De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.
In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…
... Out of Foster Care AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Family Unification Program vouchers in providing housing for youth aging out of foster care. A survey... foster care, and why or why not; and for those PHAs that are serving youth, to explore and document...
Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…
Bell, Edward C.
This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…
Difficulties faced by older adults are exacerbated by social attitudes that render them unproductive and unneeded citizens. Health education can provide aging education that will make the aged stage of life a positive, useful, healthy, and socially acceptable time for continued personal growth. (JD)
Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin; Williams, Asia
Collaboration (GDMC), an informal education program in 3D computer modeling and 2D interactive game design serving primarily African American youth aged 7 to 19 years in the Washington, D.C. metro area, transformed from a program designed and taught by adults to one designed and taught by youth. In Year 1, 8% of youth participants held a…
Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.
Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo, David; Pastor Vicedo, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Villora, Sixto; Contreras Jordan, Onofre Ricardo
The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP) in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs), although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE. Key points There was RAE in all groups analyzed, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the general population. RAE is more evident in the Elite groups than in the Amateur probably because of the detection process, which is more thorough in the Elite groups. Playing position, number of years in their specific age group and category of the team did not have any influence on the extent of RAE. Any attempts to prevent RAE should be based on a stable sport policy and the implication of all the stakeholders in the system. All of them should think in the development of a player as a long-term project. PMID:24149685
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…
Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.
In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric
Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.
Smirnova, Michelle Hannah
The logic and cultural myths that buttress the cosmeceutical industry construct the older woman as a victim of old age, part of an "at-risk" population who must monitor, treat and prevent any markers of old age. A content and discourse analysis of 124 advertisements from the US More magazine between 1998 and 2008, revealed three major themes working together to produce this civic duty: (1) the inclusion of scientific and medical authorities in order to define the cosmeceutical as a 'drug' curing a disease, (2) descriptions of the similarities (and differences) between the abilities of cosmeceuticals and cosmetic surgery to restore one's youth, and (3) the logic equating youth with beauty, femininity and power and older age with the absence of these qualities. Together these intersecting logics produce the "will to youth"-the imperative of the aging woman to promote her youthful appearance by any and all available means. Further, by using images and references to fantasies and traditional fairytales, cosmeceutical advertisements both promise and normalize expectations of eternal youth of the aging woman.
Dresang, Eliza T.
"Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age" (Dresang, 1999) is a landmark work that examines ways in which young readers are affected by the Digital Age. The impetus for the book grew out of Eliza Dresang's observation that printed books with nonlinear, interactive qualities appeal strongly to contemporary children. She noted that…
Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.
The aim of this study was to explore youth reports of traumatic events by 1) identifying the types of events that children and adolescents report as traumatic in their lives, 2) investigating the association between self reported traumatic events and self and parent reported emotional problems and 3) by examining developmental differences in the types and severity of the events reported as traumatic. Information regarding traumas and symptoms was collected from a sample of youth aged 6–17 using The Child PTSD Checklist. A coding system was developed for classifying the events reported. Findings suggest that youth reported a wide variety of experiences as traumatic that could be reliably coded and classified, and that youth reporting traumatic events and symptoms consistent with PTSD evidence higher levels of emotional, and behavioral problems (via parent and child report) than youth not reporting traumatic events. Youth aged 13–17 tended to report traumas that were rated by independent coders as more severe than youth aged 6–12. While the types of events reported did not differ in PTSD symptoms and other emotional, and behavioral problems there were differences in objective ratings of physical severity and psychological intensity. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the creation of developmentally informed classification of traumatic stressors. PMID:20414479
Valery, Patricia C.; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C.; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K.; Garvey, Gail
Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire”) were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food”) at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity. PMID:22720140
Valery, Patricia C; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K; Garvey, Gail
Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food ("fast food") at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07-3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle
Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Request for Information on Youth Violence... the public health problem of youth violence. DATES: Individuals and organizations interested in... violence is a significant public health problem with the potential for immediate and lifelong...
Truckenmiller, James L.
Recent national surveys have found marked increases in the use of illicit drugs and alcohol among adolescents. To investigate differential prediction of alcohol versus hard drug use amoung youths, 6% of the youths, aged 10-19, from a Pennsylvania county school system (N=1,689) were assessed on the HEW Community Youth Program Impact Scales. The 12…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Walker, Kristen L.; Kiesler, Tina; Malone, Summer
This project involved the development of a comprehensive and educational social marketing communications plan designed to help educate middle-school-aged youth about information use and abuse online. We achieved our goal of enhancing digital information literacy while developing critical thinking and creative communication skills for…
...; Youthful Offender Grants Management Information System ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor... request (ICR) proposal titled, ``Youthful Offender Grants Management Information System,'' to the Office... INFORMATION: This ICR is to implement an information collection system for grantees. Information...
Cui, Nian; Tian, Ai-Ping; Li, Min-Xiang; Shah, Iqbal H
The objective of the study was to explore parental perspectives and attitudes towards the provision of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services to unmarried youth in Chengdu, China. A representative sample of parents was drawn using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique, and information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The eligible respondents were parents (both fathers and mothers) who had at least one unmarried adolescent and/or youth aged 15 to 24 years old. A total of 2,871 fathers and mothers were interviewed. Parents' SRH-related knowledge was poor and dissonant attitudes of tolerance and ambivalence towards provision of SRH information and services to unmarried youth were found. About 80% of parents accepted and understood unmarried youth seeking SRH counseling service, but the percentages of such positive attitude was much lower for premarital contraceptive use. Over half of the parents were supportive of providing SRH education and information to unmarried youth; whereas on the provision of contraceptive services to sexually active unmarried youth, 27% were negative, 25% accepted, 36% indicated an understanding, and the rest 12% had no opinion. Parents' SRH-related knowledge and attitudes were associated with parental social-demographic characteristics. Findings from this study suggest that parent-oriented programs are needed to apprise them of the existing SRH conditions of the unmarried youth in China, to allay fears and misconceptions of parents, and to enhance family-based sex education in terms of increasing parents' SRH knowledge and their capacity and skills of providing such information to unmarried youth.
Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Hopper, Tristan; Whelan, Patricia
This short communication provides our insights into how or in what ways educators can more effectively support aspiration of at-risk/high-risk youth toward meaningful education. These are informed by the key learnings from our ongoing youth engagement research. Those insights emphasize the importance of "meaningful engagement of youth"…
Richardson, Theresa M.
The period between 1965 and 1975 encompasses important events associated with the peak of the youth movement in the 1960s and its demise in the 1970s. The period was an "age of complexity" according to Daniel Yankelovich, a social scientist hired by John D. Rockefeller 3rd's Youth Task Force to study the wave of protests that Rockefeller felt…
... developing model programs for serving young offenders. The Department expects over the next few years to... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for a Youthful Offender... collection of data for a proposed management information system for Youthful Offender Grants. DATES:...
Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Carter, Erik W.
We examined the subjective health and well-being of 389 transition-age youth with autism or intellectual disability using the parent proxy version of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents reported well-being of youth with autism and youth with intellectual disability lower than a normative sample in the domains of Physical Well-being, Psychological…
Hughes, Graeme C.; And Others
This theme issue includes eight articles that discuss the information age, the impact of information technology, and the role of libraries. Highlights include libraries in Brazil, Indonesia, and Nigeria; the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) program; community literacy; database development in Malawi; and the Regional Energy Resources…
Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Kerr, Margaret; Pakalniskeine, Vilmante; Tokic, Ana; Salihovic, Selma; Stattin, Hakan
The purpose of this study was to test a process model of youths' information management. Using three waves of longitudinal data collected from 982 youths, we modeled parents' positive and negative reactions to disclosure predicting youths' feelings about their parents, in turn predicting youths' disclosure and secrecy about their daily activities.…
Rando, Thomas A; Wyss-Coray, Tony
Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders of aging by virtue of their ability to regenerate tissues and contribute to their homeostasis. Aging is associated with a marked decline in these functionalities of adult stem cells. As such, regeneration of aged tissues is both less efficient and less effective than that of young tissues. Recent studies have revealed the remarkably dynamic responses of stem cells to systemic signals, including the ability of "youthful" factors in the blood of young animals to enhance the functionality of aged stem cells. Thus, there is much hope that even aged stem cells retain a remarkable regenerative potential if provided with the correct cues and environment to engage in tissue repair. The overall focus of the presentations of this session is to address the determinants of changes in stem cell functionality with age, the key characteristics of stem cells in aged tissues, the extent to which those characteristics are capable of being rejuvenated and by what signals, and the potential for stem cell therapeutics for chronic diseases and acute injuries in aged individuals.
Molinaro, Peter F; Malloy, Lindsay C
Jurors are often asked to evaluate statements provided by young victims, witnesses, and suspects. When, over time, youths' statements contain inconsistent information or recantations of prior statements, jurors face a difficult task in evaluating the validity of the initial claim. The underlying reasons for inconsistencies and recantation of young people's statements, particularly in cases of child sexual abuse, have been debated. Of primary interest here is whether inconsistencies (e.g., recantation) are evaluated differently by fact finders depending on the youth's age and role in a legal case. The current study examined effects of consistency of juvenile statements, legal role, and age on perceptions of testimony in a child sexual abuse investigation. Participants (N = 693) read vignettes describing child sexual abuse in which consistency of a follow-up statement (consistent, inconsistent, recanted), legal role (victim, witness, suspect), and age (10 years, 16 years) of the juvenile providing testimony were manipulated. The results revealed that judgments of initial statement quality, blameworthiness, and guilt were dependent on the consistency of follow-up statements and on the interactive effects of a juvenile's legal role and age. The current study has theoretical implications for understanding juror decision-making and practical implications for legal professionals and fact finders evaluating youths' statements. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract People have always sought eternal life and everlasting youth. Recent technological breakthroughs and our growing understanding of aging have given strength to the idea that a cure for human aging can eventually be developed. As such, it is crucial to debate the long-term goals and potential impact of the field. Here, I discuss the scientific prospect of eradicating human aging. I argue that curing aging is scientifically possible and not even the most challenging enterprise in the biosciences. Developing the means to abolish aging is also an ethical endeavor because the goal of biomedical research is to allow people to be as healthy as possible for as long as possible. There is no evidence, however, that we are near to developing the technologies permitting radical life extension. One major difficulty in aging research is the time and costs it takes to do experiments and test interventions. I argue that unraveling the functioning of the genome and developing predictive computer models of human biology and disease are essential to increase the accuracy of medical interventions, including in the context of life extension, and exponential growth in informatics and genomics capacity might lead to rapid progress. Nonetheless, developing the tools for significantly modifying human biology is crucial to intervening in a complex process like aging. Yet in spite of advances in areas like regenerative medicine and gene therapy, the development of clinical applications has been slow and this remains a key hurdle for achieving radical life extension in the foreseeable future. PMID:25132068
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D
Although research demonstrates that emotional experiences can influence cognitive processing, little is known about individual differences in this association, particularly in youth. The present study examined how the emotional backdrop of the caregiving environment, as reflected in exposure to maternal depression and anxiety, was linked to biases in youths' cognitive processing of mother-referent information. Further, we investigated whether this association differed according to variation in youths' emotional reactivity to stress. Youth (50 boys, 46 girls; M age = 12.36, SD = 1.05) completed a behavioral task assessing cognitive bias. Semi-structured interviews were administered to assess (a) youths' emotional reactivity to naturally occurring stressors, and (b) maternal depression and anxiety. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that emotional reactivity to interpersonal stressors moderated the linkage between maternal depression and cognitive bias such that maternal depression predicted a greater negative bias in youth exhibiting high and average, but not low, levels of emotional reactivity. At low levels of maternal depression, youth with heightened interpersonal emotional reactivity showed a greater positive cognitive bias. This pattern of effects was specific to interpersonal (but not non-interpersonal) emotional reactivity and to maternal depression (but not anxiety). These findings illuminate one personal characteristic of youth that moderates emotion-cognition linkages, and reveal that emotional reactivity both enhances and impairs youths' cognitive processing as a function of socialization context.
Rose, Michael R.
Aging is not simply an accumulation of damage or inappropriate higher-order signaling, though it does secondarily involve both of these subsidiary mechanisms. Rather, aging occurs because of the extensive absence of adaptive genomic information required for survival to, and function at, later adult ages, due to the declining forces of natural selection during adult life. This absence of information then secondarily leads to misallocations and damage at every level of biological organization. But the primary problem is a failure of adaptation at later ages. Contemporary proposals concerning means by which human aging can be ended or cured which are based on simple signaling or damage theories will thus reliably fail. Strategies based on reverse-engineering age-extended adaptation using experimental evolution and genomics offer the prospect of systematically greater success. PMID:20157529
Toche-Manley, Linda L.; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid
Among youth in child welfare ages 6 to 17, 40% meet criteria for one or more DSM diagnoses. For minority youth in child welfare, poor mental health is compounded by limited access to care and racial disparity bias, leading to poorer outcomes. This paper uses data collected and analyzed by an automated behavioral health assessment system for a multi-year study that focused on ways to improve case planning in child welfare. Youth, their caseworkers and, in some cases, parents completed assessments that measured and monitored the youths’ needs and strengths. More than 60% of youth participating in the study were African American; permanency rates after six months of case planning were found to be only one-third. Predictive factors related to better behavioral health and permanency outcomes are identified and discussed, as well as the implications for improving case planning by incorporating the views of multiple informants, including the youth. PMID:22566058
Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…
Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean
The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…
...; YouthBuild Reporting System ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby announces the...) revision titled, ``YouthBuild Reporting System,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: YouthBuild grantees collect and report selected standardized information...
Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
...; National Youth Gang Survey ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection under review. The U.S.../Collection: National Youth Gang Survey. 3. Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...
Allen, J. E.
The Landsat series of satellites provides high quality, consistent, 30 m resolution data for studies of landscape-scale change over time at no cost to the user. The availability of the Landsat data archive and the effectiveness and ease of its use to solve practical societal problems, particularly integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), has been a key factor in a movement to bring remote sensing education to community colleges (as in the "iGETT" program funded by the National Science Foundation, 2007-2011) and now to younger students of high school age. "Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)" was a two-day meeting convened April 4-5, 2011 to explore and articulate effective means of reaching teens with geospatial technology education and career awareness. Participants represented industry, government, academia, and informal education organizations such as 4-H and Girl Scouts. This poster will summarize a report on that meeting.
Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Mick, Eric; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Bristol, Elyssa; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective: We evaluated correlates of the diagnosis of ADHD in youth by informant source. Method: Ninety-four pairs of mother reports and youth self-reports on ADHD were independently assessed, using diagnostic interviews from a large study of youth of both genders with and without ADHD. Comparisons were made on measures of interpersonal, school,…
Helsen, Werner F.; Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Joerg; Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Starkes, Janet L.
The relative age effect (RAE) has been demonstrated in many youth and professional sports. In this study, we hypothesized that there would also be a RAE among youth chess players who are typically involved in a complex cognitive task without significant physical requirements. While typical RAEs have been observed in adult chess players, in this…
Chow, Anthony S.; Smith, Kathelene McCarty; Sun, Katherine
This study explored the impact of using best practices identified in previous studies in designing age-appropriate websites for middle and high school youth. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, 31 middle and 22 high school youth took part in six focus groups across four states. Participants were introduced to a website specifically designed for…
Poorman, Myken D.; Webster, Nicole
Not all 16 year olds can buy hybrid cars to help save gas emissions, but they can learn new, easy ways to save energy. Youth are more likely to develop a greater sense of positive impact on the environment if they learn easy and creative ways to use energy more efficiently at a young age. Through the use of practical applications, youth can begin…
Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea
This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…
Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra
This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…
Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G
Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences.
Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D.; Reiss, Allan L.; Carrión, Victor G.
Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9–17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences. PMID:25964500
... for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION... providing housing for youth aging out of foster care. A survey will be administered to all public housing... or not their program is currently serving youth aging out of foster care, and why or why not; and...
Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.
The association of more crime with youthful age is widely accepted in social science. However, a literature search revealed no studies of the age-crime relationship that controlled for young ages' economic disadvantage. This research gap is addressed using the California Criminal Justice Statistics Center's arrest detail and Census poverty…
Maynard, Brandy R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Sharon R.
Purpose Bullying is a serious socio-developmental issue associated with a range of short and long term problems among youth who are bullied. While race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Methods Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. Results After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Further, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socio-emotional, health and substance use problems. Conclusions Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. PMID:26903431
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.
We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…
Annang, Lucy; Hannon, Lonnie; Fletcher, Faith E.; Horn, Wendy Sykes; Cornish, Disa
Objectives: To describe how nominal group technique (NGT) was used to inform the development of a sexual health education program for black high school youth in the South. Methods: NGT was used with a community advisory board (CAB) to obtain information regarding the key components of a sexual health program for youth in their community. Results:…
Zhou, Li; Smith, Derrick W.; Parker, Amy T.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora
Introduction: The study reported here explored the relationship between the self-perceived computer competence and employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Methods: Data on 200 in-school youths and 190 out-of-school youths with a primary disability of visual impairment were retrieved from the database of the first…
Goodman, Kimberly L; De Los Reyes, Andres; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Discrepancies often occur among informants' reports of various domains of child and family functioning and are particularly common between parent and child reports of youth violence exposure. However, recent work suggests that discrepancies between parent and child reports predict subsequent poorer child outcomes. We propose a preliminary conceptual model (Discrepancies in Victimization Implicate Developmental Effects [DiVIDE]) that considers how and why discrepancies between parents' and youths' ratings of child victimization may be related to poor adjustment outcomes. The model addresses how dyadic processes, such as the parent-youth relationship and youths' information management, might contribute to discrepancies. We also consider coping processes that explain why discrepancies may predict increases in youth maladjustment. Based on this preliminary conceptual framework, we offer suggestions and future directions for researchers who encounter conflicting reports of community violence exposure and discuss why the proposed model is relevant to interventions for victimized youths.
National Council on Disability, 2008
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, together with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, set in motion policy changes that have allowed many thousands of children and youth with disabilities in the United States the opportunity to gain the educational and vocational skills needed to transition to living, working, and participating as…
In this exploratory case study, I investigated the ways that youth engaged in negotiating their identity during learning conversations at an informal science education camp. In particular, I was interested in exploring the ways that youth positioned themselves within their learning group and how this influenced their identities as learners of…
Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Dhavan, Poonam; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Juneja, Neeru S.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath
Project Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth (ACTIVITY) is a community-based group randomized intervention trial focused on disadvantaged youth (aged 10–19 years) residing in 14 low-income communities (slums and resettlement colonies) in Delhi, India. This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted to inform the development and test the appropriateness of Project ACTIVITY’s intervention model. The findings of the FGDs facilitated the understanding of factors contributing to increased tobacco uptake and cessation (both smoking and smokeless tobacco) among youth in this setting. Twenty-two FGDs were conducted with youth (10–19 years) and adults in two urban slums in Delhi. Key findings revealed: (i) youth and adults had limited knowledge about long-term health consequences of tobacco use; (ii) socio-environmental determinants and peer pressure were important variables influencing initiation of tobacco use; (iii) lack of motivation, support and sufficient skills hinder tobacco cessation and (iv) active involvement of community, family, religious leaders, local policy makers and health professionals is important in creating and reinforcing tobacco-free norms. The results of these FGDs aided in finalizing the intervention model for Project ACTIVITY and guided its intervention development. PMID:22824533
Rodgers, Scott M
Although most LGBTQ youth become healthy young adults, they often face considerable stress over the course of their lives because of bullying, victimization, and overt/covert discrimination. Families, educational and religious institutions, health care professionals, and communities help shape the experience of LGBTQ transitional age youth. LGBTQ youth have higher rates of depression, suicide, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug use, and preventable sexually transmitted diseases. When best practice guidelines are followed and key stakeholders take action to support LGBTQ youth, health disparities begin to disappear. Much can be done to change the trajectory for LGBTQ youth through advocacy, education, culturally competent health care, and policy-making.
In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.
based on U.S. dominance in intelligence , including surveillance and reconnaissance; command, control, communications, and computers ; and information...Napoleon’s Second Empire) made ended in embarrassment; piecemeal transport , haphazard mobilization, divided command, and poor intelligence before battle...neuron networks into silicon-based computers , greatly augmenting their “ intelligence .” In such a world, the JV 2010 future, or even that of advanced
Erford, Bradley T.; Lutz, Julie A.
Using effect size results from our meta-analysis for the treatment of anxiety in school-aged youth, the practical and technical aspects of five commonly used anxiety instruments were analyzed, and effect size estimates compared to indicate the best choices for use in anxiety outcome research.
Youth are coming of age in a digital era and learning and exercising citizenship in fundamentally different ways compared to previous generations. Around the globe, a monumental generational rupture is taking place that is being facilitated--not driven in some inevitable and teleological process--by new media and communication technologies. The…
Muller, Brooke E.; Erford, Bradley T.
Using effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2011) meta-analysis for treatment of depression in school-age youth, the authors analyzed 6 commonly used instruments for practical and technical strengths and weaknesses. Effect size estimates from these 6 instruments were compared to indicate likely results when used in future depression outcome…
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
Connors, Elyse; Curtis, Amy; Emerson, Robert Wall; Dormitorio, Benedict
Introduction: Transition-age youths with visual impairments have higher rates of unemployment than their peers without impairment, and factors associated with success after graduation have been examined; however, it is unknown whether these factors remain influential across the first decade after exiting high school. Methods: Five waves of the…
Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; And Others
Results, to age 19, of a study of 123 Black youths from families of low socioeconomic status, indicate lasting beneficial effects of preschool education in improving scholastic placement and achievement; decreasing delinquency and crime, welfare assistance use, and incidence of teenage pregnancy; and in increasing rates of high school graduation,…
Snyder, Richard G.; And Others
A total of 87 traditional and functional body measurements were taken on a sample of 4,127 infants, children, and youths representing the U.S. population aged two weeks through 18 years. Measurements were taken throughout the United States by two teams of anthropometrists using an automated anthropometric data acquisition system. Standard…
Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen
In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…
Asks what happens when budget and organizational restrictions deny students access to books in their school and public libraries. Suggests that without books, young people are missing the places where they find the sanctuary, direction, discovery, and knowledge that literature offers. Argues that information is about data; literature is about…
Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski
Fratto, Carolyn M
For decades, evidence has shown an undeniable connection between childhood trauma and chronic adverse reactions across the lifespan (Bilchik & Nash, 2008; Perry, 2001; Perry, 2006). Childhood traumatic experiences are associated with serious and persistent, long-term physical, psychological, and substance abuse issues. In addition to adverse effects on physical health, research indicates that early childhood trauma has particularly adverse effects on adolescent self-esteem, coping skills, school performance, self-regulation, critical thinking, self-motivation, and the ability to build healthy relationships (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). A traumatic event is a dangerous or distressing experience, outside the range of usual human experience that overwhelms the capacity to cope and frequently results in intense emotional and physical reactions, feelings of helplessness and terror, and threatens serious injury or death (The National Child Traumatic Stress Network [NCTSNET], 2014). Approximately five million children each year in the United States experience some type of traumatic experience (Perry, 2006). Nationwide community studies estimate between 25% and 61% of children and adolescents have a history of at least one exposure to a potentially traumatic event and 38.5% of American adults claim to have experienced at least one traumatic event before the age of 13 (Briggs et al., 2012; Gerson & Rappaport, 2013). According to results of a 2002-2003 survey of 900 New York City adolescents, 24% reported a history of witnessing someone being shot, 12% reported exposure to someone being killed, and 51% reported witnessing someone being beaten or mugged (O'Connell et al., 2009). Each year, 2-3 million children are victims of maltreatment, a type of trauma, including physical and/or sexual abuse (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014; Perry, 2006). Compared to the general population, youth in foster care are significantly more likely to have experienced
Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others
Among 3,907 seventh-twelfth grade students in rural Illinois, ages at first use for alcohol, tobacco, and drugs were lower than national averages. Specific drug and alcohol education programs should be implemented before age of first use for 10 percent of students. Contains 20 references and 3 data tables. (SV)
Novella, Susana; Dantas, Ana Paula; Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Hermenegildo, Carlos
Aging is associated with structural and functional changes in the vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with increased prevalence of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular risk is similar for older men and women, but lower in women during their fertile years. This age- and sex-related difference points to estrogen as a protective factor because menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Experimental and some clinical studies have attributed most of the protective effects of estrogen to its modulatory action on vascular endothelium. Estrogen promotes endothelial-derived NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release. The thromboxane A2 pathway is key to regulating vascular tone in females. Despite all the experimental evidence, some clinical trials have reported no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in older postmenopausal women. The “Timing Hypothesis,” which states that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature, offers a possible explanation for these discrepancies. Nevertheless, a gap remains in current knowledge of cardiovascular aging mechanisms in women. This review comprises clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens, and hormone replacement therapy on vascular function of females. We aim to clarify how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates vascular response at different ages. PMID:22685434
The 1990s are a decade characterized by change. Technological advances and health care reform are changing the demand for and provision of biomedical information, while political, economic, and social change are transforming the larger environment. There are four important megatrends shaping the global future: the new world order, the renaissance of the arts, the triumph of the individual, and the decade of women in leadership. Preparing to take advantage of the opportunities created by these changes is essential for organizations to survive and for individuals to become leaders. PMID:8136755
Yeager, Rebecca; Vienneau, Lisa; Henderson, Candace; Hutson, Kristina; Gomez, Daniel
As a service learning project, social work graduate students prepared a college information seminar and scholarship fundraiser for 15 youths in foster care. The project illustrates how students can apply learning and make a meaningful contribution to the lives of others. (SK)
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.
This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…
Spengler, Sylvia J.
There is a well-known story about the blind man examining the elephant: the part of the elephant examined determines his perception of the whole beast. Perhaps bioinformatics--the shotgun marriage between biology and mathematics, computer science, and engineering--is like an elephant that occupies a large chair in the scientific living room. Given the demand for and shortage of researchers with the computer skills to handle large volumes of biological data, where exactly does the bioinformatics elephant sit? There are probably many biologists who feel that a major product of this bioinformatics elephant is large piles of waste material. If you have tried to plow through Web sites and software packages in search of a specific tool for analyzing and collating large amounts of research data, you may well feel the same way. But there has been progress with major initiatives to develop more computing power, educate biologists about computers, increase funding, and set standards. For our purposes, bioinformatics is not simply a biologically inclined rehash of information theory (1) nor is it a hodgepodge of computer science techniques for building, updating, and accessing biological data. Rather bioinformatics incorporates both of these capabilities into a broad interdisciplinary science that involves both conceptual and practical tools for the understanding, generation, processing, and propagation of biological information. As such, bioinformatics is the sine qua non of 21st-century biology. Analyzing gene expression using cDNA microarrays immobilized on slides or other solid supports (gene chips) is set to revolutionize biology and medicine and, in so doing, generate vast quantities of data that have to be accurately interpreted (Fig. 1). As discussed at a meeting a few months ago (Microarray Algorithms and Statistical Analysis: Methods and Standards; Tahoe City, California; 9-12 November 1999), experiments with cDNA arrays must be subjected to quality control
Kelly, Stacy M.; Wolffe, Karen E.
Introduction: Youths and adults without disabilities have been increasing the regularity of their online connectivity at a rapid pace, as previous research has indicated. The study presented here examined the degree to which transition-aged youths with visual impairments have used the Internet and what outcomes they have achieved following their…
Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M.; Huang, David
This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate youth risk trajectories for HIV and factors associated with different trajectories. The sample (N = 8,208) was 49.2% female, with a mean age of 14.31 (SD = 1.48). A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both…
Word, Ulyss G.
The document provides a summary of special 4-H summer camps for disadvantaged youth in Arkansas. The camping experience in which the participants overcome inadequacies in social skills, self-discipline, self-confidence, and self-assurance is described. Major emphasis is given to the development of socialization skills and to health- and…
Morimoto, Shauna A.; Friedland, Lewis A.
Media is now central to how youth form their identities. Media also shapes the cultural background of much of young people's action and decision making and the institutional framework of social interaction. This article explores this mediated "lifeworld" of young people by examining rates of current media use and the infiltration of media into…
Wallace, Gregory L.; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura; Pugliese, Cara E.; Orionzi, Bako; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.; Martin, Alex; Raznahan, Armin; Kenworthy, Lauren
Although social-communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors are hallmark features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and persist across the lifespan, very few studies have compared age-related differences in these behaviors between youth with ASD and same-age typically developing (TD) peers. We examined this issue using SRS-2 (Social…
Langi, F L Fredrik G; Oberoi, Ashmeet; Balcazar, Fabricio E; Awsumb, Jessica
Objective To investigate the employment outcomes of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services for youth with disabilities in a targeted, enhanced, and contract-based secondary transition program as compared to the traditional VR transition services. Methods A population-based study was conducted on 4422 youth with physical, intellectual, learning, mental and hearing disabilities aged 14-21 at application and whose case was closed after receiving VR transition services in a Midwestern state. Selected youth were classified into either targeted secondary transition program (START) or non-START treatment group. The employment outcomes of the groups were compared using propensity-score matching procedures. Results 2211 youth with disabilities in each treatment group were successfully matched based on demographic characteristics, types of disabilities, existence of severe functional limitations, and year of referral. The overall rehabilitation rate was 57 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 56-59 %], where the START group rate was 61 % (95 % CI 59-63 %) and the non-START group 53 % (95 % CI 51-55 %). The propensity-score matched odds ratio (OR) was 1.40 (95 % CI 1.24-1.58; p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the odds of rehabilitation in youth with disabilities were consistently higher when they were in START as compared to non-START (OR ranged from 1.27 to 1.92 with p < 0.05 except for the Hispanic subgroup). Conclusion The results suggest that VR services in a targeted, enhanced, and contract-based secondary transition program are more effective in transitioning youth with disabilities to employment than the regular VR transition services.
Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Logan, Joseph E; Leemis, Ruth W
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11-15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive
Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H.
There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a “double-edged sword,” facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a “skin-deep” phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291
Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying
Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators.
Schreuer, Naomi; Keter, Ayala; Sachs, Dalia
The current study examined by mixed method the effectiveness of an accessibility to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program that provided computers, assistive technology, tutors, and internet connection to 65 youths with severe disabilities (aged 13.22 ± 3.4 years) in their homes. The quantitative evaluation included assessment of computer task performance, computer skills, and participation in social ICT leisure activities before and after the program. Findings revealed low baseline and significant progress on most outcome measures 6 months after the program, mostly among those youths who had tutors. Additional in-depth interviews were conducted 1 year later with 10 participants to explore their ICT use and its impact on their social participation. The analysis revealed a significant contribution of the ICT use, while critical thinking about its risks and some disappointment with the social needs that ICT does not address. Our findings raise awareness of 'two-way streets' policies and programs to ensure e-inclusion.
Yates, Tuppett M; Grey, Izabela K
This investigation employed latent profile analysis to identify distinct patterns of multiform competence among 164 emancipated foster youth (Mage = 19.67 years, SD = 1.12; 64% female). Fit indices and conceptual interpretation converged on a four-profile solution. A subset of emancipated youth evidenced a maladaptive profile (16.5%; n = 27), which was characterized by low educational competence, low occupational competence, low civic engagement, problematic interpersonal relationships, low self-esteem, and high depressive symptoms. However, the largest group of emancipated youth exhibited a resilient profile in which they were faring reasonably well in all domains despite marked adversity (47%; n = 77). Two additional groups evidenced discordant adjustment patterns wherein they exhibited high levels of psychological competence despite behavioral difficulties (i.e., internally resilient; 30%; n = 49) or significant emotional difficulties despite manifest competence (i.e., externally resilient; 6.5%; n = 11). The obtained profiles were validated against independent measures of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Exploratory analyses examined etiological differences across profiles with respect to child welfare variables, such as age at entry into care, placement disruption, reason for placement, and severity of child maltreatment. The findings highlight the need for multidimensional models of risk and resilience and illustrate the importance of heretofore underappreciated heterogeneity in the adaptive outcomes of emancipated foster youth.
Discusses three "information age" trends that have colleges and universities re-examining their campus infrastructure flexibility to support these wireless communication needs. Trends examined are information technology; increased demand for flexible, technology- focused teaching spaces; and increased systems' interconnectivity. (GR)
Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki
Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…
Describes the strategic significance of information and intelligence management to socioeconomic growth. Considers implications in terms of human and structural intellectual capital development. Provides demand- and supply-side analyses of the knowledge and skills required of information professionals in the digital age. (Author)
Examines assumptions about knowledge, professionalism, and professionals that have their basis in the 19th century, and then asks how these assumptions might be changed by the shifting importance of information in our age. Suggests that pure knowledge has a problematic structure in the history of library and information studies. (Author/LRW)
InterAmerica Research Associates, Rosslyn, VA.
This document consists of a compilation of fact sheets and newsletters on specific topics related to handicapped children and youth. The specific titles are as follows: (1) General Information about Handicaps and People with Handicaps; (2) Sources of Help and Information; (3) Autism; (4) Cerebral Palsy; (5) Deafness; (6) Down's Syndrome; (7)…
... Youth Gang-Involved Youth Youth in Single-Parent Households Service Descriptors Youth Development Youth... not limited to single parenthood, lack of adequate housing, lack of secondary education, lack of...
Ban'kov, V I; Miakotnykh, V S; Talankina, N Z; Lespukh, N I; Borovkova, T A
The exchange of energy between organism and environment perhaps may be to describe with help "entropia"--notion of thermodynamics. Point of view information technologies authors suggest to use "factor of controls", which work with help principle of reverse biological connection. This principle may be to use for control aging, when complicated modulated electromagnetic (information) field has regulationing negative entropic component. There are three principles of information control. All principles have on the basis of utilization by quantitative exponents of functional asymmetry.
Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA's showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal
Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p < .05). Using stepwise discriminant analysis, 62.5% of subjects was correctly assigned to one of the groups based on their metacognition, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility performance. Controlling for training hours and academic level, MANCOVA’s showed differences in favor of the elite youth soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the “lower-level” cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the
Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A
This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.
Havlicek, Judy; Courtney, Mark E
This study compared official investigated reports of child maltreatment with retrospective self-reports prior to and during out-of-home care for a sample of foster youth who reached the age of majority in out-of-home care in Illinois. Using matched administrative and self-reported data for 474 youth who completed a baseline interview in the Midwest Evaluation of Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (i.e. the Midwest study) at ages 17-18, and 386 youth who completed a follow up interview at age 19, this study finds that official reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care differ significantly. Findings from this study add insight into measurement discrepancies, and help to inform understanding of the extent of maltreatment experienced by this sub-sample of young people exiting out-of-home care in adulthood. Study findings have implications for independent living policy and practice in child welfare.
Bottorff, Joan L; Struik, Laura L; Bissell, Laura J L; Graham, Raquel; Stevens, Jodie; Richardson, Chris G
Tobacco exposure during periods of breast development has been shown to increase risk of premenopausal breast cancer. An urgent need exists, therefore, to raise awareness among adolescent girls about this new evidence, and for adolescent girls and boys who smoke to understand how their smoking puts their female peers at risk for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop two youth-informed, gender specific YouTube-style videos designed to raise awareness among adolescent girls and boys about tobacco exposure as a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer and to assess youths' responses to the videos and their potential for inclusion on social media platforms. Both videos consisted of a combination of moving text, novel images, animations, and youth-friendly music. A brief questionnaire was used to gather feedback on two videos using a convenience sample of 135 youth in British Columbia, Canada. The overall positive responses by girls and boys to their respective videos and their reported interest in sharing these videos via social networking suggests that this approach holds potential for other types of health promotion messaging targeting youth. The videos offer a promising messaging strategy for raising awareness about tobacco exposure as a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Tailored, gender-specific messages for use on social media hold the potential for cost-effective, health promotion and cancer prevention initiatives targeting youth.
Yeh, Debra M.; Chun, Stanford; Terrones, Laura; Huang, Jeannie S.
Background and study aims Youth undergoing pediatric endoscopic procedures and their parents demonstrate suboptimal comprehension of the informed consent (IC) process. We developed informational videos discussing key IC elements for pediatric endoscopy and evaluated their effects on youth and parental comprehension of the IC process. Patients and methods A randomized controlled trial of the video intervention was performed among youth undergoing endoscopy and their parents at an academic children’s hospital. Randomization occurred at the time of enrollment using permutated blocks. Following the IC process with the proceduralist, subjects underwent structured interviews to assess IC comprehension. An Informed Consent Overall Score (ICOS: range 0 – 4) for comprehension was calculated. Results Seventy-seven pairs of children and their parents participated. Intervention recipients (N = 37 pairs) demonstrated higher ICOS scores as compared to control counterparts (mean (standard deviation): 3.6 (0.7) v. 2.9 (0.9), intervention v. control parents, P < 0.0001 and 2.7 (1.1) v. 1.7 (1.1), intervention v. control youth, P < 0.0001). Conclusions A media intervention addressing key elements of the IC process for pediatric endoscopy was effective in improving comprehension of IC for youth undergoing endoscopic procedures and their parents. PMID:28191495
Dirks, Melanie A.; Boyle, Michael H.; Georgiades, Katholiki
We examined whether associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), depression, and anxiety assessed in a sample of 2,026 youth aged 6 to 16 years and socioeconomic functioning measured 18 years later varied as a function of whether parents or teachers had rated symptomatology.…
Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa
Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…
Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R
Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.
Sheldon, James R., Jr.; Golden, Thomas P.
The purpose of this policy and practice brief is to provide readers with a resource for planning outreach to transition-aged youth, their parents, and the service providers who work with them (i.e., the authors' "target group"). The authors will first provide a summary of the laws governing how three key agencies--school districts, state…
Hudson, Angela L
Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting.
Purtle, Jonathan; Rich, Linda J; Rich, John A; Cooper, Jazzmin; Harris, Erica J; Corbin, Theodore J
Among young people in the United States, nonfatal violent injuries outnumber fatal violent injuries by 171 to 1. The Child Fatality Review Team (CFRT) is a well-established model for informing injury prevention planning. The CFRT's restricted focus on fatal injuries, however, limits its ability to identify opportunities to prevent violent reinjury and address issues unique to nonfatal violent injuries. We adapted the CFRT model to develop and implement a Youth Nonfatal Violent Injury Review Panel. We convened representatives from 23 agencies (e.g., police, housing, and education) quarterly to share administrative information and confidentially discuss cases of nonfatal violent injury. In this article, we describe the panel model and present preliminary data on participants' perceptions of the process. Although outcomes research is needed to evaluate its impacts, the Youth Nonfatal Violent Injury Review Panel offers an innovative, promising, and replicable model for interagency collaboration to prevent youth violence and its effects.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006
This report compares young adult admissions to admissions of youths aged 12 to 17, who accounted for 8 percent of Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) admissions in 2004. The report further breaks down the young adult admissions into two subgroups: those aged 18 to 21 (9 percent of all admissions); and those aged 22 to 25 (12 percent of all…
Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K
School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p < .001). Positive attitudes regarding the HPV vaccine were predicted by higher HPV and vaccine knowledge (β = .096, p < .001) and stronger perceptions of role as opinion leaders for the vaccine (β = .665, p < .001). No other variables were found to be statistically significant. These results suggest knowledge is essential in predicting positive attitudes, but not the strongest predictor as perceptions of role as opinion leaders was more crucial in terms of predicting school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.
Stockdale, Keira C; Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health facility. The PCL: YV significantly predicted any general, nonviolent, and violent recidivism in the aggregate sample over a 7-year follow-up; however, when results were disaggregated by youth and adult outcomes, the PCL: YV consistently appeared to be a stronger predictor of youth recidivism. The PCL: YV predicted youth recidivism for subsamples of female and Aboriginal youths, and very few differences in the predictive accuracy of the tool were observed for younger vs. older adolescent groups. Both the 13-item (i.e., D. J. Cooke & C. Michie, 2001, 3-factor) and the 20-item (i.e., R. D. Hare, 2003, 4-factor) models appeared to predict various recidivism criteria comparably across the aggregate sample and within specific demographic subgroups (e.g., female and Aboriginal youth). The Antisocial facet contributed the most variance in the prediction of adult outcomes, whereas the 3-factor model contributed significant incremental variance in the prediction of youth recidivism outcomes. Potential implications concerning the use of the PCL: YV in clinical and forensic assessment contexts are discussed.
Fukuda, David H
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in elite youth judo athletes from different chronological age groups, between sexes, and across weight categories. Data from 1542 place winners of the cadet (under 17 y, 2009-2013) and junior judo world championships (under 20/21 y, 1990-2013) were separated by birth month into quarters (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). The observed values were compared with expected annual age distributions using χ2 analyses, and odd ratios (OR) were used to evaluate effect sizes between quarters. The observed frequency of place winners was significantly different from the expected frequency for the age-group and sex comparisons and all body-mass groups (P < .05) with the exception of the extra-light categories (P = .572). When comparing Q1 with Q4 (OR, 95% confidence interval), small effect sizes were observed for cadets (1.72, 1.12-2.66), juniors (1.54, 1.23-1.94), males (1.75, 1.32-2.33), females (1.39, 1.03-1.87), and the light- (1.79, 1.21-2.64) and middle-weight (1.80, 1.20-2.70) categories. RAEs are apparent in cadet and junior judo athletes. Thus, coaches and administrators should consider the potential for physical and/or competitive advantages while adopting strategies that encourage long-term participation in youth judo athletes.
Schatz, Steven; Schwen, Thomas M.
Dynamic Online Performance Support Systems (DOPSS) are a new class of intervention that can meet the needs of a quickly changing work force in an information age environment. These systems are customized for the target population, with unique meta tags, unique function sets, and dynamic growth for and by users in use. These unique tag sets allow…
Karim, Aidah Abdul; Shah, Parilah M.; Din, Rosseni; Ahmad, Mazalah; Lubis, Maimun Aqhsa
This study explored the psychometric properties of a locally developed information skills test for youth students in Malaysia using Rasch analysis. The test was a combination of 24 structured and multiple choice items with a 4-point grading scale. The test was administered to 72 technical college students and 139 secondary school students. The…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.
Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…
Introduction: This reported study is a part of a larger project. The research objective considered in the present paper is information behaviour and everyday hassles among youth in Taiwan. Method: The sample consisted of 133 children, including sixty-five girls and sixty eight boys, in fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms in a public elementary…
Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc
This study investigated informant agreement on emotional and behavior problems and social skills in youth with autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability using meta-analytic methods. Forty-nine studies were included, consisting of 107 effect sizes. The mean weighted effect size across all raters and all behaviors was 0.36, reflecting…
Hutchinson, Janice; Langlykke, Kristin
This bulletin is intended to raise awareness of the magnitude and gravity of adolescent maltreatment and to provide information on public health program and policy interventions. A review of adolescent victimization, with a focus on vulnerable youth, provides background for the development of public health measures to promote prevention and ensure…
Greenwald, Ricky; Siradas, Lynn; Schmitt, Thomas A.; Reslan, Summar; Fierle, Julia; Sande, Brad
Training in the Fairy Tale model of trauma-informed treatment was provided to clinical and direct care staff working with 53 youth in a residential treatment facility. Compared to the year prior to training, in the year of the training the average improvement in presenting problems was increased by 34%, time to discharge was reduced by 39%, and…
Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Dhavan, Poonam; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Juneja, Neeru S.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath
Project Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth (ACTIVITY) is a community-based group randomized intervention trial focused on disadvantaged youth (aged 10-19 years) residing in 14 low-income communities (slums and resettlement colonies) in Delhi, India. This article discusses the findings of Focus Group…
Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.
Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying
Urben, Sébastien; Stéphan, Philippe; Habersaat, Stéphanie; Francescotti, Eric; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Perler, Christian; Gasser, Jacques; Schmid, Marc
Age of onset, callous-unemotional (CU) traits and anger dysregulation have separately been proposed as relevant factors in explaining the heterogeneity of antisocial behaviour (ASB). Taking a dimensional perspective, this study examined the specific contributions and the mutual influences (i.e., interactions) of these three characteristics on specific dimensions of ASB (i.e., criminal behaviours and externalizing symptoms). Assessments were conducted on 536 youths from institutions with the youth psychopathic traits inventory (CU traits), the Massachusetts youth screening instrument-second version (anger dysregulation), the criminology questionnaire (criminal behaviours) and the child behavior checklist (externalizing symptoms), rated by both the youths and their carers. Using Bayes as estimators, the results revealed that the number and frequency of crimes (and, more specifically, damage to property, property offenses and media crimes) were explained by a specific contribution of each factor (age of onset, CU traits and anger dysregulation). Additionally, the interactions between age of onset and CU traits or anger dysregulation were relevant predictors of some types of crimes (i.e., damage to property, property offences and media crimes). Furthermore, when rated by youths, externalizing symptoms were explained by CU traits and anger dysregulation. However, when rated by the carer, anger dysregulation was more important in explaining externalizing symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering these factors altogether and the value of using a dimensional perspective when examining the structure of ASB in youths. Consequently, future classifications should take into account the mutual account of these characteristics, which were previously studied separately.
Gahche, Jaime; Fakhouri, Tala; Carroll, Dianna D; Burt, Vicki L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Fulton, Janet E
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004 and the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey, 2012 In 2012, about 42% of U.S. youth aged 12-15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness did not differ by race and Hispanic origin, or by family income-to-poverty ratio. The percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased as weight status increased. The percentage of youth aged 12-15 who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased from 52.4% in 1999-2000 to 42.2% in 2012. Physical fitness has been defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity" (1). Cardiorespiratory fitness is one component of physical fitness and is defined as the "ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate fatigue products after supplying fuel" (1). Cardiorespiratory fitness is most often measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), which is the maximum capacity of the body to transport and use oxygen during physical activity (2). This report presents the most recent national data on the percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are based on standards that are age- and sex-specific and established based on how fit children need to be for good health.
Dorren, J. D.; Gudel, M.; Guinan, E. F.
We have obtained ROSAT PSPC (Roentgen Satellite Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) pointed observations of two nearby G stars of ages 70 Myr and 9.5 Gyr that are of unique importance as proxies for the Sun at the two extremes of its main-sequence evolutionary lifetime. The younger star, HD 129333 (EK Dra; G0 V), a rapid rotator with a 2.7 day period, is a strong source with an X-ray luminosity L(x)(0.2-2.4 keV) = (7.5-11.5) x 10(exp 29) erg/s. Modeling suggests a two-temperature corona with T(1) = (2.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K and T(2) = (9.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K (formal uncertainties). A continuous emission measure distribution, increasing to higher temperatures and with a cutoff at (20-30) x 10(exp 6) K, yields even better fits to the data. The old star, beta Hyi (HR 98; G2 IV), represents the Sun in the future, near the end of its hydrogen-core burning stage, when it should be rotating more slowly (present P(rot) = 25.4 day) and should have lower levels of activity. The ROSAT measurements yield L(x) = (0.9-3.0) x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a rather cool, single coronal temperature of T = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 6) K. For comparison, the Sun has L(x) approx. equal to 2 x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a coronal temperature of about T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K. These stars provide information on the decline of the stellar (and specifically solar) magnetic activity from extreme youth to old age. HD 129333 is also important in that it yields an estimate of the solar soft X-ray flux in the early solar system at the epoch of the terminal stages of planetary accretion.
Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans
This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…
Fenton, Sally A; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy
The aims of this study were (1) to determine minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and vigorous PA accrued in youth sport football (also internationally referred to as soccer), and the contribution toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA for males aged 9-16 years, and (2) to investigate variability in these outcomes related to age and playing position. One hundred and nine male grassroots footballers (Mean age = 11.98 ± 1.75 years) wore a GT3× accelerometer for 7 days. Weekend youth sport football participation and playing position were recorded. Youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA (M = 51.51 ± 17.99) and vigorous PA (M = 27.78 ± 14.55) contributed 60.27% and 70.68% toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA, respectively. Overall, 36.70% of participants accumulated ≥60 min moderate-to-vigorous PA and 69.70% accrued ≥ 20 min of vigorous PA during youth sport. For participants aged 13 to16 years, youth sport football moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA were significantly higher, and contributed a greater amount toward daily weekend moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA than for participants aged 9-12 years (p = <.01). Youth sport football is an important source of moderate-to-vigorous PA and vigorous PA at the weekend for male youth, and particularly for adolescents. Participation may offer opportunity for weekend engagement in vigorous PA toward health enhancing levels.
Riedinger, Kelly; McGinnis, J. Randy
In this investigation, we examined how youth during learning conversations at an informal science education camp negotiated and authored identities as learners of science. Using identity theory as our analytical lens, we investigated by application of qualitative methodology the socially constructed nature of youth's identities. We focused on the…
Hylton, V. Wendell
Purposes and activities of existing youth groups and voluntary organizations are reviewed in this information analysis paper to determine their relationship to career education. Addressed to youth groups and voluntary organization leaders and sponsors, school administrators and state department vocational education personnel, the paper also…
Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Vargas, Ivan; Geiss, Elisa G; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a pathway through which childhood trauma may increase risk for negative health outcomes. The HPA axis is sensitive to stress throughout development; however, few studies have examined whether timing of exposure to childhood trauma is related to differences in later HPA axis functioning. Therefore, we examined the association between age of first trauma and HPA axis functioning among adolescents, and whether these associations varied by sex. Parents of 97 youth (aged 9-16 years) completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), and youth completed the Socially-Evaluated Cold-Pressor Task (SECPT). We measured salivary cortisol response to the SECPT, the cortisol awakening response, and diurnal regulation at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Exposure to trauma during infancy related to delayed cortisol recovery from peak responses to acute stress, d = 0.23 to 0.42. Timing of trauma exposure related to diverging patterns of diurnal cortisol regulation for males, d = 0.55, and females, d = 0.57. Therefore, the HPA axis may be susceptible to developing acute stress dysregulation when exposed to trauma during infancy, whereas the consequences within circadian cortisol regulation may occur in the context of later trauma exposure and vary by sex. Further investigations are warranted to characterize HPA axis sensitivity to exposure to childhood trauma across child development.
Shook, Jeffrey; Goodkind, Sara; Pohlig, Ryan T; Schelbe, Lisa; Herring, David; Kim, Kevin H
Although research on youth aging out of the child welfare system has increased, there has been limited focus on how their experiences vary. In particular, there is a need to examine patterns in the involvement of these youth in other systems, which indicate constellations of challenges facing these young people as they transition out of care and into adulthood. Using administrative data from a large birth cohort of individuals born between 1985 and 1994 whose families have been involved in the child welfare system, this article presents an analysis of the mental health, substance abuse, juvenile justice, and criminal justice system involvement of youth who have aged out of child welfare. Using a 2-step cluster analysis, we identify 5 subgroups of youth. Two of these groups, accounting for almost half of the youth, have little other system involvement and have child welfare care careers of relative stability. The other 3 groups, consisting of just over half of the youth, have much more extensive other system involvement, as well as care careers marked by instability and a greater proportion of time spent in congregate care.
Meusel, Liesel-Ann C.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Jaswal, Gurpreet; McKinnon, Margaret C.
Objective: Numerous studies show changes in vulnerability to false memory formation across development and into senescence. No study, however, has compared false memory formation in the critical transition period spanning late adolescence to middle adulthood. Method: Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, we explored the effects of age and of emotion on false memory formation in youth (16 to 23 years of age) and in middle-aged adults (29 to 58 years of age). Results: We found that youth endorsed more false lure items than middle-aged adults. This increased vulnerability to false memory formation stemmed from a more liberal response bias in the younger group. Conclusions: Youth have a more liberal response criterion than middle-aged adults that contributes to an increased vulnerability to false memory formation. Subsequent age-related changes in response bias may reflect the maturation of frontal and temporal regions. In youth, a more liberal response bias may contribute to the heightened propensity for poor decision-making seen in this population. PMID:23133463
Kowitz, Albert C.; Clark, Richard E.
A description was sought of the types of sources of information about marijuana used by 300 middle class fifth, seventh, and eleventh grade students. During individual meetings with experienced female interviewers, students were asked to relate sources which were most influential in providing information about marihuana at the following stages:…
Kimbler, Kristopher J; Ehman, Anandi C
Service learning is a pedagogical technique that integrates traditional coursework with activities outside the classroom that meet the needs of the community. Gerontology-focused service learning has been incorporated into many courses that cover aging content and is believed to be beneficial to the learning process. Other research has demonstrated that service learning in general has benefits, regardless of the age of the service recipient. It is unclear whether benefits associated with gerontology-focused service learning are unique to experiences with older adults or are a product of the general benefits associated with this pedagogy. This study examined student responses to gerontology-focused service learning compared to youth-focused service learning. The results revealed that students working with older adults reported more negative expectations related to the assignment, more positive experiences interacting with the service recipients, and more reports of learning benefits attributed to service learning.
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gray, Casey E; Poitras, Veronica J; Carson, Valerie; Gruber, Reut; Olds, Timothy; Weiss, Shelly K; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Belanger, Kevin; Eryuzlu, Sheniz; Callender, Laura; Tremblay, Mark S
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sleep duration and various health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases were searched in January 2015 with no date or study design limits. Included studies were peer-reviewed and met the a priori-determined population (apparently healthy children and youth aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (various sleep durations), and outcome (adiposity, emotional regulation, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms/injuries, and cardiometabolic biomarkers) criteria. Because of high levels of heterogeneity across studies, narrative syntheses were employed. A total of 141 articles (110 unique samples), including 592 215 unique participants from 40 different countries, met inclusion criteria. Overall, longer sleep duration was associated with lower adiposity indicators, better emotional regulation, better academic achievement, and better quality of life/well-being. The evidence was mixed and/or limited for the association between sleep duration and cognition, harms/injuries, and cardiometabolic biomarkers. The quality of evidence ranged from very low to high across study designs and health indicators. In conclusion, we confirmed previous investigations showing that shorter sleep duration is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. However, the available evidence relies heavily on cross-sectional studies using self-reported sleep. To better inform contemporary sleep recommendations, there is a need for sleep restriction/extension interventions that examine the changes in different outcome measures against various amounts of objectively measured sleep to have a better sense of dose-response relationships.
Ghorbani, Nahid R; Heidari, Rosemarie N
Information technology (IT) has produced a deep impact on human lives, and the most important aspect of its effect is on education and learning. This study was done for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of electronic health information on our Web site http://www.teen.hbi.ir in the promotion of health education and in increasing the capabilities of the students in the use of the Internet. This study was performed on the basis of the information obtained from the questionnaires on selected health issues from 649 students from 3 high schools. Information was collected in 2 steps (pretest and posttest). The t test and Leven's test were used in the statistical analysis of data. Results of the t test showed that educating students through health information Web sites has increased their knowledge by at least 14.5% on environmental health and 48.9% on nutrition and was statistically meaningful in all fields (P=.000) with the exception of mental health. The fact is that the use of IT has become a part of our society and is perhaps the most promising medium for achieving health promotion initiatives.
How do students use religious faith to inform their actions in competitive sport? This qualitative study critically reflects on this question based upon the thinking processes and experiences of 15-year-old participants in sports and, in turn, produces a basic conceptual framework toward the question at hand. Overall, students reported a complex,…
Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with
Tremblay, Mark S; LeBlanc, Allana G; Kho, Michelle E; Saunders, Travis J; Larouche, Richard; Colley, Rachel C; Goldfield, Gary; Connor Gorber, Sarah
Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with
Schleider, Jessica L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R
Links between parents' psychiatric symptoms and their children's behavioral and emotional problems have been widely documented in previous research, and the search for moderators of this association has begun. However, family structure (single versus dual-parent households) has received little attention as a potential moderator, despite indirect evidence that risk may be elevated in single-parent homes. Two other candidate moderators-youth gender and age-have been tested directly, but with inconsistent findings across studies, perhaps in part because studies have differed in whether they used youth clinical samples and in which informants (parents vs. youths) reported on youth problems. In the present study, we examined these three candidate moderators using a sample of exclusively clinic-referred youths (N = 333, 34 % girls, aged 7-14,) and assessing youth problems through both parent- and youth-reports. Both family structure and youth gender emerged as robust moderators across parent and youth informants. Parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems in single-parent but not dual-parent homes; and parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing problems among boys, but not girls. The moderator findings suggest that the risks associated with parent psychopathology may not be uniform but may depend, in part, on family structure and youth gender.
The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782/H.R. 3324), introduced in November 2011 by Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA), would ensure that federal funding is allocated to comprehensive sexual health education programs that provide young people with the skills and information they need to make informed,…
Bauermeister, Jose A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C
Partner age is associated with youth's sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, it is not known whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, this study first describes the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, whether this model varied systematically by sex, mother's education, and high school dropout was tested. Third, whether age differences were associated with youth's self-acceptance, alcohol use, and employment trajectories over these two developmental periods was assessed. Finally, whether these associations had non-proportional effects over both periods was tested. This study modeled sex partners' age differences nonlinearly, with females being more likely to date older partners at baseline and over time. High school dropouts also reported older partners at baseline. Self-acceptance and the number of hours worked were associated with sex partners' age differences over time, with the effect decreasing over young adulthood years. Alcohol use frequency was also associated with having older partners over time. This study discusses the findings from a health perspective on youth's sexual development.
Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R
This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.
Garcia, Antero; Mirra, Nicole; Morrell, Ernest; Martinez, Antonio; Scorza, D'Artagnan
This article explores the relationship between critical literacy practice, digital media production, and civic agency in the Council of Youth Research, a youth participatory action research program in which Los Angeles high school students conduct research and create dynamic, multimedia presentations as leaders of a growing youth movement for…
Tyrell, Fanita A.; Yates, Tuppett M.
Background: Procuring safe housing is a salient developmental task during emerging adulthood, one that is especially challenging for emancipated foster youth. Yet, little is known about factors that influence foster youths' housing experiences. Objective: This investigation documented changes in foster youth's housing quality during the first…
Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…
Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P
Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1 years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer‐specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant
Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L
Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied.
Shilo, Guy; Savaya, Riki
Drawing on minority stress theory, this study examined the mental health effects of the added burden of disadvantaged social status in an Israeli sample of 461 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Bisexuality was associated with lower levels of well-being, and, at a younger age, with higher levels of mental distress. In…
Erford, Bradley T.; Erford, Breann M.; Lattanzi, Gina; Weller, Janet; Schein, Hallie; Wolf, Emily; Hughes, Meredith; Darrow, Jenna; Savin-Murphy, Janet; Peacock, Elizabeth
Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of counseling and psychotherapy in treatment of depression in school-age youth composed this meta-analysis. Results were synthesized using a random effects model for mean difference and mean gain effect size estimates. No effects of moderating variables were evident. Counseling and psychotherapy are…
Carter, Erik W.; Boehm, Thomas L.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Annandale, Naomi H.; Taylor, Courtney E.; Loock, Aimee K.; Liu, Rosemary Y.
Can young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities be known for their strengths? This mixed-method study explored the strengths of 427 youth and young adults with intellectual disability and/or autism (ages 13-21) from the vantage point of their parents. Using the Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits-Developmental…
Deprez, D; Vaeyens, R; Coutts, A J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, R
The aims of the study were to investigate the presence of a relative age effect and the influence of birth quarter on anthropometric characteristics, an estimation of biological maturity and performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 in 606 elite, Flemish youth soccer players. The sample was divided into 5 chronological age groups (U10-U19), each subdivided into 4 birth quarters. Players had their APHV estimated and height, weight and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were assessed. Differences between quarters were investigated using uni- and multivariate analyses. Overall, significantly (P<0.001) more players were born in the first quarter (37.6%) compared to the last (13.2%). Further, no significant differences in anthropometric variables and Yo-Yo IR1 performance were found between the 4 birth quarters. However, there was a trend for players born in the first quarter being taller and heavier than players born in the fourth quarter. Players born in the last quarter tended to experience their peak in growth earlier, this may have enabled them to compete physically with their relatively older peers. Our results indicated selection procedures which are focused on the formation of strong physical and physiological homogeneous groups. Relative age and individual biological maturation should be considered when selecting adolescent soccer players.
McGill, Kenneth; McGill, Scott A
The continued need for improvement within a 'system of care' is essential as the need for mental health services by those 'youth' within the child welfare system continually grows. This article outlines the statewide reform of New Jersey's Children's Behavioral Healthcare System, which began in 2000, as well as including the recommendations of the University of South Florida as part of their 'Final Report: Independent Assessment of New Jersey's Child Behavioral Health Services' on continued changes within the system of care. Successful outcomes have resulted from this welfare reform initiative, which include most notably the significant caseload decrease of the Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS) and the creation of a new cabinet entity, the Department of Children and Families (DCF). This article specifically outlines systemic recommendations to best serve the target population of 'transitional' youth between the ages of 16 to 18+ years utilizing interagency cooperation based upon 'theory of change' and Total Clinical Outcomes Management (TCOM) strategies.
Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph; Helsen, Werner F; Schorer, Jörg
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month. Study 1 tests for an interaction of two different types of relative age effects among data from participants in the last five Under-17 FIFA World Cups (2007-2015). Analyses revealed a significant global within-year effect and varying birthdate distributions were found between confederations. Even stronger effects were found for constituent year effects. For the total sample, a multi-way frequency analysis (MFA) revealed an interaction with a pattern of a stronger within-year effect for the younger year group. This study highlights the need to consider interactions between different types of age effects. The main aim of Study 2 was to test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and, therefore, to test for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development. A secondary purpose of this study was to replicate findings on the existence of within-year effects and to test whether effects vary between continental confederations. No significant interaction between constituent year and within-year effects was shown by the MFA among the World Cup sample and previous findings on varying within-year effects were replicated. Results indicate that long-term effects of age grouping structures in earlier high-level talent
Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph; Helsen, Werner F.; Schorer, Jörg
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes’ birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players’ age position within the age band with regard to players’ birth year and birth month. Study 1 tests for an interaction of two different types of relative age effects among data from participants in the last five Under-17 FIFA World Cups (2007–2015). Analyses revealed a significant global within-year effect and varying birthdate distributions were found between confederations. Even stronger effects were found for constituent year effects. For the total sample, a multi-way frequency analysis (MFA) revealed an interaction with a pattern of a stronger within-year effect for the younger year group. This study highlights the need to consider interactions between different types of age effects. The main aim of Study 2 was to test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and, therefore, to test for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development. A secondary purpose of this study was to replicate findings on the existence of within-year effects and to test whether effects vary between continental confederations. No significant interaction between constituent year and within-year effects was shown by the MFA among the World Cup sample and previous findings on varying within-year effects were replicated. Results indicate that long-term effects of age grouping structures in earlier high
Daniel, Ray W; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M
The head impact exposure experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact exposure in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players aged 12-14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s², and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s². Similar to the head impact exposure experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact exposure, and child-specific brain injury criteria.
Warkentin, T.; Borghese, M. M.
Objective Weight‐related teasing (WT) is associated with poor mental health. This study examined whether weight status moderates the relationship between WT and psychosomatic symptoms within a representative sample of school‐aged youth. Methods Data are from the Canadian 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School‐aged Children Survey, a nationally representative sample of youth in Grades 6–10. WT, psychosomatic symptoms and body mass index (BMI) were self‐reported. Results The final sample consisted of 20,277 youth (mean age = 14.2 years; 50.2% female). The prevalence who reported being WT at least once a week was 4.6%, 8.1% and 17.3% among youth with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a gradient relationship between the frequency of WT and psychosomatic symptoms (p < 0.001). By comparison to youth that were not WT, psychosomatic symptom z‐scores were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in youth that were WT one to two times in the past few months (0.47, 95% CI: 0.41–0.53), two to three times per month (0.65, 0.52–0.77), about once a week (0.82, 0.71–0.93) and several times a week (0.98, 0.84–1.12). However, the WT * BMI category interaction term was not significant (p = 0.86). Conclusions Victims of WT experienced more psychosomatic symptoms independent of BMI category; however, BMI category did not moderate the association between WT and psychosomatic symptoms. PMID:28392931
Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Schnitzer, Martin; Raschner, Christian
The aim of this study was to define the role of the relative age effect in the 12th Winter European Youth Olympic Festival 2015. The birth dates of all 899 participants and anthropometric data of 655 participants were analyzed. A significant relative age effect was present in the total sample and among the male athletes but not in the female athletes. Additionally, a significant relative age effect was present in strength- and endurance-related sports but not in technique-related sports. Statistically significantly more older athletes won medals. Relative age had a strong influence on participation in strength- and endurance-related sports as well as on performance.
As competition among enterprises has become severe, the role of information center has increased. The larger the organization becomes because of a diversified business operation, the harder the personnels in charge of business, planning encounter their necessary information. Here is role of information center that it gets users to find appropriate information they need. Also enterprises must select information among vast amount of back-up information, which produces some indication when constructing the strategy. If the information center serves to select such information, analyze and process it, that is exactly categorized as strategic information activities. To promote those activities we have to consider how information centers should be located inside the enterprises.
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Huang, David; Herbeck, Diane M.
This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate risk trajectories for delinquency and factors associated with different trajectories, particularly substance use. The sample (N = 8,984) was 49% female. A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both males and females: (1) a High group with delinquency rates consistently higher than other groups, with some decrease across the age range; (2) a Decreased group, beginning at high levels with substantial decrease to near zero; (3) a Moderate group experiencing some decline but remaining at moderate rates of delinquency through most of the age range; and (4) a consistently Low group, having low rates of delinquency declining to near zero by mid- to late-teens. The Low group was distinguished by several protective factors, including higher rates of maternal authoritative parenting style, possible lower acculturation (higher rates of non-English spoken at home), higher rates of religious activity, later substance use initiation, lower rates of early delinquent activity, less early experience with neighborhood or personal violence, and higher rates of perceiving penalty for wrongdoing. Conversely, the High group was characterized by several vulnerability factors—essentially the converse of the protective factors above. PMID:23105164
Whitson, Donna L.; Amstutz, Donna D.
This book is designed to help adults overcome information anxiety by developing skills to deal with overload produced by the current information glut. The nine chapters segment the information in logical steps toward information literacy. Chapter 1 discusses information anxiety and technology development and their relationship to lifelong learning…
Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T.; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti
Purpose To examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) varies by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African American youth. Methods National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n=657) between ages 18–25. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (4 or more drinks for females, 5 or more drinks for males), and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run in MPlus. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. Results The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), while perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20–21 with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Conclusions Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. PMID:26499858
relationships Harder for govts to control export/import of controversial content by private parties (political, porn , etc.) 150 Information Age Anthology...distribution of child pornography. The Munich authorities contended that CompuServe, which offers Internet access, had not taken sufficient measures to protect...Legislation,” Newsbytes, July 8, 1997, “Germany to Enforce Child -Friendly Internet,” Chicago Tribune, July 5, 1997, and “Germany’s Efforts to Police
In the business world 'CNN REVOLUTION' is prevailing. 'CNN REVOLUTION' means the information system organized mostly by the Computer and the Communication Network through which they can make a vital business judgment. They try to give customers better service, enjoy a higher share and be more competitive through the information system, which enables them to control various information inside their firm completely and use it most usefully. They are also trying to hard to make the information system effective enough to gather information outside their firm. In making use of information for business, it is vital to get 'intelligence' which analized and processed information and to expand information distribution inside their company freely. As a new field of activity information specialist are expected to take a more important role in developing how to get 'good intelligence' and making useful information accessible through the information system.
Mentoring programs that provide guidance and support for disadvantaged youth have expanded rapidly during the past decade in the United States. Research suggests that students with teenage mentors exhibit positive youth development, including enhanced academic self-esteem and connectedness. By contrast, some studies showed that programs that offer…
Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.
Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044
Since we entered the advanced information society, information activities infiltrated into every aspect of our life such as economy and daily life. In this circumstances, business management is now going to change in its way and policy. Especially, globalization of business activities and shifting to service business have brought a new aspect into the information activities in the business, which has now become a fundamental activity in business management. The new technology of computer and telecommunication network played a key role, and brought electronic information, which was a new type of management information. The electronic information with intellectual property has become valuable as a new resources to be marketable, as well as by its usefulness as management information. Thus, businesses will have to change their policies concerning information from "managing information" to "managing by information."
Khadem, Ali; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Khorrami, Anahita
The majority of previous functional/effective connectivity studies conducted on the autistic patients converged to the underconnectivity theory of ASD: "long-range underconnectivity and sometimes short-rang overconnectivity". However, to the best of our knowledge the total (linear and nonlinear) predictive information transfers (PITs) of autistic patients have not been investigated yet. Also, EEG data have rarely been used for exploring the information processing deficits in autistic subjects. This study is aimed at comparing the total (linear and nonlinear) PITs of autistic and typically developing healthy youths during human face processing by using EEG data. The ERPs of 12 autistic youths and 19 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were recorded while they were watching upright and inverted human face images. The PITs among EEG channels were quantified using two measures separately: transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (TESPO), and modified transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (MTESPO). Afterwards, the directed differential connectivity graphs (dDCGs) were constructed to characterize the significant changes in the estimated PITs of autistic subjects compared with HC ones. By using both TESPO and MTESPO, long-range reduction of PITs of ASD group during face processing was revealed (particularly from frontal channels to right temporal channels). Also, it seemed the orientation of face images (upright or upside down) did not modulate the binary pattern of PIT-based dDCGs, significantly. Moreover, compared with TESPO, the results of MTESPO were more compatible with the underconnectivity theory of ASD in the sense that MTESPO showed no long-range increase in PIT. It is also noteworthy that to the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a version of MTE is applied for patients (here ASD) and it is also its first use for EEG data analysis.
Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K
Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures.
Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.; Abela, John R. Z.
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to assess the rate and behavioral methods of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of youth and examine effects of age and sex. METHODS: Youth in the third, sixth, and ninth grades (ages 7–16) at schools in the community were invited to participate in a laboratory study. A total of 665 youth (of 1108 contacted; 60% participation rate) were interviewed about NSSI over their lifetime via the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview. RESULTS: Overall, 53 (8.0%) of the 665 youth reported engaging in NSSI; 9.0% of girls and 6.7% of boys reported NSSI engagement; 7.6% of third-graders, 4.0% of sixth-graders, and 12.7% of ninth-graders reported NSSI engagement. There was a significant grade by gender interaction; girls in the ninth grade (19%) reported significantly greater rates of NSSI than ninth-grade boys (5%). Behavioral methods of NSSI differed by gender. Girls reported cutting and carving skin most often, whereas boys reported hitting themselves most often. Finally, 1.5% of youth met some criteria for the proposed fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnosis of NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents engage in NSSI. Ninth-grade girls seem most at risk, as they engage in NSSI at 3 times the rate of boys. Behavioral methods of NSSI also vary by grade and gender. As possible inclusion of an NSSI diagnosis in the fifth edition of the DSM-5 draws near, it is essential to better understand NSSI engagement across development and gender. PMID:22689875
Vorhies, Vanessa; Davis, Kristin E; Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Kaiser, Susan M
Vulnerable transition age youth, such as those in foster care and with serious mental health conditions, are at increased risk for lower rates of employment. Social capital is empirically linked to employment in the general population, yet little is known about the role of social capital in employment for at-risk transition age youth. Focus groups were conducted with young people with serious mental health conditions and their vocational specialists. Discussions reveal that both social and cultural capital influence employment processes. Those with employment experience value the motivation to work provided through others compared to those with no employment experience. Consistently employed describe strong working relationships with vocational specialists and possession of self-awareness, professionalism, and work-place knowledge as critical for employment success, while inconsistently employed describe worries about controlling emotions or behaviors on the job. Building social and cultural capital are explored as potential service provider goals.
Brown, Alan; Mills, Julian
A study examined recent developments in computer and information technology (CIT) training in the United Kingdom to determine those elements of CIT training that could be incorporated into the Youth Training Scheme (YTS). Information for the study was obtained from national and regional officials of the Microelectronics Education Programme…
Two companion studies addressing the information needs of the aging are discussed. Participants in the first study were 93 specialists in aging in four groups--library/information specialists who had achieved a reputation of working with the aging, educators/researchers in gerontology, policy-level administrators who were part of the governmental…
Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee.
This report examines the major issues arising from the impact of information technology on the creation of government information and its storage, processing, and recordkeeping, based on information gathered through a literature search, several mailed questionnaires, and three public hearings. An outline of the background of the information policy…
Diener, Richard A. V.
While it is customary to consider "information" synonymous with true information, given its societal significance in the modern world, a wider perspective on the veracity and ephemerality of information is imperative. A typology of message veracity contains four types: informational, misinformational, disinformational, and…
Towlson, Chris; Cobley, Stephen; Midgley, Adrian Wayne; Garrett, Andrew; Parkin, Guy; Lovell, Ric
This study assessed the contribution of relative age, anthropometry, maturation, and physical fitness characteristics on soccer playing position (goalkeeper [GK], central-defender [CD], lateral-defender [LD], central-midfield [CM], lateral-midfielder [LM], and forward [FWD]) for 465 elite-youth players (U13-U18's). U13-14 CD were relatively older than LD and CM (likely small effects). CD and GK were generally taller and heavier (likely small to very-likely moderate effects) than other players at each developmental stage and were advanced maturers at U13-14 (very-likely small to likely moderate effects). GK had inferior agility (very-likely small to likely moderate effects), endurance (very-likely small to likely moderate effects), and sprint capacities (likely small-moderate effects) vs. outfield positions at U13-14, but deficits in anaerobic phenotypes were diminished in U15-16 and U17-18. Position specific fitness characteristics were distinguished at U15-16 (likely small) and U17-18 (likely moderate), where LM were faster than their central counterparts. In summary, relative age, maturation and anthropometric characteristics appear to bias the allocation of players into key defensive roles from an early development stage, whereas position-specific physical attributes do not become apparent until the latter stages of talent development in outfield players. Given the inter-individual trajectories of physical development according to biological maturation, playing position allocation might be considered 'plastic' by selectors, until complete-maturity is achieved.
Deluge of conflicting and overwhelming information and media are creating a state of information anxiety. In such a society, an organization is also seeking a variety of information in wide corporate activities. The searcher, looking for information, must determine for him/herself not only which databases to search, but also which database system will deliver a fullest, good and trustworthy information of his needs. Commercial databases here in Japan have been accepted and searched by increased number of searchers as well as end-users. In the 90's, our online specialist's challenge is no longer to find information; we have to aim at professional information specialists to respond with increased educational and consultant role to assist further increasing number of end-users.
Betz, Cecily L; Redcay, Gay
A descriptive profile of the health related concerns, school-related and extracurricular activities, employment-related activities, social relationships and future plans of 25 transition-aged youth and young adults (ages 14 to 21 years) were conducted. The findings of this exploratory study provide insight on the impact their chronic condition had upon all aspects of their lives. Sixty percent of respondents indicated they had missed school due to their condition and a third of the respondents had not completed high school. Health care professionals usually were not identified as participatory in youth transition planning. The majority of these transition-aged youth and young adults had positive feelings towards their school experience, although most of the respondents were not involved in school projects or clubs, which suggests their participation in school-related extra-curricular activities was limited. Nearly all of the respondents had some form of employment experience. Most of their work experiences were nonpaying jobs such as serving as a volunteer and participating in school-based employment training. Nearly all of the respondents expressed desires for sustainable employment and fiscal and social independence. Most of the respondents reported having social relationships with just less than half reporting seeing friends outside of school.
... appreciation of the Nation's natural resources and heritage. ] Youths seeking training and employment with the... undertaken, and swimming ability. The purpose of this form is to certify the youth's physical fitness to...
...; National Youth Gang Survey ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice... of a currently approved collection. 2. Title of the Form/Collection: National Youth Gang Survey....
Lee, Juliet P.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Saephan, Sang; Kirkpatrick, Sean
Background Southeast Asian Americans are highly at risk for tobacco use. Youth-led, environmentally focused tobacco prevention programs have been identified as highly effective in engaging youth in tobacco research and prevention, but may be challenging for the most at-risk youths. Objectives We report on lessons learned in a pilot tobacco prevention program with Southeast Asian youth in Northern California. Methods We reviewed meeting notes, participatory research products, and a transcribed focus group with tobacco prevention project participants. Lessons Learned Challenges to the youths’ participation related to structural issues (limited time, scheduling conflicts, financial difficulties, aging out of programs) and personal issues (school and work pressure, family stressors). Coordinating with ongoing program activities and the county coalition enabled some supports as well as challenges. Conclusions Key supports for youth were youth leaders, social and financial rewards, and the ability to interpret tobacco prevention information in culturally and age-relevant media. PMID:22820228
Scott, Lionel D; McMillen, J Curtis; Snowden, Lonnie R
Using the behavioral model for vulnerable populations as a framework, this study examined predisposing, enabling, and need factors related to seeking help from formal and informal sources among older Black male foster youth and alumni. Results of logistic regression analyses showed that emotional control, a predisposing variable, was related to help-seeking. Specifically, greater adherence to the norm of emotional control was related to lower likelihood of using informal or formal sources of help. These results support the literature on males, in general, and Black males, in particular, that posits that inhibitions to express emotions are a barrier to their help seeking. Implications for help seeking among vulnerable populations of adolescent and young adult Black males are discussed.
Perry, J. C.
In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can advance a social…
Present Status and effective use of in-house data are described, by showing a case of Kokuyo as an example. Integrated Distribution Information System in which information for production, sales and distribution is integrated, and databases loaded on it, are introduced. Outline of "KOPS" and "KROS" which are external systems connected with the above system, and how Kokuyo makes use of information obtained from this system, are explained. Recently, Kokuyo has focused its efforts on selling goods direct to users, among the diversified distribution channels. Customer Information System which supports such sales activities is also introduced.
Makosky, Vivian Parker
The rapid generation of information today constitutes an imperative for change in the way undergraduate psychology courses are taught. Psychology instructors must carefully select material for their courses, structure courses to maximize student performance, emphasize information retrieval skills, and contribute to the development of general…
Solar Age, 1980
This directory is intended as a guide to organizations, publications, and other information concerning biomass fuels. Major sections of the directory include: (1) Organizations and Publications (General); (2) Overview (generic information on biomass fuels); (3) Thermal Conversion; (4) Gaseous Fuels; and (5) Alcohol Fuels. Each entry in the…
Patton, Michael Quinn
The author suggests that the business of extension is getting people to apply knowledge and use information. He makes observations concerning people and their use of information and knowledge. He presents five characteristics upon which future extension programs should be built. (CT)
Zimmerman, Gregory M
Survey data for studying youth's secondary exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing or hearing violence in the community) come from both parents and their children. There are benefits of considering multiple informants in psychosocial assessments, but parents and youths often disagree about comparable information. These reporting differences present challenges for both researchers and clinicians. To shed new light on the individual, family, and neighborhood factors that contribute to parent and youth reporting differences regarding youth's secondary exposure to community violence, this study analyzed hierarchical item response models on a sample of youth respondents from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Participants were aged approximately 9, 12, and 15 years (trimodal distribution; mean age = 12.0 years) at baseline (N = 2,344; 49.6% female). Descriptive analyses indicated that parents significantly underestimated their children's exposure to community violence. Logistic hierarchical item response models indicated that absolute discrepancies between parent and youth reports were a function of youth demographic characteristics (male, Hispanic or African American as compared to white, age, 3rd as compared to 1st generation immigrant), individual difference factors (lower levels of self-control, higher levels of violent peer exposure), and family factors (lower household socioeconomic status). Parental under-reporting of youth's exposure to violence was associated with youth demographic characteristics (male, age, 2nd as compared to 3rd generation immigrant), family factors (lower levels of parental supervision), and neighborhood characteristics (higher levels of violence, less access to youth services). The results suggest that a constellation of individual and contextual factors may contribute to the understanding of parent and youth reporting differences. The findings speak to the utility of examining parent and youth reporting
Muthuri, Stella K.; Francis, Claire E.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.
Background Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts. Objective This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Results A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South) of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9%) studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research
The activities of think-tank which provides value-added information service by analyzing and evaluating data are described. At first, the process of providing this service is explained in the four phases. Next, how to collect data eg. questionnaire, field investigation such as hearing and discussion in a committee by experts, how to select the method of collecting data, and how to process evaluate and analyze data, are described. Regarding the information analysis, qualitative and quantitative analyses are explained. To provide better service, it is important that the information needed by client is clarified in the beginning and that data is analyzed based on the predicted result.
This is the record of the Special Lecture at the 25th Annual Meeting on Information Science and Technology. In the first half, how managers should collect and utilize the scientific and technical information is described, based on the author' own experience. Author says they should visit the source organization by themselves when they find the interesting information. To make high use of such information, they are needed to be well acquainted with the conditions of their own facilities and technology etc., he mentions. In the second half, from historical point of view, the development of Japanese industry and technology for the past 40 years is reviewed, and he expects the databases would be utilized promote the research and development in order to make our country have a new energy resources.
HOMEL, JACQUELINE; THOMPSON, KARA; LEADBEATER, BONNIE
Objective This study examined associations between longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood and postsecondary education (PSE) experiences. Outcomes examined included the type of PSE undertaken, the timing of enrollment, and the likelihood of dropping out. Method Participants (N = 632; 332 females) were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study of young people interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of the frequency of marijuana use from ages 15 to 25. Logistic regression analyses evaluated class membership as a predictor of the three PSE outcomes, with sex, maternal education, family structure, high school grades, and conduct problems controlled for. Results Three trajectory groups of marijuana use were identified: abstainers (31%), occasional users (44%), and frequent users (25%). Compared with abstainers, frequent users had the lowest high school grades and the most conduct problems and were least likely to enroll in PSE, especially in a university. Occasional users did not differ from abstainers on high school grades or conduct problems and were no less likely than abstainers to enroll in PSE. However, they delayed enrollment longer and were more likely to drop out of PSE. Conclusions Frequent marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood may close off opportunities for entering PSE, whereas occasional use may create delays in starting and finishing PSE among less at-risk young people. The mechanisms underlying associations between marijuana use and educational difficulties during emerging adulthood as well as adolescence need to be better understood. PMID:24988266
Allen, Kenneth B.
Describes a number of initiatives by the U.S. national security community that might restrict or monitor public access to sensitive but unclassified information. The current status of the initiatives, and their possible impact on freedom of information in a democratic society are discussed. (27 references) (Author/CLB)
Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A
Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.
Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Jihye; Kashiwabara, Mina
Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8%) reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5%) than in girls (2.6%). Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. PMID:28173685
Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez
Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171
Summarizes efforts to inculcate computer literacy in teachers in Macau (Portuguese territory down the coast from Hong Kong scheduled to return to Chinese sovereignty 12/20/99) to prepare for the information era. Topics include course objectives, core studies, optional studies, construction of Web-based learning environments, and multimedia…
Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…
“We are drowning in data, swept away by information, deluged by publications, and nearly overcome by the challenge of sorting things out in search for a few drops of wisdom”, we read recently. Yet, wisdom, evolving from selective consumption, critical assessment and synthesis of important ideas is s...
Gilbert, Steven W.; Lyman, Peter
Nearly every academic practice is being transformed by information technology. The concept of "piracy," or "theft," presumes that ideas can still be treated as if they are property, and if so, that the rules controlling the movement of idea-properties can be enforced. (MLW)
Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia
The present work explores the application of information theoretical measures, such as entropy and normalized mutual information, for research of biomarkers of aging. The use of information theory affords unique methodological advantages for the study of aging processes, as it allows evaluating non-linear relations between biological parameters, providing the precise quantitative strength of those relations, both for individual and multiple parameters, showing cumulative or synergistic effect. Here we illustrate those capabilities utilizing a dataset on heart disease, including diagnostic parameters routinely available to physicians. The use of information-theoretical methods, utilizing normalized mutual information, revealed the exact amount of information that various diagnostic parameters or their combinations contained about the persons' age. Based on those exact informative values for the correlation of measured parameters with age, we constructed a diagnostic rule (a decision tree) to evaluate physiological age, as compared to chronological age. The present data illustrated that younger subjects suffering from heart disease showed characteristics of people of higher age (higher physiological age). Utilizing information-theoretical measures, with additional data, it may be possible to create further clinically applicable information-theory-based markers and models for the evaluation of physiological age, its relation to age-related diseases and its potential modifications by therapeutic interventions.
This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…
Joseph, Earl C.
It has become necessary to understand the expected trends and forces-of-change behind the global realities of technological advancement and the information age. The emergence of a new information age societal framework is rapidly altering the way in which social, business, economic, educational, and political exchanges are conducted. Motivating…
Thompson, James R.
This report summarizes the discussion and recommendations of a symposium which focused on issues addressing the collection, sharing, and use of information to improve transition services and supports to youth and young adults with disabilities. Participants included representatives from state agencies, advocates, family members, and Community…
Brown, Alan; Mills, Julian
A study examined the role of computer and information technology (CIT) instruction in the Youth Training Scheme (YTS). A number of successful local YTS training schemes and initiatives are identified and analyzed in the first part of this report. This process resulted in the formulation of specific policy recommendations that are spelled out in…
Brown, Alan; Mills, Julian
A study examined the computer and information technology (CIT) training provided in 61 training schemes in 10 regions throughout the United Kingdom under the auspices of the Youth Training Scheme. Of the 52 programs for which data on the time spent on CIT were available, 12 offered 5 days or less of off-the-job training with little other…
Cobb, Bryan R; Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D
Head impact exposure in youth football has not been well-documented, despite children under the age of 14 accounting for 70% of all football players in the United States. The objective of this study was to quantify the head impact exposure of youth football players, age 9-12, for all practices and games over the course of single season. A total of 50 players (age = 11.0 ± 1.1 years) on three teams were equipped with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays, which monitored each impact players sustained during practices and games. During the season, 11,978 impacts were recorded for this age group. Players averaged 240 ± 147 impacts for the season with linear and rotational 95th percentile magnitudes of 43 ± 7 g and 2034 ± 361 rad/s(2). Overall, practice and game sessions involved similar impact frequencies and magnitudes. One of the three teams however, had substantially fewer impacts per practice and lower 95th percentile magnitudes in practices due to a concerted effort to limit contact in practices. The same team also participated in fewer practices, further reducing the number of impacts each player experienced in practice. Head impact exposures in games showed no statistical difference. While the acceleration magnitudes among 9-12 year old players tended to be lower than those reported for older players, some recorded high magnitude impacts were similar to those seen at the high school and college level. Head impact exposure in youth football may be appreciably reduced by limiting contact in practices. Further research is required to assess whether such a reduction in head impact exposure will result in a reduction in concussion incidence.
Austin, Paul N
Forced-air warmers have been used for over twenty years to help prevent and treat inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. One result of hypothermia can be an increased risk of surgical site infection. Paradoxically, the question has been raised about the role of forced-air warmers in causing surgical site infections. A manufacturer of a competing device has been sending information directly to clinicians with warnings about using forced-air warmers with patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Three reviews have been published and none of these condemned the use of forced-air warmers in the operating room including with patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Clinicians must continue to seek information about this problem from peer-reviewed journals and not rely on interpretation by others such as manufacturers.
D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of
Simpson, Roy L
Healthcare is evolving from a task-based industry to a knowledge-based one. To gain and retain value as intellectual capital, nursing likewise must evolve from a vocation of task performers to a profession of knowledge-workers. Information technology can transform nursing tasks into nursing knowledge.
Pyle, K. Richard
Proposes that career counselors need new modes of thinking in the information age, pointing out the counselor's role in working with information. Outlines competencies for high-tech counseling and describes a model group counseling program involving technology. (SK)
Bhatt, Riddhi; Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom
Background Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions are specific plans to facilitate goal attainment. Redefining goal setting to include implementation intentions may be an effective way to increase effectiveness. Video games offer a controlled venue for conducting behavioral research and testing hypotheses to identify mechanisms of effect. Objective This report describes the protocol that guided the design and evaluation of Squire’s Quest! II, a video game aimed to increase child fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods Squire’s Quest! II is a 10-episode videogame promoting fruit and vegetable consumption to 4th and 5th grade children (approximately 9-11 year old youths). A four group randomized design (n=400 parent/child dyads) was used to systematically test the effect of two types of implementation intentions (action, coping) on fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption of 4th and 5th graders. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately post game-play, and 3 months later. Child was the unit of assignment. Three dietary recalls were collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2009). Psychosocial and process data were also collected. Results To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the effect of implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption. Conclusions This intervention will contribute valuable information regarding whether implementation intentions are effective with elementary age children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094 PMID:23612366
Grey literature has attracted public attention, as it was stated in "Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the United States of America on Cooperation in Research and Development in Science and Technology". We define it as follows: 1) Open to the public, 2) Hard to obtain because it is not distributed through ordinary distribution channels. Grey literature includes a variety of documents such as technical reports published by public organs, journals by nonprofit organs and universities, conference proceedings and preprints by academic societies, and theses by researchers. Each literature has information which is not available from other sources and is valuable in this sense. Nevertheless, it takes much manpower and time to collect them. JICST, NDL and NACSIS regard grey literature as very important, and are now focusing on collecting and disseminating it to researchers.
Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.
Nlerum, F. E.
This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.
Williams, Russell B.
A question that now confronts producers, distributors, and consumers of information, as well as the manufacturers of information technology and the government is: what is the nature of copyright protection in the Information Age? Congress has a Constitutional mandate to protect the rights of innovators but has refused to act in the case of…
Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson
With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…
Jagers, Robert J.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Flay, Brian R.
This study compared the impact of the Aban Aya Youth Project (AAYP; Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 158: 377-384, 2004) social development classroom curriculum (SDC), school/family/community (SC) intervention curriculum, and a health enhancement curriculum (HEC) attention placebo control on changes over time in violent behaviors…
Sosa, Alicia Salinas
In 1984 the Edgewood and South San Antonio Independent School Districts implemented the Valued Youth Partnership Program (VYP). VYP identifies Hispanic junior high and high school students at high risk of dropping out and gives them an opportunity to serve as tutors of younger children. As they tutor, the older students also learn basic skills,…
Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius; Carney, Stephen
This paper challenges us to consider the meaning of schooling for youth in the global south. We explore the ways in which young people living and learning on the outskirts of Kathmandu balance the visions and passions of modern schooling with social realities that are often quite incompatible. We depart from conventional analyses of modernity,…
Tommet, Pat, Ed.; And Others
This feature issue explores health needs of youth with disabilities as they make the transition from child to adult roles. "School Health Services: Supporting Students with Special Health Needs" (Dee K. Bauer) describes the role of the special needs nurse on multidisciplinary teams in Multnomah County (Oregon) schools. Two articles deal with…
Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…
Avery, Rosemary J.
This article summarizes published research regarding the effectiveness of mentor programs in general, and for youth in foster care specifically, as a basis for evidence-based practice in child welfare. It examines the pros and cons of mentor programs and characteristics of programs that are more or less effective for achieving specific social…
Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M
Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results
Troll, Lillian E.; Nowak, Carol
Attention is called to the probability that counselors and psychotherapists share the age stereotypes of other Americans. Kinds of age bias are noted: age restrictiveness, age distortion, and negative attitudes associated with particular ages. (Author)
Wilson, Melanie; Houghton, Alison
This study provides information on obstacles facing homeless youth in school. Research occurred in four diverse New England cities. Researchers collected detailed case histories on youth age 10-15 years who were currently homeless or who had recently been homeless. Data came from staff of local youth agencies, government officials, and youths…
This article examines an after-school program entitled Silk City Media Workshop. Briefly, the workshop engages youth in digital storytelling as a means of enhancing both their technology and literacy skills. Transcending these goals, this workshop also provides opportunities for youth to reveal multiple aspects of their unfolding identities as…
Efforts of immigrant and minority youth to make the school-to-work transition successfully are adversely affected by social, psychological, cultural, familial, and individual factors. Complicating their struggle to attain a sense of competence and personal identity, which is common to all youth, are "outsider status," language problems,…
Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher
Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…
Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres
We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…
Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Heathcock, Stephen; Sutherland, Ainsley
Games may be useful tools for learning and communicating about sexual and reproductive health. This article discusses the collaborative design and subsequent evaluation of a narrative-based card game. This game was created in a workshop based on positive youth development, which allowed youth to be involved as game designers and game players.…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin; Striley, Catherine; Brown, Eddie; Limb, Gordon; Ostmann, Emily
Interviews concerning mental health needs and service configurations with 401 Southwestern American Indian youth aged 12-19 found that 79 percent had mental health or addiction problems. Regardless of disorder, youth were least likely to seek help from traditional healers or specialists and most likely to seek help from informal, natural helping…
Poitras, Veronica Joan; Gray, Casey Ellen; Borghese, Michael M; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pate, Russell R; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S
Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is essential for disease prevention and health promotion. Emerging evidence suggests other intensities of physical activity (PA), including light-intensity activity (LPA), may also be important, but there has been no rigorous evaluation of the evidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively measured PA (total and all intensities) and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (volumes, durations, frequencies, intensities, and patterns of objectively measured PA), and outcome (body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms, bone health, motor skill development, psychological distress, self-esteem). Heterogeneity among studies precluded meta-analyses; narrative synthesis was conducted. A total of 162 studies were included (204 171 participants from 31 countries). Overall, total PA was favourably associated with physical, psychological/social, and cognitive health indicators. Relationships were more consistent and robust for higher (e.g., MVPA) versus lower (e.g., LPA) intensity PA. All patterns of activity (sporadic, bouts, continuous) provided benefit. LPA was favourably associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers; data were scarce for other outcomes. These findings continue to support the importance of at least 60 min/day of MVPA for disease prevention and health promotion in children and youth, but also highlight the potential benefits of LPA and total PA. All intensities of PA should be considered in future work aimed at better elucidating the health benefits of PA in children and youth.
Judd, Larry R.
Proposes three precepts as an approach to ethics for the information age: accept responsibility when appropriate; anticipate negative effects; and attempt justice through fairness, applying John Rawls' principles of justice. (SR)
Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Pereiro, Arturo X.; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad
This study examined age-related changes in narrative speech of 79 adults aged 40-91 who told stories from their pictorial representations. Quantity, information content and cohesion of narratives were analysed using a detailed transcription and codification system. We carried out a LISREL analysis to study relationships between narrative…
Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia
This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease.
Lappin, Julia M; Heslin, Margaret; Jones, Peter B; Doody, Gillian A; Reininghaus, Ulrich A; Demjaha, Arsime; Croudace, Timothy; Jamieson-Craig, Thomas; Donoghue, Kim; Lomas, Ben; Fearon, Paul; Murray, Robin M; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Craig
Objective: To compare baseline demographics and 10-year outcomes of a first-episode psychosis patient incidence cohort in order to establish whether current youth-focussed age-based criteria for early intervention services are justified by patient needs. The patients in this cohort were treated prior to the establishment of early intervention services. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that those who develop psychosis at a younger age have worse outcomes than those who develop psychosis at an older age. Methods: Data on first-episode psychosis patients from the ÆSOP-10 longitudinal follow-up study were used to compare baseline characteristics, and 10-year clinical, functional and service use outcomes between those patients who would and would not have met age-based criteria for early intervention services, in Australia or in the United Kingdom. Results: In total, 58% men and 71% women with first-episode psychosis were too old to meet current Australian-early intervention age-entry criteria (χ2 = 9.1, p = 0.003), while 21% men and 34% women were too old for UK-early intervention age-entry criteria (χ2 = 11.1, p = 0.001). The 10-year clinical and functional outcomes did not differ significantly between groups by either Australian- or UK-early intervention age-entry criteria. Service use was significantly greater among the patients young enough to meet early intervention age-criteria (Australia: incidence rate ratio = 1.35 [1.19, 1.52], p < 0.001; United Kingdom: incidence rate ratio = 1.65 [1.41, 1.93], p < 0.001). Conclusion: Current early intervention services are gender- and age-inequitable. Large numbers of patients with first-episode psychosis will not receive early intervention care under current service provision. Illness outcomes at 10-years were no worse in first-episode psychosis patients who presented within the age range for whom early intervention has been prioritised, though these patients had greater service use. These data provide a rationale
Huang, Yao-Xiong; Tuo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Di; Kang, Li-Li; Chen, Xing-Yao; Luo, Man
Membrane sialic acid (SA) plays an important role in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs), the age-related reduction in SA content negatively impacts both the structure and function of these cells. We have therefore suggested that remodelling the SA in the membrane of aged cells would help recover cellular functions characteristic of young RBCs. We developed an effective method for the re-sialylation of aged RBCs by which the cells were incubated with SA in the presence of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and α-2,3-sialytransferase. We found that RBCs could be re-sialylated if they had available SA-binding groups and after the re-sialylation, aged RBCs could restore their membrane SA to the level in young RBCs. Once the membrane SA was restored, the aged RBCs showed recovery of their biophysical and biochemical properties to similar levels as in young RBCs. Their life span in circulation was also extended to twofold. Our findings indicate that remodelling membrane SA not only helps restore the youth of aged RBCs, but also helps recover injured RBCs.
O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.
Beattie, Walter M., Jr.
The plight, as well as the possibilities, of the aging in today's and tomorrow's world can best be perceived within a framework of the changing relationship between the information and communications systems of society and older persons. Unlike the elders in stable societies, who have traditionally served as repositories of information, the aging…
Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; McManus, Holly; Lantry, Janet; Flynn, Patrick M.
The majority of research on homeless youth has focused on the multitude of problems faced by this vulnerable population. The current study, while acknowledging the hazards of life on the streets, seeks to explore the personal strengths and informal resources street youth rely on to navigate their environments. Qualitative data from seven focus groups conducted with street youth ages 18–24 were analyzed using content analysis. These data, rich with interactions among youth participants, highlight three important themes: developing “street smarts,” existence of personal strengths, and informal resources relied upon by youth to survive. Results provide valuable insights into the strengths of homeless youth that can be useful to providers in assessing street youths’ service needs and increasing the likelihood of long-term positive outcomes. PMID:19915687
Turner, Cynthia M; Barrett, Paula M
Although previous studies provide some support for a tripartite model of relations between anxiety and depression in children there is evidence to suggest that anxiety and depression may be increasingly differentiated over development. Using a confirmatory factor analytic strategy with rationally selected item sets from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory, the current study sought to test unitary, dual, and tripartite models for anxiety and depression in a cross-sectional design using 3 narrow-band age cohorts of nonreferred children and youths. The results found little evidence of increasing differentiation. All models provided a moderate fit to the data, with some evidence that a correlated 3-factor model was the preferred model in all age cohorts. Further research is required to explore the discriminant validity and clinical utility of the tripartite dimensions in childhood populations.
...; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service) will ask the Office of Management and Budget... Public: General Public; College students, school aged children (elementary, middle and high school), and..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Please...
Arrabal León, Nazaret; Postigo Mota, Salvador; Casado Verdejo, Inés; Muñoz Bermejo, Laura; Rayego Sánchez, Carmen; Pinto Montealegre, Jose Eduardo
Nowadays, acquiring, managing, disseminating and understanding information through new technologies is an important aspect of our daily life. We can search for and store information, but we can also spread it. The proper handling of information and communications technology (TICs) is beneficial, but does not reach all alike. The difficulties posed by the elderly when adapting to TICs are increased by the fact that they are unknown and unfamiliar to them, resulting in rejection from the elderly and thus an increased risk of inequality and social exclusion. TICs value in aging lies in the improvement of self-learning and personal development as well as in promoting participation, social integration and healthy aging.
This encyclopedia provides comprehensive information on youth and war. Beginning with the 30 Years' War in the 17th century and ending with the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo, the encyclopedia covers children and youth from birth to age 18, with additional materials on young adults from 18 to 24 years of age. The encyclopedia includes over 300…
... community development program that addresses several core issues facing low-income communities: youth education, employment, criminal behavior, social and emotional development, and affordable housing. The... general educational development certificate, and teaching them construction skills geared toward...
Atkins, Stephen J; Bentley, Ian; Hurst, Howard T; Sinclair, Jonathan K; Hesketh, Christopher
The aim of this study was to examine bilateral differences in ground reaction forces (GRF), measured during a deep squat (DS) exercise, in a population of elite youth soccer players. Bilateral muscle balance is a key component in promoting musculoskeletal health of performers, yet there is a limited evidence base investigating such imbalances in youth. Seventy-four subjects were assigned to performance groups according to chronological age (younger than 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 years). Analysis of physical maturity status revealed that very few players were classified as "early" or "late" maturers. Players completed an overhead DS exercise, as part of preseason functional movement screening. Peak GRF were assessed using a twin force plate system. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were identified between right and left side peak GRF for all groups except the youngest (U13) and oldest (U17). Nondominant "sides" showed the highest levels of PGRF across all groups. The magnitude of PGRF was not significantly different both within and between groups, except for the left side in the U13 to U15 groups (p = 0.04). Results from this study show that performance asymmetry is marked in adolescence. There seems a "trigger point" during the early stage of adolescence, when bilateral imbalances become marked. These differences do seem to reduce during the later stages of adolescence. Correct attention to focussed training, designed to remediate any imbalance, is warranted in adolescent groups. This is important with respect of the key associations between bilateral asymmetry and risk of injury.
Barnard, David, Ed.
With the goal of enhancing cooperation and interaction among youth, youth organizations, and other service providers to the youth sector, this directory aims to give youth, as well as people and organizations involved and interested in youth-related issues, a comprehensive source of information on South African youth organizations and related…
Smith Frank A.; Lugas, Jaime
Youth with autism, like youth from other disability subgroups, often participate in state Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) programs to obtain employment. While youth with autism represent a small percentage of all VR closures, the number with autism who closed out of VR more than tripled between 2003 and 2008 (see figure). In this Data Note, the…
Enhancing Self-Efficacy for Help-Seeking Among Transition-Aged Youth in Postsecondary Settings With Mental Health and/or Substance Use Concerns, Using Crowd-Sourced Online and Mobile Technologies: The Thought Spot Protocol
Abi-Jaoude, Alexxa; Johnson, Andrew; Ferguson, Genevieve; Sanches, Marcos; Levinson, Andrea; Robb, Janine; Heffernan, Olivia; Herzog, Tyson; Chaim, Gloria; Cleverley, Kristin; Eysenbach, Gunther; Henderson, Joanna; S Hoch, Jeffrey; Hollenberg, Elisa; Jiang, Huan; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Law, Marcus; Sharpe, Sarah; Tripp, Tim; Voineskos, Aristotle
Background Seventy percent of lifetime cases of mental illness emerge prior to age 24. While early detection and intervention can address approximately 70% of child and youth cases of mental health concerns, the majority of youth with mental health concerns do not receive the services they need. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol for optimizing and evaluating Thought Spot, a Web- and mobile-based platform cocreated with end users that is designed to improve the ability of students to access mental health and substance use services. Methods This project will be conducted in 2 distinct phases, which will aim to (1) optimize the existing Thought Spot electronic health/mobile health intervention through youth engagement, and (2) evaluate the impact of Thought Spot on self-efficacy for mental health help-seeking and health literacy among university and college students. Phase 1 will utilize participatory action research and participatory design research to cocreate and coproduce solutions with members of our target audience. Phase 2 will consist of a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that the Thought Spot intervention will show improvements in intentions for, and self-efficacy in, help-seeking for mental health concerns. Results We anticipate that enhancements will include (1) user analytics and feedback mechanisms, (2) peer mentorship and/or coaching functionality, (3) crowd-sourcing and data hygiene, and (4) integration of evidence-based consumer health and research information. Conclusions This protocol outlines the important next steps in understanding the impact of the Thought Spot platform on the behavior of postsecondary, transition-aged youth students when they seek information and services related to mental health and substance use. PMID:27815232
Carson, Valerie; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Gray, Casey E; Poitras, Veronica J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Saunders, Travis J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Okely, Anthony D; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Lee, Helena; Tremblay, Mark S
This systematic review is an update examining the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sedentary behaviour and health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Medline were searched in December 2014, and date limits were imposed (≥February 2010). Included studies were peer-reviewed and met the a priori-determined population (apparently healthy children and youth, mean age: 5-17 years), intervention (durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), comparator (various durations, patterns, and types of sedentary behaviours), and outcome (critical: body composition, metabolic syndrome/cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, academic achievement; important: fitness, self-esteem) study criteria. Quality of evidence by outcome was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative analysis was conducted. A total of 235 studies (194 unique samples) were included representing 1 657 064 unique participants from 71 different countries. Higher durations/frequencies of screen time and television (TV) viewing were associated with unfavourable body composition. Higher duration/frequency of TV viewing was also associated with higher clustered cardiometabolic risk scores. Higher durations of TV viewing and video game use were associated with unfavourable behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour. Higher durations of reading and doing homework were associated with higher academic achievement. Higher duration of screen time was associated with lower fitness. Higher durations of screen time and computer use were associated with lower self-esteem. Evidence ranged from "very low" to "moderate" quality. Higher quality studies using reliable and valid sedentary behaviour measures should confirm this largely observational evidence.
Farrell, Spencer G.; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.
Aging is associated with the accumulation of damage throughout a persons life. Individual health can be assessed by the Frailty Index (FI). The FI is calculated simply as the proportion f of accumulated age-related deficits relative to the total, leading to a theoretical maximum of f ≤1 . Observational studies have generally reported a much more stringent bound, with f ≤fmax<1 . The value of fmax in observational studies appears to be nonuniversal, but fmax≈0.7 is often reported. A previously developed network model of individual aging was unable to recover fmax<1 while retaining the other observed phenomenology of increasing f and mortality rates with age. We have developed a computationally accelerated network model that also allows us to tune the scale-free network exponent α . The network exponent α significantly affects the growth of mortality rates with age. However, we are only able to recover fmax by also introducing a deficit sensitivity parameter 1 -q , which is equivalent to a false-negative rate q . Our value of q =0.3 is comparable to finite sensitivities of age-related deficits with respect to mortality that are often reported in the literature. In light of nonzero q , we use mutual information I to provide a nonparametric measure of the predictive value of the FI with respect to individual mortality. We find that I is only modestly degraded by q <1 , and this degradation is mitigated when increasing number of deficits are included in the FI. We also find that the information spectrum, i.e., the mutual information of individual deficits versus connectivity, has an approximately power-law dependence that depends on the network exponent α . Mutual information I is therefore a useful tool for characterizing the network topology of aging populations.
Thury, Eva M.
This study focuses on imagery of youth and old age in the plays of Euripides, especially the "Suppliant Women," considering frequently used words in each play according to formula developed by Pierre Guiraud. Identifies a motif, the rejuvenation theme, in several of Euripides' plays. Shows how the word "neos" (new, young) helps…
Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou
Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…
Wehman, Paul; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Kang, Hyun-Ju
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of supported employment intervention on the employment outcomes of transition-age youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities served by the public vocational rehabilitation system using a case-control study design. Data for this study were extracted from the Rehabilitation Services…
This study provides an extensive review of the literature on distance education and of representative distance education projects and institutions in the United States and abroad, emphasizing those using telecommunications technologies. The introductory section includes a sketch of the information age and its implications for adult education and…
Nelson, Eugene A.
Argues that the function of futurism is essentially one of stimulating thinking. Discusses changes in the age of information; compulsory education; how the future looks for schools, administrators, and teachers; the role of the school; how teachers look at education; and the role of technology within education. (CT)
Lorenzen, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This book contains 11 papers examining career planning and job searching in the information age. The following papers are included: "The Librarian's Role in the Job Search of the Future: Issues and Ethics in the Electronic Environment" (Elizabeth A. Lorenzen); "The Internet as Career, Job, and Employment Resource: Transition, Assimilation,…
White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.
This document contains 22 information briefs from the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Four of the briefs provide data on health, available services, income, and employment from a report comparing the well-being of older people in three rural and urban locations. National estimates are provided about the need for meals for older people, and…
Ryan, Cathryn T; Kramer, Jessica M; Cohn, Ellen S
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the self-disclosure process in regard to connection development and relationship quality in peer mentoring relationships between transition-age youth (ages 15-20) and young adults (ages 18-36) with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Self-disclosure is defined as "the disclosure of inner feelings and experiences to another person" that "fosters liking, caring, and trust, thereby facilitating the deepening of close relationships" ( Reis & Shaver, 1988 , p. 372). Nine peer mentoring dyads with varied interpersonal connections were purposefully selected from a larger intervention study. Recorded mentoring conversations were analyzed for self-disclosure content and peer mentor response. The findings demonstrated trends related to connection development and differences across degree of connection. In relationships with stronger connections, there was a higher quantity of self-disclosure and more frequent disclosure of emotions, and peer mentors responded more frequently with advice and reciprocated self-disclosure. Implications of findings for promoting higher-quality peer mentoring relationships are discussed.
Hass, Norah C; Weston, Trent D; Lim, Seung-Lark
Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one's age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either "young" or "old." Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample.
Hass, Norah C.; Weston, Trent D.; Lim, Seung-Lark
Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one’s age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either “young” or “old.” Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample. PMID:27028300
Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Spencer, Renee; Ward, Rolanda
Social support is needed by everyone, but particularly by vulnerable populations at times of transition. This study utilizes data collected from 96 former foster youth regarding supports they received during the transition from care. The report addresses three questions: (1) What types of supportive relationships did the sample report? (2) What…
Irizarry, Jason G.
The potential of drawing from urban youth culture, and hip-hop more specifically, to serve as a bridge to the standard curriculum has been well documented. However, the richness and potential benefits of hip-hop are more far-reaching and present significant implications for teacher education and professional development efforts as well. This…
A recent survey commissioned by the American Red Cross about the attitudes of the post-9/11 generation toward the Geneva Conventions reveals that 59% of youth, compared with 51% of adults, believe that torturing the enemy is always or sometimes acceptable. The Geneva Conventions are at the core of international humanitarian law (IHL) and protect…
... Education and Employment Experience Programs at Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area AGENCY... continuous education and employment experience opportunities for students in the vicinity of the park. We use... scientifically sound and reliable measures of outcomes for the three youth education and employment...
... Education and Employment Experience Programs at Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area AGENCY... continuous education and employment experience opportunities for students in the vicinity of the park. We use... scientifically sound and reliable measures of outcomes for the three youth education and employment...
McKearney, Scott J., Comp.
This bibliography includes journal articles, short publications, and books related to issues of youth and employment in rural areas and small towns. Each of the 80 entries includes title, author, periodical, publication date, publisher, National Agricultural Library call number or ERIC document number, and a brief annotation. Brief directories…
Stronge, James H., Comp.; Popp, Patricia, Comp.
This publication provides current research and related literature on issues surrounding the education of homeless children and youth. It includes a variety of perspectives, reflecting the most recent trends in homelessness, determined by changes in policies, economics, and demographics. It also offers the latest research and scholarly opinions…
Ferguson, Ronald F.
A case is made for establishing more community-based socialization programs for 10- to 15-year-old black males from disadvantaged families in poor neighborhoods. It is argued that effectively run neighborhood-based programs can accomplish the following: (1) establish caring and nurturing relationships that earn youths' attention and trust; (2)…
Sandford, Rachel A.; Armour, Kathleen M.; Stanton, Deborah J.
This discussion reports data from a 4-year longitudinal evaluation of a project from the United Kingdom. The project focused on outdoor activities as a vehicle for enhancing the personal and social development of disaffected youth with the researchers specifically examining the role played by volunteer learning mentors. Following a summary of…
Lovitt, Thomas; Emerson, John
The publication is based on interviews conducted by Casey Family Programs with eight foster youth who graduated from college to learn their perspectives on going to college and obtaining a degree despite numerous barriers. This report presents fifteen major themes concerning college success and their general outlook on life. Their accomplishments…
Kearney, Christopher A.
Problematic school absenteeism in youth has long been a complex and vexatious issue for psychologists, educators, and researchers from other disciplines. An examination of problematic school absenteeism from different perspectives over many decades has led to poor comparability across publications, policies, and assessment and intervention…
This Paper argues that the learning opportunities needed by pre-school children and adolescents beyond school have much in common: both confront what the pioneer of youth work Josephine Brew (1943) named the key problem of the "whole man": combining "social fellowship, recreation and education in one organisation". For both…
In this article, the author explores youth participatory action research (YPAR) through gameplay. He describes Ask Anansi, an alternate reality game (ARG) played in the "real world" by weaving elements of storytelling and fiction into the environment played as part of class experience. This game which the author created drove the…
Urben, Sébastien; Habersaat, Stéphanie; Pihet, Sandrine; Suter, Maya; de Ridder, Jill; Stéphan, Philippe
Youths with conduct disorders (CD) are particularly studied for their violent and aggressive behaviors. Many researchers considered aggressive behaviors as being either reactive or proactive. Moreover, factors such as age of CD onset, impulsivity, and callous-unemotional traits, separately, have been related to these different types of aggressive behaviors. However, very few studies addressed the combined contribution of these three factors on proactive and reactive aggression. This question was tested in a sample composed of 43 male adolescents with CD. A single regression analysis including all predictors and outcomes, using Bayesian statistics, was computed. Results indicated that impulsivity was related to reactive aggression, while CU traits were related to proactive aggression. These results suggest first, an important heterogeneity among youth with CD, probably leading to different trajectories and, second, that youths with callous-unemotional traits should receive special attention and care as they are more at risk for proactive aggression.
Saunders, Travis John; Gray, Casey Ellen; Poitras, Veronica Joan; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Olds, Timothy; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine how combinations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep were associated with important health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for relevant studies examining the relationship between time spent engaging in different combinations of PA, SB, and sleep with the following health indicators: adiposity, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, emotional regulation/psychological distress, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition, quality of life/well-being, injuries, bone density, motor skill development, and self-esteem. PA had to be objectively measured, while sleep and SB could be objectively or subjectively measured. The quality of research evidence and risk of bias for each health indicator and for each individual study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 13 cross-sectional studies and a single prospective cohort study reporting data from 36 560 individual participants met the inclusion criteria. Children and youth with a combination of high PA/high sleep/low SB had more desirable measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic health compared with those with a combination of low PA/low sleep/high SB. Health benefits were also observed for those with a combination of high PA/high sleep (cardiometabolic health and adiposity) or high PA/low SB (cardiometabolic health, adiposity and fitness), compared with low PA/low sleep or low PA/high SB. Of the 3 movement behaviours, PA (especially moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA) was most consistently associated with desirable health indicators. Given the lack of randomized trials, the overall quality of the available evidence was low.
Noting that the population of foster children who "age out" of the foster care system may be even more at risk than other foster children, this research brief summarizes a longer report examining trends in foster care in the United States, the number and needs of those aging out of the system, and public policy implications. The brief indicates…
Stickle, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Neil M; Brush, Lauren N
This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research, results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted for unique variance in aggression above and beyond effects of more established risk factors of early onset of antisocial behavior, social information processing, and impulsivity. These findings add to recent research showing that callous-unemotional traits are a unique risk factor associated with aggression and criminal offending and suggest that targeting both affective and cognitive vulnerabilities may enhance clinical intervention with antisocial youth.
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.
Shriver, Eunice Kennedy
The Media-Smart Youth: Eat, Think, and Be Active! program is an engaging curriculum that helps young people understand the complex media world around them so they can make thoughtful decisions about issues important to their health, specifically nutrition and physical activity. This training guide was developed in response to the requests of…
Brook, M S; Wilkinson, D J; Phillips, B E; Perez-Schindler, J; Philp, A; Smith, K; Atherton, P J
Skeletal muscles comprise a substantial portion of whole body mass and are integral for locomotion and metabolic health. Increasing age is associated with declines in both muscle mass and function (e.g. strength-related performance, power) with declines in muscle function quantitatively outweighing those in muscle volume. The mechanisms behind these declines are multi-faceted involving both intrinsic age-related metabolic dysregulation and environmental influences such as nutritional and physical activity. Ageing is associated with a degree of 'anabolic resistance' to these key environmental inputs, which likely accelerates the intrinsic processes driving ageing. On this basis, strategies to sensitize and/or promote anabolic responses to nutrition and physical activity are likely to be imperative in alleviating the progression and trajectory of sarcopenia. Both resistance- and aerobic-type exercises are likely to confer functional and health benefits in older age, and a clutch of research suggests that enhancement of anabolic responsiveness to exercise and/or nutrition may be achieved by optimizing modifications of muscle-loading paradigms (workload, volume, blood flow restriction) or nutritional support (e.g. essential amino acid/leucine) patterns. Nonetheless, more work is needed in which a more holistic view in ageing studies is taken into account. This should include improved characterization of older study recruits, that is physical activity/nutritional behaviours, to limit confounding variables influencing whether findings are attributable to age, or other environmental influences. Nonetheless, on balance, ageing is associated with declines in muscle mass and function and a partially related decline in aerobic capacity. There is also good evidence that metabolic flexibility is impaired in older age.
Palacio, Hannia; Mateus, Julio C
Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a global health priority. About 40% of new infections occur among heterosexual youth by means of sexual contact. In Cali, district 13, 15 and 20 account for 11.5% of the prevalent cases and 18.0% of incident cases. Objective: To establish differences in risk behaviors for HIV among young people 15-24 yrs of age from two areas of Cali, Colombia. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among young people between 15 and 24 yrs of age in these districts. The selection was done with a two-stage probability sampling. We estimated the prevalence of sexual relationships without condom usage, sex with multiple partners, and sex under the effects of alcohol and through logistical regression we identified the related factors. Results: In district 13, 15 and 20, the prevalence of unprotected sexual relationships in the last 12 months and the prevalence of sex with two or more partners was 70%; and 38% of young people had sex under the effects of alcohol. In both areas, the intention was positively related to the risk behaviors. We found socio-demographic factors, intentions, and beliefs that increase the opportunity to display these behaviors. The effect of these factors differs by district. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of risk behaviors for HIV related to socio-demographic factors, intentions and beliefs that warrant interventions appropriate for local realities. PMID:24892451
Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Poquiz, Jonathan
Stressful life events have been associated with child and adolescent maladjustment, including elevated levels of aggression and anxiety (Attar et al. in J Clin Child Psychol 23:391-400, 1994; Fox et al. in J Adolesc 33:43-54, 2010). However, gender specific outcomes associated with stressful life events among elementary school-age youth are less known. Accordingly, the current study examined the role of gender in the associations between stressful life events and anxiety and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants included 294 elementary school-age children (M = 8.71, SD = 1.17, 50.7 % male). Regression analyses indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with anxiety and reactive, but not proactive, aggression. There were no gender differences with regard to the associations with anxiety symptoms or proactive aggression. However, gender moderated the association between stressful life events and reactive aggression, such that stressful life events were only positively associated with reactive aggression for boys. Future directions and implications of this research are presented.
Hanna, Steven E; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Bartlett, Doreen J; Palisano, Robert J; Walter, Stephen D; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J
This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The resulting longitudinal dataset comprised 3455 observations of 657 children with CP (369 males, 288 females), assessed up to 10 times, at ages ranging from 16 months to 21 years. Motor function was assessed using the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). Participants were classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). We assessed the loss of function in adolescence by contrasting a model of function that assumes no loss with a model that allows for a peak and subsequent decline. We found no evidence of functional decline, on average, for children in GMFCS Levels I and II. However, in Levels III, IV, and V, average GMFM-66 was estimated to peak at ages 7 years 11 months, 6 years 11 months, and 6 years 11 months respectively, before declining by 4.7, 7.8, and 6.4 GMFM-66 points, in Levels III, IV, and V respectively, as these adolescents became young adults. We show that these declines are clinically significant.
Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M.; Reischl, Stephen F.; Landel, Rob F.
Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels. PMID:26537811
Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung
Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders.
Randall, Jason R.; Doku, David; Wilson, Michael L.; Peltzer, Karl
Introduction Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. Methods Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. Discussion The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence. PMID:24505443
Cappelletti, Marinella; Pikkat, Helen; Upstill, Emily; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Walsh, Vincent
Cognitive training aiming at improving learning is often successful, but what exactly underlies the observed improvements and how these differ across the age spectrum are currently unknown. Here we asked whether learning in young and older people may reflect enhanced ability to integrate information required to perform a cognitive task or whether it may instead reflect the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information for successful task performance. We trained 30 young and 30 aging human participants on a numerosity discrimination task known to engage the parietal cortex and in which cue-integration and inhibitory abilities can be distinguished. We coupled training with parietal, motor, or sham transcranial random noise stimulation, known for modulating neural activity. Numerosity discrimination improved after training and was maintained long term, especially in the training + parietal stimulation group, regardless of age. Despite the quantitatively similar improvement in the two age groups, the content of learning differed remarkably: aging participants improved more in inhibitory abilities, whereas younger subjects improved in cue-integration abilities. Moreover, differences in the content of learning were reflected in different transfer effects to untrained but related abilities: in the younger group, improvements in cue integration paralleled improvements in continuous quantity (time and space), whereas in the elderly group, improvements in numerosity-based inhibitory abilities generalized to other measures of inhibition and corresponded to a decline in space discrimination, possibly because conflicting learning resources are used in numerosity and continuous quantity processing. These results indicate that training can enhance different, age-dependent cognitive processes and highlight the importance of identifying the exact processes underlying learning for effective training programs.
Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John
We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…
Anderson, D Mark
Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP's apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana's youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use.
Mori, Y; Kubo, M; Okumo, H; Kuroki, Y
The histological findings of the patellar cartilage were compared between cases of chondromalacia, which occurs predominantly in young persons (22 patients, average age 19.8 years) and cases of osteoarthritis, which is common among the elderly (21 patients, average age 65.4 years). The histological findings of cartilage in the chondromalacia were characterized by increased density and vigorous fibrous metaplasia of chondrocytes. These findings may be considered to represent a reactive change in the chondrocyte. Cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis, by contrast, is regressive and presents a clearly different histological picture from that of chondromalacia patellae. We conclude that chondromalacia does not easily lead to osteoarthritis. On the other hand, the cartilage was characteristically softened, as observed by gross inspection, and showed rarefaction of the cartilage matrix. It should be noted that the change was not observed in aging, but showed a pattern of cartilage degeneration peculiar to young patients with chondromalacia patellae.
Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.
Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757
Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Chao
In China, the gender ratio of suicide rates did not match the Western patterns, which was higher for females than males. However, the rural men were at relatively high risk of suicide in Liaoning province. Impulsivity was an important factor of suicide behaviors, but there was a lack of studies in China. This research aimed to study the relationship between impulsive personality traits and suicidal behavior among Chinese rural youths. Suicides were consecutively sampled from six randomly selected counties in Liaoning Province in China. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 162 suicide victims were enrolled in the study along with 162 community controls matched for age, gender, and location. The psychological autopsy method was used to collect data from informants knowledgeable about the selected suicide victims and controls. The results showed the suicide victims in the study were more likely to demonstrate dysfunctional impulsivity and less likely to demonstrate functional impulsivity compared with the controls. Mental disorders, acute negative life events and dysfunctional impulsivity contributed to the risk of suicide; educational and functional impulsivity were protective factors. Suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity. PMID:26110614
Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Chao
In China, the gender ratio of suicide rates did not match the Western patterns, which was higher for females than males. However, the rural men were at relatively high risk of suicide in Liaoning province. Impulsivity was an important factor of suicide behaviors, but there was a lack of studies in China. This research aimed to study the relationship between impulsive personality traits and suicidal behavior among Chinese rural youths. Suicides were consecutively sampled from six randomly selected counties in Liaoning Province in China. Between 2005 and 2007, a total of 162 suicide victims were enrolled in the study along with 162 community controls matched for age, gender, and location. The psychological autopsy method was used to collect data from informants knowledgeable about the selected suicide victims and controls. The results showed the suicide victims in the study were more likely to demonstrate dysfunctional impulsivity and less likely to demonstrate functional impulsivity compared with the controls. Mental disorders, acute negative life events, and dysfunctional impulsivity contributed to the risk of suicide; educational and functional impulsivity were protective factors. Suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity.
Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin
The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference.
Martinez, Monica; Schilling, Susan
Given that information age technologies are as natural to the Net generation as breathing, it is time to provide learning experiences that maximize their use in schools. The authors argue that integrating technology into learning is central to creating the meaningful learning opportunities needed to engage and motivate youth today. To achieve this…
Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.
Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…
Recent reports of out-of-school immigrant youth have brought attention to predominantly Mexican and Central American immigrant youth who immigrate to the United States and do not enroll in formal schooling (Fry, 2002; Hill and Hayes, 2007). Many arrive to the United States unaccompanied, joining their older, undocumented counterparts in becoming…
Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Age, Tolonda Ricard
This study examined coping, effortful control, and mental health among 65 youth (ages 9-15) residing in families where at least one parent was serving in the United States military. Parents provided basic demographic and deployment information. Youth reported on their coping, effortful control, and adjustment using standardized self-report…
Mishra, Jyoti; Zanto, Theodore; Nilakantan, Aneesha; Gazzaley, Adam
Intrasensory interference during visual working memory (WM) maintenance by object stimuli (such as faces and scenes), has been shown to negatively impact WM performance, with greater detrimental impacts of interference observed in aging. Here we assessed age-related impacts by intrasensory WM interference from lower-level stimulus features such as visual and auditory motion stimuli. We consistently found that interference in the form of ignored distractions and secondary task interruptions presented during a WM maintenance period, degraded memory accuracy in both the visual and auditory domain. However, in contrast to prior studies assessing WM for visual object stimuli, feature-based interference effects were not observed to be significantly greater in older adults. Analyses of neural oscillations in the alpha frequency band further revealed preserved mechanisms of interference processing in terms of post-stimulus alpha suppression, which was observed maximally for secondary task interruptions in visual and auditory modalities in both younger and older adults. These results suggest that age-related sensitivity of WM to interference may be limited to complex object stimuli, at least at low WM loads.
The "struggle between liberties and authorities", as described by Mill, refers to the tension between individual rights and the rules restricting them that are imposed by public authorities exerting their power over civil society. In this paper I argue that contemporary information societies are experiencing a new form of such a struggle, which now involves liberties and authorities in the cyber-sphere and, more specifically, refers to the tension between cyber-security measures and individual liberties. Ethicists, political philosophers and political scientists have long debated how to strike an ethically sound balance between security measures and individual rights. I argue that such a balance can only be reached once individual rights are clearly defined, and that such a definition cannot prescind from an analysis of individual well-being in the information age. Hence, I propose an analysis of individual well-being which rests on the capability approach, and I then identify a set of rights that individuals should claim for themselves. Finally, I consider a criterion for balancing the proposed set of individual rights with cyber-security measures in the information age.
White House Conference on Youth, Washington, DC.
This resource book is a compilation of data about youth which was prepared for the participants of the White House Conference on Youth. The tabular data are divided into eleven sections. In the first section, the youth population, ages 14 through 24, is contrasted with the general population with respect to geographic location, race, marital…
Wolk, Donald J., Ed.
This pamphlet was written for social studies teachers to inform and stimulate the creative programing of drug education. Chapters written by the editor were: 1) Why drugs?; 2) The Drugs of Concern; 3) Excessive Drug Use: Signs, Symptoms, and Family-Related Factors; and, 4) Four Rules for Teaching about Drugs. Other authors and chapter titles are:…
This article makes a connection between youth work spaces, emotions and some elements of memory, exploring the construction of spaces dangerous for social justice in both meanings of the term "dangerous for". It investigates the contribution to social justice of lesbian and gay youth work and other non-heteronormative youth work in a…
In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.
Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George
This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age.
Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto
The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) grew up with and has been riding the waves of the Information Age, closely monitoring and anticipating the needs of its end-users. By now, all professional astronomers are using the ADS on a daily basis, and a substantial fraction have been using it for their entire professional career. In addition to being an indispensable tool for professional scientists, the ADS also moved into the public domain, as a tool for science education. In this paper we will highlight and discuss some aspects indicative of the impact the ADS has had on research and the access to scholarly publications.
Primack, Brian A; Escobar-Viera, César G
For transitional age individuals, social media (SM) is an integral component of connecting with others. There are 2 billion SM users worldwide. SM users may experience an increase in perceived social support and life satisfaction. Use of SM may facilitate forming connections among people with potentially stigmatizing mental disorders. However, epidemiologic studies suggest that increased SM use is associated with conditions such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Future research should examine directionality of these associations and the role of contextual factors. It also will be useful to leverage SM to provide mental health care and surveillance of mental health concerns.
Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia
Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495
Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V
To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.
Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.
To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted. PMID:26426029
Nalkur, Priya G.
This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…
Evans, Shenell D; Mellins, Claude Ann; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Warne, Patricia; Elkington, Katherine S; Dolezal, Curtis; Santamaria, E Karina; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Jurgrau-Voulgari, Andrea S; Abrams, Elaine J
We examined youth-caregiver adherence report concordance and association of different adherence self-report items with HIV RNA viral load (VL) in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents assessed in 2003-2008. Youth (n=194; 9-19 years) and their caregivers completed a multi-step 2-day recall, one item on last time medications were missed, and one item on responsibility for managing youths' medications. Across early (9-12 years), middle (13-15 years), and late (16+years) adolescence, both youth and caregivers reported having primary responsibility for youths' medication regimens and demonstrated poor to moderate youth-caregiver concordance on adherence items. Responses to the last-time-missed item had greater association with VL than did the 2-day recall, particularly for longer times (e.g., past month). By age group, significant associations with VL were found for caregiver reports in early adolescence, caregiver and youth reports in middle adolescence, and youth reports in late adolescence, suggesting that caregivers offer better reports of youth adherence during early adolescence, but by later adolescence, youth are better informants. Although design limitations preclude definitive conclusions about the reliability and validity of specific adherence items, this study suggests important issues related to age group, caregiver vs. youth informants of adherence, and recall periods for child adherence assessment that warrant further research.
Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.
A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…
Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna
The Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) is used to assess behavioral and emotional outcomes for youth. Research providing evidence for use of the BASC-2 parent-report form historically has included biological parents reporting on their children (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004). For youth residing in out-of-home placements through enrollment in foster care, caregivers reporting on their functioning may include foster parents or residential staff. Given the significant adverse mental health outcomes for youth in foster care and the need to adequately assess adjustment in foster care, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the measurement properties of caregivers' report on the parent report form (PRS) of the BASC-2 in foster care youth. Using 479 respondents, a measurement model was fit to the data demonstrating adequate fit across Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills. Further, a comparison of measurement properties across child and adolescent groups and groups of youth residing in residential facilities versus foster homes was conducted. Factorial invariance and latent means also were assessed. The BASC-2 PRS was found to be an adequate assessment of psychological outcomes for youth in foster care when completed by foster parents or residential facility staff.
Ridenour, Ty A; Caldwell, Linda L; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gold, Melanie A
Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance precede changes in conduct disorder criteria or substance use or vice versa, or if they change concomitantly. Two-year longitudinal data from 246 8- to 16-year-olds suggested that tolerance of deviance increases after conduct disorder criteria or substance use in 8-to-10- and 11-to-12-year-olds. These results were consistent with cognitive dissonance theory. In 13-to-16- year-olds, no directionality was suggested, consistent with neither theory. These results were replicated in boys and girls and for different types of conduct disorder criteria aggression (covert behavior), deceitfulness and vandalism (overt behavior), and serious rule-breaking (authority conflict). The age-specific directionality between tolerance of deviance and conduct disorder criteria or substance use is consistent with unique etiologies between early onset versus adolescent-onset subtypes of behavior problems.
Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.
This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% Male) 2nd thru 4th grade students (Mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes than physical victimization. Neither relational aggression nor victimization were linked to risk for substance use. Specifically targeting physical aggression for the prevention of early substance use among elementary school-age youth appears to be warranted. PMID:26702250
Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J.
Neurocognitive dysfunction is a central feature of schizophrenia and is observed during all phases of the illness. Because schizophrenia is known to run in families, studying neurocognitive function in first-degree, nonpsychotic relatives has been a widely utilized strategy for almost 50 years for understanding presumed “genetic risk.” Studying nonpsychotic relatives (“familial high-risk” or (FHR)) allows for identification of cognitive vulnerability markers independent of confounds associated with psychosis. Prior meta-analyses have elucidated the level and pattern of cognitive deficits in the premorbid, prodromal and post-onset periods of psychosis, and in relatives regardless of age. However, no prior quantitative analyses have specifically focused on studies of young first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia who have not passed through the peak age illness risk (< age 30). The English language literature of neuropsychological studies of first-degree relatives for schizophrenia was identified through May 15th, 2011. From 33 studies, 28 studies met our criteria for quantitative review, utilizing >70 individual tests and 250 variables. In general, young FHR individuals demonstrated deficits with a moderate level of severity compared with healthy controls. The largest average effect sizes (ESs), based on tests given in at least 3 independent studies, were on estimates of Full Scale IQ (d=−0.777), followed by Vocabulary (d=−0.749) and single word reading tests (d=−0.698) (often used as estimates of IQ). Measures of sustained attention, working memory and others had more modest ESs. Deficits were milder than in established schizophrenia, but at least as severe as in clinical high-risk (HR) or putatively prodromal participants and in older relatives examined in prior meta-analyses. Additionally, while assessed from a more limited literature, youth at FHR for schizophrenia tended to show worse neurocognitive functioning than those at FHR
Masi, Gabriele; Mucci, Maria; Pias, Paola; Muratori, Filippo
Among the youths referred to our Psychiatric Inpatient Emergency Service, we focused on bipolar disorder (BD), to explore predictive elements for the outcome. Fifty-one patients (30 males, 21 females, age range 8-18 years, mean age 14.2 plus or minus 3.1 years) received a diagnosis of BD, according to historical information, prolonged…
Hutchinson, Debbie R.; Sanders, Rex; Faust, T.
Executive Summary -- The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) held a workshop on 'Making USGS Information Effective in the Electronic Age' in Woods Hole, MA, on 6-8 February 2001. The workshop was designed to address broad issues of knowledge and communication, and to help develop the mission, vision, and goals of the National Knowledge Bank called for in the 1999 NRC review of the CMGP. Presentations led by historians and philosophers yield to a wide-ranging review and discussion of the role of USGS science in society: USGS science is important to government to understand certain complicated public policy issues (such as the environment), but we must participate in two-way public dialogs to increase our relevance and usefulness. Presentations led by USGS communications experts reviewed the principles of audience analysis and effective communications: this focused look at audiences, markets, and products provided an introduction to the behaviors, the tools, and the terminology that might be applied to public discourse. Presentations by several information technology experts showed the potential - and pitfalls - of current schemes for Web-based information access. Finally, several brainstorming sessions developed action items, vision, and characteristics of a knowledge bank. Based on the workshop discussions and results, the authors developed the National Knowledge Bank Mission, Vision, and Goals statements.
Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle
Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries.
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
The Peace Corps Programming and Training System (PATS) manual is designed to help field staff members of the Peace Corps train volunteers. This supplement to the PATS manual was developed to provide complementary information about key aspects of Peace Corps programming and training for youth development. It is intended for individuals involved in…
Naslund, Rebecka; Gardelli, Asa
This study introduces how technology and humans are part of relationships that influence agency among people with disabilities. It aims to focus attention on the use of, and access to, information and communication technology (ICT), and agency among youths and adults with intellectual disabilities. The study draws on empirical research conducted…
Cunningham, Carolyn Michelle
This dissertation asks how the communication dimensions of technological literacy are understood in three informal education programs in Texas that aim to bridge the digital divide for female and low-income minority youth. Technological literacy is a prerequisite for economic, political, and cultural equality, yet different rationales for…
Brown, Alan; Mills, Julian
A study examined the role of computer and information technology (CIT) instruction in the Youth Training Scheme (YTS). A number of successful local YTS training schemes and initiatives were identified and analyzed. One phase of this analysis focused on standards, accreditation, and progression in the CIT component of the YTS. Special attention was…
Strack, Robert W; Magill, Cathleen; McDonagh, Kara
The photovoice process aims to use photographic images taken by persons with little money, power, or status to enhance community needs assessments, empower participants, and induce change by informing policy makers of community assets and deficits. This article describes a youth photovoice project implemented in an after-school program that attempted to adapt the photovoice method to youth participants, test the effectiveness of the method with youth, and develop and refine a curriculum for replication. A process such as photovoice provides youth the opportunity to develop their personal and social identities and can be instrumental in building social competency. Youth should and need to be given the opportunity to build and confirm their abilities, to comment on their experiences and insights, and to develop a social morality for becoming a positive agent within their communities and society. For more examples of photos taken by the youth during this project, visit http://www.jhsph.edu/youthphotovoice.
... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan
Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4(1/2) years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with escalating positive effects at higher levels of quality. The association between quality and achievement was mediated, in part, by earlier child-care effects on achievement. High-quality early child care also predicted youth reports of less externalizing behavior. More hours of nonrelative care predicted greater risk taking and impulsivity at age 15, relations that were partially mediated by earlier child-care effects on externalizing behaviors.
..., employment, earnings, delinquency and involvement with the criminal justice system, and youth social and..., criminal behavior, social and emotional development and affordable housing. The program primarily...
Gordon, James S.
Outlines the evaluation of a suburban hotline. Among its foci is the interrelationship between the growth and development of a core group of youthful phone aides and that of the organization as a whole. (Author/AM)
Fuxman, Shai; De Los Santos, Sabrina; Finkelstein, Daniel; Landon, Mary Kay; O'Donnell, Lydia
The study examined the relationship between young adolescents' sources of information on sex and precursors to sexual activity. Surveys were conducted with 3,940 Latino sixth grade students. According to results, girls who received information from their parents were less likely to engage in sex precursors. For boys, getting information from other…
This handbook is for youth placed in foster care through local departments of social services (DSS) (not the juvenile justice system). The handbook was written for youth entering foster care for the first time as well as youth already in foster care, in the hope that youth entering or already in foster care will find the information helpful. The…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently? (a) Yes, under the Act, eligible youth are 14 through 21 years of age. Adults are defined in...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently? (a) Yes, under the Act, eligible youth are 14 through 21 years of age. Adults are defined in...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently? (a) Yes, under the Act, eligible youth are 14 through 21 years of age. Adults are defined in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently? (a) Yes, under the Act, eligible youth are 14 through 21 years of age. Adults are defined in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs concurrently? (a) Yes, under the Act, eligible youth are 14 through 21 years of age. Adults are defined in...
Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.
In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…
Brady, Bernadine; Canavan, John; Redmond, Susan
While there is considerable support among the policy, practice and academic communities for the idea that practice in youth work should be based on evidence, Veerman and Van Yperen (2007) highlight the fact that little practice in the area of youth care is actually evidence based due to the paucity of experimental studies in the field and the difficulties associated with evaluation of non-standardised interventions such as youth work. They propose a model consisting of levels of evidence, the aim of which is to 'bridge the gap between evidence based and evidence informed practice' (p. 218). In order to address the dearth of examples in the international literature of how organisations have dealt with these complexities in practice, this article provides a case study of how a large Irish youth organisation, Foróige, has endeavoured to adopt an inclusive approach to evidence, working towards both evidence based and evidence informed practice. Drawing on Veerman and Van Yperen's (2007) framework, the case study shows that Foróige committed itself to gathering different types of evidence, including logic models and theoretical understandings at the foundation level and experimental design studies of key programmes at the advanced level. The case study focuses in detail on the intermediate level, whereby practitioners were trained to evaluate aspects of their own work, with a view to embedding evaluation and reflection in day to day practice. The process is described and key lessons emerging are discussed.
... Administration's (ETA) to extend the reporting and recordkeeping requirements of the YouthBuild (YB) program and...: Grantees--Not for profit institutions Form(s): ETA-9136, ETA-9138 and ETA-9143, Work Site Description... applications received in ETA's last three YouthBuild competitions. Total Annual Respondents: 645....
... Action on Prescription Drug Abuse in Youth AGENCY: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes...: The National Institute on Drug Abuse, a Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health, is... General response to the public health problem of prescription drug abuse among youth....
Loeber, Rolf; Menting, Barbara; Lynam, Donald R.; Moffitt, Terri E.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Stallings, Rebecca; Farrington, David P.; Pardini, Dustin
Objective: This article first summarizes key research findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study from 1987 to the present, and focuses on delinquency in 1,517 young men who have been followed up from late childhood into their 20s. Second, the article addresses how indicators of self-control prospectively predict later offending, and whether the…
Herrick, Kirsten A.; Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Carlson, Susan A.; Fulton, Janet E.
Excessive screen-time behaviors, such as using a computer and watching TV, for more than 2 hours daily have been linked with elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, and being overweight or obese among youth. Additionally, screen-time behavior established in adolescence has been shown to track into adulthood. The National Heart, Lung,…
Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold
The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…
Torres, Maria de los Angeles
Concerns about declining political participation in the United States have once again raised the question of how young people get involved in politics. This project focuses on engaged youths and explores the personal trajectories, people and institutions that encouraged them to become engaged with their communities. The report also discusses how…
This paper draws on a case study of one youth activist, and explores connections between social media activism, identity development, and critical education. Justin Rodriguez, a 17-year-old high school student in Newark, New Jersey, leveraged social media and texting as organizing tools and garnered support for a school walkout to protest…
In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…
Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Burt, Vicki L.; Song, MinKyoung; Fulton, Janet E.; Ogden, Cynthia L.
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, which have been adopted by the First Lady's Let's Move! initiative and the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend that youth participate in "daily" moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes. This report presents the most recent national data from 2012 on…
Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.
This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…
... (at the individual, classroom, or school level) evaluation design, which will involve baseline surveys... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and...
A study surveyed 241 high-achieving youth aged 15-25 regarding how innovation can be made sustainable among youth in Canada. Results were insightful and pointed to actionable steps for the Youth Action Council for Sustainable Innovation and the federal government. Findings indicated the following: youth can be more innovative if they have the…
Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John
We describe two frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is “immutable”, but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. Based on an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a “bottom-up” model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A second framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300
Flanagin, Andrew J.; Metzger, Miriam J.
How well do children navigate the ocean of information that is available online? The enormous variety of Web-based resources represents both opportunities and challenges for Internet-savvy kids, offering extraordinary potential for learning and social connection but little guidance on assessing the reliability of online information. This book…
Grasso, Anthony J., Ed.; Epstein, Irwin, Ed.
This book describes Boysville's 5-year effort to design, implement, and evaluate an agency-based computerized management information, program evaluation, and clinical decision-making system, BOMIS (Boysville Management Information System). The goal of BOMIS is the integration of the four intervention programs, through the collection, analysis,…
Walther, Andreas; Stauber, Barbara; Pohl, Axel
This article deals with informal networks and their role in young people's strategies of coping with the uncertainties of transitions to work. The underlying hypothesis is that informal networks have a high potential in this regard that, however, is strongly differentiated according to class and education. Drawing on West German data from the…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Shiu, Chen-Shi; Krieger, Cathy
Background: Access and adoption of HIV prevention information are important criteria for reducing HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men. Methods: Using focus group data, researchers sought to identify sources of HIV prevention information and barriers to adopting protective behaviors among young African American men who have sex with…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken
The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…
Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Quest, A. Del; Powers, Jennifer; Powers, Laurie E.; Geenen, Sarah; Nelson, May; Dalton, Lawrence D.; McHugh, Elizabeth
Efforts to evaluate foster care outcomes must avoid systematic exclusion of particular groups. Although often unrecognized as such, youth with disabilities are highly overrepresented in the U.S. foster care system, and yet youth with some disabilities, including those with intellectual, serious emotional, and physical impairments may be underrepresented in research and evaluation studies evaluating foster care outcomes. The recruitment and retention of youth with various disabilities in such studies can be impeded by under-identification of disability and relatively high placement and school mobility. Furthermore, youth with various disabilities may experience more disappointing outcomes than foster youth overall, underscoring the importance of including these youth in outcome tracking efforts. This is especially relevant given the recent implementation of the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD), which requires that state child welfare agencies gather baseline information about youth in foster care at age 17, and then survey outcomes at 19 and 21. To promote the full participation of foster youth with disabilities in such outcome evaluation, this paper describes successful strategies for identifying and retaining participants that were used in three separate longitudinal intervention studies. These strategies include the systematic recruitment of foster youth by special education status, and creative use of validated tracking and retention strategies incorporating minor accommodations as needed. PMID:24273364
Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S
Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence.
Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B; Proctor, Laura J; Litrownik, Alan J; English, Diana J; Runyan, Desmond K; Wiley, Tisha R; Dubowitz, Howard
Studies have consistently demonstrated a lack of agreement between youth and parent reports regarding youth-witnessed violence (YWV). However, little empirical investigation has been conducted on the correlates of disagreement. Concordance between youth and parents about YWV was examined in 766 parent-youth dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Results showed that significantly more youth (42%) than parents (15%) reported YWV. Among the dyads in which at least one informant reported YWV (N = 344), we assessed whether youth delinquency, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, history of child maltreatment, income, and parental depression were predictive of parent-youth concordance. Findings indicated that youth engagement in delinquent activities was higher in the groups in which the youth reported violence exposure. More empirical study is needed to assess correlates of agreement in high-risk youth to better inform associations found between exposures and outcomes as well as practice and policy for violence exposed youth.
Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina
The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.
Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Fabiyi, Camille; Lyman, Phoebe; Wilson, Claire; Hill, Brandon; Bouris, Alida
This project developed and studied The Source, an alternate reality game (ARG) designed to foster interest and knowledge related to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among youth from populations underrepresented in STEM fields. ARGs are multiplayer games that engage participants across several media such as shared websites, social media, personal communications, and real-world settings to complete activities and collaborate with team members. The Source was a five-week summer program with 144 participants from Chicago aged 13 to 18 years. The Source incorporated six socio-contextual factors derived from three frameworks: Chang's (ERIC Digest, 2002) recommendations for engaging underrepresented populations in STEM careers, Lave and Wenger's (Cambridge University Press, 1991) situated learning model, and Barron's (Human Development, 49(4); 193-224, 2006) learning ecology perspective. These factors aligned with the program's aims of promoting (1) social community and peer support, (2) collaboration and teamwork, (3) real-world relevance and investigative learning, (4) mentoring and exposure to STEM professionals, (5) hands-on activities to foster transferable skill building, and (6) interface with technology. This paper presents results from 10 focus groups and 10 individual interviews conducted with a subset of the 144 youth participants who completed the game. It describes how these six factors were realized through The Source and uses them as a lens for considering how The Source functioned pedagogically. Qualitative findings describe youth's perception of The Source's potential influence on STEM interest, engagement, and identity formation. Despite limitations, study results indicate that underrepresented youth can engage in an immersive, narrative, and game-based experience as a potential mechanism for piquing and developing STEM interest and skills, particularly among underrepresented youth.
Santisteban, Daniel; Mena, Maite P.
The increasing utilization of evidence-based treatments has highlighted the need for interventions that are effective with Hispanic substance abusing youth and families. The list of evidence-based treatments is limited in its inclusion of interventions that are responsive to the unique characteristics and treatment needs of young Hispanics and that have been tested with this population. Some treatments that have been tested with Hispanics do not articulate the manner in which cultural characteristics and therapy processes interact. Other treatments have emphasized the important role of culture but have not been tested rigorously. The value of well designed interventions built upon an appreciation for unique patient characteristics was highlighted by Beutler et al.,1996 when they argued that “psychotherapy is comprised of a set of complex tasks, and practitioners need comprehensive knowledge of how different processes used in psychotherapy interact with patient characteristics in order to make treatment decisions that will maximize and optimize therapeutic power” (page 30). A focus on how treatment processes interact with patient characteristics is particularly relevant in the Hispanic population because of the considerable heterogeneity beneath the Hispanic umbrella. Our new program of clinical research focuses on articulating how the varied profiles with regard to immigration stressors, acculturation processes, values clashes, sense of belonging to the community, discrimination, and knowledge about issues important to adolescent health, can be more effectively addressed by a culturally informed treatment. PMID:19579908
LaVergne, Douglas D.
The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…
There is broad empirical evidence, but still a lack of theoretical explanations, for the phenomenon that most older people feel considerably younger than their real age. In this article, a measurement model of subjective age was assessed, and two independent theoretical approaches are proposed: (1) a motivational approach assuming that the age…
... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; AGE Search Service AGENCY: U.S. Census....firstname.lastname@example.org ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Age Search is a service provided by the U.S. Census Bureau for persons who need official transcripts of personal data as proof of age for...
.... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Age Search Service AGENCY: U.S. Census... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION I. Abstract Age Search is a service provided by the U.S. Census Bureau for persons who need official transcripts of personal data as proof of age for pensions, retirement plans,...
Madrigal, Osiel; Schreiber, Deborah
This study provides empirical evidence that an information-age mindset exists; it is not necessarily age-specific; and it appears to be related to both the student's interaction with a digital environment over time, and the success or failure while online. Eight of ten identified information-age mindset attributes are significant, and represent…
... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for use in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act... Information and Regulatory Affairs, Attn: OMB Desk Officer for DOL-ETA, Office of Management and Budget, Room... them attain a high school diploma or general educational development and teaching them...
Percheski, Christine; Hargittai, Eszter
Objective: The authors examined the sources of health information among first-year university students and whether the predictors of information-seeking varied by information source. Participants: First-year students in a required course at a midwestern public university were eligible to participate, and 82% (n = 1,060) completed the study.…
This paper suggests that library and information systems provide access to claims to knowledge rather than to knowledge or information and that such claims to knowledge are in fact claims to truth. The stated purpose of the paper is to explain why the library and information community should adhere to at least soft, if not hard, skepticism with…
American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Library Instruction Round Table.
Bibliographic Instruction (BI), which focuses on the need to make library patrons become more proficient in locating and using information, is a major contributor to information literacy. The 14 papers and essays in this volume describe approaches to proactive interaction with library users with the single goal of achieving an information literate…
This article attempts to articulate in broad outline the post-industrial regime of knowledge and information and point out its fatal flaw. The Internet is treated as a socio-technological complex animated by capital and information. The notion of information is interrogated and an alternative notion closer to our everyday intuitions is proposed.…
Karch, Debra L; Logan, J; McDaniel, Dawn D; Floyd, C Faye; Vagi, Kevin J
We examined the circumstances that precipitated suicide among 1,046 youth aged 10-17 years in 16 U.S. states from 2005 to 2008. The majority of deaths were among male subjects (75.2%), non-Hispanic whites (69.3%), those aged 16-17 years (58.1%), those who died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation (50.2%) and those who died in a house or an apartment (82.5%). Relationship problems, recent crises, mental health problems, and intimate partner and school problems were the most common precipitating factors and many differed by sex. School problems were reported for 25% of decedents, of which 30.3% were a drop in grades and 12.4% were bullying related. Prevention strategies directed toward relationship-building, problem-solving, and increasing access to treatment may be beneficial for this population.
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis
To explore the decline in online sexual solicitations between 2000 and 2010 by examining the characteristics of solicitations to better inform prevention efforts. Data are from the Youth Internet Safety Surveys (YISS); three cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone surveys of 3561 youth Internet users in the United States, ages 10 through 17 (1501 in YISS-1; 1500 in YISS-2; 1560 in YISS-3). Unwanted online sexual solicitation was defined as requests to engage in sexual activities or sexual talk or give personal sexual information that were unwanted or, whether wanted or not, made by an adult. The decline in unwanted sexual solicitations from 19% in 2000 to 13% in 2005 to 9% in 2010 was driven by a reduction in youth who were being asked to talk about sex or for personal sexual information online. Pre-teens (ages 10-12) accounted for the majority of this decline. Multiple solicitations over the course of a year also decreased. More solicitations occurred at the hands of people youth knew in person prior to the incident - mainly friends and acquaintances, and less so at the hands of people youth met online. By 2010 most solicitations were occurring through social networking sites. Victims were disclosing solicitation incidents at greater rates in 2010 - mostly to friends. In spite of continuing anxiety about the impact of the Internet on the safety of youth, encouraging trends suggest experiences, behavior and education are moving in the direction of greater online safety and improved experiences for youth.
Wei, Chiaying; Hoff, Alexandra; Villabø, Marianne A; Peterman, Jeremy; Kendall, Philip C; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John T; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda; Keeton, Courtney; Gosch, Elizabeth; Compton, Scott N; March, John
The present study examined the psychometric properties, including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the youth self-report and parent-report forms of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents and youth (N = 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 to 17 who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Although the typical low agreement between parent and youth self-reports was found, the MASC evidenced good internal reliability across MASC subscales and informants. The main MASC subscales (i.e., Physical Symptoms, Harm Avoidance, Social Anxiety, and Separation/Panic) were examined. The Social Anxiety and Separation/Panic subscales were found to be significantly predictive of the presence and severity of social phobia and separation anxiety disorder, respectively. Using multiple informants improved the accuracy of prediction. The MASC subscales demonstrated good psychometric properties and clinical utilities in identifying youth with anxiety disorders.
Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.
Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130
Petros, Thomas V.; And Others
Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…
The dot-com crash of 2000-01 provides unique opportunities for historicizing what Manuel Castells calls the information age. This age is characterized by the dominance of information capital, a regime of accumulation organized around networks of computers and other information technologies whose production is partly centered in Northern…
The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.
Morris, Matthew C.; Walker, Lynn; Bruehl, Stephen; Hellman, Natalie; Sherman, Amanda L.; Rao, Uma
Race and ethnicity shape the experience of pain in adults, with African Americans typically exhibiting greater pain intensity and evoked pain responsiveness than Non-Hispanic Whites. However, it remains unclear whether there are racial differences in conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and if these are present in youth. CPM refers to a reduction in perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus and may be especially relevant in determining risk for chronic pain. The present study assessed CPM to evoked thermal pain in 78 healthy youth (ages 10 to 17), 51% of whom were African American and 49% were Non-Hispanic White. African-American youth reported lower mean conditioning pain ratings than Non-Hispanic White youth, controlling for mean pre-conditioning pain ratings, which is consistent with stronger CPM. Multilevel models demonstrated stronger CPM effects in African-American than Non-Hispanic White youth, as evident in more rapid within-person decreases in pain ratings during the conditioning phase. These findings suggest that diminished CPM likely does not account for the enhanced responsiveness to evoked thermal pain observed in African-American youth. These results may have implications for understanding racial differences in chronic pain experience in adulthood. Perspective This study evaluated conditioned pain modulation to evoked thermal pain in African-American and Non-Hispanic White youth. Findings could have implications for the development of personalized chronic pain treatment strategies that are informed by race and ethnicity. PMID:26086899
Douma, J. C. H.; Dekker, M. C.; Koot, H. M.
Background: Parents of children and adolescents with both intellectual disabilities (ID) and psychopathology often experience high levels of parenting stress. To support these parents, information is required regarding the types of support they need and whether their needs are met. Method: In a sample of 745 youths (aged 10-24 years) with moderate…
DIGITIZED CHAOS: IS OUR MILITARY DECISION MAKING PROCESS READY FOR THE INFORMATION AGE ? A MONOGRAPH BY Major John W. Charlton Infantry SETCLAVIS COR...FOR THE INFORMATION AGE ? By Major John W. Charlton, USA, 70 Pages. The integration of new technologies has always been important to the military. The...must accompany the new technology in order to exploit its full capabilities. Today the Army is looking at ways to integrate information age , or digital
Brown, Scott C.; Park, Denise C.
Younger (n=40) and older (n=40) adults received information on either familiar or unfamiliar diseases and answered questions about it. Older adults learned less regardless of familiarity or type of memory test. Both older and younger participants learned less new information about familiar diseases. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)
This paper asks the question of how we can situate the educational subject in what Luciano Floridi has defined as an "informational ontology" (Floridi in "The philosophy of information." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011a). It will suggest that Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler offer paths toward rethinking the…
Gratch, Bonnie G.
Reports on a study of the information-seeking behavior of users of Infotrac, OCLC, Newsbank Electronic Index, and LS/2 at the Bowling Green State University Libraries. Following a brief description of the data gathered by interviews, a model for library user education that considers automated information retrieval is presented. (2 references) (MES)
Lorenzen, Elizabeth A., Ed.
This volume's topics include librarian role and ethical issues in Internet searching, strategies for locating career resources on the Internet and World Wide Web, career information for "Generation X" and for alumni, collaboration between libraries and university career services, career information gophers, and electronic privacy and…
Duttweiler, Robert W.
The future role of libraries will develop as a consequence of social, technological, political, economic, and educational factors that are evident today, including: (1) the development of an information society and the question of paper versus paperless means of transmitting information; (2) the growing use of micrographics, telecommunications,…
Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84). We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling. PMID:22971572
Cotter, G.; Frame, M.; Sepic, R.; Zolly, L.
Coordinated by the US Geological Survey, the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) is a Web-based system that provides increased access to data and information on the nation's biological resources. The NBII can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. This article - an individual case study and not a broad survey with extensive references to the literature - addresses the structure of the NBII related to thematic sections, infrastructure sections and place-based sections, and other topics such as the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (one of our more innovative tools) and the development of our controlled vocabulary.
Leal, Stephanie L; Yassa, Michael A
Episodic memory loss is one of the hallmarks of age-related cognitive decline and a major symptom of Alzheimer's disease. The persistence and strength of memories is determined by modulatory factors such as emotional arousal. Whether emotional memories are preserved with age or if these memories are just as susceptible to loss and forgetting is not well understood. We have recently shown that emotion alters how similar memories are stored using nonoverlapping representations (i.e., pattern separation) in an emotional mnemonic discrimination task. Here, we extend this work to testing young and older adults at 2 time points (immediately after encoding and 24 hr later). Overall, older adults performed worse than young adults, a memory deficit that was not secondary to perceptual or attentional deficits. When tested immediately, older adults were impaired on neutral target recognition but intact on emotional target recognition. We also found that a pattern we previously reported in young adults (reduced emotional compared to neutral discrimination of similar items) was reversed in older adults. When tested after 24 hr, young adults exhibited less forgetting of emotional targets compared to neutral, while older adults exhibited more forgetting of emotional targets. Finally, discrimination of highly similar positive items was preserved in older adults. These results suggest that emotional modulation of memory interacts with age in a complex manner such that the emotion-induced memory trade-off reported in young adults is reversed in older adults. These findings shed light on how emotion and memory interact in the aging brain.
Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.
This is a paper summary to be published in the proceedings of the Winter Meeting of the American Nuclear Society. It describes a method for expanding probabilistic risk assessment models to address issues associated with the management of aging nuclear power plants and the prioritization of materials degradation research.
University education is still generally conducted within pre-Industrial Age organizational structures. As a result of their inability to evolve the predominant cohort-based classroom structure to more cost-effectively meet the aspirations of burgeoning worldwide populations for higher education, universities may see substantial organizational…
Kowalski, Robin M; Giumetti, Gary W; Schroeder, Amber N; Lattanner, Micah R
Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k < 5). Finally, the present results uncover important areas for future research. We provide a relevant agenda, including the need for understanding the incremental impact of cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes.
Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W
Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior.
Fan, Xiying; Wu, Gang
Cultivation of students' learning autonomy has raised new challenges to teachers' professional development, dynamic, continuous, lifelong full-scale development, with emphasis on the creativity and constancy of the teachers' quality development. The teachers' professional development can take the following approaches: studying theories about foreign language teaching with the aid of modern information technology; organizing online teaching research activities supported by information technology and carrying peer observation and dialogue -teaching reflection in internet environment and fostering scholarly teachers.
instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send...of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1997 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00...implications for organizations and societies. James Beniger’s The Control Revolution (1986, pp. 9–10) offers an exemplary picture of this view, in which
Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer
There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701
Castel, Alan D
In order to examine the nature of associative memory deficits in old age, the present study examined how younger and older adults link numerical and object information to other items. The hypothesis was that there would be large age differences for numerical information caused by the arbitrariness and specificity of this type of information, but that this could be reduced by expertise. Participants studied sentences that contained numeric quantity, object, and location information (e.g., 26 cherries in the bowl); they were later cued with the location and had to recall the object and quantity. In general, there were significant age differences for quantity recall but negligible age differences for recall of related objects but not unrelated objects. However, a group of older retired accountants and bookkeepers showed exceptional memory for quantity information. The findings suggest that the associative deficit in old age is based on the linking of specific arbitrary information.
National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.
A new type of Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) job station was tested by the National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc. The objective of this demonstration project was to explore the feasibility and value of establishing a "model" in-school NYC program whereby disadvantaged youth work as tutors for younger children. The program model, "Youth…
National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.
This manual, designed for the use of administrators in implementing a Youth Tutoring Youth Program (developed to encourage positive attitudes in tutors towards going to school, holding jobs, and helping others), outlines the employment of underachieving, disadvantaged 14- and 15-year-old Neighborhood Youth Corps enrollees as tutors for elementary…
O’Connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; McCartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age three. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age three and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes. PMID:21799549
With over 38 million U.S. youth (54% of children between ages 6 to 17) participating in organized sports each year, there is an ever increasing demand for entry-level youth sport leaders. To meet this leadership demand in organized youth sports, over 2.5 million adults volunteer to coach, yet less than 10% of these individuals have any formal…
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin
While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…
Schiller, Bradley R.
A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was…
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others
This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…
We are in the midst of an information explosion in meteorology. The operational user working with computer systems and satellite delivery of weather data today receives as much data in one 8-hour shift as an advanced user in the 1950`s would have received in 40 years (an entire career!). And the changes are accelerating. Spurred on by the National Weather Service`s modernization program, an additional 20 to 50 fold increase in data volumes from today`s levels can be expected by the year 2000. This paper describes the sources of the data, value-added products available, the weather workstation, and how to benefit from the information provided.
Uhlig, George E.
The microcomputer is only the very visible tip of a technological iceberg which demands a national technological literacy. Other important new technologies include the laser or optical videodisc and satellite-ground information transfer and telecommunications. National technological literacy requires changes in curriculum development beginning…
The last three decades have shown a marked development in new technologies for storing and retrieving information: microform in the 1960s; online database in the 1970s, and CD-ROM in the 1980s. While microform lacks volatility and multiple access points, preservation programs find it to be ideal storage media: it has a longer life expectancy than…
Discusses criteria for evaluating school library information services. Highlights include types of services; physical facilities; library usage; circulation statistics; changes due to technology; fill rate, or the percentage of successful searches for library materials; OPAC (online public access catalog) reports; observation; and examining…
Sims, J. Eric
Information security has been a particularly hot topic since the enhanced internal control requirements of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) were introduced in 2002. At about this same time, cloud computing started its explosive growth. Outsourcing of mission-critical functions has always been a gamble for managers, but the advantages of cloud computing are…
Newcomer, Kathryn E.; Caudle, Sharon L.
Oversight information systems provide data to oversight agency managers that enable them to: (1) monitor the operations of agencies for which they are charged oversight responsibilities; (2) compare performance data against set performance criteria; and (3) identify exceptions that occur outside performance tolerance parameters. This research…
This report describes 10 projects funded by the federal Technology Opportunities Program, in which people in isolated regions are finding ways to connect to new information networks and are reaping social, economic, and educational benefits. In the sprawling Navajo Nation, where many families lack even basic telephone service, local tribal…
This article looks at new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as sites of public pedagogy in that they produce particular forms of knowledge and literacies and reproduce representations that are always mediated through specific social relations. Public pedagogy as a process that constitutes a broader category beyond classroom…
In theory, a strong democracy rests on robust citizen participation. The practice in most democracies is quite different. This gap presents a challenge, which can be narrowed by augmenting civic education to bring it up to date with the current information environment and thus give citizens the opportunity to participate. Robert Dahl's work on…
Waks, Leonard J.
In this paper, Leonard J. Waks re-imagines the social foundations of education (SFE) as a project within the information society. He begins with what he believes to be a reasonably non-controversial definition: SFE is a field of scholarship and teaching aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding, through description, interpretation, and…
This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…
Larson, Nicole; Harnack, Lisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective Assessing changes in dietary intake during the transition from adolescence to adulthood is challenging given the need for age-appropriate tools at different developmental stages. The present study investigated the comparability of intake estimates as assessed with the youth/adolescent and adult forms of Willett’s FFQ. Design Young adults were first asked to complete the adult FFQ as part of a larger study, Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). A stratified random sample of respondents was invited to complete the youth/adolescent FFQ by mail within a 3-week period. Setting Participants were members of a longitudinal cohort who completed baseline surveys (including the adolescent FFQ) at schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and completed Project EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects There were ninety-one men and 103 women (median age = 24·6 years) who completed both forms of the FFQ. Results The adolescent and adult forms did not provide comparable absolute intake estimates. However, with few exceptions, correlation coefficients between intake estimates were moderate (r = 0·4–0·6). Furthermore, the percentage of individuals classified into the same quartile rank category based on their responses to the adolescent and adult forms was ≥50 % for fibre, vitamins A and E, and servings of fruit (excluding juice), vegetables, dairy, whole grains and soft drinks. Conclusions Although responses on the adolescent and adult FFQ cannot be compared to describe changes in absolute intake over time, these tools provide comparable intake rankings and may be used together in longitudinal studies to investigate influences on diet. PMID:21929844
Van Steenberg, Carol L.; Karasik, Robin B.
This paper outlines the KWIC Training Resources in Aging Project, an information service to assist trainers in aging. Program intent, content, format, etc. are presented. A project description, "What is KWIC and How Do I Use It?" introduces KWIC's services and products. That is followed by information on: (1) "KWIC's Services" and "KWIC Is...";…
You and I are living in a very special time; the age of Solar System exploration. Our Solar System is a complex masterpiece of which we knew so little from our ground-based observations. But within the span of a single lifetime, NASA has sent spacecraft to every planet and several moons, our first eyes to set upon undiscovered lands. Before we endeavored on this journey everything we knew of Pluto could have fit on a single file card, and now we downlink new data every day.
Mungas, Dan; And Others
Three age groups of 24 people each completed verbal word list tasks and spatial learning tasks 5 times each. Significant age differences were found for total recall and type of task. Younger subjects showed increased levels of clustering--organizing information according to semantic or spatial clusters. Age was not related to temporal order of…
The Youth Astronomy Apprenticeship (YAA) is an initiative to promote science learning among youth age 14-19 from underserved communities. Informed by a social justice approach, strategies implemented in the YAA model are motivated by results from both direct practice and research. A key strategy in this effort is to provide continuity of support and mentoring, and opportunities for deeper learning and increased personal responsibilities.
Lim, Stacey; Lambie, Ian; Cooper, Erana
Māori youth are overrepresented in criminal justice statistics and youth forensic services. Māori youth that engage in sexual offending behaviors have a higher risk of dropping out of treatment than Pākehā(1) youth. Research into Māori mental health is important to inform ongoing service development and is essential to strive for equity in mental health outcomes and offending rates among Māori. In this study, the researchers investigated the coexisting emotional and behavioral problems and victimization histories of an age-matched sample of Māori (n = 75) and Pākehā (n = 75) youth who were referred to a community treatment program for sexual offending in Auckland between 1996 and 2008. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to investigate ethnic differences. After controlling for socioeconomic deprivation, Māori youth scored significantly higher than Pākehā youth on the Delinquent Behaviors syndrome scale. Māori youth were also more likely than Pākehā youth to have a background of physical abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed, with regard to the unique needs of Māori youth and appropriate interventions.
Edge, Sara; Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie
Studies on youth health and well-being are predominantly quantitative and expert-driven with less attention given to how youth understand what it means to be healthy themselves and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping this. Knowledge on the perceptions and experiences of refugee youth is particularly lacking and notable given their unique stressors related to migratory, settlement and integration experiences. We contribute a better understanding of how refugee youth themselves define and contextualize health, with particular emphasis given to socio-cultural factors that enable or constrain health promotion efforts and individual health agency. This research was undertaken at a downtown drop-in centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada that provided settlement and integration services to newcomer youth. We employ a grounded theory approach and draw upon participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Twenty-six youth (age 18-25 years), representing 12 different countries of origin participated. The youth defined health very broadly touching upon many typical determinants of health (e.g. education, income, etc.). Yet factors of most importance (as demonstrated by the frequency and urgency in which they were discussed by youth) included a sense of belonging, positive self-identity, emotional well-being, and sense of agency or self-determination. We conceptualize these as "mediating" factors given the youth argued they enabled or constrained their ability to cope with adversities related to other health determinant categories. The youth also discussed what we interpret as "facilitators" that encourage mediating factors to manifest positively (e.g. informal, non-biomedical settings and programs that nurture trust, break down access barriers, and promote a sense of community amongst peers, mentors, and health professionals). When creating health promotion strategies for refugee youth (and perhaps youth more generally) it is important to understand the
to understand the tremendous value of both tangible assets (M1A1 Abrams Tank, RC-135 Rivet Joint , et cetera) and intangible assets (morale...and used information, and how it affected their leadership. The study will conduct a review and analysis of joint and service-specific leadership...The study will also place these leadership skills into the context of the Joint Operating Environment (JOE) to determine how these skills will
distance factor, and the goals and objectives among other things. The information revolution is at the root of these changes that result in a new... World Order, in 1996. In this book, Huntington 17 attempts to provide an interpretation of how global politics and power are changing in the ...analysis. Nye explores the logic of conflict in world politics and attempts to define and explain many of
Silk, Jennifer S; Forbes, Erika E; Whalen, Diana J; Jakubcak, Jennifer L; Thompson, Wesley K; Ryan, Neal D; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E
This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD youths received an 8-week course of cognitive behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacological treatment. Compared with CON youths, MDD youths reported more intense and labile global negative affect; greater sadness, anger, and nervousness; and a lower ratio of positive to negative affect. These differences increased with pubertal maturation. MDD youths spent more time alone and less time with their families than CON youths. Although differences in emotional experiences were found across social contexts, MDD youths were more negative than CON youths in all contexts examined. As the MDD participants progressed through treatment, diagnostic group differences in the intensity and lability of negative affect decreased, but there were no changes in the ratio of positive to negative affect or in measures of social context. We discuss methodological innovations and advantages of this approach, including improved ecological validity and access to information about variability in emotions, change in emotions over time, the balance of positive and negative emotions, and the social context of emotional experience.
... runaway youth, Native American youth, migrant youth, youth in or aging out of foster care, and youth with... fosters family economic self-sufficiency to young parents (both mothers and fathers) and expectant...
... by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the PRA and displays a currently valid OMB control... from school and work, be incarcerated, be unmarried, and have children outside of marriage. The... classroom observations to assess the quality of instruction, youth focus groups, and semi-structured...
Fisher, Christopher M.; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Wright, Eric; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Baldwin, Kathleen
Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement…
Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje
The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed.
Schneider, Bruce A.; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje
The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed. PMID:27242569
Customer oriented decisions will be made by those closest to the customer, not by those at a distance. Information needed for customer oriented decisions will be readily available to the decider. Levels of hierarchy will be reduced but there will still be command accountability; if only for who hired that guy? Goals will be customer oriented - not level or job oriented. That is, protecting one`s ass or furthering one`s position will not be as easy as it is now; nor, for that matter, needed.
Johnston, Bill; Webber, Sheila
The aim of this paper is to propose information literacy as a soft applied discipline, of key importance in the information society. This is contrasted with the characterization of information literacy as a personal attribute in the U.S. and Australian Information Literacy standards. Vannevar Bush's vision of the technologically connected and…
existing information-related capabilities (IRCs) via a common framework in order to generate and share quality information and intelligence for...IRCs. Efforts are currently underway within Headquarters Marine Corps to institutionalize information management across the Service; however, Marine...integrating IRCs to produce quality information and intelligence to best support decision-making and optimize staff operations. The continuum’s Time
Apache, R. R.
In this article, the author describes a parent orientation program designed to inform parents about the behavior that is expected of them when their children participate in youth sports. YouthFirst is a parent orientation program designed to: (1) Give parents an overview of the role they play in their children's sport experience; (2) Allow them an…
Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.
Kim, Jeong-Nam; Oh, Yu Won; Krishna, Arunima
This study proposes the idea of justificatory information forefending, a cognitive process by which individuals accept information that confirms their preexisting health beliefs, and reject information that is dissonant with their attitudes. In light of the sheer volume of often contradictory information related to health that is frequently highlighted by the traditional media, this study sought to identify antecedents and outcomes of this justificatory information forefending. Results indicate that individuals who are exposed to contradictory health information, currently engage in risky health behavior, are comfortable using the Internet to search for information, and are currently taking steps to maintain their health are likely to actively select health information that confirms their preexisting notions about their health, and to reject information that is contradictory to their beliefs. Additionally, individuals who engage in justificatory information forefending were also found to continue to engage in risky health behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben F
Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions.
Brown, Brenda H.
This handbook is designed to provide practical aid to those who have charge of the planning and organization of a youth conference, Defined as a conference to provide practical information as well as information about possible responsibilities, risks, and consequences of actions, related to the chosen conference topic. Suggestions are given for…
Perkins, S.; Smith, K.; Whorton, M.; Williams, G.
As more data gathering, analysis, and tracking tasks are outsourced the need for multiple contractors and military personnel to input, update, access, store, and track Mormation is becoming critical to efficient functioning and managing of environmental projects and programs at military installations. This paper presents two case studies detailing the way two organizations--the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Colorado, and the 611th Air Support Group (611 ASG) in Alaska--are managing complex data using web-based technology. RMA is involved in one of the largest environmental cleanup programs in the Department of Defense. As such, large volumes of environmental data and documents must be generates stored, and tracked. Often these documents are prepared by multiple contractors and are reviewed by several parties or groups. To manage environmental information and to ensure that it meets compliance requirements more efficiently, RMA has developed an electronic document tracking and distribution system. This system allows access to up-to-date information, including a detailed review of all pertinent regulatory and other requirements at RMA. The dynamic system includes milestones, review deadlines, submission deadlines, and other requirements for managing the environmental program. The 611 ASG manages more than 30 remote installations in Alaska, many of which are operated by contractor personnel. These installations contain hundreds of buildings that are constantly being modified because of exposure to harsh arctic climates; some of them have been determined to be eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. To meet regulatory requirements for cultural resources management as well as engineering requirements for upkeep of buildings, a database was developed to store and analyze building data. The database has a web-based interface that allows anyone with the correct access codes to input new data, modify existing data, or query the database using a number of
Guion, Lisa A.
The North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service implemented summer youth nutrition to provide youth with information on the fundamentals of proper nutrition and contribute to their personal development and overall well-being. Collaboration among extension professionals and with external partners enabled the program to serve a total of 1469 youth.…
This case study documents the experiences of a Peace Corps volunteer who worked as a Youth Development volunteer with disadvantaged institutionalized youth in Honduras. Youth Development volunteers provide direct services in the areas of vocational education, recreational programming, informal education, and counseling. Many are assigned to…
von Konsky, Brian R.; Miller, Charlynn; Jones, Asheley
This paper reports on a research project, examining the role of the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) curriculum design and management. A goal was to investigate how SFIA informs a top-down approach to curriculum design, beginning with a set of skills that define a particular career…
Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Vest, Andrea; Simpkins, Sandra
Involvement in physically active pursuits, such as sports, contributes to achieving and maintaining good emotional and physical health. The central goal of this article was to examine the longitudinal relationships between participation (i.e., time spent in the activities) in organized and informal sports contexts and motivational beliefs, and factors that might impact these relationships, such as developmental stage and gender. The data for the current study were drawn from the childhood and beyond longitudinal study, which utilized a cohort sequential design with data collected on three cohorts across four waves. The current study sample included 986 European American youth (51 % female), who t were mostly from working- and middle-class families. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from the youth about their participation in sports and their motivational beliefs (i.e., value and perceptions of competence) about this activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between participation and motivational beliefs across childhood and adolescence. The results provide some support for a model of reciprocal relationships between participation and motivational beliefs in organized and informal sports activities. These relationships between participation and motivational beliefs did not vary significantly based on developmental stage or by gender. Overall, the findings suggest that participation in organized and informal sports contexts may be fostered by supporting the development of positive motivational beliefs about the activities across developmental periods.
The completion of the Human Genome Project has opened up unprecedented possibilities in healthcare, but also ethical and social dilemmas in terms of how these can be achieved. Genomic information can be seen as a “global public good” (GPG), in that it is represented by knowledge in the public domain and across national boundaries. Lack of investment, infrastructure and expertise in developing countries means that they are unable to take advantage of these GPG characteristics to address their health needs, fuelling fears of a growing “genomics divide”. Some have suggested an international knowledge sharing and capacity building network, a Global Genomics Initiative, as a means to harness the potential of genomics to reduce inequalities in health between North and South. Three UNESCO declarations also call for cooperation between developed and developing countries in genomics research and science and technology in general. Using international relations theories around global governance and networks as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether these initiatives are likely to succeed in providing effective governance of genomics. PMID:18401462
Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth.
Berlin, Richard A; Dworkin, Aaron; Eames, Ned; Menconi, Arn; Perkins, Daniel F
The authors provide examples of sports-based youth development programs and offer information about program mission and vision, program design and content, evaluation results, and program sustainability. The four sports-based youth development programs presented are Harlem RBI, Tenacity, Snowsports Outreach Society, and Hoops & Leaders Basketball Camp. These programs serve diverse audiences with diverse missions, but all are focused on using sports to develop life skills and facilitate learning. Harlem RBI serves boys and girls ages seven to eighteen living in East Harlem. The program combines baseball, academic, and enrichment programs with the overall goal that participants who enter the program as vulnerable children graduate as resilient young adults. Tenacity, a nonprofit organization with headquarters in Boston, uses tennis to attract and retain students who particiate in a high-quality academic support and physical fitness program. The mission of Snowsports Outreach Society, based in Vail, Colorado, is building character in at-risk and underprivileged youth to develop their decision-making ability for healthy and successful life experiences. Hoops & Leaders Basketball Camp is a youth mentoring and leadership development program that offers summer camp experiences to improve the lives of at-risk urban youth in New York City. It uses the game of basketball to provide youth with caring mentors, develop leadership skills, and offer exposure to different educational and career paths.
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.
One person in five--42.4 million Americans--belongs to youth, viz. those who are 14 to 24 years of age. The 1970 census showed that there were 1.8 million Spanish heritage young Americans between 15 and 24 years of age. The number of white youth is estimated to be 36.6 million. The estimate for blacks and other racial minorities was 5.8 million in…
Gallerani, David G; Besenyi, Gina M; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Kaczynski, Andrew T
This study explored youths' experiences and perceptions about community engagement as a result of participating in a community-based data collection project using paper and mobile technology park environmental audit tools. In July 2014, youth (ages 11-18, n=50) were recruited to participate in nine focus groups after auditing two parks each using paper, electronic, or both versions of the Community Park Audit Tool in Greenville County, SC. The focus groups explored the youths' experiences participating in the project, changes as a result of participation, suggested uses of park audit data collected, and who should use the tools. Four themes emerged related to youths' project participation experiences: two positive (fun and new experiences) and two negative (uncomfortable/unsafe and travel issues). Changes described as a result of participating in the project fell into four themes: increased awareness, motivation for further action, physical activity benefits, and no change. Additionally, youth had numerous suggestions for utilizing the data collected that were coded into six themes: maintenance & aesthetics, feature/amenity addition, online park information, park rating/review system, fundraising, and organizing community projects. Finally, six themes emerged regarding who the youth felt could use the tools: frequent park visitors, community groups/organizations, parks and recreation professionals, adults, youth, and everyone. This study revealed a wealth of information about youth experiences conducting park audits for community health promotion. Understanding youth attitudes and preferences can help advance youth empowerment and civic engagement efforts to promote individual and community health.
Tebbets, Claire; Redwine, Dee
Youth in Latin America experience high rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, but traditional health services are not meeting their health care needs. Youth require access to tailored health care and information to make informed, healthy decisions. To break down barriers to these vital sexual and reproductive health services, Planned Parenthood Global, a division of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, developed a Youth Peer Provider model which has been implemented in Latin America since the early 1990s. The model goes beyond peer education to train Youth Peer Providers under age 20 to provide condoms, oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraception, injectable contraceptives, and sexual and reproductive health information to their peers. Peers with needs beyond Youth Peer Providers' capacity are referred to health professionals offering youth-friendly services. Survey results reveal high levels of contraceptive use among those served by the Youth Peer Providers: 98% of sexually active survey respondents wishing to avoid pregnancy report contraceptive use at least five years after joining the programme. Results of qualitative programme evaluations highlight higher self-esteem, stronger communication and decision-making skills, close relationships with friends and family, more interest in school, understanding of responsibility in relationships, and other positive outcomes among programme participants.
Butts, Jeffrey A.
This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…
Van Eldik, Theo
The prevalence of mental health problems among youth with hearing loss was assessed with an adjusted version of the Dutch rendition of the Youth Self Report, or YSR (Achenbach, 1991). The sample totaled 202 youth, aged 11?18 years, with auditory disabilities. The prevalence rates of externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and moderate to…
Calvert, Matthew; de Montmollin, John; Winnett, Tedi
The Kenosha County Youth in Governance program was created to build leadership skills and civic engagement opportunities for high school-aged students by placing two youth representatives on each of the Kenosha County Board of Supervisors standing committees. In reviewing data from 3 years of youth participants, the program was effective in…
Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P
The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon.
Weiss, David; Sassenberg, Kai; Freund, Alexandra M
Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults' self-esteem. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that differentiation from one's age group reduces the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, older adults (N = 83, M = 71.9 years) were confronted with neutral or negative age-related information followed by a manipulation of self-differentiation. Experiment 2 (N = 44, M = 73.55 years) tested the moderating role of self-differentiation in the relationship of implicit attitudes toward older adults and implicit self-esteem. Results suggest that self-differentiation prevents the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-esteem.
Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John
Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.
Kattan, M. W.; Adams, D. A.
Understanding and predicting the use of information technology is an important problem in healthcare management. The relationships among user characteristics and information technology have generally been weak. This paper describes a recently developed scale that measures perceived usefulness of information technology. Following this description, the scale is compared with user age in ability to explain information technology use. The results suggest perceived usefulness explains a significant proportion of the variance in use (r2 = .13, p < or = 0.0001), while age was not a significant predictor. Implications and suggestions for use of the usefulness scale are discussed. PMID:7950037
Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.
Summarizing the first eight months of the planning, design, and implementation of the new federal youth programs created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) and the efforts for expansion and enrichment of the Job Corps, this report explains the charters of the two projects and their initial successes in and…
Miner, Jennifer; Elshof, Leo; Redden, Anna; Terry, John
The Gulf of Maine Institute (GOMI) is striving to empower youth to take on stewardship roles in their communities. Through its Community Based Initiative (CBI) program, GOMI addresses environmental degradation by working with teams of students, teachers, and community members from around the Gulf of Maine to inspire youth to be stewards of the…
... Employment and Training Administration Proposed Information Collection for the Evaluation of the Aging Worker Initiative; Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... burden conducts a preclearance consultation program to provide the general public and federal...
Stewart, M. M.; Pratt, M.
This paper examines the effectiveness of FM and digital radio in disseminating weather and climate information to remote rural populations in Niger and Uganda. In Niger, poor communications infrastructure necessitated the establishment of a basic radio system as a first step towards disseminating climate information. Dissemination via digital radio is limited, in this context, by lack of technical support and the difficulty of maintaining computer equipment in the hot and dusty climate. Community FM stations have supported a range of mitigation activities that reduced vulnerability in all sites studied. Digital radio proved a more effective tool for disseminating climate information in Uganda, where technical knowledge is more prevalent and infrastructure networks are stronger. The primary challenge in Uganda lies in maintaining equipment in remote locations and disseminating information to a wider audience by linking with FM radio. Climate and weather information is already demonstrating positive impacts on agricultural production in Uganda, health and civil society in Niger, and on vulnerability reduction in both countries. Radio,particularly FM, was an excellent medium for disseminating information to women, youth, and other hard to reach populations. Discussion will focus on recommendations for improving the effectiveness of both systems and for practically linking FM and digital dissemination systems for better communication of climate information. Implications of the case studies will also be discussed in the context of digital and FM radio as media for disseminating other types of scientific information.
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fee structure for age search and... THE CENSUS § 50.5 Fee structure for age search and citizenship information. Type of service Fee Searches of one census for one person and one transcript $65.00 Each additional copy of census transcript...
Anshel, Mark H.
Although there are marked individual differences in the effect of aging on learning and performing motor skills, there is agreement that humans process information less efficiently with advanced age. Significant decrements have been found specifically with motor tasks that are characterized as externally-paced, rapid, complex, and requiring rapid…
WC Morgan; JV Livingston
Age related degradation effects in safety related systems of nuclear power plants should be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the acceptable limits provided in plant design bases. The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Pro- gram, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and other related aging management programs are developing technical information on managing aging. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key elements: 1) selecting structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in which aging should be controlled; 2) understanding the mechanisms and rates of degradation in these SSCs; and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, record keeping, mainten- ance, refurbishment, replacement, and adjustments in the operating environment and service conditions. This document concisely reviews and integrates information developed under the NPAR Program and other aging management studies and other available information related to understanding and managing age-related degradation effects and provides specific refer- ences to more comprehensive information on the same subjects.
Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.
A report of findings from 2,318 respondents to a survey carried out among college students on six campuses distributed across the U.S. in the spring of 2009, as part of Project Information Literacy. Respondents, while curious in the beginning stages of research, employed a consistent and predictable research strategy for finding information,…
The document presents a collection of selected reflections by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on India's youth, their opportunities, and their future. Titles for the selections include: (1) Youth and Common Aspirations; (2) Youth and the Future; (3) Youth and Freedom; (4) Youth and the Questing Spirit; (5) Youth and Modernization; (6) Youth and…
Slesnick, Natasha; Kang, Min Ju
While many studies provide useful information on the risk behaviors in which homeless youth engage, few prior studies evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk related reduction strategies. In this study, homeless youth (n = 180) were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned to one of two conditions, either an integrated individual cognitive-behavioral treatment and HIV prevention intervention that focused on skills building and education or to treatment as usual. All youth were assessed at entry into the program and at 3 and 6 month follow-up points. Findings showed an interaction between treatment condition, age and time. In the interaction, youth assigned to the integrated treatment reported greater condom usage than youth assigned to treatment as usual, with younger youth assigned to treatment as usual showing no change in condom use. The number of sexual partners reported by youth in both treatment conditions was also reduced over time. However, youth in both conditions continued to engage in other high-risk behaviors. The integrated treatment findings are promising and suggest that interventions which target both HIV risk behavior in addition to other life areas (substance use, mental health and housing) among homeless youth may be necessary in order to significantly impact high-risk behaviors among this unique group. PMID:17940861
Hunter, Andrea G.; Friend, Christian A.; Murphy, S. Yvette; Rollins, Alethea; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Laughinghouse, Janzelean
Using an interpretivist approach, this article explores young African American men's (n = 20) reflections on coming of age and the meanings of father loss. Based on focus groups, the authors found that it was through autobiographical narratives of loss, survival, and redemption that young men positioned themselves ideologically and constructed the…
Oklahoma Curriculum Improvement Commission, Oklahoma City.
The purpose of this guide is to help pre-driving age students understand the responsibilities inherent in using public streets and highways. Materials, which can be integrated into existing secondary school courses, are divided into nine chapters covering traffic rules and signs; alcohol and drugs; safety on buses, skateboards, multigeared…
Opinions of 291 persons (students of the faculty Biology/Chemistry) on their attitude to FKK ("Free-Body-Cult" similar nudism behavior) are discussed. Comparisons of affirmative, modified affirmative and negative answers with age and with attitude-categories show distinct tendencies.
Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged <21 years each year during 2001-2005. Exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood to varying degrees that youths will initiate drinking and drink at higher levels. By 2003, the alcohol industry voluntarily agreed not to advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged <21 years. However, the National Research Council/Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) proposed in 2003 that "the industry standard should move toward a 15% threshold for television advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions.
Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael
Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15-25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience.
Glik, Deborah; Massey, Philip; Gipson, Jessica; Dieng, Thierno; Rideau, Alexandre; Prelip, Michael
Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid changes in access to and use of new internet and digital media technologies. The purpose of this study was to better understand how younger audiences are navigating traditional and newer forms of media technologies, with particular emphasis on the skills and competencies needed to obtain, evaluate and apply health-related information, also defined as health and media literacy. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted throughout Senegal in September 2012 with youth aged 15–25. Using an iterative coding process based on grounded theory, four themes emerged related to media use for health information among Senegalese youth. They include the following: (i) media utilization; (ii) barriers and conflicts regarding media utilization; (iii) uses and gratifications and (iv) health and media literacy. Findings suggest that Senegalese youth use a heterogeneous mix of media platforms (i.e. television, radio, internet) and utilization often occurs with family members or friends. Additionally, the need for entertainment, information and connectedness inform media use, mostly concerning sexual and reproductive health information. Importantly, tensions arise as youth balance innovative and interactive technologies with traditional and conservative values, particularly concerning ethical and privacy concerns. Findings support the use of multipronged intervention approaches that leverage both new media, as well as traditional media strategies, and that also address lack of health and media literacy in this population. Implementing health-related interventions across multiple media platforms provides an opportunity to create an integrated, as opposed to a disparate, user experience. PMID:25113152
Now that the Internet has increased the potential for deception and misinformation among larger numbers of people, consumer education has a new role to play in helping people develop the skills needed to deal with the challenges of the Information Age. In the current information environment, consumers need the blend of skills and abilities that…
The technological age has forever altered every aspect of life and work. Technology has changed how people locate and view information. However, the transition from print to electronic formats has created numerous challenges for individuals to overcome. These challenges include coping with the massive amounts of information bombarding people and…
during events like casual conversations, informal briefings, operational exercises, and unit gatherings. 52 By consciously and actively engaging in...same time enabling a greater centralized control over a larger number of forces. 61 The dawning of the Information Age has seen a quantum leap in
Michigan Association for the Education of Young Children, East Lansing.
Noting the important role that parents can play in preparing their child to learn to read, the Read, Educate and Develop Youth (READY) Reading Plan for Michigan provides kits to parents of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The kits contain suggestions for age-appropriate activities parents can do with their children to help them learn. In…
Connell, Arin M; Patton, Emily; Klostermann, Susan; Hughes-Scalise, Abigail
Recent research has highlighted the potential role of attention bias for emotional stimuli as a possible cognitive risk factor for depression in youth. However, differences in youth emotion regulation or maternal affect may moderate the association between maternal and youth depression and youth attention biases. The current study investigated the relationship between maternal and youth depressive symptoms and youth (aged 11-17 years) attention bias for sad and happy faces in 59 mother-youth dyads, examining whether positive and negative maternal affect observed during structured interaction tasks or youth emotion regulation tendencies moderated associations between maternal and youth depression and attention biases. Youth suppression interacted with maternal and youth depression to predict sad attentional biases in youth, while maternal positive affect interacted with maternal depression to predict happy attention biases in youth.
Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew
The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.
Solesio-Jofre, Elena; López-Frutos, José María; Cashdollar, Nathan; Aurtenetxe, Sara; de Ramón, Ignacio; Maestú, Fernando
Normal aging is associated with deficits in working memory processes. However, the majority of research has focused on storage or inhibitory processes using unimodal paradigms, without addressing their relationships using different sensory modalities. Hence, we pursued two objectives. First, was to examine the effects of aging on storage and inhibitory processes. Second, was to evaluate aging effects on multisensory integration of visual and auditory stimuli. To this end, young and older participants performed a multimodal task for visual and auditory pairs of stimuli with increasing memory load at encoding and interference during retention. Our results showed an age-related increased vulnerability to interrupting and distracting interference reflecting inhibitory deficits related to the off-line reactivation and on-line suppression of relevant and irrelevant information, respectively. Storage capacity was impaired with increasing task demands in both age groups. Additionally, older adults showed a deficit in multisensory integration, with poorer performance for new visual compared to new auditory information.
Ladbury, G; Ostendorf, S; Waegemaekers, T; van Binnendijk, R; Boot, H; Hahne, S
We describe a mumps outbreak in a highly-vaccinated population attending a party at a youth club. In a retrospective cohort study with 60 of approximately 100 participants responding, vaccination status was verified for 58/59 respondents, of whom 54 were vaccinated twice and four once. The attack rate was 22% (13 cases, all vaccinated), with smoking at the party (risk ratio (RR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–6.0, p=0.001) and age ≥21 years (RR 4.7; 95% CI: 2.1–10.2, p<0.0001) as risk factors for disease in the binominal regression analysis. Mild upper respiratory illness was also highly prevalent in those who did not meet the mumps case definition (n=46) after the party, suggesting that mumps virus infection may cause mild disease in vaccinated individuals. Our investigation adds toevidence that crowded social events and smoking may facilitate spread of mumps virus among vaccinated populations, with waning immunity playing a role. The suggestion that mumps virus infection in vaccinated individuals may manifest as mild upper respiratory illness could have implications for transmission and warrants further investigation.
Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia
In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
This guide is designed to help caregivers prevent children from getting involved in drugs. It details six key prevention principles, including actions caregivers can take that can help their child make healthy choices. Each section includes language to use with children, activities to do, information about drugs, statistics about youth drug use,…
Educational Horizons, 2006
The aim of many educators is to help youth reach their maximum potential. The Clifton Youth StrengthsExplorer gives teachers a tool to help identify the talents of their students, as well as actionable suggestions for utilizing those talents. Such information can help teachers to individualize the ways in which they respond to youths, and the…
Examines how libraries can encourage and increase youth access to information. Discusses the role of the school library media center; law, illegal information, and censorship; parental rights; information policy; and promoting youth access before a challenge occurs in the library. (AEF)
Brown, Cecelia M.
Assessed the information-seeking behavior of scientists at the University of Oklahoma using an electronically distributed questionnaire, a copy of which is appended. Results indicate a preference for printed peer-reviewed journal articles and the need for libraries to provide access to electronic bibliographic databases. Appendix II lists…
Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen
Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…
Howkins, John, Ed.; Valantin, Robert, Ed.
This publication describes the rationale for and processes of a 5-day workshop conducted in 1996 to build an understanding about the complexities of information communication technologies (ICT) and development, in order to assist in the preparation of reports for the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD). The…
Murphy, Sarah Anne
Library users' evolving information needs and their choice of search methods have changed reference work profoundly. Today's reference librarian must work in a whole new way--not only service-focused and businesslike, but even entrepreneurial. Murphy innovatively rethinks the philosophy behind current library reference services in this…
Knirk, Frederick G.
Intended to assist educators and trainers who must make recommendations about facilities to architects and school authorities, this ERIC information analysis project summarizes research on the design of both classrooms and individualized learning spaces that will optimize learning. Six teaching/learning space topics are considered: (1) light and…
Grubb, W. Norton
Individuals in liberal societies have to construct their own conceptions of who they are and what career(s) they should prepare for as opposed to being told by families, schools, or communities. The trends toward providing more and more career information is a valuable component of an overall policy to prepare individuals to make decisions for…
Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.
Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…
Bott, Nicholas T.; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Frazier, Darvis T.; Wynn, Matthew; Karydas, Anna; Yaffe, Kristine; Kramer, Joel H.
Objective: To examine the impact of genetic, inflammatory, cardiovascular, lifestyle, and neuroanatomical factors on cognitive processing speed (CPS) change over time in functionally intact older adults. Methods: This observational study conducted over two time points, included 120 community dwelling cognitively normal older adults between the ages of 60 and 80 from the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. Participants were followed with composite measures of CPS, calculated based on norms for 20–30 year-olds. Variables of interest were AD risk genes (APOE, CR1), markers of inflammation (interleukin 6) and cardiovascular health (BMI, LDL, HDL, mean arterial pressure, fasting insulin), self-reported physical activity, and corpus callosum (CC) volumes. The sample was divided into three groups: 17 “resilient-agers” with fast and stable processing speed; 56 “average-agers” with average and stable processing speed; and 47 “sub-agers” with average baseline speed who were slower at follow-up. Results: Resilient-agers had larger baseline CC volumes than sub-agers (p < 0.05). Resilient-agers displayed lower levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin (ps < 0.05) than sub-agers, and reported more physical activity than both average- and sub-agers (ps < 0.01). In a multinomial logistic regression, physical activity and IL-6 predicted average- and sub-ager groups. Resilient-agers displayed a higher frequency of APOE e4 and CR1 AA/AG alleles. Conclusion: Robust and stable CPS is associated with larger baseline CC volumes, lower levels of inflammation and insulin, and greater self-reported physical activity. These findings highlight the relevance of neuroanatomical, biological, and lifestyle factors in the identification and prediction of heterogeneous cognitive aging change over time. PMID:28344553
Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C; Maxwell, Joanne
Purpose Youth with disabilities encounter many challenges in finding employment and transitioning to post-secondary education. In this article, we explore the nature of school-work transitions for youth with spina bifida, which few studies have previously addressed. Method We conducted in-depth interviews with 44 participants (nine youth and 12 young adults with spina bifida, 11 parents and 12 clinicians). We analyzed our data using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results We identified several enablers to school-work transitions, including professional support, social support and school accommodations. Lacking such support created several challenges for youth with spina bifida. We also identified several barriers to school-work transitions, including lack of education and information on finances, housing and transportation; discrimination and stigma; and challenges coping with spina bifida at school and work. Conclusions Although some supports are available, youth with spina bifida encounter many challenges in transitioning to post-secondary education and employment. With clinicians at the helm, efforts should be put in place within the health and social services system to better prepare youth, as they transition to adulthood, to become connected to appropriate information and resources to help them to succeed in their school and employment goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Youth with spina bifida encounter many challenges in transitioning to post-secondary education or work. Clinicians, educators and parents should continue to support youth with spina bifida in choosing their vocations, setting career goals and developing career plans. Starting from a young age, parents, clinicians and educators should help youth with spina bifida prepare for school work transitions by fostering their independence, life skills and self-management of spina bifida-related symptoms. Clinicians and educators should help connect youth with spina bifida to appropriate
Perron, Tracy; Kartoz, Connie; Himelfarb, Chaya
In order to provide holistic care, school nurses must be culturally competent by being sensitive to health disparities experienced by students in at-risk populations. Despite the growing acceptance toward gender and sexual minorities, LGBTQ youth remain an at-risk population in our communities and our schools. School nurses as well as school counselors, social workers, and psychologists can increase their cultural competence in caring for this group of students by increasing their understanding of appropriate terminology and risks associated with this vulnerable group. This article is Part 1 of a two-article series designed to increase school nurses' abilities to advocate and care for LGBTQ youth in school settings. This first article provides information regarding proper terminology and current percentages of youth who identify as LGBTQ and concludes with implications for school nurses, including resources for nurses, school staff, and families.
Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael
The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.