students attended the learning labs as a compulsory part of the physics course. The student groups were instructed to solve physics problems using the interactive whiteboard and then submit their work as whiteboard files. Sample: One group of five male students was followed during their work in these learning labs through one term. Design and methods: Data were collected as video recordings and fieldwork observation. In this paper, a focus group interview with the students was the main source of analysis. The interpretations of the interview data were compared with the video material and the fieldwork observations. Results: The results show that the students' overall experience with the learning labs was positive. They did, however, point to internal aspects of conflicting common and personal goals, which led to a group-work dynamics that seemed to inhibit elaborate discussions and collaboration. The students also pointed to external aspects, such as a close temporal proximity between lectures and exercises, which also seemed to inhibit occurrences termed joint workspace. Conclusions: In order to increase the likelihood of a joint workspace throughout the term in the learning labs, careful considerations have to be made with regard to timing between lectures and exercises, but also with regard to raising the students' awareness about shared and personal goals.

  20. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  1. Melody recognition at fast and slow tempos: effects of age, experience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Dowling, W Jay; Bartlett, James C; Halpern, Andrea R; Andrews, W Melinda

    2008-04-01

    Eighty-one listeners defined by three age ranges (18-30, 31-59, and over 60 years) and three levels of musical experience performed an immediate recognition task requiring the detection of alterations in melodies. On each trial, a brief melody was presented, followed 5 sec later by a test stimulus that either was identical to the target or had two pitches changed, for a same-different judgment. Each melody pair was presented at 0.6 note/sec, 3.0 notes/sec, or 6.0 notes/sec. Performance was better with familiar melodies than with unfamiliar melodies. Overall performance declined slightly with age and improved substantially with increasing experience, in agreement with earlier results in an identification task. Tempo affected performance on familiar tunes (moderate was best), but not on unfamiliar tunes. We discuss these results in terms of theories of dynamic attending, cognitive slowing, and working memory in aging. PMID:18459260

  2. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  3. Graduates' Perspectives on a National Specialized Program in Social Work and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Shpiegel, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the growing need for social workers with specialized training in aging, the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) has developed as a nationwide initiative to enhance aging education for master's-level social work students. This study presents a content analysis of answers to 2 open-ended questions in a national…

  4. The role of experience in night work: Lessons from two ergonomic studies.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Valérie; Toupin, Cathy; Volkoff, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some connections between experience, health and work, especially in the field of night work. As a result of the baby boom, the proportion of elderly workers is steadily increasing, while at the same time many workers are reaching retirement age and being replaced by younger people. And, in the same time, there is an overall gradual increase in shift work and night work. To our knowledge, worker experience has not been extensively studied in this context. This was our focus in studying work activity in two very different situations, in a hospital and in a steel industry. In these two studies we observed that the experienced workers endeavor to plan ahead, especially at night. They do this to limit fatigue and to avoid emergencies and ensure that work is stress-free and as far as possible under control. But experience not only brings workers to plan ahead, it also enables them to do so, thanks to the resources it confers: gaining familiarity with tasks and acquiring the ability to identify critical situations, gaining knowledge about themselves and awareness of situations that cause difficulty; and gaining a better overview of the collective aspects of their work and of ways to share tasks or obtain assistance. They are able to undertake these strategies thanks to specific skills and capacities they have built along their professional career, which notably leads them to find the best trade-off between several goals, possibly contradictory. Such experience is especially valuable at night, when the worker is tired, and when there are fewer supervisors present. This experience can only be gained, however, if the work environment fosters its acquisition and provides an opportunity to make use of it, especially during the night shift and especially with respect to planning tasks ahead of time.

  5. Aging reduces experience-induced sensorimotor plasticity. A magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of the mu-alpha and mu-beta spontaneous rhythms reflects plastic neural changes within the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated how aging modifies experience-induced plasticity after learning a motor sequence, looking at post- vs. pre-learning changes in the modulation of mu rhythms during the execution of simple hand movements. Fifteen young (18-30 years) and fourteen older (65-75 years) right-handed healthy participants performed auditory-cued key presses using all four left fingers simultaneously (Simple Movement task - SMT) during two separate sessions. Following both SMT sessions, they repeatedly practiced a 5-elements sequential finger-tapping task (FTT). Mu power calculated during SMT was averaged across 18 gradiometers covering the right sensorimotor region and compared before vs. after sequence learning in the alpha (9/10/11Hz) and the beta (18/20/22Hz) bands separately. Source power maps in the mu-alpha and mu-beta bands were localized using Dynamic Statistical Parametric Mapping (dSPM). The FTT sequence was performed faster at retest than at the end of the learning session, indicating an offline boost in performance. Analyses conducted on SMT sessions revealed enhanced rebound after learning in the right SM1, 3000-3500ms after the initiation of movement, in young as compared to older participants. Source reconstruction indicated that mu-beta is located in the precentral gyrus (motor processes) and mu-alpha is located in the postcentral gyrus (somatosensory processes) in both groups. The enhanced post-movement rebound in young subjects potentially reflects post-training plastic changes in SM1. Age-related decreases in post-training modulatory effects suggest reduced experience-dependent plasticity in the aging brain.

  6. Age Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Not Based on Encoding Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Ricker, Timothy J.; Saults, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Why does visual working memory performance increase with age in childhood? One recent study (Cowan et al., 2010b) ruled out the possibility that the basic cause is a tendency in young children to clutter working memory with less-relevant items (within a concurrent array, colored items presented in one of two shapes). The age differences in memory…

  7. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  8. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  9. Age-differences in work motivation and job satisfaction. The influence of age on the relationships between work characteristics and workers' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; de Jong, Ad H J; Janssen, Sara M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were significant. The first interaction showed that the positive correlation between Motivating Potential Score (MPS) and motivation was much stronger for older than for younger employees. So, to remain motivated, older employees seem more in need of intrinsic challenging and fulfilling jobs. The second significant interaction indicated that the positive association between career opportunities and motivation was much stronger for younger employees than for older employees. This means that, especially, younger workers' motivation increases as they are offered more career opportunities. Careful career mentoring by the supervisor as part of an aging policy can contribute to the maintenance of workers of any age.

  10. Aging embodiment and the somatic work of getting into and out of a car.

    PubMed

    Gish, Jessica A; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the embodied realities and sensory experience of vehicle ingress and egress from the point of view of older drivers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women and three men, aged 57-81, and followed by ride-a-longs whereby the researcher observed participants in interaction with their automobile. Using the perspective of phenomenological gerontology and the concept of somatic work (Vannini, Waskul, & Gottschalk, 2012), older drivers are conceptualized as simultaneously sensing and making sense of somatic experience evoked by aging embodiment and the bodily movements required of entry and exit into an automobile. It is argued that older drivers acquire a sensory auto-biography of incorporated bodily memory regarding vehicle morphology and texture in their past and current life, which informs embodied capacities of movement, awareness, and response relative to practical knowledge about what is attainable (or unattainable) for a sensuous older body. Through reflective and reflexive engagement with the sensory realm and material world, participants report structuring their lives through the haptics of touch, adoption of somatic rules, consumerist practices, as well as, specialized bodily movements and footwork sequences to ensure safety and comfort when using their automobile.

  11. The new organization: Rethinking work in the age of virtuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Duncan B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    long periods of stability punctuated by shorts bursts of 'reorganization,' business enterprises will come to realize that their very survival depends upon their being in a state of continuous organization. The implications of the new organization with respect to how companies approach the planning, design, and management of the technology infrastructure that enables individual learning, self-management, and continuous orgsnization, are both numerous and far-reaching. As part of this technology infrastructure, the white-collar workplace exists in the form it does today as a direct result of management's beliefs about how time, space, and tools ought to be organized and managed in order to accomplish useful intellectual work. Obviously, if these beliefs change radically, as both the new science and the new management thinking suggest is about to happen, then it is almost inevitable that the form and function of the white-collar workplace will change radically, as well. Will there even be a white-collar workplace in the 21st century, in the sense of purpose-built facilities designed to support the co-location of large numbers of white-collar workers? Only time will tell. However, the leading indicators seem to suggest that, as the old saying goes, 'We ain't seen nothin' yet!'

  12. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  13. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  14. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  15. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  16. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  17. Work-energy theorem and friction forces: two experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Grandinetti, M.; Sapia, P.

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have showed the subsistence, even in students enrolled in scientific degree courses, of spontaneous ideas regarding the motion of bodies that conflict with Newton’s laws. One of the causes is related to the intuitive preconceptions that students have about the role of friction as a force. In fact, in real world novices do not recognise friction as a force, and for this reason they may believe that a motion with a constant speed needs as a necessary condition the presence of a constant force in the same direction of the motion. In order to face these ‘intuitive ways of reasoning’, in this paper we propose two sequential experiments that can allow undergraduate students to clarify the role of friction forces through the use of the work-energy theorem. This is a necessary first step on the way to a deeper understanding of Newton’s second law. We have planned our experiments in order to strongly reduce quantitative difficult calculations and to facilitate qualitative comprehension of observed phenomena. Moreover, the proposed activities represent two examples of the recurring methodology used in experimental practices, since they offer the possibility to measure very small physical quantities in an indirect way with a higher accuracy than the direct measurements of the same quantities.

  18. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  19. A controlled experiment to evaluate the impact of summer research experiences on attitudes towards science in high school aged students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. A.; Tcherednichenko, I.; Hamar, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Litizzette, L.

    2006-12-01

    United States funding agencies increasingly are supporting activities designed to increase the enrollment of United States high school students in science, math, or engineering careers. However, in many cases, the likely outcomes of educational activities are unknown. A common approach within the physical and natural sciences is to provide high school aged students with a summer research experience, with the expectation that such experiences will increase student interest in science, possibly as a career choice. With funding support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Investigator Grant program, we conducted a controlled experiment to test this assumption. In collaboration with Mountain Crest High School in Logan, UT, we recruited 40 students currently enrolled in science courses, assessed attitudes towards science (with informed consent), and randomly assigned 20 students to a control group and 20 students to an experimental group. Students in the experimental group were paired with faculty and graduate students in a wide range of field and laboratory research groups in natural resources and biology. Students were employed in at least two different research groups for an average of 30-40 hours per week for eight weeks in the summer of 2006. Following the completion of the summer work experience, we again assessed attitudes towards science in both groups and gathered additional information from the experimental group on satisfaction with the work experience and reasons for participating. Results are presented and discussed.

  20. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the only work experience is arduous... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily...); (2) Work experience of 35 years or more during which he or she did arduous unskilled physical...

  1. Experiences of identification and differentiation as functions of leprosy, personality and age.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N S; Dhar, U; Singh, Y

    1984-01-01

    It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'. PMID:6548499

  2. Return to work after knee replacement: a qualitative study of patient experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bardgett, Michelle; Lally, Joanne; Malviya, Ajay; Deehan, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective An increasing number of patients in the working population are undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for end-stage osteoarthritis. The timing and success of return to work is becoming increasingly important for this group of patients with social and economic implications for patients, employers and society. There is limited understanding of the patient variables that determine the ability to return to work. Our objective was (from the patient's perspective) to gain an insight into the factors influencing return to work following knee replacement. Setting and participants This qualitative study was undertaken in a secondary-care setting in a large teaching hospital in the north of England. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 10 patients regarding their experiences of returning to work following TKR. Outcomes Interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative thematic approach to identify the factors influencing return to work from the patient's perspective. Results Three themes were identified that influenced the process of return to work, from the patient's perspective. These were delays in surgical intervention, limited and often inconsistent advice from healthcare professionals regarding return to work, and finally the absence of rehabilitation to optimise patient's recovery and facilitate return to work. Conclusions There is currently no consistent process to optimise return to work for patients of working age after TKR. The impact of delayed surgical intervention, limited advice regarding return to work, and a lack of work-focused rehabilitation, all contribute to potential delays in successful return to work. There is a need to change the focus of healthcare provision for this cohort of patients, and provide a tailored healthcare intervention to optimise patient outcomes. PMID:26832426

  3. Changes in Brain Network Efficiency and Working Memory Performance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Simpson, Sean L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory. PMID:25875001

  4. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  5. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person’s mindset, which determines what top–down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art. PMID:25566111

  6. Age-related physical fitness and the predictive values of fitness tests for work ability in home care work.

    PubMed

    Pohjonen, T

    2001-08-01

    Despite the widespread assessment of physical fitness in occupational medicine and health services, only a few validity studies have been made of the fitness tests used in relation to job demands. The purpose of this study was to assess the physical fitness of female home care workers (n = 132) in relation to age and to evaluate whether the fitness tests used predict work ability over a 5-year period of follow-up. Muscle endurance declined by 18% to 37%, and isometric muscle strength by 10% to 18%, from the youngest (21 to 35 years) to the oldest (45 to 59 years) age group. The proportion of those subjects who could be classified below the average age-related fitness categories according to the maximal oxygen consumption was highest (50%) for the 21-to-35 age group. The logistic regression model showed that obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 7.51) and poor results on the sit-up (OR, 8.9), balance (OR, 6.5), and weight-lifting (OR, 4.6) tests predicted the highest risk for reduced work ability, according to the work ability index used in the 5-year follow-up. Moreover, average results for the trunk side-bending test (OR, 4.6), poor results for the squatting test (OR, 3.8), poor knee extension strength (OR, 4.2), and the average maximal oxygen consumption (l.min-1) (OR, 3.1) indicated a high risk for reduction in work ability. The physical fitness tests were strongly associated with the physical demands of home care work and were relevant for the evaluation of work-related fitness among home care workers.

  7. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Secondary School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.; And Others

    This paper presents a replication of previous research which estimated a structural equation model relating elementary school age students' achievement to the number of parents and maternal work. The research presented here focuses on secondary school age students, and provides partial support for previous findings in which elementary school age…

  8. Age-related decline of precision and binding in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peich, Muy-Cheng; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Working memory declines with normal aging, but the nature of this impairment is debated. Studies based on detecting changes to arrays of visual objects have identified two possible components to age-related decline: a reduction in the number of items that can be stored, or a deficit in maintaining the associations (bindings) between individual object features. However, some investigations have reported intact binding with aging, and specific deficits arising only in Alzheimer's disease. Here, using a recently developed continuous measure of recall fidelity, we tested the precision with which adults of different ages could reproduce from memory the orientation and color of a probed array item. The results reveal a further component of cognitive decline: an age-related decrease in the resolution with which visual information can be maintained in working memory. This increase in recall variability with age was strongest under conditions of greater memory load. Moreover, analysis of the distribution of errors revealed that older participants were more likely to incorrectly report one of the unprobed items in memory, consistent with an age-related increase in misbinding. These results indicate a systematic decline with age in working memory resources that can be recruited to store visual information. The paradigm presented here provides a sensitive index of both memory resolution and feature binding, with the potential for assessing their modulation by interventions. The findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms underpinning working memory deficits in both health and disease. PMID:23978008

  9. Preparing for an Aging Work Force: A Practical Guide for Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARP, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is intended for human resource managers, provides practical guidance regarding preparing for an aging work force. Chapter 1 concerns the relationship between business practices and age neutrality and offers checklists that human resource managers can use to assess their company's general policy development, training,…

  10. Infusing Aging Content across the Curriculum: Innovations in Baccalaureate Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Waites, Cheryl E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effort of a baccalaureate social work (BSW) program to infuse aging content throughout the foundation curriculum. The authors designed a 3-part approach to curriculum development and innovation: (1) increasing students' interest and exposure to aging contents through curriculum innovation, (2) faculty development, and (3)…

  11. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  12. Discriminating between Survivors and Nonsurvivors among Working Class Aged Living in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Zev

    1979-01-01

    The predictive significance of select variables on survival was ascertained among community-living aged of working class background. Sex and performance of daily routines were found to be better initial discriminators, while age and a perceptual style variable termed field dependence/independence were found to have better long-range predictive…

  13. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... experiences are designed to enable youth to gain exposure to the working world and its requirements. Work... community service; and (10) Other elements designed to achieve the goals of work experiences. (d) In most... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are work experiences for youth?...

  14. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... experiences are designed to enable youth to gain exposure to the working world and its requirements. Work... community service; and (10) Other elements designed to achieve the goals of work experiences. (d) In most... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are work experiences for youth?...

  15. Social-emotional aspects of male escorting: experiences of men working for an agency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael D; Grov, Christian; Seal, David W; Bernhardt, Nicholas; McCall, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Social situations and emotional correlates associated with male sex work have not been well documented. Most of the research in this area focuses on sexual activity with little mention of other aspects of the job. Yet, research with female sex workers finds significant social and emotional components to sex work. The current study focused on how male sex workers (MSWs) perceived and adapted to the social-emotional aspects of their job. As part of a larger project examining MSWs working for a single escort agency, 40 men (M age, 22.3 years, 75 % Caucasian) located in the mid-Atlantic U.S. participated in semi-structured interviews. The agency owner was also interviewed. Participants reported a range of social and emotional factors regarding sex work and employed a variety of strategies to provide good customer service and adapt to negative experiences. For most, social support was inhibited due to fear of stigmatization that might result if participants disclosed sex work to significant others outside the agency. Instead, interactions within the agency provided core work-related social support for most MSWs. Emotional and relational tasks inherent to escort work grew easier with experience and negativity about the job declined. Our data suggested that socially connected individuals seemed to be more satisfied with sex work. Social and emotional requirements represented a significant but unanticipated component of male sex work to which escorts actively adapted. Escorting may be similar to other service occupations in terms of the social-emotional situations and skills involved. PMID:25119388

  16. Masculinities, work, and retirement among older men who experience depression.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Rasmussen, Brian; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul M; Phinney, Alison; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2013-12-01

    The high incidence of depression among older men has been linked to numerous factors. In this qualitative descriptive study of 30 older, Canadian-based men who experienced depression, we explored the connections between participants' depression, masculinities, work, and retirement. Our analyses revealed three thematic findings. The recursive relationship between depression and work was reflected in depression impeding and emerging from paid work, whereby men's careers and work achievements were negatively impacted by depression amid assertions that unfulfilling work could also invoke depression. Lost or unrealized empires highlighted the centrality of wealth accumulation and negative impact of many participants' unfulfilled paid work aspirations. Retirement as loss and the therapeutic value of work reflected how masculine ideals influenced men to continue working to avoid the losses they associated with retirement. The findings confirm the need to support men's work-related transitions by affirming a diversity of masculine identities beyond traditional workman/breadwinner roles. PMID:24177678

  17. Correlation between biological and physical availabilities of phenanthrene in soils and soil humin in aging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Hunter, M.; Nam, K.; Pignatello, J.J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-08-01

    The bioavailability of an organic compound in a soil or sediment commonly declines with the soil-chemical contact time (aging). A series of parallel desorption and bioavailability experiments was carried out on phenanthrene previously aged up to {approximately}100 d in Mount Pleasant silt loam (Mt. Pleasant, NY, USA) or Pahokee peat soil to determine as a function of the aging period the degree of correlation between the reduction in bioavailability and the rate and extent of desorption and the influence of soil organic matter composition on availability. The mineralization of phenanthrene by two bacteria and the uptake of phenanthrene by earthworms showed expected declines with aging. Likewise, the rate of phenanthrene desorption in the absence of organisms decreased with aging. The decline in initial rate of mineralization or desorption was nearly an order of magnitude after 50 to 60 d of aging. Plots of normalized rates of mineralization or desorption practically coincided. Similarly, plots of normalized fraction mineralized or fraction desorbed during an arbitrary period gave comparable slopes. The partial removal of organic matter from the peat by extraction with dilute NaOH to leave the humin fraction reduced the biodegradation of phenanthrene aged for 38 and 63 d as compared to the nonextracted peat, but the effect disappeared at longer incubation times. The rate of desorption from samples of peat previously extracted with NaOH or Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} declined with aging and, for a given aging period, was significantly slower than from nonextracted peat. This work shows that the reduction in bioavailability of phenanthrene over time in soil is directly correlated with reduction of its physical availability due to desorption limitations. In addition, this study shows that removal of extractable humic substances leads to a decline in the rate of desorption and in the bioavailability of the substrate.

  18. Estrogen Restores Multisynaptic Boutons in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex while Promoting Working Memory in Aged Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G M; Rapp, Peter R; Morrison, John H

    2016-01-20

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause- related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We showed previously that presynaptic mitochondrial number and morphology in monkey dlPFC neurons correlate with working memory performance. The current study tested the hypothesis that the types of synaptic connections these boutons form are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys and that these metrics may be coupled with mitochondrial measures and working memory. Using serial section electron microscopy, we examined the frequencies and characteristics of nonsynaptic, single-synaptic, and multisynaptic boutons (MSBs) in the dlPFC. In contrast to our previous observations in the monkey hippocampal dentate gyrus, where MSBs comprised ∼40% of boutons, the vast majority of dlPFC boutons were single-synaptic, whereas MSBs constituted a mere 10%. The frequency of MSBs was not altered by normal aging, but decreased by over 50% with surgical menopause induced by ovariectomy in aged monkeys. Cyclic estradiol treatment in aged ovariectomized animals restored MSB frequencies to levels comparable to young and aged premenopausal monkeys. Notably, the frequency of MSBs positively correlated with working memory scores, as measured by the average accuracy on the delayed response (DR) test. Furthermore, MSB incidence positively correlated with the number of healthy straight mitochondria in dlPFC boutons and inversely correlated with the number of pathological donut-shaped mitochondria. Together, our data suggest that MSBs are coupled to cognitive function and mitochondrial health and are sensitive to estrogen. Significance statement: Many aged menopausal individuals experience deficits in working memory, an executive function reliant on recurrent firing of prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. However, little is known about the organization of presynaptic inputs to these neurons and how

  19. Estrogen Restores Multisynaptic Boutons in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex while Promoting Working Memory in Aged Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G. M.; Rapp, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause- related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We showed previously that presynaptic mitochondrial number and morphology in monkey dlPFC neurons correlate with working memory performance. The current study tested the hypothesis that the types of synaptic connections these boutons form are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys and that these metrics may be coupled with mitochondrial measures and working memory. Using serial section electron microscopy, we examined the frequencies and characteristics of nonsynaptic, single-synaptic, and multisynaptic boutons (MSBs) in the dlPFC. In contrast to our previous observations in the monkey hippocampal dentate gyrus, where MSBs comprised ∼40% of boutons, the vast majority of dlPFC boutons were single-synaptic, whereas MSBs constituted a mere 10%. The frequency of MSBs was not altered by normal aging, but decreased by over 50% with surgical menopause induced by ovariectomy in aged monkeys. Cyclic estradiol treatment in aged ovariectomized animals restored MSB frequencies to levels comparable to young and aged premenopausal monkeys. Notably, the frequency of MSBs positively correlated with working memory scores, as measured by the average accuracy on the delayed response (DR) test. Furthermore, MSB incidence positively correlated with the number of healthy straight mitochondria in dlPFC boutons and inversely correlated with the number of pathological donut-shaped mitochondria. Together, our data suggest that MSBs are coupled to cognitive function and mitochondrial health and are sensitive to estrogen. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many aged menopausal individuals experience deficits in working memory, an executive function reliant on recurrent firing of prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. However, little is known about the organization of presynaptic inputs to these neurons and how

  20. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  1. Preservice Teachers' Objectives and Their Experience of Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivalainen, V.; Asikainen, M. A.; Hirvonen, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers' (n=32) views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The…

  2. Aging in cultural context and as narrative process: conceptual foundations of the anthropology of aging as reflected in the works of Margaret Clark and Sharon Kaufman.

    PubMed

    Perkinson, Margaret A; Solimeo, Samantha L

    2014-02-01

    Although the discipline of anthropology has much to contribute to the understanding of the nature and experience of aging, it is a relative latecomer to gerontology. After briefly discussing why this is the case, the authors discuss the contributions of two anthropologists who brought a substantive anthropological voice to gerontological discussion of aging. Examining the "ancestral roots" of the anthropology of aging, we spotlight the intellectual heritage of Margaret Clark, arguably the "mother" of this anthropological subfield, and that of Sharon Kaufman, her student, colleague, and a pioneer in her own right. Clark and Anderson's Culture and aging: an anthropological study of older Americans (1967; Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas) remains a touchstone for the concept of situated aging. This examination of value orientations and mental health of older San Franciscans is foundational for understanding aging as an interactive, socially embedded process that is adapted to specific sociocultural contexts. Research and therapies grounded in narrativity and meaning benefit from Sharon Kaufman's The ageless self: sources of meaning in late life (1986; Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press), which articulated narrative thinking as a conduit for understanding, performing, and constructing identity and meaning. Kaufman's work has ongoing relevance to gerontological research on embodiment, chronic illness, and later life social transitions. Their research has continued relevance to contemporary gerontological scholarship and practice, signaling both prevailing and emergent agendas for anthropologically informed gerontology.

  3. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    PubMed

    Sluiter, Judith K

    2006-07-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in work ability in the context of high-demand jobs. In this paper, the work ability of ageing workers is addressed according to aspects of diversity in specific job demands and the research methods that are needed to shed light upon the relevant associated questions. From the international literature, a body of evidence was elicited concerning rates of chronological ageing in distinct bodily systems and functions. Intra-age-cohort differences in capacities and work ability, however, require (not yet existing) valid estimates of functional age or biological age indices for the specific populations of workers in high-demand jobs. Many studies have drawn on the highly demanding work of fire-fighters, ambulance workers, police officers, medical specialists, pilots/astronauts and submarine officers. Specific job demands in these jobs can be physical, mental or psychosocial in origin but may cause combined task-level loadings. Therefore, the assessment of single demands probably will not reveal enough relevant information about work ability in high-demand jobs and there will be a call for more integrated measures. Existing studies have used a variety of methodologies to address parts of the issue: task analyses for quantifying physical work demands, observations of psychological and physiological parameters, measures of psychosocial work demands and health complaints. Specific details about the work ability of ageing workers in high-demand jobs are scarce. In general, specific demands are more likely to overtax the capacities of older workers than those of younger workers in high-demand jobs, implying greater repercussions for health, although these effects also vary considerably

  4. Age-related changes to the neural correlates of working memory which emerge after midlife

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Helen N.; White, David J.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Silberstein, Richard; Pipingas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the neural processes which underlie working memory change with age. Both age-related increases and decreases to cortical activity have been reported. This study investigated which stages of working memory are most vulnerable to age-related changes after midlife. To do this we examined age-differences in the 13 Hz steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) associated with a spatial working memory delayed response task. Participants were 130 healthy adults separated into a midlife (40–60 years) and an older group (61–82 years). Relative to the midlife group, older adults demonstrated greater bilateral frontal activity during encoding and this pattern of activity was related to better working memory performance. In contrast, evidence of age-related under activation was identified over left frontal regions during retrieval. Findings from this study suggest that after midlife, under-activation of frontal regions during retrieval contributes to age-related decline in working memory performance. PMID:24795625

  5. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  6. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  7. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  8. Assessing the Professional Development Needs of Arts Instructors Working in Multi-Age Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national survey conducted with 223 arts teachers working in public schools that feature mixed-age classrooms rather than traditional grade levels. The purpose of the survey was to identify the professional development needs of arts teachers working in these unique environments and to offer suggestions for…

  9. Focus on Opportunities as a Mediator of the Relationships between Age, Job Complexity, and Work Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Focus on opportunities" is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age and work performance and…

  10. Validating a Pre-Formed Identity or Unsettling Prior Experience? Experiences of Working Students Entering Studies in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Contextual studies of learning experiences as recalled by working, adult learners entering post-graduate studies in higher education are not widely reported in higher education research. The purpose of this study was to explore the recalled learning experiences of adult students with work experience, but no prior completed academic qualifications,…

  11. Assessing the Effects of a Work-Based Antipoverty Program for Parents on Youth's Future Orientation and Employment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Kaplan, Rachel; Purtell, Kelly M.; Huston, Aletha C.

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of New Hope, a 3-year work-based antipoverty program to increase parent employment and reduce poverty, on youth ages 9-19 (N = 866) were assessed 5 years after parents left the program. New Hope had positive effects on the future orientation and employment experiences of boys, especially African American boys. Compared to boys in…

  12. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  13. Resting-State Anticorrelations Between Medial and Lateral Prefrontal Cortex: Association with Working Memory, Aging, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Joseph B.; Hedden, Trey; Thompson, Todd W.; Anteraper, Sheeba A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We examined how variation in working memory (WM) capacity due to aging or individual differences among young adults is associated with intrinsic or resting-state anticorrelations, particularly between (1) the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a component of the default-mode network (DMN) that typically decreases in activation during external, attention-demanding tasks, and (2) the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a component of the fronto-parietal control network that supports executive functions and WM and typically increases in activation during attention-demanding tasks. We compared the magnitudes of MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations between healthy younger and older participants (Experiment 1) and related the magnitudes of these anticorrelations to individual differences on two behavioral measures of working memory capacity in two independent groups of young adults (Experiments 1 and 2). Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited reductions in working memory capacity and in MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations. Within younger adults, greater MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelation at rest correlated with greater working memory capacity. These findings show that variation in MPFC-DLPFC anticorrelations, whether related to aging or to individual differences, may reflect an intrinsic functional brain architecture supportive of working memory capacity. PMID:25562175

  14. Integrating Work Experience and Management for College Bound Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Leo V.; Coover, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    St. Viator High School, through a Business Management Seminar, converted job experiences into learning experiences by acknowledging the real value of the job as a laboratory for the study of principles of management and their application to the job. (Author/BP)

  15. Control and Stabilization: Making Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Hill, Christoph; Heering, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Educational versions of Millikan's oil-drop experiment have frequently been criticized; suggestions for improvement either focus on technical innovations of the setup or on replacing the experiment by other approaches of familiarization, such as computer simulations. In our approach, we have analysed experimental procedures. In doing so, we were…

  16. First Year Experience Courses. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Based on four studies that meet WWC group design standards, "first year experience courses" were found to have potentially positive effects on credit accumulation, degree attainment (college), and general academic achievement (college) for freshman college students. "First year experience courses", often referred to as college…

  17. Embodied practice: claiming the body's experience, agency, and knowledge for social work.

    PubMed

    Tangenberg, Kathleen M; Kemp, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Although social work practice typically is concerned with physical conditions and experiences such as poverty, addiction, and violence, relatively little attention has been given to the body in professional literature. Emphasizing both physical and sociocultural dimensions of the body, this article argues for an invigorated, more complex understanding of the body in social work theory, practice, and research. Drawing from scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and social work, a framework involving three dimensions of the body is proposed for integration with accepted ecological practice models. The nature and implications of three primary dimensions of the body for multiple domains of social work practice are explored, citing examples from narratives of mothers living with HIV disease: (1) the experiencing body, focused on the physicality of daily life; (2) the body of power, focused on the physicality of oppression and marginality, typically based on race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, physical appearance, and illness; and (3) the client body, reflecting the bodily experiences of those identified as clients who participate in relationships with social workers.

  18. It Is Tough and Tiring but It Works--Children's Experiences of Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Engvall, Gunn; Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 300 children ages 0 to 18 are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year, and 80 to 90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to describe children's experiences of preparing for and undergoing radiotherapy, and furthermore to describe children's suggestions for improvement. Thirteen children between the ages of 5 and 15 with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed five categories: positive and negative experiences with hospital stays and practical arrangements; age-appropriate information, communication, and guidance to various degrees; struggle with emotions; use of distraction and other suitable coping strategies; and children's suggestions for improvement during radiotherapy. An overarching theme emerged: "It is tough and tiring but it works". Some key areas were: explanatory visits, the need for information and communication, being afraid, discomfort and suffering, the need for media distraction, dealing with emotions, and the need for support. A systematic, family-centered preparation program could possible help families prepare and individualized distraction during radiotherapy could contribute to reducing distress. Further studies with interventions could clarify successful programs.

  19. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  20. Student Group Project Work: A Pioneering Experiment in Interactive Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2001-01-01

    Fully half of the curriculum at Roskilde University in Denmark is student-driven group research project work that is often interdisciplinary. Describes the practice of group project work in the sciences at RUC and evaluates implications for educational practice in the United States. (Author/SAH)

  1. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use as Correlates of Adolescents' Subjective Experience of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbeau, Kelly J.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined in a random community-based sample of 664 12-19-year-olds, the relation of subjective experience of age (SEA) with chronological age, dating experience, sexual activity, and substance use. The results revealed a positive linear relation between SEA and chronological age: individuals who were chronologically older felt…

  2. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding. PMID:25216357

  3. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding.

  4. A Guide to Work Experience Education and Employment Placement; A Program for Senior High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    This manual is intended primarily as an operational guide for school and area work experience coordinators in senior high schools. Contents cover: (1) development of the cooperative work experience education program, (2) various types of work experience, (3) youth guidance and placement service, (4) legal aspects of employing minors, (5) school…

  5. Does Strategy Training Reduce Age-Related Deficits in Working Memory?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Dunlosky, John; Hertzog, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Older adults typically perform worse on measures of working memory (WM) than do young adults; however, age-related differences in WM performance might be reduced if older adults use effective encoding strategies (Bailey, Dunlosky, & Hertzog, 2009). Objective The purpose of the current experiment was to evaluate WM performance after training individuals to use effective encoding strategies. Methods Participants in the training group (older adults: n = 39; young adults: n = 41) were taught about various verbal encoding strategies and their differential effectiveness and were trained to use interactive imagery and sentence generation on a list-learning task. Participants in the control group (older: n=37; young: n=38) completed an equally engaging filler task. All participants completed a pre-training and post-training reading span task, which included self-reported strategy use, as well as two transfer tasks that differed in the affordance to use the trained strategies – a paired-associate recall task and the self-ordered pointing task. Results Both young and older adults were able to use the target strategies on the WM task and showed gains in WM performance after training. The age-related WM deficit was not greatly affected, however, and the training gains did not transfer to the other cognitive tasks. In fact, participants attempted to adapt the trained strategies for a paired-associate recall task, but the increased strategy use did not benefit their performance. Conclusions Strategy training can boost WM performance, and its benefits appear to arise from strategy-specific effects and not from domain-general gains in cognitive ability. PMID:24577079

  6. DataPlay: Experiments in the Ludic Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    DataPlay is a research project inspired by the concept of a "ludic age" (Chaplin & Zimmerman, 2008), where the challenges of extracting knowledge from the "data deluge" of the information age (Economist, 2010) are met with game-based approaches to information design. This paper examines Mannahatta: The Game in order to…

  7. Treating work-injured patients in Europe. The Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Sandro; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2002-06-01

    According with to International Labor Office, the European Union gave the directions to improve the life of workers not only by regulating care, but also safety and return to work. Each European country is conforming to this. In Italy, INAIL, an independent body under the control of the Department of Labor and the Ministry of Health, covers the workers for occupational accidents and is funded by an insurance premium, obligatory paid by the employer. INAIL has the medicolegal task of assessment of injuries, supply of prostheses, physical therapy, and various compensation according to the degree of disability and the type of work. The specific treatment of the injured workers is carried out by the SSN, which is in charge of the outpatient treatment and hospitalization; however, INAIL contributes to the costs according to agreements made with each region. Although on one hand the injured worker is fully protected by the regulations, on the other hand, he or she is obliged to abide to the laws of security and to undergo treatment offered. In returning to work, certain factors are taken into account, such as percentage of disability, type of work, and discomfort that disability produces in carrying out work. Should the type or severity of the disability not allow complete return to work, support is given to assess and integrate the reduced working ability of the injured worker with regards to the workplace, even by adapting the latter to solve structural and environmental problems. INAIL, in accordance with the European Council, is committed to the total care of the worker and not only worker meaning "work force." In fact, health care and economic aid are integrated with the safety and rehabilitation of the worker and his or her return to family, social, and working life.

  8. Biology for Every Kid: 101 Easy Experiments that Really Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancleave, Janice Pratt

    1989-01-01

    Presented are 12 biology experiments suitable for use in intermediate grade classrooms. Topics include plants, protists, fungi, animals, and osmosis. Provided are objectives, lists of materials, procedures, results, and explanations of the results. (CW)

  9. Prefrontal cortex, caloric restriction and stress during aging: studies on dopamine and acetylcholine release, BDNF and working memory.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Alberto; Segovia, Gregorio; de Blas, Marta; Garrido, Pedro; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; Pamplona, Reinald; Mora, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether long-term caloric restriction during the life span of the rat changes the effects of an acute mild stress on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on working memory performance. Spontaneous motor activity was also monitored and levels of BDNF measured in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (3 months of age) were housed during 3, 12, 21 and 27 months (6, 15, 24 and 30 months of age at the end of housing) in caloric restriction (CR; 40% food intake restriction) or control conditions. After behavioural testing, animals were further subdivided into two other groups. In one of the groups BDNF protein levels were determined. In the other group rats were implanted with guide cannulas into the PFC to perform microdialysis experiments. In CR rats the release of dopamine produced by handling stress did not differ from the response found in control rats of 6, 15 and 24 months of age. The release of acetylcholine was not changed at the ages of 6 and 15 months but reduced at the age of 24 months. Stress did not change dopamine or acetylcholine release in CR and control rats of 30 months of age. BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus and amygdala, but not in the PFC, of 6 and 15 months CR rats. Spontaneous motor activity was increased in all groups of CR rats. Age, however, decreased motor activity in CR and control rats. Both experimental groups showed similar working memory performance in a delayed alternation task in basal conditions and after a situation of acute stress. These results suggest that CR does not modify the function of the PFC in response to an acute stress nor the changes found as a result of the normal process of aging.

  10. Federal Workplace Laws: Are Business Work Experience Programs in Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.; Kurth, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews federal laws (Fair Labor Standard Act's child labor regulations, Occupational Safety and Health Act, Immigration Reform and Control Act) for their implications for cooperative education and school-to-work programs. (SK)

  11. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. PMID:27610236

  12. Graduate Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Harriet; Knight, Carolyn; Khudododov, Khudodod

    2014-01-01

    For decades, group work scholars have described a discrepancy between student preparation for group work practice and opportunities to work with groups in the field practicum and professional practice. Educators in related disciplines such as counseling and psychology have expressed similar concerns. This article reports findings of a study of MSW…

  13. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (higher English experience [HEE], higher Spanish experience [HSE]). Children produced 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older…

  14. Aging modulates the oscillatory dynamics underlying successful working memory encoding and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Proskovec, Amy L; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is central to the execution of many daily functions and is typically divided into three phases: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. While working memory performance has been repeatedly shown to decline with age, less is known regarding the underlying neural processes. We examined age-related differences in the neural dynamics that serve working memory by recording high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) in younger and older adults while they performed a modified, high-load Sternberg working memory task with letters as stimuli. MEG data were evaluated in the time-frequency domain and significant oscillatory responses were imaged using a beamformer. A hierarchical regression was performed to investigate whether age moderated the relationship between oscillatory activity and accuracy on the working memory task. Our results indicated that the spatiotemporal dynamics of oscillatory activity in language-related areas of the left fronto-temporal cortices were similar across groups. Age-related differences emerged during early encoding in the right-hemispheric homologue of Wernicke's area. Slightly later, group differences emerged in the homologue of Broca's area and these persisted throughout memory maintenance. Additionally, occipital alpha activity during maintenance was stronger, occurred earlier, and involved more cortical tissue in older adults. Finally, age significantly moderated the relationship between accuracy and neural activity in the prefrontal cortices. In younger adults, as prefrontal activity decreased, accuracy tended to increase. Our results are consistent with predictions of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH). Such differences in the oscillatory dynamics could reflect compensatory mechanisms, which would aid working memory performance in older age. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2348-2361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991358

  15. Neurophysiological correlates of age-related changes in working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Mattay, Venkata S; Fera, Francesco; Tessitore, Alessandro; Hariri, Ahmad R; Berman, Karen F; Das, Saumitra; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Goldberg, Terry E; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) capacity decrease with age. To determine the neurophysiological correlates of age-related reduction in working memory capacity, we studied 10 young subjects (<35 years of age; mean age=29) and twelve older subjects (>55 years of age; mean age=59) with whole brain blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI on a 1.5 T GE MR scanner using a SPIRAL FLASH pulse sequence (TE=24 ms, TR=56 ms, FA=60 degrees , voxel dimensions=3.75 mm(3)). Subjects performed a modified version of the "n" back working memory task at different levels of increasing working memory load (1-Back, 2-Back and 3-Back). Older subjects performed as well as the younger subjects at 1-Back (p=0.4), but performed worse than the younger subjects at 2-Back (p<0.01) and 3-Back (p=0.06). Older subjects had significantly longer reaction time (RT) than younger subjects (p<0.04) at all levels of task difficulty. Image analysis using SPM 99 revealed a similar distribution of cortical activity between younger and older subjects at all task levels. However, an analysis of variance revealed a significant group x task interaction in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally; within working memory capacity, as in 1-Back when the older subjects performed as well as the younger subjects, they showed greater prefrontal cortical (BA 9) activity bilaterally. At higher working memory loads, however, when they performed worse then the younger subjects, the older subjects showed relatively reduced activity in these prefrontal regions. These data suggest that, within capacity, compensatory mechanisms such as additional prefrontal cortical activity are called upon to maintain proficiency in task performance. As cognitive demand increases, however, they are pushed past a threshold beyond which physiological compensation cannot be made and, a decline in performance occurs. PMID:16213083

  16. [Aging and work ability of workers of a university hospital's cleaning and hygiene service].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cristiane Batista; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted with the cleaning personnel of a university hospital in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo. These are public employees whose work is mainly physical: cleaning is a job that requires heavy physical work; in addition, workers are also exposed to chemical products. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the work ability of cleaners from different age groups, for which was used the Work Ability Index, an instrument developed by Finnish researchers. The sample was comprised of 69 workers who answered the questionnaire: 21.7% have excellent work ability; 31.9% good; 31.9% moderate; and 14.5% poor. The most frequently reported diseases with medical diagnosis were: lesion due to accidents, musculoskeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. The members of the older group ranked lower in the Work Ability Index and reported a larger number of diseases, which therefore affected their work ability.

  17. [Aging and work ability of workers of a university hospital's cleaning and hygiene service].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cristiane Batista; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted with the cleaning personnel of a university hospital in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo. These are public employees whose work is mainly physical: cleaning is a job that requires heavy physical work; in addition, workers are also exposed to chemical products. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the work ability of cleaners from different age groups, for which was used the Work Ability Index, an instrument developed by Finnish researchers. The sample was comprised of 69 workers who answered the questionnaire: 21.7% have excellent work ability; 31.9% good; 31.9% moderate; and 14.5% poor. The most frequently reported diseases with medical diagnosis were: lesion due to accidents, musculoskeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. The members of the older group ranked lower in the Work Ability Index and reported a larger number of diseases, which therefore affected their work ability. PMID:17722389

  18. An auditory event related potential evaluation of sonar task experience and age.

    PubMed

    Merrill, L L; Kobus, D A; McGuigan, F J

    1995-06-01

    To gauge the interaction of real-world sonar-task experience and age on brain electrical activity, the effect of sonar experience and age on event related potentials (ERP) was examined. A three-group design was used and the results suggest that sonar experience and age affect the amplitude and distribution of the ERP component. The results concerning age and ERPs support and extend the results of previous studies and suggest that age-related differences occur at a much younger age than is reported elsewhere. Attentional and stimulus evaluation processes which have been linked to parameters of the ERP component may be enhanced with real-world auditory task experience. Research on ERP should control for the possible confounds of auditory-task experience and age.

  19. Is complexity of work associated with risk of dementia? The Canadian Study of Health And Aging.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Edeltraut; Andel, Ross; Lindsay, Joan; Benounissa, Zohra; Verreault, René; Laurin, Danielle

    2008-04-01

    The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons aged 65 years or older. Lifetime job history allowed application of complexity scores and classification of work-related physical activity. Analyses included 3,557 subjects, of whom 400 were incident dementia cases, including 299 with Alzheimer's disease and 93 with vascular dementia. In fully adjusted Cox regression models, high complexity of work with people or things reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.98) and 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.99), respectively) but not Alzheimer's disease. For vascular dementia, hazard ratios were 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.90) for high complexity of work with people and 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 1.00) for high complexity of work with things. Subgroup analyses according to median duration (23 years) of principal occupation showed that associations with complexity varied according to duration of employment. High complexity of work appears to be associated with risk of dementia, but effects may vary according to subtype. PMID:18263600

  20. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G.; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees’ well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the

  1. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  2. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  3. Age-related spatial working memory deficits in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.

  4. [Multidisciplinary consultation "Suffering at work": an experience in western Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Besse, Christine; Berset, Denise Grolimund; Studer, Regina; Quarroz, Stéphane; Praz-Christinaz, Sophie-Maria; Rivier, Gaétan; Barlet-Ghaleb, Catherine; Danuser, Brigitta; Bonsack, Charles

    2016-02-01

    Mental health problems at work constitute a challenge in the clinical feld, as well in the professional, the economic and the public health perspective. The total costs they generate in Switzerland are equivalent to 3.2% of the Swiss gross domestic product and they very often lead to dismissal. The vast majority of people are treated by their primary care physician. The Institute for Work and Health features a specialized consultation on the topic of suffering at work, offering the primary care physicians a pluridisciplinary advice or support, in a collaborative care prospect. Its action, adapted to each situation's needs, goes from an advice to a referral to specialists that can strengthen the network on a long-term basis (mental health follow-up, supported employment program, legal or social advice). PMID:26999999

  5. Work-aged stroke survivors’ psychosocial challenges narrated during and after participating in a dialogue-based psychosocial intervention: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies point to the lack of psychosocial support and rehabilitation services that are adjusted to the work-aged stroke survivors’ specific needs in order to promote psychosocial well-being. The aim of the study was to illuminate the psychosocial challenges work-aged participants (i.e. aged 18–67 years) thematised during and after participating a dialogue-based psychosocial intervention during the first year following a stroke. Methods The study was a feasibility study guided by the UK Medical Research Council Framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews with fourteen stroke-survivors aged 33–66 years, researcher field notes and log notes written during the intervention were analysed applying a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Results The stroke and its consequences had a substantial impact on family and work life. Their experiences were summarised in the two themes The threat of becoming marginalised in family life and The threat of becoming marginalised in work life. Conclusion Life as a work-aged stroke survivor was experienced as challenging and created a threat of becoming marginalised in family and work life. The study highlights the need to understand the specific psychosocial challenges and needs facing work-aged stroke survivors’ in order to promote their psychosocial well-being. More research is needed concerning specific life-span challenges amongst work-aged stroke survivors in order to further develop appropriate interventions that helps address this issue. PMID:24066840

  6. New Jersey Graduated Work Incentive Experiment. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematica, Princeton, NJ.

    The study is described as a carefully controlled field test of the effects on recipient families of eight different negative income tax or benefit formulas. The most striking finding was that observed changes in labor supply in response to the experimental payments were generally quite small. Chapter One, The Experiment: Background and Choices,…

  7. Crewmember working on the spacelab Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialists Bonnie Dunbar and Larry DeLucas in the aft section of the U. S. Microgravity Laboratory-1. Dunbar is preparing to load a sample in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Integrated Furnace Experiment Assembly (IFEA) in rack 9 of the Microgravity Laboratory. DeLucas is checking out the multi-purpose Glovebox Facility.

  8. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  9. The Experience of Working with Refugees: Counsellors in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Gillian; Leavey, Gerard; Payne, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The provision of counselling services for refugee and asylum-seeking patients is relatively new in the UK and their complex needs may present considerable challenges within primary care, where access to specialist support resources is often limited. As far as we know, no previous research has attempted to look at the experiences of the counsellors…

  10. Engineering Students' Experiences of Transition from Study to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiwne, Elinor Edvardsson; Jungert, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on how students experience their transition from their education to being employed as engineers in relation to the concept of employability. Four cohorts of students in a master's programme in engineering were monitored annually with a "follow-up" one year after graduation. Results show that there were differences in the…

  11. Exploring the Work Experiences of School Counselors of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Baker, Caroline A.; Kassoy, Felice R.; Mayes, Renae D.; Baughman, Amber V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research suggesting the importance of diverse professionals in education (Mattison & Aber, 2007), no studies have explored the professional experiences of school counselors of Color. In this exploratory grounded-theory qualitative study, researchers interviewed 19 school counselors of Color. Responses revealed both positive and…

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability

    PubMed Central

    Eslinger, Jessica G.; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S.; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Participants Adults (ages 18–64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). Design and Main Outcome Measures The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. Results ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5–2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42–0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41–0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. Conclusions ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen

  13. Focusing on Doctoral Students' Experiences of Engagement in Thesis Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about what inspires students to be involved in their doctoral process and stay persistent when facing challenges. This study explored the nature of students' engagement in the doctoral work. Altogether, 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students from one top-level research community were interviewed. The interview data were…

  14. Gender and Equity: Experience of the Working Women's Forum, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Nandini

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates how poor women were able to move out of poverty and dehumanization through a process of mobilization and organization. The process was catalyzed by the intervention of a non-governmental organization, the Working Women's Forum. Outlines the Forum's program of economic, social, and technological empowerment. (MJP)

  15. The Experiences of Teachers Working in Program Improvement Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosine, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Implementation of the curriculum-centered, standards-based federally mandated reform, No Child Left Behind, has placed pressure on teachers, particularly those working in schools comprised of highly diverse and impoverished students, to have their students attain predetermined levels on high stakes, standardized tests. When schools have not met…

  16. Course of Study for the Cooperative Work Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Designed to prepare students (grades 11 and 12) for employment entry through a cooperative work/study program, this course guide assists the teacher-coordinator by providing instructional objectives, suggested performance tasks, sample assessment measures, and activities for each unit of instruction. The instruction covers two broad areas:…

  17. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  18. Work Placements for Languages Students: A Transformative Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organ, Alison

    2016-01-01

    A work placement module is compulsory in the second year of most degree programmes at York St John University, as part of an institution-wide strategy to embed employability in the curriculum. As most languages students spend their second year studying abroad, the Languages in the Workplace module was designed in such a way that the setting up of…

  19. Creating Optimal Work Environments: Exploring Teacher Flow Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basom, Margaret R.; Frase, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a new perspective on the intricacies of the work life in schools that motivate and satisfy teachers. The authors review the literature related to the improvement of school environments and the concept of "flow" as defined by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi (1990). He describes flow as a "state in which people are…

  20. Administrative Experiments: Unlocking What Works Better and What Works for Whom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Scott; Perez-Johnson, Irma; Joyce, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Administrative experiments are increasingly available for public programs with high-quality administrative data to identify what changes make programs and services more effective. Program administrators can run short-term experiments to test improvements in programs and have causally valid impact estimates within a year. Administrative experiments…

  1. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers. PMID:25231503

  2. Does age affect the relationship between control at work and sleep disturbance for shift workers?

    PubMed

    Loudoun, Rebecca Jane; Muurlink, Olav; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina

    2014-12-01

    Among miners, shift work, aging and lack of control at work may be factors leading to increased sleep problems. Such risk factors may also operate in interaction, resulting in an even increased harm for sleep disruption. The present study aims at evaluating these relationships drawing on a sample of Australian mine and energy workers and their partners. The workers were mainly men. All performed shift work that included either nights (95%) or multiple shifts (92%), usually both (87%), while 36% were aged 50 years or above. The results show that low latitude over work activities is associated with higher sleep disturbances across the sample, though the effects are clearer amongst younger workers. By contrast, for younger workers, control over shift scheduling is not associated with sleep disturbances but for workers aged 50 or more, low control results in more sleep disturbance. Misalignment between shift workers and partner work schedules, and partner dissatisfaction with shift worker's employment and shift worker's work-life balance, are also associated with more sleep disturbances amongst shift workers.

  3. Control and stabilization: making Millikan's oil drop experiment work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hill, Christoph; Heering, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Educational versions of Millikan's oil-drop experiment have frequently been criticized; suggestions for improvement either focus on technical innovations of the setup or on replacing the experiment by other approaches of familiarization, such as computer simulations. In our approach, we have analysed experimental procedures. In doing so, we were able to identify several sources of error and took measures to minimize their influence. At the same time, we attempted to minimize the standard deviation of each individual series of measurements. Our paper describes how we developed criteria which helped to stabilize the data produced in the following series of measurements. The final series of measurements results in data which demonstrate the atomic structure of electricity and enable a demonstration of the elementary charge.

  4. The Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena T.

    2012-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally and professionally prepared for entry into the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability, sometimes it is. When this…

  5. Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities or Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…

  6. Welfare to Work: Does It Work for Kids? Research on Work and Income Welfare Experiments. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Stephanie A.

    Noting that a central tenet of the 1996 welfare reform law was that work was the best way to improve the lives of single parents and their children, this fact sheet summarizes research on the impact of parental work on children in families receiving welfare. The fact sheet delineates key research findings from experimental studies of the effects…

  7. High Performance and the Transformation of Work? The Implications of Alternative Work Practices for the Experience and Outcomes of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godard, John

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 508 Canadian workers showed that moderate levels of high-performance work practices were associated with increased belonging, empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. At higher levels, the association became negative. Work was more stressful with these practices. Team autonomy, just-in-time practices, and…

  8. Ergonomics strategies and actions for achieving productive use of an ageing work-force.

    PubMed

    Kumashiro, M

    2000-07-01

    In this report, a basic ERGOMA (Ergonomics in Industrial Management) strategy is proposed as a policy for corporate production and employment in countries where ageing populations and reduced birth rates are imminent, and a strategy related to this is proposed. Specifically, as a strategy at the company level, the results of survey studies aimed at the development of methods for determining job capacity, to enable effective use of the labour of ageing workers, were summarized. A number of the insights gained here are steps in the development of a foundational methodology for practical use, and in actual practice a number of these insights must be subjected to measurements. However, the theory and newly developed methodology described here are thought to represent significant changes from the approaches to job capacity diagnosis and assessment published in the past and from the stance towards utilization of an ageing work-force. The author is confident that this represents new progress in one of the ergonomics approach to dealing with the working environment of ageing workers and an ageing work-force in general. PMID:10929834

  9. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history.

  10. Working Memory Tasks Differ in Factor Structure across Age Cohorts: Implications for Dedifferentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Logie, Robert H.; Brockmole, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers interested in working memory have debated whether it should be considered a single latent cognitive ability or a set of essentially independent latent abilities distinguished by domain-specific memory and/or processing resources. Simultaneously, researchers interested in cognitive aging have established that there are substantial…

  11. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Social Work Services in Aging: An Updated Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Victoria M.; Rowe, Jeannine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the impact of social work interventions in aging on quality of life (QOL) and cost outcomes in four categories (health, mental health, geriatric evaluation and management, and caregiving). Methods: Systematic review methods are employed. Databases were searched for articles published in English between 2004 and 2012…

  13. School Foodservice Employees' Perceptions of Practice: Differences by Generational Age and Hours Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Jun, Jinhyun; Arendt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the influences of school foodservice employees' age and average number of hours worked per week on perceived safe food handling practices, barriers, and motivators. Methods: A bilingual survey (English and Spanish) was developed to assess reported food safety practices, barriers, and motivators to…

  14. [An Evaluation of Visual Function in Working Age Patients with Glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Miki; Obata, Yasuko; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Visual function affects working ability in occupational health. We investigated the frequencies and grades of low vision in working age people who have glaucoma, and studied patients who were receiving low vision care, for example eye movement training. Among 3,905 patients aged 15 to 64 years old who visited Murakami eye clinic from October 2013 to September 2014, there were 363 patients suspected of having glaucoma and 138 patients diagnosed with glaucoma and receiving treatment. We measured their visual acuity and visual field to calculate their functional vision score (FVS). We studied the amount of reduction in visual ability and the number of patients undergoing low vision care by age groups. The vision test and visual field test showed that 18 patients had reduced visual ability, according to the FVS. Their FVS classification was from class 1 (mild vision loss) to class 3a (severe vision loss). The FVS matches the statistics of the WHO and can predict the reading and walking ability in each class. Reduced visual ability was recognized in about 14% of the glaucoma patients older than 45 years of age. 78% of the patients were classified in class 1. In FVS, class 2 (moderate vision loss) or greater is defined as low vision, and class 1 is a condition with no visual reserve. Although such patients have no problems in daily life and office work, they are challenged by on-site work and the on-site environment, and occupational health staff intervention becomes necessary.

  15. The New Basics: Education and the Future of Work in the Telematic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David

    The increasing globalization of work, coupled with rapid advancement in communications technology, is making age-old teaching methods irrelevant. To thrive in the plugged-in future workplace, students today need to learn a whole new set of fundamental skills. This book starts by presenting the author's assumptions and biases with regard to…

  16. Accounting for Recent Declines in Employment Rates among Working-Aged Men and Women with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bound, John; Waidmann, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    During the 1990s, employment rates of people with disabilities fell and the number of working-age people receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits increased dramatically, Analysis of Current Population Survey and disability insurance data suggests that growth in the SSDI program accounts for much of the decline in employment…

  17. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  18. Investigating the Effects of Veridicality on Age Differences in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shake, Matthew C.; Perschke, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…

  19. Toward a Social Phenomenology of Aging: Studying the Self Process in Biographical Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that the established life history approach to the study of aging has been reformulated to include the macrostructural and cultural context. Demonstrates the utility of some core concepts in social phenomenology and ethnomethodology, particularly Schutz's concept of biographical work, for developing this new conception of the self.…

  20. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  1. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  2. Adenomatous polyposis coli heterozygous knockout mice display hypoactivity and age-dependent working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Takao, Keizo; Ohira, Koji; Tanda, Koichi; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Toyama, Keiko; Oshima, Masanobu; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    A tumor suppressor gene, Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), is expressed in the nervous system from embryonic to adulthood stages, and transmits the Wnt signaling pathway in which schizophrenia susceptibility genes, including T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) and calcineurin (CN), are involved. However, the functions of Apc in the nervous system are largely unknown. In this study, as the first evaluation of Apc function in the nervous system, we have investigated the behavioral significance of the Apc gene, applying a battery of behavioral tests to Apc heterozygous knockout (Apc+/−) mice. Apc+/− mice showed no significant impairment in neurological reflexes or sensory and motor abilities. In various tests, including light/dark transition, open-field, social interaction, eight-arm radial maze, and fear conditioning tests, Apc+/− mice exhibited hypoactivity. In the eight-arm radial maze, Apc+/− mice 6–7 weeks of age displayed almost normal performance, whereas those 11–12 weeks of age showed a severe performance deficit in working memory, suggesting that Apc is involved in working memory performance in an age-dependent manner. The possibility that anemia, which Apc+/− mice develop by 17 weeks of age, impairs working memory performance, however, cannot be excluded. Our results suggest that Apc plays a role in the regulation of locomotor activity and presumably working memory performance. PMID:22347851

  3. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

  4. [An Evaluation of Visual Function in Working Age Patients with Glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Miki; Obata, Yasuko; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Visual function affects working ability in occupational health. We investigated the frequencies and grades of low vision in working age people who have glaucoma, and studied patients who were receiving low vision care, for example eye movement training. Among 3,905 patients aged 15 to 64 years old who visited Murakami eye clinic from October 2013 to September 2014, there were 363 patients suspected of having glaucoma and 138 patients diagnosed with glaucoma and receiving treatment. We measured their visual acuity and visual field to calculate their functional vision score (FVS). We studied the amount of reduction in visual ability and the number of patients undergoing low vision care by age groups. The vision test and visual field test showed that 18 patients had reduced visual ability, according to the FVS. Their FVS classification was from class 1 (mild vision loss) to class 3a (severe vision loss). The FVS matches the statistics of the WHO and can predict the reading and walking ability in each class. Reduced visual ability was recognized in about 14% of the glaucoma patients older than 45 years of age. 78% of the patients were classified in class 1. In FVS, class 2 (moderate vision loss) or greater is defined as low vision, and class 1 is a condition with no visual reserve. Although such patients have no problems in daily life and office work, they are challenged by on-site work and the on-site environment, and occupational health staff intervention becomes necessary. PMID:26370045

  5. Human Aging Magnifies Genetic Effects on Executive Functioning and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; von Oertzen, Timo; Sander, Thomas; Villringer, Arno; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. We assess two common Val/Met polymorphisms, one affecting the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, which degrades dopamine (DA) in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the other influencing the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein. In two tasks (Wisconsin Card Sorting and spatial working memory), we find that effects of COMT genotype on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and modulated by BDNF genotype. Older COMT Val homozygotes showed particularly low levels of performance if they were also BDNF Met carriers. The age-associated magnification of COMT gene effects provides novel information on the inverted U-shaped relation linking dopaminergic neuromodulation in PFC to cognitive performance. The modulation of COMT effects by BDNF extends recent evidence of close interactions between frontal and medial-temporal circuitries in executive functioning and working memory. PMID:18958202

  6. Work and Leaving Home: The Experience of England and Wales, 1850-1920. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurer, K.

    Data from the 1811 and 1851 census in England and Wales as well as other data from those countries in 1891 and 1921 were analyzed to investigate individuals' timing and extent of departure from the parental home. The authors found the following: (1) there was a gradual increase in the ages at which children left the parental home; (2) the pace of…

  7. The Vulnerable Worker? A Labor Law Challenge for WIL and Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The Fair Work Act (2009) in Australia deregulates "work" in work-integrated learning (WIL) by distinguishing "vocational placement" from "employee". Following concerns about the legal position of WIL and work experience, the Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO) published a fact sheet and commenced a joint research project into…

  8. Experiences with physical conditioning programs in middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.; Stanley, E.

    1969-01-01

    Long term effects of physical exercise and conditioning in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease are studied. Some aspects of the problem are outlined and difficulties encountered in a group of middle aged business executives using a carefully prescribed, but non-regimented and loosely supervised conditioning program employing commonly used forms of exercise (bicycling and jogging), are described.

  9. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  10. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  11. Organizational culture and work redesign: experiences in three organizations.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Redman, R W

    2000-12-01

    Lack of attention to the organization's culture can mean failure for its strategic initiatives. The authors present the results of three case studies of work redesign initiatives in which organizational culture, as measured by the Competing Values Framework, was assessed before and after project implementation. The organization with a balanced culture at baseline and higher "adhocracy" (developmental) values after implementation was more successful than the two organizations with dominant baseline market and hierarchy cultures. Recommendations for increasing desired values and decreasing undesired ones are provided.

  12. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2012-06-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  13. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  14. Spousal Caregiving in Late Mid-Life Versus Older Ages: Implications of Work and Family Obligations

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie C.; Allen, Susan M.; Goldscheider, Frances; Intrator, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined life stage differences in the provision of care to spouses with functional impairment. Methods We examined 1218 married adults aged 52 and older from the 2000 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who received impairment-related help with at least one activity of daily living. We examined the differential likelihood that spouses serve as primary caregiver and the hours of care provided by spousal primary caregivers by life stage. Results We found that late middle-aged care recipients were more likely than their older counterparts to receive the majority of their care from their spouse, but received fewer hours of spousal care, mostly when spouses worked full time. Competing demands of caring for children or parents did not affect the amount of care provided by a spouse. Discussion Late middle-aged adults with functional limitations are more likely than older groups to be married and cared for primarily by spouses; however they may be particularly vulnerable to unmet need for care. As the baby boom generation ages, retirement ages increase, and federal safety nets weaken, people with health problems at older ages may soon find themselves in the same caregiving predicament as those in late middle age. PMID:18689772

  15. The Two Sides of Sensory-Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants' ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  16. The Two Sides of Sensory-Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants' ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory-cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing.

  17. The Two Sides of Sensory–Cognitive Interactions: Effects of Age, Hearing Acuity, and Working Memory Span on Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    DeCaro, Renee; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Reduced hearing acuity is among the most prevalent of chronic medical conditions among older adults. An experiment is reported in which comprehension of spoken sentences was tested for older adults with good hearing acuity or with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and young adults with age-normal hearing. Comprehension was measured by participants’ ability to determine the agent of an action in sentences that expressed this relation with a syntactically less complex subject-relative construction or a syntactically more complex object-relative construction. Agency determination was further challenged by inserting a prepositional phrase into sentences between the person performing an action and the action being performed. As a control, prepositional phrases of equivalent length were also inserted into sentences in a non-disruptive position. Effects on sentence comprehension of age, hearing acuity, prepositional phrase placement and sound level of stimulus presentations appeared only for comprehension of sentences with the more syntactically complex object-relative structures. Working memory as tested by reading span scores accounted for a significant amount of the variance in comprehension accuracy. Once working memory capacity and hearing acuity were taken into account, chronological age among the older adults contributed no further variance to comprehension accuracy. Results are discussed in terms of the positive and negative effects of sensory–cognitive interactions in comprehension of spoken sentences and lend support to a framework in which domain-general executive resources, notably verbal working memory, play a role in both linguistic and perceptual processing. PMID:26973557

  18. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  19. Models of Career Education Programs: Work Experience, Career Guidance, Placement, and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, David H.; And Others

    The collection of papers contains models of career education programs in work experience, guidance, placement, and curriculum. The first paper, Focusing on the School to Work Transition: Problems and Elements to Be Considered in Developing a Work Experience Program (David H. Hampson), introduces a historical/philosophical perspective of work…

  20. The work experience of undocumented Mexican migrants in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Simon, R J; Deley, M

    1984-01-01

    This study, based on interviews with Mexican documented and undocumented women workers in Los Angeles county, finds that most of the women in both categories work in factories. Contrary to popular impression, only 10% of the undocumented women in this survey are engaged in private household employment, although 19% were so employed when they 1st came to the US. Despite this obvious change in occupation, in general occupational mobility from 1st jobs is insignificant. On the average, undocumented women's hourly rate of pay was 40 US cents higher than the minimum wage, and US$1.57 lower than the average documented women's wages. Within the same occupational category, the undocumented women earned less per hour. The smallest difference occured in the 'laborer's' category. Another departure from popular impression was that, 76% of undocumented workers were paid by check. The figure was 94% for documented women workers. The respondents who said they were paid in cash were most likely to be in the private household sector. 80% of the undocumented workers did not think that they were discriminated against in their jobs, suggesting that they are a rather timid group of workers who believe that they have no real options regarding their work life, and are relatively satisfied with what they have. Almost all the women said that they came to the US with the intention of staying permanently, or as long as they are not caught and sent back to Mexico, which is their biggest fear. Better job and better pay are the most important reasons given by most women for coming. Being temporarily laid off would not prompt them to return to Mexico, as they are confident that their chances of finding another minimum wage paying job are better in the US. A closek knit network of support usually tides them over during their period of joblessness.

  1. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30–59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30–59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan’s social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  2. Age differences in working memory updating: the role of interference, focus switching and substituting information.

    PubMed

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Working memory updating (WMU) tasks require different elements in working memory (WM) to be maintained simultaneously, accessing one of these elements, and substituting its content. This study examined possible developmental changes from childhood to adulthood both in focus switching and substituting information in WM. In addition, possible age-related changes in interference due to representational overlap between the different elements simultaneously held in these tasks were examined. Children (8- and 11-year-olds), adolescents (14-year-olds) and younger adults (mean age=22 years) were administered a numerical updating memory task, in which updating and focus switching were manipulated. As expected, response times decreased and recall performance increased with age. More importantly, the time needed for focus switching was longer in children than in adolescents and younger adults. On the other hand, substitution of information and interference due to representational overlap were not affected by age. These results suggest that age-related changes in focus switching might mediate developmental changes in WMU performance.

  3. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  4. Kenyan Student-Teacher Counsellors' Creativity and Its Relationship with Their Gender, Age, and Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinai, Theresia Kavuli

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was: (1) assess creativity of postgraduate student-teacher counselors whose age range was 25-54 years old, and teaching experience of 4-25 years; and (2) to find out whether age, gender, and teaching experience influence creativity. Seventy-two participants (43 females and 29 males) responded to the ICAS (Ibadan Creativity…

  5. Changing Aging Competency Following a GeroRich Intervention Initiative: Implications for Bachelor's and Master's Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Theresa A.; Nelson-Becker, Holly; Chapin, Rosemary K.; Landry, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This article reports an evaluation of a GeroRich effort to increase age-specific content throughout bachelor and master-level social work curricula. A total of 426 students (128 BSWs and 298 MSWs) completed pre and posttests in 2004-2005, self-rating their aging competency using the Social Work with Aging Skill Competency Scale II (New York…

  6. Bilingualism interacts with domain in a working memory task: evidence from aging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I M; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Younger and older adults who were either monolingual or bilingual were tested with verbal and spatial working memory (WM) span tasks. Aging was associated with a greater decline in spatial WM than in verbal WM, but the age-related declines were equivalent in both language groups. The bilingual participants outperformed the monolinguals in spatial WM, but achieved lower levels of performance than monolinguals in verbal WM. This interaction between bilingualism and WM domain was also consistent across the adult life span. These results are discussed in terms of the interactions between a domain-general executive processing advantage for bilinguals and the domain-specific content of particular WM tasks.

  7. The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Binder, Melissa; Krause, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Controlling for human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explained 55-57% of the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers. Mothers faced the highest wage penalty at return to work. High school graduates suffered more prolonged, severe losses than women with lower or higher attainment. Their jobs were less likely to offer flexibility needed…

  8. Workflow in Astronomy : the VO France Workflow Working Group experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Petit, F. L.; Prugniel, P.; Slezak, E.; Surace, C.

    2008-08-01

    The French Action Spécifique Observatoires Virtuels has created the Workflow Working Group in 2005. Its aim is to explore the use of the Workflow paradigm in the astronomical domain. The first consensus was the definition of a Workflow as a sequence of tasks realized in a controlled context (at various levels: intelligence in the choice of the algorithms, flow control, etc.), based on use cases studies, in an architecture which takes into account VO standards. The current roadmap is to provide scientific use cases in several domains (image, spectrum, simulation, data mining, etc.) and to improve them mainly with VO existing tools. Another important point is to develop collaborations with the IT community (links to EGEE, ...). Use cases are useful to compare the pertinence of the possible workflow models and to understand how to implement it as efficiently as possible with the existing tools (ex. : AstroGrid, AÏDA, WebCom-G, etc.). The execution (local machine, cluster, grid) through this kind of tools and the use of VO functionalities (Web Services, Grid, VOSpace, etc.) becomes almost transparent.

  9. The Impact of Knowledge of Suicide Prevention and Work Experience among Clinical Staff on Attitudes towards Working with Suicidal Patients and Suicide Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Inga-Lill; Di Lucca, Maria Anna; Hadlaczky, Gergö

    2016-02-04

    Suicide-preventive training has shown to influence attitudes. This study aimed at investigating what impact other factors than knowledge might have on attitudes towards work with suicidal patients and suicide prevention. In 2007, 500 health-care staff working in a psychiatric clinic in Stockholm received a questionnaire with items concerning work with suicidal patients to which 358 (71.6%) responded. A set of attitude items were tested using structural equation modelling (LISREL). Three models were found to be satisfactory valid and reliable: Job clarity, Job confidence and Attitudes towards prevention. These were then used in regression analyses as dependent variables with predictors such as experience of work with suicidal patients, perceived sufficient training, age and gender. Perceived sufficient training was consistently the most important predictor for all three attitude concepts (p < 0.01, β = 0.559 for Job clarity; p < 0.01, β = 0.53 for Job confidence; p < 0.01, β = 0.191 for Attitudes towards prevention). Age was another significant predictor for Job clarity (p < 0.05, β = 0.134), as was experience of patient suicide for Job confidence (p < 0.05, β = 0.137). It is concluded that providing suicide preventive education is likely to improve attitudes towards the prevention of suicide, clarity and confidence regarding their role in the care for suicidal patients. These improvements may contribute to the prevention of suicide in health care settings.

  10. Perioperative Nurses' Work Experience With Robotic Surgery: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jung; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kang, Hee Sun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the work experience of perioperative nurses involved in robotic surgery. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Participants were 15 nurses who had been on a robotic surgery team at one of five major university hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were one male and 14 female nurses (mean age, 31.33 [SD, 4.19] years; range, 25-41 years). Their experience as robotic surgery nurses ranged from 8 months to 6 years. Nurses' experiences with robotic surgery were categorized within four main themes: (1) constant checking on patients' safety and the robot's functions; (2) unexpected robotic machine errors or malfunctions; (3) feelings of burden in a robotic surgical team; and (4) need and desire for more information and education. This study showed that there are common concerns about patient safety and the possibility of emergencies related to robot system failure among nurses. Offering more support for nurses involved in robotic surgery should be a priority to empower them to play an extended role in robotic surgery. PMID:26848644

  11. Tadalafil enhances working memory, and reduces hippocampal oxidative stress in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Hasan, S M Nageeb; Alam, Tanzir; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Hossain, Imran; Didar, Rohini Rowshan; Alam, Md Ashraful; Rahman, Md Mahbubur

    2014-12-15

    Tadalafil, a type-5 phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor with long half-life used to treat erectile dysfunction. Recently it has been reported that tadalafil improves cognitive function. Here, we aimed to investigate the age dependent effects of tadalafil on memory, locomotor, behavior, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Tadalafil was orally administered everyday (5 mg/kg) to young (2 months) and old (16 months) healthy mice for 4 weeks. Control mice from each group received equal volume of 0.9% normal saline for the same duration. Memory and locomotor activity were tested using radial arm maze and open field test respectively. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) was analyzed and catalase activity was determined from the isolated hippocampus. Treatment with tadalafil in aged mice improves working memory than the corresponding tadalafil treated young mice in radial arm maze test. Tadalafil treated mice traveled less distance in the center and the mean speed of tadalafil treated aged mice was significantly lower than the tadalafil treated young mice in open field test. Tadalafil treatment elicited a decrease of MDA level in the hippocampus of aged mice than that of young mice. APOP level was decreased only in aged mice treated with tadalafil. Treatment with tadalafil decreased NO and increased catalase activity in both young and aged mice. On the basis of previous and our findings, we conclude that tadalafil treatment reduces oxidative stress while increased cGMP level in the hippocampus might be responsible for memory enhancement.

  12. Neurosurgical Work during the Napoleonic Wars: George James Guthrie's Experience.

    PubMed

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Involved in what is still considered, along with the two world wars of the 20th century, as one of the major conflicts in Europe, George James Guthrie (1785-1856) was the most famous English army surgeon of the Napoleonic wars. After treating the injured throughout the Peninsular Campaign (1808-1814), in 1815 and then in 1842 he published two major books dealing with cranial and brain injuries, among other topics. In these books, we can find, for example, an early description of the plantar reflex further described by Joseph Babinsky, accurate descriptions of the clinical signs of intracranial hypertension, and details of the physiopathology of subdural and epidural haematomas. Skull fractures are also discussed intensively, along with the indications for trepanation, a much-debated issue at the turn of the 19th century. The dura was often the limit of the surgical field for Guthrie. Nevertheless, he tried to rationalize the use of trepanation and favoured its use in two main cases: in cases of depressed skull bones, jammed bone fragments or debris irritating the dura or the brain and in cases of life-threatening cerebral compression caused by supposed blood clots. In their works, Guthrie and his contemporaries did not address neurosurgery in the modern sense of the word, but rather 'cranial surgery' in most cases. Guthrie, who saw so many patients with brain injuries and amputations, failed to understand that cerebral functions could be localized to the cortex and neglected to describe the phantom limb phenomenon, as did most of his contemporaries.

  13. Neurosurgical Work during the Napoleonic Wars: George James Guthrie's Experience.

    PubMed

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Involved in what is still considered, along with the two world wars of the 20th century, as one of the major conflicts in Europe, George James Guthrie (1785-1856) was the most famous English army surgeon of the Napoleonic wars. After treating the injured throughout the Peninsular Campaign (1808-1814), in 1815 and then in 1842 he published two major books dealing with cranial and brain injuries, among other topics. In these books, we can find, for example, an early description of the plantar reflex further described by Joseph Babinsky, accurate descriptions of the clinical signs of intracranial hypertension, and details of the physiopathology of subdural and epidural haematomas. Skull fractures are also discussed intensively, along with the indications for trepanation, a much-debated issue at the turn of the 19th century. The dura was often the limit of the surgical field for Guthrie. Nevertheless, he tried to rationalize the use of trepanation and favoured its use in two main cases: in cases of depressed skull bones, jammed bone fragments or debris irritating the dura or the brain and in cases of life-threatening cerebral compression caused by supposed blood clots. In their works, Guthrie and his contemporaries did not address neurosurgery in the modern sense of the word, but rather 'cranial surgery' in most cases. Guthrie, who saw so many patients with brain injuries and amputations, failed to understand that cerebral functions could be localized to the cortex and neglected to describe the phantom limb phenomenon, as did most of his contemporaries. PMID:27035714

  14. Wizards and scientists: the pharmacologic experience in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Rossi, F; Mangrella, M; Loffreda, A; Lampa, E

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark ages, Greco-Roman science survived in the eastern Roman Empire and the most important advances in pharmacology and pharmacy were made in Byzantium. As the Arab empires spread in the 7th and 8th centuries, they incorporated earlier learning, and the most important contribution of Arabic medical writers was probably the introduction of formularies to aid in the preparation of medicines. In turn, the later spread of Arabic knowledge to the West introduced little-known plants and fostered an interest in collecting and cultivating them, and also introduced the palatable dose forms preferred by the Arabic doctors. In the West, however, the Christian Church taught a doctrine of unquestioning faith, and despite the centers of learning, e.g. at Salerno, most ordinary people depended on the healing power of faith, religious relics and traditional folk medicine. Hydrology was also well developed in the Middle Ages. The formularia that survive describe many indigenous plants, but with few illustrations. Their gathering and preparation is generally guided by magic ceremonies and ritual, and plants often took their properties from their habitat, e.g. the wayside plantain was thought good for tired or wounded feet. Concepts of therapeutic plants were also influenced by alchemy and were linked to related metals and planets. PMID:7847474

  15. Sleep patterns of offshore day-workers in relation to overtime work and age.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2015-05-01

    In addition to long contractual hours during offshore weeks (14 × 12 h shifts), many personnel on North Sea oil/gas installations also work overtime, but little is known about the implications of overtime for sleep patterns offshore. In this study, the additive and interactive effects of overtime and age were analysed as predictors of sleep duration and sleep quality among offshore day-workers (N = 551), 54% of whom reported overtime. Sleep duration and quality were impaired among personnel who worked overtime, relative to those who worked only standard shifts; there was also an inverse dose-response relationship between overtime hours and sleep duration. Although the sleep measures were more favourable during shore leave than during offshore weeks, there was little evidence of compensatory sleep patterns. These findings are discussed with reference to known performance and health effects of short sleep hours; formal guidance on overtime work offshore is noted; and methodological issues are considered.

  16. Social Class and the Experience of Work-Family Conflict during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammons, Samantha K.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of juggling work and family responsibilities are well known, but there has been little attention to the distinctive work and family experiences of young adults. This chapter explores how class affects young adults' exposure to work-family conflicts and the strategies they use to manage their work and family responsibilities. Using…

  17. Narcolepsy in pediatric age - Experience of a tertiary pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Barreto, Maria Inês; Clemente, Vanda; Vasconcelos, Mónica; Estêvão, Maria Helena; Madureira, Núria

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy, a chronic disorder of the sleep-wake cycle of multifactorial etiology, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, often associated with cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Both early clinical suspicion and therapeutic approach are essential for promotion of cognitive development and social integration of these children. The authors present a descriptive retrospective study of a series of eight children in whom symptoms first started between 6.8 and 10.5 years of age. Diagnostic delay ranged from 4 months to 2 years. One child had H1N1 flu vaccination eight months before the clinical onset. The first multiple sleep latency test was positive in 6 of 8 cases. All cases were treated with methylphenidate, and venlafaxine was associated in 4 of them. In one case the initial therapy was exclusively behavioral. In all cases, symptomatic improvement, better school performance and social integration were achieved after therapeutic adjustment. PMID:26483902

  18. Videos: Where do they fit in an aging infused social work curriculum?

    PubMed

    Pickard, Joseph G; Berg-Weger, Marla; Birkenmaier, Julie

    2008-01-01

    As technology progresses, college instructors are presented with the availability of new and exciting pedagogical methods. Though the use of videos is not new, their use is becoming increasingly simplified and relevant to popular culture. This conceptual paper presents a theoretical rationale for the use of videos as a teaching and learning tool in the infusion of aging content into the social work curriculum, provides in-class strategies with a case example, and discusses the use of videos outside of class.

  19. Developing a Work-Experience Program for Slow Learning Youth. A Report of a Three Year Extension and Improvement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Hoyt; Stephens, Thomas M.

    A work experience program for educable mentally handicapped youth in special classes included 215 students, 138 of them in 11th grade (105 boys, 33 girls) and 77 in 12th grade (47 boys, 30 girls). Their mean chronological age was 18-6 years and their mean IQ was 73 with a range of 52 to 82. The program coordinator of the Ohio State Department of…

  20. Does obesity influence labour market outcomes among working-age adults? Evidence from Canadian longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira

    2016-03-01

    Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes. PMID:26650919

  1. Does obesity influence labour market outcomes among working-age adults? Evidence from Canadian longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira

    2016-03-01

    Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.

  2. Elementary-aged children's aesthetic experiences with music.

    PubMed

    Paul, Phyllis M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the perceived aesthetic experiences of elementary school children. Sixty 4th graders, from 3 intact public school classes that included students identified as gifted and with special needs, listened to 'Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43, Variation 18,' by Rachmaninoff and simultaneously indicated responses by manipulating a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dial. One week later, participants repeated the listening activity under identical experimental conditions. As in similar studies with adults, aggregated graphic analyses showed that many of the children's highest and lowest reactions tended to cluster at the same places, and test-retest reliability showed a high positive correspondence between the two listening sessions (r = .99). Although it is impossible to know if these 4th graders actually had aesthetic experiences, it seems clear that they did respond to this music. It was determined that 57 students, including most of those with special needs, successfully used the CRDI dial to indicate their reactions and 58 expressed comfort with the simplicity of its use. Additional analyses, which compared responses based on developmental statuses, found a wide range of correlations between children who were categorized as normally developing, gifted, or having special needs.

  3. Working memory, age and hearing loss: susceptibility to hearing aid distortion

    PubMed Central

    Arehart, Kathryn H.; Souza, Pamela; Baca, Rosalinda; Kates, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Hearing aids use complex processing intended to improve speech recognition. While many listeners benefit from such processing, it can also introduce distortion that offsets or cancels intended benefits for some individuals. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of cognitive ability (working memory) on individual listeners’ responses to distortion caused by frequency compression applied to noisy speech. Design The present study analyzed a large dataset of intelligibility scores for frequency-compressed speech presented in quiet and at a range of signal-to-babble ratios. The intelligibility dataset was based on scores from 26 adults with hearing loss with ages ranging from 62 to 92 years. The listeners were grouped based on working memory ability. The amount of signal modification (distortion) due to frequency compression and noise was measured using a sound quality metric. Analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modeling were used to identify meaningful differences between subject groups as a function of signal distortion caused by frequency compression and noise. Results Working memory was a significant factor in listeners’ intelligibility of sentences presented in babble noise and processed with frequency compression based on sinusoidal modeling. At maximum signal modification (caused by both frequency compression and babble noise), the factor of working memory (when controlling for age and hearing loss) accounted for 29.3% of the variance in intelligibility scores. Combining working memory, age, and hearing loss accounted for a total of 47.5% of the variability in intelligibility scores. Furthermore, as the total amount of signal distortion increased, listeners with higher working memory performed better on the intelligibility task than listeners with lower working memory. Conclusions Working memory is a significant factor in listeners’ responses to total signal distortion caused by cumulative effects of babble noise

  4. Young Children's Learning of Novel Digital Interfaces: How Technology Experience, Age, and Design Come into Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilutz, Shuli

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between age, technology experience, and design factors in determining young children's comprehension of novel digital interfaces. In Experiment 1, 35 preschoolers played three games that varied in complexity and familiarity. Parental questionnaires were used to assess children's previous technology experience.…

  5. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act may be used to...

  6. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act...

  7. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act...

  8. 20 CFR 664.470 - Are paid work experiences allowable activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are paid work experiences allowable... LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.470 Are paid work experiences allowable activities? Funds under the Act may be used to...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1599 Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration... Disability Amendments of 1980, Pub. L. 96-265, directs the Commissioner to develop and conduct...

  13. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  14. Individual Differences in Negative Group Work Experiences in Collaborative Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Regina; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bray, Diane; Michie, Fran; Street, Becky

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the Negative Group Work Experiences questionnaire (NGWE), an assessment tool for measuring negative experiences of group work. Study 1 involved two samples of undergraduate psychology students (second-year sample n = 425; first-year sample n = 443), who completed research modules incorporating substantial…

  15. Identification of a Dispositional Tendency to Experience Work-Family Spillover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunae; Tay, Louis; Allen, Tammy D.; Stark, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Are individuals predisposed to experience work-family spillover? Despite theoretical relevance and practical implications related to this issue, research on this topic is scarce. With this in mind, we investigated if there is a dispositional tendency to experience work-family spillover using a nationally representative longitudinal sample. We…

  16. Struggles and Achievements: Experiences of Working-Class, White, Male, Academics Who Attain Tenure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddin, Galen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a little known topic: the experiences of working-class, white male, professors, who have attained tenure. Academics who have immigrated from working class backgrounds have reported experiences of navigating culturally confusing interactions within their professional settings, even years after their class migrations.…

  17. Homelessness and Work Experience: Two Years in Saint Paul. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dennis R.

    A study explored the role of work experience in addressing problems of homeless people in Saint Paul (Minnesota) during the 1989-91 grant cycles of the McKinney Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program. The program included a number of elements: outreach, intake, assessment and enrollment, orientation, work experience, basic…

  18. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6–11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary

  19. Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the Iron Age in the Age of Enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, Hein J. W.; Boyd, Philip W.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Landry, Michael R.; Tsuda, Atsushi; Assmy, Philipp; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bozec, Yann; Barber, Richard T.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Boyé, Marie; Croot, Peter L.; Gervais, Frank; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.; Harrison, Paul J.; Hiscock, William T.; Laan, Patrick; Lancelot, Christiane; Law, Cliff S.; Levasseur, Maurice; Marchetti, Adrian; Millero, Frank J.; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; van Oijen, Tim; Riebesell, Ulf; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Saito, Hiroaki; Takeda, Shigenobu; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Veldhuis, Marcel J. W.; Waite, Anya M.; Wong, Chi-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 μm), medium (30-60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ˜ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of

  20. Appetite and falls: Old age and lived experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention. PMID:22389651

  1. Evidence for reduced experience-dependent dendritic spine plasticity in the aging prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, Erik B.; Janssen, William G.; Ohm, Daniel T.; Yuk, Frank J.; Wadsworth, Shannon; Saardi, Karl M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive functions that require the prefrontal cortex are highly sensitive to aging in humans, non-human primates, and rodents, although the neurobiological correlates of this vulnerability remain largely unknown. It has been proposed that dendritic spines represent the primary site of structural plasticity in the adult brain, and recent data have supported the hypothesis that aging is associated with alterations of dendritic spine morphology and plasticity in prefrontal cortex. However, no study to date has directly examined whether aging alters the capacity for experience-dependent spine plasticity in aging prefrontal neurons. To address this possibility we used young, middle-aged, and aged rats in a behavioral stress paradigm known to produce spine remodeling in prefrontal cortical neurons. In young rats, stress resulted in dendritic spine loss and altered patterns of spine morphology; in contrast, spines from middle-aged and aged animals were remarkably stable and did not show evidence of remodeling. The loss of stress-induced spine plasticity observed in aging rats occurred alongside robust age-related reductions in spine density and shifts in remaining spine morphology. Taken together, the data presented here provide the first evidence that experience-dependent spine plasticity is altered by aging in prefrontal cortex, and support a model in which dendritic spines become progressively less plastic in the aging brain. PMID:21613496

  2. Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload.

    PubMed

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

  3. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  4. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  5. Professional careers, work constraints, and age-related selection: a study on 21,000 wage-earners of four age cohorts in 1990 and 1995.

    PubMed

    Molinié, A F

    1999-01-01

    The French work force is aging, like that of many other European countries. Projections underscore that over the next 20 years there will be a dramatic increase in the working population over 45 years. Working conditions in France tend to increase the difficulties for aging workers: the work schedules are less stable, the constraints of work rhythms become greater, etc. We are interested in the age-related selection mechanisms that may stem from the confrontation of two evolutions, aging of operators and transformations in the work situations (Molinié & Volkoff, 1994). Most studies on this subject generally rely on observation of populations in different age groups at a given date. But the selection processes can only really be detected in a dynamic framework, by incorporating observations on the assignment of wage-earners of different ages into a study of professional careers. We have been able to formulate a quantitative approach of selection mechanisms, thanks to the Health, Work, and Ageing Survey ("ESTEV"), which was based on a random sample of 21,000 wage-earners followed-up by work physicians (400 in 1990, 1000 in 1995). Subjects, male and female, belonged to age groups of 5-year intervals, from 1938 to 1953. Each age cohort included about 3000 subjects for men, and about 2000 for women (Derriennic, Touranchet, & Volkoff, 1996). They were first interviewed in 1990, and again in 199 (percentage of subjects seen both times: 87%). The present study relies on 22 questions aimed at identifying the constraints or hardships that the surveyed workers have encountered in the course of their working life. In each case, the worker was asked whether he or she was presently exposed, was not now but had been exposed, or had never been exposed to the constraint.

  6. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  7. Age-related alterations in default mode network: impact on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Murty, Vishnu P; Callicott, Joseph H; Tan, Hao-Yang; Das, Saumitra; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2010-05-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of functionally connected brain regions which shows deactivation (task-induced deactivation, TID) during a cognitive task. Evidence shows an age-related decline in task-load-related modulation of the activity within the DMN during cognitive tasks. However, the effect of age on the functional coupling within the DMN and their relation to cognitive performance has hitherto been unexplored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within the DMN in older and younger subjects during a working memory task with increasing task load. Older adults showed decreased connectivity and ability to suppress low frequency oscillations of the DMN. Additionally, the strength of the functional coupling of posterior cingulate (pCC) with medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) correlated positively with performance and was lower in older adults. pCC was also negatively coupled with task-related regions, namely the dorsolateral PFC and cingulate regions. Our results show that in addition to changes in canonical task-related brain regions, normal aging is also associated with alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain regions within the DMN. These changes may be a reflection of a deficit in cognitive control associated with advancing age that results in deficient resource allocation to the task at hand.

  8. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  9. Teachers' Experience of Working with Socio-Scientific Issues: A Large Scale and in Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekborg, Margareta; Ottander, Christina; Silfver, Eva; Simon, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The research is an investigation of teachers' experience of working with socio-scientific issues (SSI). A large group of teachers (55) chose one of six cases with the characteristics of SSI and were free to organize the work as they found appropriate. The research focuses on how teachers chose content, organized their work and experienced the…

  10. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  11. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... education who has a life-long history of arduous physical labor. B says that he is disabled because of... unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is...

  12. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Meagan; Black, Sheila; Gilpin, Ansley

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make “safe” rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter’s assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT), older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT. PMID:26761023

  13. Usual meal times in relation to age, sex, work activity and morningness-eveningness.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Lievore, F; Ferrari, P; Gaffuri, E

    1987-01-01

    Meal-timing is considered an important socio-environmental synchronizer of circadian rhythms and influences human metabolism; the temporal distribution of food intake has also an influence on human performance. In these last years, in industrialized countries, remarkable changes, both in quality and quantity and in timing, have been determined in eating behavior brought about by changes in social and working organization. In this study the authors have verified the usual mealtimes during working and free-days in a population of 670 city-dwellers, 404 men and 266 women, aged between 17 and 60, including students, housewives, clerks, artisans, tradesmen and industrial workers. The results can be summarized as follows: a. the times of the two main meals show a high stability, both in working and in free-days, at about 1230 for lunch and 1915 for dinner, with a higher variability for the dinner-time; b. there are no relevant differences between men and women; c. there is a progressive advance of the breakfast-time (together with sleeping and waking times) with oncoming age; d. industrial workers advance the breakfast-time, on work days, compared to housewives, clerks, artisans and tradesmen, while the latter delay dinner-time as compared to the others; e. shiftwork breaks up the usual timetables interfering with at least one of the main meals, according to the different shifts (morning, afternoon, night); f. morning types anticipate meal and sleeping times in comparison to evening types, both while working and, above all, on free-days.

  14. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment in order to be able to

  15. The effects of age and experience on memory for visually presented music.

    PubMed

    Meinz, E J; Salthouse, T A

    1998-01-01

    Increased age is often associated with lower levels of performance in tests of memory for spatial information. The primary question in the current study was whether this relationship could be moderated as a function of one's relevant experience and/or knowledge. Stimulus materials consisted of short (7-11 note), visually presented musical melodies and structurally equivalent nonmusical stimuli. Participants (N = 128) were recruited from a wide range of age and experience levels. Although there were strong main effects of age and experience on memory for music, there was no evidence that the age-related differences in memory for these stimuli were smaller for individuals with moderate to large amounts of experience with music. PMID:9469173

  16. Experiences in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1977-01-01

    This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)

  17. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  18. Shoulder disorders in female working-age population: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most common pathologies in the general population. However, research into the prevalence of upper arm MSDs is hampered by a lack of uniformity in case definition, and by the absence of a gold standard for measurement. Furthermore, some sectors of the population have benefited from extensive research whilst others have largely been ignored. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: to investigate the prevalence of shoulder MSDs in a working age female population not exposed to specific occupational risk factors such as heavy and/or repetitive work, assessing the differences in prevalence recorded by using three different standard measurement tools. Methods 302 working aged women were enrolled in this study (age 20–55 years). Each subject underwent three different assessments: standardized questionnaires for symptoms and disability and the SF36 health survey, a clinical assessment performed by a blinded orthopaedic specialist, and an imaging assessment by means of ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) if indicated. Results According to the questionnaire 77 subjects (25.5%) complained of shoulder pain whilst 225 (74.5%) were asymptomatic. According to the clinical examination, 31 subjects (10.3%) resulted positive, whereas 271 subjects (89.7%) had normal shoulders. According to the imaging findings, 26 subjects (8.6%) had alterations to the anatomical structures of the shoulder, whilst 276 subjects (91.4%) had no detectable abnormalities in either shoulder. In all assessments, the prevalence increased with age (p = 0.001). Conclusion Depending on the outcome measure used, the prevalence of reported MSDs of the shoulder varies considerably. There is a striking difference between the prevalence of subjective reported symptoms and the standardized clinical/imaging examinations. However, the results of all the assessments did concur in one aspect; there was a significant trend of increased

  19. Empathetic Responses and Attitudes about Older Adults: How Experience with the Aging Game Measures up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Beverly W.; Ozier, Amy D.; Johnson, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of pre-professional education on students' knowledge and attitudes about aging, including the option of a simulated learning activity. Using a mixed design, groups of nursing and nutrition students (n = 127) were randomly assigned to experience the Aging Game. Pre- and posttest observations included measures…

  20. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  1. The works of living social insects as pseudofossils and the age of the oldest known metazoa.

    PubMed

    Cloud, P; Gustafson, L B; Watson, J A

    1980-11-28

    Living organisms are known to create structures in ancient rocks that are indigenous but not primary and that have been mistaken for fossils. Examination of burrows recently reported as fossils from 10(9)-year-old sedimentary rocks indicates that they are not the same age as the rocks but were probably made by termites working down after water. The burrows are partially filled with material from a modern lateritic surface from which they descend into steeply dipping, decomposed silt-stones of the Zambian Copperbelt. In fact, no authentic record of Metazoa that are demonstrably coeval with rocks older than 680 million years is known.

  2. Processing Speed, Inhibitory Control, and Working Memory: Three Important Factors to Account for Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Gonzalez, Maria Soledad Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory have been identified as the main possible culprits of age-related cognitive decline. This article describes a study of their interrelationships and dependence on age, including exploration of whether any of them mediates between age and the others. We carried out a LISREL analysis of the…

  3. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  4. Age Differences in the Demand–Control Model of Work Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Wang, Mo; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Fisher, Gwenith G.

    2010-01-01

    There have been many tests of Karasek’s demand–control model of work stress. However, no studies have examined how the model may differentially apply to older versus younger workers. Due to age changes in cognitive processing, the psychological demands of jobs may interact differently with controls for younger versus older workers. Therefore, the study uses data from the Eurobarometer to examine how the demand–control model of work stress may function differently for older versus younger workers. The results indicate that different controls may in fact buffer different types of job demands for younger versus older workers. The findings reveal that only the interaction between problem solving and time to complete tasks was significant for younger workers. For older workers, however, the interactions between time deadlines and having sufficient time to complete tasks, autonomy, and the interaction between problem solving and schedule flexibility are significant predictors of self-reported stress. PMID:20948986

  5. Low back pain beliefs are associated to age, location of work, education and pain-related disability in Chinese healthcare professionals working in China: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Evidence pointing towards a more efficacious model of care using a biopsychosocial approach for LBP management highlights the need to understand the pain-related beliefs of patients and those who treat them. The beliefs held by healthcare professionals (HCPs) are known to influence the treatment advice given to patients and consequently management outcomes. Back pain beliefs are known to be influenced by factors such as culture, education, health literacy, place of work, personal experience of LBP and the sequelae of LBP such as disability. There is currently a knowledge gap among these relationships in non-western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between LBP-related beliefs among Chinese HCPs and characteristics of these HCPs. Methods A convenience sample of 432 HCPs working in various health settings in Shanghai, China, completed a series of questionnaires assessing their demographic characteristics, LBP status, pain-related disability and their beliefs about their own LBP experience, using the Back beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Results Younger Chinese HCPs (20–29 years) held more negative beliefs and attitudes related to LBP compared to older HCPs (>40years; BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: 2.4 [0.9 - 3.9], p = 0.001). HCPs working outside tertiary hospitals had poorer beliefs concerning the inevitable consequences of LBP (BBQ mean difference [95% CI]: −2.4 [−3.8 - −1.0], p = 0.001). HCPs who experienced LBP had higher level of fear avoidance beliefs when experiencing high LBP-related disability (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.8 [1.5 - 4.1], p < 0.001; FABQ-work mean difference [95% CI]: 6.2 [4.0 - 8.4], p < 0.001)) and had lower level of fear avoidance beliefs if they had completed postgraduate study (FABQ-physical mean difference [95% CI]: 2.9 [−5.8 - 0.0], p = 0

  6. AGE (Argon Geochronology Experiment): An Instrument for Geochronology on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Bode, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Kring, D. A.; Williams, M.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Cremers, D. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Baldwin, S. L.

    2003-01-01

    As our knowledge of the planet Mars continues to grow, one parameter that remains elusive is the absolute chronology of the planet s geological history. Although crater counts have provided a robust relative chronology, impactor fluxes are poorly enough known that there are places on Mars where the absolute age is uncertain by a factor of two or more. To resolve these uncertainties, it will be necessary to either analyze well-documented samples returned to the Earth from the Martian surface or to perform in situ measurements with sufficient precision. Sample return is still at least a decade away, and even then it might be from a biologically interesting area that might be geologically complex. Hence an in situ measurement, within an uncertainty of 20% or better, could greatly improve our knowledge of the history of Mars. With funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), we have been working on an instrument to perform potassium-argon (K-Ar) and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) dating in situ on the surface of Mars. For either of these techniques, it is necessary to measure the abundance of one or more major or minor elements (K in the case of KAr; all majors and minors in the case of CRE) and the abundance and isotopes composition of a noble gas (Ar in the case of K-Ar; He, Ne and Ar for CRE dating). The technology for either of these types of measurements exists, but has never before been integrated for a spacecraft. We refer to the instrument as AGE, the Argon Geochronology Experiment (although we will measure the noble gases He and Ne as well for CRE ages). We report here on the basic components that go into such an instrument, both those that use existing technology and those that had to be developed to create the integrated package.

  7. Effectiveness of legislative changes obligating notification of prolonged sickness absence and assessment of remaining work ability on return to work and work participation: a natural experiment in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, J I; Solovieva, S; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Policies have been introduced to reduce sickness absence, but their effectiveness is largely unknown. In a natural experiment, we examined effects of legislative changes on return to work and work participation. Methods The source population consisted of up to 72 164 Finnish public sector employees with a permanent job contract in 2008–2011 (before) and in 2013–2014 (after). We used employees with a continuous sickness absence of at least 30 calendar-days (n=5708–6393), 60 compensated days (n=1481–1655) and 90 compensated days (n=766–932). We examined sustainable return to work (a minimum of 28 consecutive working days) with survival analysis as well as monthly work participation after a sickness absence, and annual gain in work participation after the intervention, using trajectory analyses. Results Sustainable return to work after 60 days of sickness absence occurred earlier after the legislative changes (p value 0.017), although the effect reduced towards the end of the follow-up. There were no differences in return to work after a 30 or 90 days of sickness absence. The largest annual gain, postintervention versus preintervention, in monthly work participation was observed among employees with 60 days of sickness absence and was 230.9 person-years/10 000 employees. The corresponding annual gains among those with 30 days and 90 days of sickness absence were 51.8 and 39.6, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the legislative changes, obligating early notification of prolonged sickness absences as well as assessment of remaining work ability and possibilities to continue working, may enhance sustainable return to work in the short term. Other measures will be needed to enhance work participation, especially in the long term. PMID:26464504

  8. Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Wesley C; Gazzaley, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Interference is known to negatively impact the ability to maintain information in working memory (WM), an effect that is exacerbated with aging. Here, we explore how distinct sources of interference, i.e., distraction (stimuli to-be-ignored) and interruption (stimuli requiring attention), differentially influence WM in younger and older adults. EEG was recorded while participants engaged in three versions of a delayed-recognition task: no interference, a distracting stimulus, and an interrupting stimulus presented during WM maintenance. Behaviorally, both types of interference negatively impacted WM accuracy in older adults significantly more than younger adults (with a larger deficit for interruptions). N170 latency measures revealed that the degree of processing both distractors and interruptors predicted WM accuracy in both populations. However, while WM impairments could be explained by excessive attention to distractors by older adults (a suppression deficit), impairment induced by interruption were not clearly mediated by age-related increases in attention to interruptors. These results suggest that distinct underlying mechanisms mediate the impact of different types of external interference on WM in normal aging. PMID:20144492

  9. Behavioral and Neural Markers of Flexible Attention over Working Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Robert M.; Myers, Nicholas E.; Wallis, George; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) declines as we age and, because of its fundamental role in higher order cognition, this can have highly deleterious effects in daily life. We investigated whether older individuals benefit from flexible orienting of attention within WM to mitigate cognitive decline. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in older adults performing a WM precision task with cues during the maintenance period that retroactively predicted the location of the relevant items for performance (retro-cues). WM performance of older adults significantly benefitted from retro-cues. Whereas WM maintenance declined with age, retro-cues conferred strong attentional benefits. A model-based analysis revealed an increase in the probability of recalling the target, a lowered probability of retrieving incorrect items or guessing, and an improvement in memory precision. MEG recordings showed that retro-cues induced a transient lateralization of alpha (8–14 Hz) and beta (15–30 Hz) oscillatory power. Interestingly, shorter durations of alpha/beta lateralization following retro-cues predicted larger cueing benefits, reinforcing recent ideas about the dynamic nature of access to WM representations. Our results suggest that older adults retain flexible control over WM, but individual differences in control correspond to differences in neural dynamics, possibly reflecting the degree of preservation of control in healthy aging. PMID:26865653

  10. Behavioral and Neural Markers of Flexible Attention over Working Memory in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mok, Robert M; Myers, Nicholas E; Wallis, George; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2016-04-01

    Working memory (WM) declines as we age and, because of its fundamental role in higher order cognition, this can have highly deleterious effects in daily life. We investigated whether older individuals benefit from flexible orienting of attention within WM to mitigate cognitive decline. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in older adults performing a WM precision task with cues during the maintenance period that retroactively predicted the location of the relevant items for performance (retro-cues). WM performance of older adults significantly benefitted from retro-cues. Whereas WM maintenance declined with age, retro-cues conferred strong attentional benefits. A model-based analysis revealed an increase in the probability of recalling the target, a lowered probability of retrieving incorrect items or guessing, and an improvement in memory precision. MEG recordings showed that retro-cues induced a transient lateralization of alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillatory power. Interestingly, shorter durations of alpha/beta lateralization following retro-cues predicted larger cueing benefits, reinforcing recent ideas about the dynamic nature of access to WM representations. Our results suggest that older adults retain flexible control over WM, but individual differences in control correspond to differences in neural dynamics, possibly reflecting the degree of preservation of control in healthy aging. PMID:26865653

  11. Working memory training in old age: an examination of transfer and maintenance effects.

    PubMed

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Zanoni, Giulia; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a verbal working memory (WM) training program in old-old individuals (over 75 years of age). Thirty-six adults aged 75-87 took part in the study: 18 were randomly assigned to receive training and the remainder served as active controls. Specific training gains in a verbal WM task (criterion task), and transfer effects on measures of visuospatial WM, short-term memory, inhibition, processing speed, and fluid intelligence were examined. The trained old-old adults performed better than the controls in the criterion task, and this benefit persisted after 8 months; they also showed an increase in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms at follow-up compared with pretest. The results of this study suggest that the present WM training program produces benefits maintained over time even in old-old adults. These findings confirm that there is still room for plasticity in the basic mechanisms of cognition in advance old age.

  12. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  13. Female work experience, employment status, and birth expectations: sequential decision-making in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, M R

    1976-08-01

    The influence of women's birth parity and accumulated market skills on their current labor force participation and birth expectations is examined within a sequential choice framework. Analysis of household data from the 1973 Philippines National Demographic Survey suggests these patterns: (a) women who have accumulated larger families work less in the current period and anticipate fewer additional births; (b) women with more past work experience tend to work more hours in the current period; and (c) work experience appears to have only a weak negative effect on birth expectations among older women.

  14. 'I love nursing, but..'- qualitative findings from Australian aged-care nurses about their intrinsic, extrinsic and social work values.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Anthony; Parker, Deborah; Eley, Robert M; Hegney, Desley

    2009-12-01

    Aim.  The aim of this qualitative analysis - a component of a larger survey study, was to provide insights and understandings about intrinsic and extrinsic work values for nurses in aged-care. Background.  Intrinsic and extrinsic work values impact on nurses' job satisfaction and ultimately nursing retention. This study contributes further to knowledge development in this area by building on a previous work values study in aged-care nursing. Methods.  This paper presents the qualitative research findings from the final open-ended question from a survey of nurses employed in the aged-care sector in the State of Queensland, Australia in 2007. Data from a cohort of 105 aged care sector nurses was analysed relying on deductive content analysis. Findings.  Two intrinsic work values emerged - low morale and images of nursing and two extrinsic work values emerged - remuneration and working conditions. The work value 'working conditions' comprised four aspects of aged-care work, specifically staff turnover, workplace violence, care team membership specifically the Assistants-in-Nursing and paperwork. A single social workplace value 'support by management' is discussed as identified as important to these nurses. Conclusion.  Qualitative insights into aged-care nurses' intrinsic and extrinsic work values suggest that work satisfaction is low. Workforce policy makers and employers of nurses in aged-care need to comprehend the relationship between job satisfaction, retention and work values. Relevance to clinical practice.  These findings have implications for recruitment, retention and workforce planning within the aged-care environment. PMID:20925856

  15. No age deficits in the ability to use attention to improve visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of information in mind to the moment-to-moment cognition is accomplished by working memory (WM). WM capacity is reduced in old age, but the nature of this decline is yet not clear. The current study examined the hypothesis that the decline in visual WM performance with age is related to a reduced ability to use attention to control the contents of WM. Young (M = 26 years) and old (M = 71 years) adults performed a color reproduction task in which the precise color of a set of dots had to be maintained in mind over a brief interval and later reproduced using a continuous color wheel. Attention was manipulated by presenting a spatial cue before the onset of the memory array (a precue) or during the maintenance phase (retro-cue). The cue indicated with 100% certainty the item to be tested at the end of the trial. A precue allows the selective encoding of only the relevant item to WM, whereas a retro-cue allows WM contents to be updated by refreshing the relevant (cued) item and removing nonrelevant (noncued) items. Aging was associated with a lower capacity in the baseline (no-cue) condition. Precues and (to a smaller extent) retro-cues improved WM performance (in terms of probability of recall and memory precision). Critically, the benefits of cueing were of similar magnitude in young and older adults showing that the ability to use attention to selectively encode and update the contents of WM is preserved with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253868

  16. IET. Snaptran2 experiment. Project photographer working on "station c" camera. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Snaptran-2 experiment. Project photographer working on "station c" camera. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: September 22, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4949 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  18. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  19. Faculty Experiences of Merger and Organizational Change in a Social Work Program.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process.

  20. Faculty Experiences of Merger and Organizational Change in a Social Work Program.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process. PMID:25923773

  1. The importance of employee demographic profiles for understanding experiences of work-family interrole conflicts.

    PubMed

    Eagle, B W; Icenogle, M L; Maes, J D; Miles, E W

    1998-12-01

    This article investigated the reported experiences of work-family interrole conflict differences between American men and women. Participants answered questions on several questionnaires and were classified according to marital status, working or non-working spouse or partner, and presence of children. Overall, men reported significantly higher levels of work-to-family and strain-based, family-to-work conflict. Married men with working spouses, with and without children, and married men with children and non-working spouses reported higher levels of time-based and strain-based, family-to-work conflict than women in each corresponding category. The highest time-based, family-to-work conflict was reported by divorced women with children.

  2. Low back pain among care workers working at newly-built nursing homes for the aged.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Kimiko

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between severe low back pain (LBP) and work load for care workers (CWs) who were working at newly-built special nursing homes, because it has long been known that LBP is very common among CWs, and we consider that measures to reduce serious LBP should be the top priority. A total of 258 questionnaires were distributed to all CWs employed at 7 nursing homes. There were 214 replies, a response rate of 82.9%. The average age of respondents was 28.8 years old. A total of 212 (59 males and 153 females) completed questionnaires were analyzed. The results of factor analysis were based on 22 original questions about physical and mental care work load. Sixteen questions and 5 subscales were explored. Factor 1 was characteristics and ADL of care receivers; Factor 2, violence by care receivers; Factor 3, communication with staff at workplace; Factor 4, problems with work environment; and Factor 5, communication with care receivers. Severe LBP was defined as a subject who had always suffered from LBP in the last one month. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship of severe LBP and care work load. Adjustments were made for sex and job tenure. In Factor 1, "characteristics and ADL of care receivers", heavy weight showed significant association, with adjusted Odds Ratios of 6.63 (95%CI: 1.71-25.75). Therefore, to prevent LBP of CWs, it is necessary to make staff assignments and to provide assistive devices based on careful considerations of the characteristics and ADL of care receivers. PMID:18434702

  3. Psychotic Experiences and Working Memory: A Population-Based Study Using Signal-Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo; Zammit, Stanley; Button, Katherine S.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Lewis, Glyn; David, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic Experiences (PEs) during adolescence index increased risk for psychotic disorders and schizophrenia in adult life. Working memory (WM) deficits are a core feature of these disorders. Our objective was to examine the relationship between PEs and WM in a general population sample of young people in a case control study. 4744 individuals of age 17–18 from Bristol and surrounding areas (UK) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study nested within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort study. The dependent variable was PEs, assessed using the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview (PLIKSi). The independent variable was performance on a computerized numerical n-back working memory task. Signal-Detection Theory indices, including standardized hits rate, false alarms rate, discriminability index (d’) and response bias (c) from 2-Back and 3-Back tasks were calculated. 3576 and 3527 individuals had complete data for 2-Back and 3-Back respectively. Suspected/definite PEs prevalence was 7.9% (N = 374). Strongest evidence of association was seen between PEs and false alarms on the 2-Back, (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01, 1.35]) and 3-back (OR = 1.35 [1.18, 1.54]) and with c (OR = 1.59 [1.09, 2.34]), and lower d’ (OR = 0.76 [0.65, 0.89]), on the 3-Back. Adjustment for several potential confounders, including general IQ, drug exposure and different psycho-social factors, and subsequent multiple imputation of missing data did not materially alter the results. WM is impaired in young people with PEs in the general population. False alarms, rather than poor accuracy, are more closely related to PEs. Such impairment is consistent with different neuropsychological models of psychosis focusing on signal-to-noise discrimination, probabilistic reasoning and impaired reality monitoring as a basis of psychotic symptoms. PMID:27120349

  4. International Students' Experience of Studying and Working at a Northeastern Public University in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwadzo, Moses

    2014-01-01

    This study explores international students' experiences with studying and working at a North Eastern public university. Through phenomenological research approach that utilized face-to-face interview and photo-elicitation techniques, the personal experiences of twenty international students were captured. The findings of this study indicated that…

  5. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  6. Coffee Cups, Canoes, Airplanes and the Lived Experience: Reflections on the Works of Bertram (Chip) Bruce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A career spent in research, teaching, and engagement with community entails a lifetime of assemblage of meaning from people, resources, technologies and experience. In his work, Bertram (Chip) Bruce has long engaged with how we create such an assemblage of meaning from our formal and found learning, and from the "lived experience" of…

  7. Being Candidates in a Transitional Vocational Course: Experiences of Self, Everyday Life and Work Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinn, Liv Grethe; Holgersen, Helge; Borg, Marit; Fjaer, Svanaug

    2011-01-01

    Most people with mental health problems want a paid job, but experience difficulties in obtaining one. In-depth knowledge from service users is needed about what supports their work capacity and potentials. This qualitative study aimed to explore the occupational history of people with severe mental-health problems and experiences of being…

  8. A Pilot Study Connecting Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties to Summer Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential contributions of adolescent employment to postschool success, many youth who experience emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) do not access these opportunities. This intervention study examined the effects of a package of strategies designed to increase access to summer work experiences. Fifty-seven youth with EBD from…

  9. Community-Based Summer Work Experiences of Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although summer offers a natural context for adolescents to gain community-based work experience, little is known about the extent to which youth with disabilities are accessing these transition-related opportunities. We examined the summer employment experiences of 220 youth with high-incidence disabilities at two time points. Although more than…

  10. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  11. Learning through Experience: The Transition from Doctoral Student to Social Work Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The researchers conducted an exploratory study using grounded theory qualitative research methods to examine experiences of social work doctoral students as they learned to teach ("N"?=?14). A core category, "learning through experience," representing a basic social process, was identified. The doctoral students experienced…

  12. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Lived Experience of Special Education Teachers Working with Special Needs Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Kristy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the lived experiences of special education teachers. The Giorgi phenomenological model was utilized for this qualitative project. The study looked in detail at the lived experiences of five special education teachers actively working in Pennsylvania schools. Information gathered came from…

  13. First Years in Job: A Three-Wave Analysis of Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfering, Achim; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Kalin, Wolfgang; Bucher, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 423 Swiss job entrants reported major change in general, as well as positive and negative work experiences one, two, and four years after finishing vocational training. Qualitative data analysis showed change in responsibility, increase in decision latitude, acquisition of new status (professional work status, full team member status),…

  14. Collaborating or Fighting for the Marks? Students' Experiences of Group Work Assessment in the Creative Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores students' and lecturers' experiences of group work assessment in a performing arts department that includes undergraduate studies in theatre, dance and film. Working from the perspective that assessment is a socially situated practice informed by, and mediated through, the socio-political context within which it occurs, this…

  15. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  16. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  17. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  18. Tracks to the Future, Tracks to Diversity: Student Summer Work Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastl, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    The AISES Student Summer Work Experience Program provides Native American college students with paid summer internships in federal agencies. Interns work with mentors on projects designed by the participating agency and applicable to the student's course of study. The program benefits students and agencies while striving to increase Native…

  19. Students' Experience of Working with Socioscientific Issues--A Quantitative Study in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottander, Christina; Ekborg, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    This research project aims to investigate how students in lower secondary school experience work with socioscientific issues (SSI). The six socioscientific cases developed and used in this project are relevant according to characteristics of SSI and to the national curriculum. Approximately 1,500 students in Sweden have worked with one SSI case…

  20. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that the claimant's work experience is relevant and applies when it was done within the last 15 years... so that after 15 years, it is no longer realistic to expect that skills and abilities acquired in a job done then continue to apply. The 15-year guide is intended to insure that remote work...

  1. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that the claimant's work experience is relevant and applies when it was done within the last 15 years... so that after 15 years, it is no longer realistic to expect that skills and abilities acquired in a job done then continue to apply. The 15-year guide is intended to insure that remote work...

  2. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that the claimant's work experience is relevant and applies when it was done within the last 15 years... so that after 15 years, it is no longer realistic to expect that skills and abilities acquired in a job done then continue to apply. The 15-year guide is intended to insure that remote work...

  3. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that the claimant's work experience is relevant and applies when it was done within the last 15 years... so that after 15 years, it is no longer realistic to expect that skills and abilities acquired in a job done then continue to apply. The 15-year guide is intended to insure that remote work...

  4. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that the claimant's work experience is relevant and applies when it was done within the last 15 years... so that after 15 years, it is no longer realistic to expect that skills and abilities acquired in a job done then continue to apply. The 15-year guide is intended to insure that remote work...

  5. The Lived Experience of Work and Career: Women Whose Parents Lack Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…

  6. Work Experiences, Occupational Commitment, and Intent to Enter the Sport Management Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.; Sagas, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Building from Mever, Allen, & Smith's (1993) work in organizational psychology, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work experiences, affective occupational commitment, and intent to enter the sport management profession among college seniors completing their internship requirements. Results indicate that intent to…

  7. Virtual Experiments or Worked Examples? How to Learn the Control of Variable Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of virtual experiments and worked examples in the learning of the control of variable strategy (CVS). Sixty-nine seventh-grade students participated in this study over a span of 6 weeks and were engaged in worked example learning and/or virtual experimentation to study the knowledge and procedures associated…

  8. Masculinities fathering and health: the experiences of African-Caribbean and white working class fathers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is a developing body of research that investigates the links between masculinities and men's health experiences, but the links between masculinities and the health of fathers has been a neglected focus for research in the UK. This paper presents some of the findings drawn from a parent study which investigated African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' experiences of fathering, health and social connectedness. Data are drawn from interviews with 13 men (6 African-Caribbean and 7 White working class) living in a city in the West Midlands area of the UK. In this paper, I analyse and discuss African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' stories about the meaning of health, the influences upon their health, and their health practices. It was found that for the African-Caribbean fathers specifically, anticipated or perceived racist prejudice, abuse or discrimination influenced their health experiences. However, the meaning of health for both ethnic groups of fathers was as functional capacity, that is health was an asset that allowed fathers to meet the obligations of paid work and fathering. These obligations were also associated with a restricted sense of personal agency for the men interviewed, and the associated constraints were linked to transgressive consumption of alcohol, food and tobacco. In addition, fathers were also involved in solitary ways of dealing with their vulnerability, vulnerability that was associated with fathers' health concerns, and other difficult life experiences. Fathers' solitary experiences of vulnerability were also mediated by hegemonic forms of masculinity. Nevertheless, the experience of fathering within the lifecourse influenced men's health experiences: reflexivity and challenges to both transgressive consumption and solitary experiences were linked to fathers' perceived obligations to children. The significance of gender, ethnicity and social class for theory and future research with working class fathers and boys

  9. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-07-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  10. Can psychosocial work conditions protect against age-related cognitive decline? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Meng, Annette; Borg, Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    According to the use it or lose it hypothesis, intellectually stimulating activities postpone age-related cognitive decline. A previous systematic review concluded that a high level of mental work demands and job control protected against cognitive decline. However, it did not distinguish between outcomes that were measured as cognitive function at one point in time or as cognitive decline. Our study aimed to systematically review which psychosocial working conditions were prospectively associated with high levels of cognitive function and/or changes in cognitive function over time. Articles were identified by a systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), PsycNET, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)). We included only studies with longitudinal designs examining the impact of psychosocial work conditions on outcomes defined as cognitive function or changes in cognitive function. Two independent reviewers compared title-abstract screenings, full-text screenings and quality assessment ratings. Eleven studies were included in the final synthesis and showed that high levels of mental work demands, occupational complexity or job control at one point in time were prospectively associated with higher levels of cognitive function in midlife or late life. However, the evidence to clarify whether these psychosocial factors also affected cognitive decline was insufficient, conflicting or weak. It remains speculative whether job control, job demands or occupational complexity can protect against cognitive decline. Future studies using methodological advancements can reveal whether workers gain more cognitive reserve in midlife and late life than the available evidence currently suggests. The public health implications of a previous review should thereby be redefined accordingly. PMID:27178844

  11. Effects of Bilingualism and Aging on Executive Function and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Poarch, Gregory; Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which younger and older monolingual and bilingual adults performed executive function tasks. In Study 1, 130 participants performed a Stroop task and bilinguals in both age groups showed less interference than monolinguals with a greater benefit for older adults. In Study 2, 108 participants performed a complex working memory task based on verbal or nonverbal stimuli. Bilinguals showed less interference than monolinguals, with a larger bilingual advantage in the older adult group and in the nonverbal task. Together, these results show that bilingual advantages in executive function depend on characteristics of the participants and features of the tasks, with larger effects found for older than younger adults and for complex tasks using nonverbal material. PMID:25244487

  12. Effects of bilingualism and aging on executive function and working memory.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Poarch, Gregory; Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-09-01

    Two studies are reported in which younger and older monolingual and bilingual adults performed executive function tasks. In Study 1, 130 participants performed a Stroop task and bilinguals in both age groups showed less interference than monolinguals with a greater benefit for older adults. In Study 2, 108 participants performed a complex working memory task based on verbal or nonverbal stimuli. Bilinguals showed less interference than monolinguals, with a larger bilingual advantage in the older adult group and in the nonverbal task. Together, these results show that bilingual advantages in executive function depend on characteristics of the participants and features of the tasks, with larger effects found for older than younger adults and for complex tasks using nonverbal material.

  13. Work-Family Conflict: An Exploration of the Differential Effects of a Dependent Childs Age on Working Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Colette; McCarthy, Alma

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of life cycle stage, specifically parenting stage, on work-family conflict among working parents to determine whether discernible differences are evident among those individuals at the early stage of their parenting cycle compared with those with older children.…

  14. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: Examining the stages of change detection

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old–new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old–new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central–parietal old–new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old–new effect. The younger adults’ early old–new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults’ behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults. PMID:24420648

  15. For Working-Age Cancer Survivors, Medical Debt And Bankruptcy Create Financial Hardships.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Matthew P; Guy, Gery P; de Moor, Janet S; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Virgo, Katherine S; Kent, Erin E; Nutt, Stephanie; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Rechis, Ruth; Yabroff, K Robin

    2016-01-01

    The rising medical costs associated with cancer have led to considerable financial hardship for patients and their families in the United States. Using data from the LIVESTRONG 2012 survey of 4,719 cancer survivors ages 18-64, we examined the proportions of survivors who reported going into debt or filing for bankruptcy as a result of cancer, as well as the amount of debt incurred. Approximately one-third of the survivors had gone into debt, and 3 percent had filed for bankruptcy. Of those who had gone into debt, 55 percent incurred obligations of $10,000 or more. Cancer survivors who were younger, had lower incomes, and had public health insurance were more likely to go into debt or file for bankruptcy, compared to those who were older, had higher incomes, and had private insurance, respectively. Future longitudinal population-based studies are needed to improve understanding of financial hardship among US working-age cancer survivors throughout the cancer care trajectory and, ultimately, to help stakeholders develop evidence-based interventions and policies to reduce the financial hardship of cancer. PMID:26733701

  16. Semi-Annual Report on Work Supporting the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Brenchley, David L.

    2011-11-30

    During the first six months of this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has provided planning and leadership support for the establishment of the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM). This entailed facilitating the efforts of the Global Steering Committee to prepare the charter, operating guidelines, and other documents for IFRAM. It also included making plans for the Inaugural meeting and facilitating its success. This meeting was held on August 4 5, 2011, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Representatives from Asia, Europe, and the United States met to share information on reactor aging management and to make plans for the future. Professor Tetsuo Shoji was elected chairperson of the Leadership Council. This kick-off event transformed the dream of an international forum into a reality. On August 4-5, 2011, IFRAM began to achieve its mission. The work completed successfully during this period was built upon important previous efforts. This included the development of a proposal for establishing IFRAM and engaging experts in Asia and Europe. The proposal was presented at Engagement workshops in Seoul, Korea (October 2009) and Petten, The Netherlands (May 2010). Participants in both groups demonstrated strong interest in the establishment of IFRAM. Therefore, the Global Steering Committee was formed to plan and carry out the start-up of IFRAM in 2011. This report builds on the initial activities and documents the results of activities over the last six months.

  17. Developing leaders' strategic thinking through global work experience: the moderating role of cultural distance.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, Lisa; Oh, In-Sue; Tesluk, Paul E; Moore, Ozias A; VanKatwyk, Paul; Hazucha, Joy

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the challenge of how organizations can develop leaders who can think strategically, we investigate the relation of leaders' global work experiences--that is, those experiences that require the role incumbent to transcend national boundaries--to their competency in strategic thinking. We further examine whether leaders' exposure to a country whose culture is quite distinct from the culture of their own country (i.e., one that is culturally distant) moderates these relationships. Our analyses of 231 upper level leaders reveals that the time they have spent in global work experiences positively relates to their strategic thinking competency, particularly for leaders who have had exposure to a more culturally distant country. We discuss these findings in light of the research on international work experiences and leader development.

  18. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... learning experiences that take place in a workplace for a limited period of time. As provided in WIA... adjustment, and other transition activities; (7) Entrepreneurship; (8) Service learning; (9) Paid and unpaid... age 18. Local program operators may choose, however, to use this service strategy for eligible...

  19. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  20. The Voice of the Child in Social Work Assessments: Age-Appropriate Communication with Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Lisa; Dolan, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a child-centred method for engaging with children involved in the child protection and welfare system. One of the primary arguments underpinning this research is that social workers need to be skilled communicators to engage with children about deeply personal and painful issues. There is a wide range of research that maintains play is the language of children and the most effective way to learn about children is through their play. Considering this, the overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of play skills in supporting communication between children and social workers during child protection and welfare assessments. The data collection was designed to establish the thoughts and/or experiences of participants in relation to a Play Skills Training (PST) programme designed by the authors. The key findings of the study reveal that the majority of social work participants rate the use of play skills in social work assessments as a key factor to effective engagement with children. Of particular importance, these messages address how social work services can ensure in a child-centred manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options. PMID:27559222

  1. Effects of age and experience on contest behavior in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria E; Head, Megan L; Carter, Mauricio J; Royle, Nick J

    2014-01-01

    Contest behavior forms an important part of reproductive investment. Life-history theory predicts that as individuals age and their residual reproductive value decreases, they should increase investment in contest behavior. However, other factors such as social experience may also be important in determining age-related variation in contest behavior. To understand how selection acts on contest behavior over an individual's lifetime, it is therefore important to tease apart the effects of age per se from other factors that may vary with age. Here, we independently manipulate male age and social experience to examine their effects on male contest behavior in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found that social experience, but not age, influenced male contest behavior but that these changes in behavior did not alter contest outcomes. Male size (relative to his opponent) was overwhelmingly the most important factor determining contest outcome. Our results suggest that in systems with high variation in fighting ability among males, there may be little opportunity for selection to act on factors that influence contest outcomes by altering motivation to win.

  2. The role of age-specific learning and experience for turtles navigating a changing landscape.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Krochmal, Aaron R

    2015-02-01

    The severity of the environment often influences animal cognition [1-6], as does the rate of change within that environment [7-10]. Rapid alteration of habitat places limitations on basic resources such as energy, water, nesting sites, and refugia [8, 10]. How animals respond to these situations provides insight into the mechanisms of cognition and the role of behavior in adaptation [11-13]. We tested the hypothesis that learning plays a role in the navigation of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) within a model of environmental change. We radiotracked experienced and naive turtles at different developmental stages from two different populations as they sought out new habitats when their pond was destroyed. Our data suggest that the ability of turtles to navigate is facilitated in part by experience during a critical period. Resident adults repeatedly used specific routes with exceptional precision, while translocated adults failed to find water. Naive juveniles (1-3 years old) from both populations used the same paths taken by resident adults; the ability to follow paths was lost by age 4. We also used laboratory behavioral assays to examine the possible cues facilitating this precise navigation. Turtles responded to manipulation of the local ultraviolet environment, but not the olfactory environment. This is the first evidence to suggest that learning during a critical period may be important for how animals respond to changing environments. Our work emphasizes the need for the examination of learning in navigation and the breadth of critical learning periods across vertebrates. PMID:25578905

  3. A qualitative inquiry of Latino immigrants' work experiences in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Flores, Lisa Y; Mendoza, Monique M; Ojeda, Lizette; He, Yuhong; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Medina, Veronica; Ladehoff, Julie Wagner; Jordan, Shiloh

    2011-10-01

    Latino immigrants are the largest source of immigrant workers in the United States. In this study, 11 first-generation Latino immigrants (8 men, 3 women) living in the Midwest were interviewed about their work experiences. Interview data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Five domains associated with the data included work for survival and power, work for social connections, work as self-determination, work barriers in the Midwest, and access to work in the Midwest. We identify ways in which vocational psychologists can intervene to work effectively with Latino newcomers seeking employment in the United States and to support their transition into new settlement communities. Suggestions for future research with immigrant workers are discussed. PMID:21875179

  4. A qualitative inquiry of Latino immigrants' work experiences in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Flores, Lisa Y; Mendoza, Monique M; Ojeda, Lizette; He, Yuhong; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Medina, Veronica; Ladehoff, Julie Wagner; Jordan, Shiloh

    2011-10-01

    Latino immigrants are the largest source of immigrant workers in the United States. In this study, 11 first-generation Latino immigrants (8 men, 3 women) living in the Midwest were interviewed about their work experiences. Interview data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Five domains associated with the data included work for survival and power, work for social connections, work as self-determination, work barriers in the Midwest, and access to work in the Midwest. We identify ways in which vocational psychologists can intervene to work effectively with Latino newcomers seeking employment in the United States and to support their transition into new settlement communities. Suggestions for future research with immigrant workers are discussed.

  5. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  6. Aging With Schizophrenia: A Lifelong Experience of Multidimensional Losses and Suffering.

    PubMed

    Avieli, Hila; Mushkin, Peli; Araten-Bergman, Tal; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the subjective experience of suffering in aging individuals with schizophrenia. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 participants aged 60-69. Phenomenological content analysis was performed. Nine dimensions of suffering emerged: social rejection; familial rejection; the symptoms of schizophrenia; hospitalisation; the side effects of medication; loss of employment potential; loss of independent accommodation; loss of social life, and loss of hope to be a partner and a parent. The suffering of aging people with schizophrenia is cumulative and ongoing and thus evokes issues such as existential loneliness and feelings of homelessness. PMID:26992876

  7. Developing a Competency Framework for the Initial Training of Educational Psychologists Working with Young People Aged 16-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Lang, Jane; Wright, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Children and Families Act (2014) extends statutory protections for young people with special educational needs and disabilities until age 25. Consequently the core curriculum for trainee educational psychologists (TEPs) needs to be developed beyond the current focus of work with early years and school-age children. In order to define requisite…

  8. Employment among Working-Age Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Malachy; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Frain, Michael P.; Tansey, Timothy N.; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Strauser, David; Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States. Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20-65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was…

  9. Studies of the Cost-Effectiveness of Social Work Services in Aging: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Victoria M.; Rowe, Jeannine M.

    2006-01-01

    The American population aged 65 years and older is growing rapidly, creating an increased demand for social workers. Reimbursement structures of Medicare and Medicaid present significant barriers for aging individuals seeking social work services as well as social workers wanting to provide services to the elderly. To build a case for the…

  10. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  15. Nursing Students' Intentions to Work in Dementia Care: Influence of Age, Ageism, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen L.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given a projected threefold increase in people living with dementia globally by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2012), attracting nurses to work in this area will be critical to meet demand. This study examined the role of age, positive ageism, negative ageism, and aged-care placement completion in predicting nursing students' intentions to…

  16. Does Employment Promote Recovery? Meanings from Work Experience in People Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; Gonzáles, Sergio; Cubero, Rosario

    2016-09-01

    Employment has been highlighted as a determinant of health and as an essential milestone in the recovery process of people with serious mental illness. Different types of programs and public services have been designed to improve the employability of this population. However, there has not been much interest in the meanings attributed to these experiences and the negative aspects of work experience. In this research, we explored the meanings that participants attributed to their work experience and the impact of work on their recovery process. Research participants lived in Andalusia (Spain), a region in southern Europe with a high unemployment rate. Two versions of a semi-structured interview were designed: one for people who were working, and one for unemployed people. Participants' narratives were categorized according to grounded theory and the analyses were validated in group sessions. Apart from several positive effects for recovery, the analysis of the narratives about work experience outlined certain obstacles to recovery. For example, participants mentioned personal conflicts and stress, job insecurity and meaningless jobs. While valid, the idea that employment is beneficial for recovery must be qualified by the personal meanings attributed to these experiences, and the specific cultural and economic factors of each context. PMID:26581838

  17. Summer Employment and Community Experiences of Transition-Age Youth with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Ditchman, Nicole; Sun, Ye; Trainor, Audrey A.; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Although early work experiences during high school represent one of the most consistent predictors of postschool employment for young adults with disabilities, little is known about how these adolescents might access these valuable transition experiences. This study examined the summer employment and community activities of 136 high school…

  18. Development and quality analysis of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Petra; Bringsén, Asa; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2010-01-01

    Instruments related to work are commonly illuminated from an ill-health perspective. The need for a concise and useable instrument in workplace health promotion governed the aim of this paper which is to present the development process and quality assessment of the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS). A survey, using a questionnaire based on established theories regarding work and health, and a focus group study were performed in hospital settings in 2005 and 2006 respectively. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to statistically develop a model, and focus group interviews were made to compare quantitative and qualitative results for convergence and corroboration. The PCA resulted in a six factor model of dimensions containing items regarding management, reorganization, internal work experience, pressure of time, autonomy and supportive working conditions. In the analysis of the focus group study three themes appeared and their underlying content was compared to, and matched, with the dimensions of the PCA. The reliability, shown by weighted kappa values, ranged from 0.36 to 0.71, and adequate Cronbach's Alpha values of the dimensions were all above 0.7. The study validity, indicated by discriminant validity, with correlation values that ranged from 0.10 to 0.39, in relation to the content validity appeared to be good when the theoretical content of the WEMS was compared to the content of similar instruments. The WEMS presents a multidimensional picture of work experience. Its theoretical base and the psychometric properties give support for applicability and offer a possibility to measure trends in the work experience over time in health care settings. One intention of the WEMS is to stimulate the ability of organizations and the employees themselves to take action on improving their work experience. The conciseness of the instrument is intended to increase its usability.

  19. Dissecting the journey: nursing student experiences with collaboration during the group work process.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Lissa L; Roberge, Ginette D

    2012-11-01

    Since the outset of nursing care, group work processes have evolved into essential components of a nurse's role and responsibilities within the health care system. To reflect this trend, group work is often utilized as a medium to promote professional socialization in undergraduate nursing curricula. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the ways undergraduate nursing students experience collaboration during group work activities. Braun and Clarke's (2006) theoretical thematic analysis combined with Pollio et al.'s (2006) interpretive framework was utilized to capture the students' lived experiences regarding group work. The participants of this study consisted of 96 undergraduate students enrolled in a nursing program in Canada. Written descriptions of their perceptions of their group work practices were analyzed to determine the extent to which these adhere to the collaborative practice essential elements (Jones and Way, 2006). Analysis of the results revealed an unexpected element of collaboration that of the psychosocial element in group work. The results from this study expose advantages and disadvantages of group work processes during group work in nursing education. This type of insight is valuable for educators to prepare nursing students for the complex demands of working with interdisciplinary teams.

  20. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423