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Sample records for age matched controls

  1. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  2. Degenerative changes in adolescent spines: a comparison of motocross racers and age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Daniels, David J; Luo, T David; Puffer, Ross; McIntosh, Amy L; Larson, A Noelle; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Clarke, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    Motocross racing is a popular sport; however, its impact on the growing/developing pediatric spine is unknown. Using a retrospective cohort model, the authors compared the degree of advanced degenerative findings in young motocross racers with findings in age-matched controls. Patients who had been treated for motocross-related injury at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2007 and had been under 18 years of age at the time of injury and had undergone plain radiographic or CT examination of any spinal region were eligible for inclusion. Imaging was reviewed in a blinded fashion by 3 physicians for degenerative findings, including endplate abnormalities, loss of vertebral body height, wedging, and malalignment. Acute pathological segments were excluded. Spine radiographs from age-matched controls were similarly reviewed and the findings were compared. The motocross cohort consisted of 29 riders (mean age 14.7 years; 82% male); the control cohort consisted of 45 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years; 71% male). In the cervical spine, the motocross cohort had 55 abnormalities in 203 segments (average 1.90 abnormalities/patient) compared with 20 abnormalities in 213 segments in the controls (average 0.65/patient) (p = 0.006, Student t-test). In the thoracic spine, the motocross riders had 51 abnormalities in 292 segments (average 2.04 abnormalities/patient) compared with 25 abnormalities in 299 segments in the controls (average 1.00/patient) (p = 0.045). In the lumbar spine, the motocross cohort had 11 abnormalities in 123 segments (average 0.44 abnormalities/patient) compared with 15 abnormalities in 150 segments in the controls (average 0.50/patient) (p = 0.197). Increased degenerative changes in the cervical and thoracic spine were identified in adolescent motocross racers compared with age-matched controls. The long-term consequences of these changes are unknown; however, athletes and parents should be counseled accordingly about participation in motocross

  3. Are Middle-Aged Men with Chronic Kidney Disease at Higher Risk of Having Nocturia than Age-Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Kai; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chiang, I-Ni; Yang, Stephen S-D; Chang, Shang-Jen

    2015-09-01

    We compared the lower urinary tract symptoms between middle-aged men with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) under 50 years of age. Between October 2010 and July 2013, patients with CKD aged below 50 who received regular follow-ups at the nephrology outpatient clinics were enrolled. We also enrolled men aged below 50 years with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) higher than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and without history of kidney diseases from the health examination department as the control group. Clinical parameters and laboratory parameters were collected for analysis and comparison. The lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Metabolic syndromes were defined according to the ATP III guidelines. Overall, 50 men with CKD and 187 age-matched men without CKD were enrolled in the study (age: 44.9 ± 6.9 vs. 43.7.0 ± 4.3, P = 0.11). When compared with the age-matched control group, the occurrences of lower urinary tract symptoms were fewer in CKD patients, though not statistically significant. CKD Patients had significantly higher scores of nocturia (1.3 vs. 0.8, P = 0.02) but had significantly less urinary frequency and relatively fewer urgency score. Nocturia was significantly associated with eGFR. Multivariate analysis showed that lower eGFR and overweight were the only two independent risk factors for nocturia (P < 0.01), but was not the case for metabolic syndromes. Middle-aged men with CKD had significantly more nocturia episodes than the age-matched control group, but had lower urinary frequency scores. Lower eGFR and overweight are independent risk factors for nocturia in middle-aged men. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  5. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  6. Comparison of brachial artery vasoreactivity in elite power athletes and age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Michael A; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P; Parish, Tracie R

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Eight elite power athletes (age = 23 ± 2 years) and ten controls (age = 22 ± 1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39 ± 1.51 vs. 3.73 ± 0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21 ± 1.78 vs. 5.69 ± 1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95 ± 1.07 vs. -1.20 ± 0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55 ± 0.15 vs. 0.25 ± 0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92 ± 17.06 vs. 36.77 ± 17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123 ± 16 vs. 130 ± 25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88 ± 21 vs. 98 ± 26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an 'athlete's artery' as previously shown for elite endurance athletes to elite power athletes

  7. Postural adjustments in young ballet dancers compared to age matched controls.

    PubMed

    Iunes, Denise H; Elias, Iara F; Carvalho, Leonardo C; Dionísio, Valdeci C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use photogrammetry to evaluate the posture of ballet practitioners compared to an age-matched control group. One hundred and eleven 7- to 24-year-old female volunteers were evaluated and were divided into two groups: the ballet practising group (n = 52) and the control group (n = 59), divided into three subgroups according to age and years of ballet experience. Dancers with 1-3 years experience compared to controls of the same age shows alterations in External Rotation Angle (P < 0.05). Dancers 4-9 years experience show alterations in Lumbar Lordosis, Pelvis Tilt Angle and Navicular Angle Right and Left (P < 0.05). Dancers with over 9 years experience show alterations in External Rotation and Navicular Angle Left (P < 0.05). Research shows there are differences between dancers and controls. In the groups 1-3 years and over 9 years of experience, the External Rotation Angle is greater. In the group 4-9 years of experience the Lumbar Lordosis Angle is greater and Pelvis Tilt, Navicular Angle Left and Right are smaller. In more than 9 years of ballet experience, the Navicular Angle Left is smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Herpesvirus-Associated Acute Urticaria: An Age Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mareri, Arianna; Adler, Stuart P.; Nigro, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute and recurrent acute urticaria are often associated with multiple factors including infections and recent data suggest a role for herpesviruses. Objective To test the null hypothesis, that is, there is no association of herpesvirus infections with urticaria. Methods Thirty-seven patients between one month and 15 years of age were age matched to 37 controls who were healthy or had mild acute respiratory infections but without urticaria. Patients and controls were followed for 1 to 6 years. Diagnostic studies included DNA detection by real-time PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Tests for other infections included adenovirus, parvovirus B 19, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, Group A streptococci, rotavirus, and parasites. Results Specific infections were diagnosed in 26 of 37 cases and among 9 of 37 control children (P=0.0002). Single or concomitant herpesvirus infections occurred in 24 cases and in 4 controls (65% vs 11 %, p=0.0003). Cases had 10 HHV-6 infections, 8 CMV infections, 5 EBV infections, and 4 HSV-1 infections. Conclusion Herpesvirus infections are associated with acute or recurrent acute urticaria. PMID:24386470

  9. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  10. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  11. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  12. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-06-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type.

  13. Comparison of skeletal muscle strength between cardiac patients and age-matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Baum, K.; Hildebrandt, U.; Edel, K.; Bertram, R.; Hahmann, H.; Bremer, F.J.; Böhmen, S.; Kammerlander, C.; Serafin, M.; Rüther, Th.; Miche, E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare muscular strength of knee extensors and arm flexor muscles of cardiac patients (n = 638) and healthy controls (n = 961) in different age groups. Isometric torques were measured in a sitting position with the elbow, hip, and knee flexed to 900. For statistical analysis, age groups were pooled in decades from the age of 30 to 90 years. Additionally, the influence of physical lifestyle prior to disease on muscular strength was obtained in the patients. For statistical analysis three-way ANOVA (factors age, gender, and physical activity level) was used. Both in patients and in controls a significant age-dependent decline in maximal torque could be observed for arm flexors and knee extensors. Maximal leg extensor muscle showed statistically significant differences between healthy controls and cardiac patients as well as between subgroups of patients: Physically inactive patients showed lowest torques (male: 148 ± 18 Nm; female: 82 ± 25 Nm) while highest values were measured in control subjects (male: 167 ± 16 Nm; female: 93 ± 17 Nm). In contrast, arm flexor muscles did not show any significant influence of health status or sports history. This qualitative difference between weight-bearing leg muscles and the muscle group of the upper extremity suggest that lower skeletal muscle strength in heart patients is mainly a consequence of selective disuse of leg muscles rather than any pathological skeletal muscle metabolism. Since a certain level of skeletal muscle strength is a prerequisite to cope with everyday activities, strength training is recommended as an important part of cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:19584952

  14. Comparison of skeletal muscle strength between cardiac patients and age-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Baum, K; Hildebrandt, U; Edel, K; Bertram, R; Hahmann, H; Bremer, F J; Böhmen, S; Kammerlander, C; Serafin, M; Rüther, Th; Miche, E

    2009-07-06

    The purpose of the present study was to compare muscular strength of knee extensors and arm flexor muscles of cardiac patients (n = 638) and healthy controls (n = 961) in different age groups. Isometric torques were measured in a sitting position with the elbow, hip, and knee flexed to 90(0). For statistical analysis, age groups were pooled in decades from the age of 30 to 90 years. Additionally, the influence of physical lifestyle prior to disease on muscular strength was obtained in the patients. For statistical analysis three-way ANOVA (factors age, gender, and physical activity level) was used.Both in patients and in controls a significant age-dependent decline in maximal torque could be observed for arm flexors and knee extensors. Maximal leg extensor muscle showed statistically significant differences between healthy controls and cardiac patients as well as between subgroups of patients: Physically inactive patients showed lowest torques (male: 148 +/- 18 Nm; female: 82 +/- 25 Nm) while highest values were measured in control subjects (male: 167 +/- 16 Nm; female: 93 +/- 17 Nm). In contrast, arm flexor muscles did not show any significant influence of health status or sports history.This qualitative difference between weight-bearing leg muscles and the muscle group of the upper extremity suggest that lower skeletal muscle strength in heart patients is mainly a consequence of selective disuse of leg muscles rather than any pathological skeletal muscle metabolism. Since a certain level of skeletal muscle strength is a prerequisite to cope with everyday activities, strength training is recommended as an important part of cardiac rehabilitation.

  15. Quality control of 157 whole body adiposity prediction formulae in age and activity matched men.

    PubMed

    Provyn, S; Scafoglieri, A; Tresignie, J; Bautmans, I; Reilly, T; Clarys, J P

    2011-09-01

    The physiological and clinical importance of body composition is part of public health, nutrition and Sports medicine. The most popular field method for estimating total body adiposity remains anthropometry separately or in formulae. The aim of this study was to verify the suitability of an absolute maximum out of more than 600 existing anthropometry equations estimating % adipose tissue (AT) in a cross validation with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and hydrodensitometry (HD) on 74 British male subjects (mean age 34.4±14.1) with different lifestyles corresponding to a maximum of populations the original formula was developed for. Pearson correlation coefficients, paired sample t-test and Bland and Altman plots where used for analyses. From the tested formulae, 19 correlated well (r≥0.70) and showed no significant difference (p>0.05) with BIA, 15 with DXA and only 12 with HD. The results show a better match of the predicted % AT by anthropometric equations with BIA then with DXA or HD. All results and conditions considered, this study suggest not to use HD nor anthropometric formulae to assess % AT in men for an individual estimation.

  16. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  17. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  18. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of

  19. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  20. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-09-01

    To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis.

  1. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Conclusion PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis. PMID:24278649

  2. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  3. Matching controlled vocabulary words.

    PubMed

    Grabar, Natalia; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Soualmia, Lina; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2003-01-01

    This study examines an enabling condition for natural languages access to medical knowledge resources (Medline, CISMeF) indexed with controlled vocabularies (e.g., the MeSH): is the vocabulary of user queries comparable with that of the index terms? The two vocabularies were compared in their original form, then under incrementally normalized forms, using character-based normalizations then linguistic normalizations. Only 16.7% of the user vocabulary, in its original form, is in the MeSH. Progressive normalizations increase this proportion to 65.5%. Besides, if the frequencies of occurrence of words are taken into account, 89.3% of user word occurrences can be matched to MeSH words. This shows the interest of taking into account further matching methods between queries and index terms than those presented here.

  4. Diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drug prescription in patients with dementia: a comparison to age- and sex-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence of undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia is inconsistent. This may largely be due to methodological differences and shortcomings of studies. In a large cohort of patients with incident dementia and age- and sex-matched controls we examined (1) how often they receive diagnoses indicating pain, (2) how often they receive analgesics and (3) in which agents and formulations. Methods Using health insurance claims data we identified 1,848 patients with a first diagnosis of dementia aged ≥ 65 years and 7,385 age- and sex-matched controls. We analysed differences in diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drugs prescribed between these two groups within the incidence year. We further fitted logistic regression models and stepwise adjusted for several covariates to study the relation between dementia and analgesics. Results On average, patients were 78.7 years old (48% female). The proportions receiving at least one diagnosis indicating pain were similar between the dementia and control group (74.4% vs. 72.5%; p = 0.11). The proportion who received analgesics was higher in patients with dementia in the crude analysis (47.5% vs. 44.7%; OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), but was significantly lower when adjusted for socio-demographic variables, care dependency, comorbidities and diagnoses indicating pain (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68-0.88). Analgesics in liquid form such as metamizole and tramadol were more often used in dementia. Conclusions Our findings show a comparable documentation of diagnoses indicating pain in persons with incident dementia compared to those without. However, there still seems to be an undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia. Irrespective of dementia, analgesics seem to be more often prescribed to sicker patients and to control pain in the context of mobility. PMID:24520876

  5. Study of lipid status in the euglycemic offsprings of diabetic parents with sex, age matched controls among South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Carlton Johnny, J; Anuratha, N

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has a silent but a fatal course. So, if we are able to identify the subjects in the early course of the disease then we will be able to prevent them from fatal complications later. To study the lipid status among euglycemic offspring of diabetic parents by appropriately matching for sex, and age in controls. It is a case control study involving 52 subjects and 25 controls done in a tertiary care center in Chennai. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria 52 euglycemic offspring as subjects and 25 controls were taken. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum triglycerides, blood pressure and waist circumference we obtained. The results were tabulated and studied. Student t test was employed. Siblings of diabetic parents had lower levels of serum HDL. Odds ratio showed that offspring's of diabetic parents had the odds of having low HDL 4.67 times when compared to the controls with a confidence interval of 1.6001-13.6563, P value of 0.0048. The other parameters did not show any gross variation. Siblings of diabetic fathers had a more deranged profile than the siblings of diabetic mothers. There is significant association between parental diabetic status and dyslipidemia. If they are detected early then progress to complications can be delayed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Preserved Learning during the Symbol-Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Morrens, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit-symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol-digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol-Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol-digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. The repetition of the same symbol-digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the interpretation of task scores for processing speed. Equal

  7. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  8. Habitual Physical Activity in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Compared With Age- and Sex-Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Camilla; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Thilén, Ulf; Gradmark, Anna; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2016-04-01

    Most adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have reduced aerobic exercise capacity. Their habitual physical activity (PA) level is, however, less well studied. In this study, habitual PA level in a cohort of adults with CHD compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls was investigated. Eighty adults with CHD, classed as either "complex" (n = 40) or "simple" (n = 40), and 42 healthy controls were studied with a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate monitor worn during 4 consecutive days. We analyzed: (1) the time spent during moderate or vigorous PA; (2) accelerometer counts per day; and (3) to what extent the World Health Organization recommendations on PA were reached. Patients with simple lesions had higher total accelerometer counts per day compared with patients with complex lesions and controls (simple lesions: median [interquartile range] 107.7 [76.3-139.1] vs complex lesions: 72.8 [49.2-101.0] and controls: 78.3 [58.7-106.9]; P ≤ 0.001 and P = 0.002). Furthermore, no differences in time spent during moderate or vigorous PA was found between patients and controls. In addition 46% of the patients with simple lesions, 55% of the patients with complex lesions, and 44% of the controls did not reach the World Health Organization-recommended level of daily PA, but no significant differences between groups were found. There were no differences in achieving recommended PA level between patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I vs NYHA class II and III. Patients with CHD follow the same PA level pattern as the general population. Broad strategies to promote an active lifestyle are needed across the population and especially for patients with complex CHD and impaired NYHA class. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  10. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  11. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  12. Intake of key micronutrients and food groups in patients with late-stage age-related macular degeneration compared with age-sex-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Russell, Joanna; Cosatto, Victoria; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs. AMD cases (aged 60+ years) were those presenting for treatment to a hospital eye clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2012-2015. The comparator group were obtained from a cohort study (Blue Mountains Eye Study; Sydney, Australia) during 2002-2009. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. AMD lesions were assessed from retinal photographs. After multivariable adjustment, patients with late-stage AMD compared with controls had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E (7.4 vs 9.8 mg/day; p<0.0001), beta-carotene (6232 vs 7738 μg/day; p<0.0001), vitamin C (161 vs 184 mg/day; p=0.0002) and folate (498.3 vs 602 μg/day; p<0.0001); but had higher intakes of zinc (13.0 vs 11.9 mg/day; p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with late AMD met the recommended intake of vegetables than controls: 52.9% versus 64.5%; p=0.0002. This study showed significant differences in intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate and vegetables between patients with late-stage AMD and healthy controls, and thus has provided a better understanding of the nutritional intake of patients presenting with advanced AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  14. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  15. Localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A positive cells in the brainstems of control age-matched and Alzheimer individuals.

    PubMed

    Yeung, L Y; Kung, H F; Yew, David T

    2010-12-01

    Serotonin receptor 1A and 2A positive cells in postmortem brainstems were demonstrated via immunohistochemistry in eight control age-matched elderly individuals and eight Alzheimer patients. The 5-HT1A positive cells were found in substantia nigra, pontile nucleus, and vagal as well as dorsal raphe nucleus, while 5-HT2A receptor positive cells were found in motor, sensory and spinal trigeminal nuclei, pontile nucleus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitarius. A comparison in density of positive cells per unit area was made between control age-matched and Alzheimer individuals. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) in density were observed in 5-HT1A cells in pontile, dorsal raphe, and vagal nuclei between control age-matched and Alzheimer, and in 5-HT2A positive cells in the sensory trigeminal nucleus, between control and Alzheimer. This de novo study indicated the presence of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor positive cells in the above nuclei of human brainstem and revealed differences in density between control age-matched and Alzheimer, indicating possible functional derangements in Alzheimer patients in these areas. In addition, colocalization studies indicated that 5-HT1A receptors were in cholinergic cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid positive fibers were linked to 5-HT2A receptor positive cells. It is hoped that understanding these two important 5-HT receptors and their localization might lead to advances in future therapeutic development.

  16. Association of young and advanced age of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the possible association of maternal age with the risk of all congenital abnormalities (CAs) in a population-based large case-matched control data set. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with isolated CA and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of maternal age groups in 24 CA-groups and their matched controls was compared. In the second step, young (19 years or less) and advanced (35 years or more) age groups were compared. Finally, the subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's CA were evaluated separately. A higher risk of gastroschisis, congenital heart defects, particularly left-sided obstructive defects, undescended testis and clubfoot was found in the youngest age group (19 years or less) of cases. The higher proportion of pregnant women with advanced age (i.e. 35 years or more) showed only a borderline excess in cases with clubfoot. The so-called U-shaped risk of maternal age distribution was found in cases with clubfoot and in the total group of isolated CAs. The maternal age is a contributing factor to the origin of some isolated CAs mainly in young pregnant women.

  17. The pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine in cats with chronic kidney disease and in age-matched control cats.

    PubMed

    Quimby, J M; Gustafson, D L; Lunn, K F

    2011-01-01

    Cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often experience inappetence, and may benefit from administration of mirtazapine, an appetite stimulant. The pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine in CKD cats is unknown. CKD delays the clearance/bioavailability (CL/F) of mirtazapine. Six CKD cats and 6 age-matched controls (AMC) were enrolled. Two CKD cats each from International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage II, III and IV were included. Blood samples were collected before and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after a single PO dose of 1.88 mg of mirtazapine. Mirtazapine concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling was performed. Mean age was 11 years (CKD cats) and 10.8 years (AMC cats). Mean serum creatinine concentration ± standard deviation (SD) was 3.8 ± 1.6 mg/dL (CKD) and 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL (AMC). Mean half-life ± SD was 15.2 ± 4.2 hours (CKD) and 12.1 ± 1.1 hours (AMC). Mean area under the curve (AUC) ± SD was 770.6 ± 225.5 ng/mL•hr (CKD) and 555.5 ± 175.4 ng/mL•hr (AMC). Mean CL/F ± SD was 0.6 ± 0.1 L/hr/kg (CKD) and 0.8 ± 0.16 L/hr/kg (AMC). A Mann-Whitney test indicated statistically significant differences in AUC (P = 0.01) and CL/F (P = 0.04) between groups. Calculated accumulation factor for 48-hour dosing in CKD cats was 1.15. CKD may delay the CL/F of mirtazapine. A single low dose of mirtazapine resulted in a half-life compatible with a 48-hour dosing interval in CKD cats. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging based morphologic evaluation of the pineal gland for suspected pineoblastoma in retinoblastoma patients and age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Thai Hien; Siebert, Eberhard; Asbach, Patrick; Willerding, Gregor; Erb-Eigner, Katharina

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphologic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of the pineal gland in retinoblastoma (Rb) patients without and with pineoblastoma in comparison to age-matched controls to improve early identification of pineoblastomas (trilateral retinoblastoma, TRb). 80 patients with retinoblastoma and 80 age-matched controls who had undergone brain MRI were included in this retrospective institutional review board approved cohort study. Two readers analyzed the following MR characteristics of the pineal gland: signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images, enhancement pattern, delineation of the gland, presence of cystic component, size of pineal gland and size of pineal cysts, respectively. A third reader assessed all images for the presence or absence of pineoblastoma. 3 patients were positive (TRb cohort) and 77 negative for pineoblastoma (non-TRb cohort). The mean maximum diameter of the pineal gland was 6.4mm in Rb patients and 6.3mm in age-matched controls. The mean volume of the pineal gland in Rb patients was 93.1mm(3) and was 87.6mm(3) in age-matched controls. Considering all available MRI scans the mean maximum diameter of the pineal gland in TRb patients was 11.2mm and the mean volume in TRb patients was 453.3mm(3). The third reader identified pineoblastomas with a sensitivity of 100% (3 of 3) and a specificity of 94% (72 of 77). Our non-TRb patients did not show significant differences in the size of the pineal gland and pineal gland cysts compared to age-matched controls. The presented data can serve as a reference for the volume of normal pineal glands and pineal cysts in the diagnostic work-up of Rb patients with suspected pineoblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical and sonographic risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia - a case-control study with parity and gestational age matched controls.

    PubMed

    Parantainen, Jukka; Palomäki, Outi; Talola, Nina; Uotila, Jukka

    2014-06-01

    To examine the clinical risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia today and to evaluate ultrasound methods predicting it. Retrospective, matched case-control study at a University Hospital with 5000 annual deliveries. The study population consisted of 152 deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia over a period of 8.5 years (January 2004-June 2012) and 152 controls matched for gestational age and parity. The data was collected from the medical records of mothers and children and analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Incidences and odds ratios were calculated for risk factors and complications. Antenatal ultrasound data was analyzed when available by conditional logistic regression to test for significant differences between study groups. Birthweight (OR 12.1 for ≥4000 g; 95% CI 4.18-35.0) and vacuum extraction (OR 3.98; 95% CI 1.25-12.7) remained the most significant clinical risk factors. Only a trend of an association of pregestational or gestational diabetes was noticed (OR 1.87; 95% CI 0.997-3.495, probability of type II error 51%). Of the complications of shoulder dystocia the incidence of brachial plexus palsies was high (40%). Antenatal ultrasound method based on the difference between abdominal and biparietal diameters had a significant difference between cases and controls. The impact of diabetes as a risk factor has diminished, which may reflect improved screening and treatment. Antenatal ultrasound methods are showing some promise, but the predictive value of ultrasound alone is probably low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma do not differ from those of age- and weight-matched control dogs.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Jennifer L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Hauck, Marlene L

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D concentrations show an inverse correlation with incidence of certain tumors in people and dogs. Additionally, human osteosarcoma has been associated with dysregulation of vitamin D-dependent pathways. The study objective was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in 20 dogs with osteosarcoma to age- and weight-matched control dogs. We hypothesized that dogs with osteosarcoma would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than control dogs. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations for dogs with osteosarcoma and matched-controls were 34.95 ng/mL and 33.85 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.784). Based on these data, 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency might not be important in the pathogenesis of canine osteosarcoma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  2. The spheno-occipital synchondrosis fuses prematurely in patients with Crouzon syndrome and midface hypoplasia compared with age- and gender-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Youssef; Paliga, J Thomas; Vossough, Arastoo; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2014-06-01

    Premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) has been associated with midface hypoplasia in animal models and patients with specific forms of syndromic craniosynostosis. The present study aimed to characterize SOS fusion in patients with Crouzon syndrome. A case-control study was performed in patients with Crouzon syndrome treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 1984 to 2012. The cases included patients with Crouzon syndrome and at least 1 high-quality computed tomography (CT) scan in which SOS patency could be assessed. Age- and gender-matched control CT scans were identified for comparison. The patient age at the CT scan was evaluated as the predictor, with SOS patency identified as the outcome variable. Three independent reviewers with high inter-rater reliability graded the SOS patency as open, partially fused, or completely fused. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the Crouzon group and the controls. During the study period, 30 patients were identified with Crouzon syndrome. A total of 24 patients, all with midface hypoplasia and with 112 cranial CT scans, met the inclusion criteria. Accordingly, 112 age- and gender-matched control CT scans were assessed. No patient in the control group had midface hypoplasia. Within the Crouzon group, the average age at complete closure (14.0 ± 3.4 years) evident on the CT scan was significantly younger than that in the control group (16.6 ± 2.2 years; P = .0152). The average age when the scans showed complete patency of the SOS in the Crouzon group (1.3 ± 1.1 years) was significantly younger than that in the control group (3.2 ± 2.3 years; P = .0001). The SOS closes significantly earlier in patients with Crouzon syndrome compared with age- and gender-matched controls. The strong statistical correlation supports premature closure of the SOS as a possible mechanistic contributor to midface hypoplasia. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  3. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  4. To dance or not to dance? A comparison of balance, physical fitness and quality of life in older Irish set dancers and age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, J; Coman, L; Ryan, F; Saunders, J; O'Sullivan, K; Ni Bhriain, O; Clifford, A M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if older adults regularly participating in Irish set dancing have superior balance, physical fitness and quality of life compared to age-matched controls. This study used a community-based, observational cross-sectional design. Regular set dancers (n = 39) and age-matched controls (n = 33) were recruited. Participants were assessed using the physical activity scale for the elderly (physical activity levels), mini-BESTest (balance) and senior fitness test (battery of functional fitness tests). Quality of life was also assessed using the EuroQol EQ visual analogue scale. When controlling for between-group differences in levels of physical activity (ANCOVA analysis), the dancers had significantly better balance, functional capacity and quality of life (all P < 0.05) compared to controls. No differences between the groups were observed in other measures of functional fitness. The findings of this study suggest regular participation in set dancing is associated with health benefits for older adults. These results may inform future studies prospectively examining the role of set dancing for falls prevention, emotional well-being and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  6. Sex differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in hypopituitary patients: comparison with an age- and sex-matched nationwide control group.

    PubMed

    Khang, Ah Reum; Ku, Eu Jeong; Kim, Ye An; Roh, Eun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Jung Hee

    2016-12-01

    Hypopituitary patients have a reduced life expectancy owing to cardiovascular events. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hypopituitary patients for a follow-up period of at least 1 year in comparison with an age- and sex-matched nationwide control group. A total of 515 patients with hypopituitarism who visited Seoul National University Hospital between January 2000 and December 2010 were included. Data for an age- and sex-matched control group were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) (n = 1545). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome did not differ significantly between the hypopituitary and control groups for men (34.9 versus 30.3 %), but the risk of metabolic syndrome was higher in hypopituitary women than in controls (39.8 versus 28.5 %). In both sexes, the risks of central obesity and dyslipidemia were higher in the hypopituitary group than in the control group. Men had lower risks of hypertension and hyperglycemia in the hypopituitary group, which attenuated the risk of metabolic syndrome. Age greater than 40 years and obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) contributed to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was higher in the hypopituitry group than in the control group in Korean women, and this was attributed to an increased risk of central obesity and dyslipidemia. Accordingly, early intervention to reduce metabolic syndrome needed in hypopituitary patients, i.e. women.

  7. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls: results of a claims data analysis.

    PubMed

    Luque Ramos, A; Hoffmann, F; Callhoff, J; Zink, A; Albrecht, K

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the vaccination status for influenza and pneumonia and the prevalence of hospitalised pneumonia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and population controls in Germany. Members of a large statutory health insurance fund in Germany who were continuously insured between 2009 and 2013 and had a diagnosis of RA in 2013 were age and sex matched 1:5 to members without RA. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations were evaluated with regard to age, sex and region of residence. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors for influenza vaccination in RA patients. Prevalences of pneumonia that required hospitalisation were compared to regional vaccination rates. The data of 111,482 RA patients and 557,410 matched controls were available for analysis. Compared to controls, RA patients were vaccinated more frequently against influenza (40.8 vs. 32.2 %) and pneumonia (15.0 vs. 10.0 %). Vaccination rates increased with older age and differed between the federal states (highest in East Germany, lowest in South Germany). The region of residence, comorbidities, rheumatologic care and biologic treatment was associated with a higher probability of an influenza vaccination. Prevalences of pneumonia that required hospitalisation were 2-3 times higher in patients compared to controls and tended to be higher in regions with low vaccination rates. The increased pneumonia prevalence in RA patients confirms their status as a risk group. RA patients are vaccinated more frequently than controls, but vaccination rates are still low. The lower pneumonia prevalence in East Germany indicates that vaccination may help to reduce pneumonia in RA.

  8. P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) event-related potentials (ERPs): People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) vs. age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    McCane, Lynn M; Heckman, Susan M; McFarland, Dennis J; Townsend, George; Mak, Joseph N; Sellers, Eric W; Zeitlin, Debra; Tenteromano, Laura M; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Vaughan, Theresa M

    2015-11-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aimed at restoring communication to people with severe neuromuscular disabilities often use event-related potentials (ERPs) in scalp-recorded EEG activity. Up to the present, most research and development in this area has been done in the laboratory with young healthy control subjects. In order to facilitate the development of BCI most useful to people with disabilities, the present study set out to: (1) determine whether people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy, age-matched volunteers (HVs) differ in the speed and accuracy of their ERP-based BCI use; (2) compare the ERP characteristics of these two groups; and (3) identify ERP-related factors that might enable improvement in BCI performance for people with disabilities. Sixteen EEG channels were recorded while people with ALS or healthy age-matched volunteers (HVs) used a P300-based BCI. The subjects with ALS had little or no remaining useful motor control (mean ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised 9.4 (±9.5SD) (range 0-25)). Each subject attended to a target item as the items in a 6×6 visual matrix flashed. The BCI used a stepwise linear discriminant function (SWLDA) to determine the item the user wished to select (i.e., the target item). Offline analyses assessed the latencies, amplitudes, and locations of ERPs to the target and non-target items for people with ALS and age-matched control subjects. BCI accuracy and communication rate did not differ significantly between ALS users and HVs. Although ERP morphology was similar for the two groups, their target ERPs differed significantly in the location and amplitude of the late positivity (P300), the amplitude of the early negativity (N200), and the latency of the late negativity (LN). The differences in target ERP components between people with ALS and age-matched HVs are consistent with the growing recognition that ALS may affect cortical function. The development of BCIs for use by this population may begin

  9. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction measurement in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis: reproducibility and comparison with age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anvesha; Horsfield, Mark A; Bekele, Soliana; Khan, Jamal N; Greiser, Andreas; McCann, Gerry P

    2015-07-01

    (i) To establish the test-retest reproducibility of myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction measurement in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis (AS), (ii) to compare reproducibility using motion-corrected (MOCO) parametric T1 maps for analysis vs. full MOLLI series of images, and (iii) to compare T1 and ECV between patients and age-matched controls. 3 T cardiac MRI was performed twice on 10 patients (median interval 7 days) to assess reproducibility. An additional 40 patients and 22 asymptomatic controls underwent a single MRI. Native T1 and ECV were calculated by outlining the myocardium on T1 maps generated inline, and using an offline T1 fit on the MOCO multiple inversion-time raw image series, in the reproducibility cohort (n = 10). Reproducibility was excellent using the inline T1 maps (CoVs for T1: 1.77%; ECV: 6.52%) and good using the full MOLLI series (CoVs for T1: 8.52%; ECV: 12.98%). On comparing AS and controls, who were well matched for age, gender and co-morbidities, there was no significant difference in the native T1 or ECV (T1 = 1103.32 ± 33.07 vs. 1092.27 ± 34.29; ECV = 0.243 ± 0.019 vs. 0.251 ± 0.026 in patients and controls, P > 0.05), which was maintained even after splitting the patients into moderate and severe AS subgroups. The test-retest reproducibility of myocardial T1 quantification using MOLLI is excellent in patients with AS and is highest using inline generated T1 maps for analysis. There was no difference in native myocardial T1 or ECV between asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe AS and age-matched controls without valve disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is Associated With Biomass Fuel Use Among Rural Women in Pakistan: An Age- and Residence-Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Unaib; Sahito, Ambreen; Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Kazi, Ambreen; Fatmi, Zafar

    2017-04-01

    Facility-based, age- and residential area-matched case-control study was conducted in Sindh, Pakistan to determine association between biomass fuel use for cooking and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Cases were women with pulmonary TB, and controls were those suffering from other diseases. Current users of biomass fuel were at higher risk of pulmonary TB (adjusted matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9) compared with nonusers. In comparison with former biomass users (women not using biomass for >10 years), recent biomass users (women who switched from biomass to nonbiomass ≤10 years ago), and current (lifetime) users were at a higher risk in a dose-response manner (adjusted mOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 0.9-8.2 and adjusted mOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4-10.7, respectively). Population attributable fraction for TB related to biomass fuel use was 40.6% (95% CI = 35.5%-45.7%). This study strengthens the evidence that biomass fuel use for cooking is associated with pulmonary TB and risk increases with duration of exposure.

  11. Just how bad is it? Comparison of the mental health of Mexican traumatic brain injury caregivers to age-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Paul B; Stevens, Lillian Flores; Villaseñor Cabrera, Teresita; Jimenez-Maldonado, Miriam; Martinez-Cortes, Maria Luisa; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To compare the mental health of family caregivers of individuals with Traumatic brain injury (TBI) to an age-matched healthy control from Guadalajara, Mexico. Hospital Civil Fray Antonio Alcade, a public medical facility in Guadalajara, Mexico. Ninety family caregivers of individuals with TBI and 89 healthy controls (n = 179) did not differ with respect to age, sex, marital status, education, or household income. Outcome measures assessed satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). A multivariate analysis of variance found that in comparison to controls, TBI caregivers reported substantially lower mental health scores across all indices, as well as lower social support in two out of three comparisons. The effect sizes of the social support differences were small; two out of five mental health differences reached medium-sized effects; and the other three reached large-sized effects. Because TBI caregivers' mental health influences the quality of informal care they can provide, mental health interventions for family caregivers are an extremely important part of TBI rehabilitation in Latin America, especially considering familism as a core value in Latino culture.

  12. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Patterns in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis and Age- and Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, Kelly A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Evans, Rachel E; McNarry, Melitta A

    2017-09-05

    Regular physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as important in the care of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) but there is a dearth of evidence regarding physical activity levels (PAL) or how these are accrued in those with CF. Physical activity was measured by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days by eighteen children (10 boys; 12.4 ± 2.8 years) with mild to moderate CF and eighteen age- and sex-matched controls (10 boys; 12.5 ± 2.7 years). Both CF and healthy children demonstrated similar PAL and patterns of accumulation across the intensity spectrum, with higher levels of PA during weekdays in both groups. FEV1 was predicted by high-light PA in CF compared to low-light PA in healthy children. These findings highlight weekends and light PA as areas warranting further research for the development of effective intervention strategies to increase PA in the youth CF population.

  13. Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

  14. Comparison of the Association of Excess Weight on Health Related Quality of Life of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Age- and BMI-Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls. Methods This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls. The Iranian version of short form health survey 36 (SF 36) was used to assess HRQOL. Domains of SF 36 were compared in women with PCOS and controls using multivariate analysis of covariance. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and domain scores of SF 36, and the differences between two correlations in cases and controls, using Fisher’s Z test. Results Women with PCOS had significantly lower scores for both, the physical and the mental component summary scales, compared to controls. In the cases, a significant negative correlations were observed for BMI with physical function (r = - 0.301, P<0.001), bodily pain (r = - 0.23, P = 0.006), and physical summary score (r = -0.3, P = 0.007). In controls, significant correlation was seen for BMI with bodily pain (r = - 0.3, P<0.001) and physical summary score (r = - 0.27, P = 0.001). The differences between correlations of physical function with BMI in PCOS and controls were statistically significant (Z = -2.41, P = 0.008). Conclusion Although the physical aspects of HRQOL are adversely affected by overweight in both PCOS and controls, these impaired effects are greater in women with PCOS. PMID:27736861

  15. The short-term effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Terai, Naim; Gedenk, Alexandra; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E; Stodtmeister, Richard

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and non-flavonoid-rich white chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls. Thirty glaucoma patients and 30 age-matched subjects were assigned to dark or white chocolate by randomization with forced equal distribution. The number in each of the four groups was 15. Measured parameters included systemic blood pressure (BP), blood glucose levels, static retinal vessel analysis, as measured by central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) (which relates to the diameter of the central retinal artery), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) (which relates to the diameter of central retinal vein) and the arterio-venous ratio (AVR), which represents the CRAE/CRVE ratio, dynamic retinal vessel analysis as measured by the change in vessel diameter in response to flicker light stimulation. Three recording cycles from each were averaged. Blood pressure parameters (systolic BP, diastolic BP and pulse), IOP and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between both groups before and after consumption of white or dark chocolate. Static vessel analysis did not show any significant changes in CRAE, CRVE or AVR before and after dark or white chocolate in both groups (p > 0.05). Mean dilatation of the venules in the control group was 3.2 ± 0.9 % before dark chocolate and 4.2 ± 1.4 % after dark chocolate intake, which was statistically significantly different (p = 0.01). Mean dilatation of the arterioles in the control group was 2.8 ± 1.8 % before dark chocolate and 3.5 ± 1.8 % after dark chocolate intake with a trend to statistical significance (p = 0.14), but not reaching the significance level. Mean diameter changes in the glaucoma group did not show any significant differences after dark chocolate consumption. The present study showed a significant improvement of venous vasodilatation 2 hr after dark chocolate intake in the control group, but not in the glaucoma group. This

  16. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956-2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kayla R; Harmatz, Jerold S; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J

    2016-05-01

    Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Descriptive laboratory study. Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m(2) in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic scholarships. These characteristics may be associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. We need approaches to encourage risk

  17. Effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 7-59 months. A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ciruela, Pilar; Hernández, Sergi; García-García, Juan José; Soldevila, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro; F. de Sevilla, Mariona; González-Peris, Sebastià; Campins, Magda; Uriona, Sonia; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; Solé-Ribalta, Anna; Codina, Gemma; Esteva, Cristina; Planes, Ana María; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Salleras, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7–59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%. Methods The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease. Information on the vaccination status was obtained from written medical records. Conditional logistic regression was made to estimate the adjusted VE and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results 169 cases and 645 controls were included. The overall VE of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD due to vaccine serotypes was 75.8% (95% CI, 54.1–87.2) and 90% (95% CI, 63.9–97.2) when ≥2 doses before 12 months, two doses on or after 12 months or one dose on or after 24 months, were administered. The VE of ≥1 doses was 89% (95% CI, 42.7–97.9) against serotype 1 and 86.0% (95% CI, 51.2–99.7) against serotype 19A. Serotype 3 showed a non-statistically significant effectiveness (25.9%; 95% CI, -65.3 to 66.8). Conclusions The effectiveness of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD caused by all PCV13 serotypes in children aged 7–59 months was good and, except for serotype 3, the effectiveness of ≥1 doses against the most frequent PCV13 serotypes causing IPD was high when considered individually. PMID:28806737

  18. Effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 7-59 months. A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ángela; Ciruela, Pilar; Hernández, Sergi; García-García, Juan José; Soldevila, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro; F de Sevilla, Mariona; González-Peris, Sebastià; Campins, Magda; Uriona, Sonia; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; Solé-Ribalta, Anna; Codina, Gemma; Esteva, Cristina; Planes, Ana María; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Salleras, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7-59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%. The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease. Information on the vaccination status was obtained from written medical records. Conditional logistic regression was made to estimate the adjusted VE and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 169 cases and 645 controls were included. The overall VE of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD due to vaccine serotypes was 75.8% (95% CI, 54.1-87.2) and 90% (95% CI, 63.9-97.2) when ≥2 doses before 12 months, two doses on or after 12 months or one dose on or after 24 months, were administered. The VE of ≥1 doses was 89% (95% CI, 42.7-97.9) against serotype 1 and 86.0% (95% CI, 51.2-99.7) against serotype 19A. Serotype 3 showed a non-statistically significant effectiveness (25.9%; 95% CI, -65.3 to 66.8). The effectiveness of ≥1 doses of PCV13 in preventing IPD caused by all PCV13 serotypes in children aged 7-59 months was good and, except for serotype 3, the effectiveness of ≥1 doses against the most frequent PCV13 serotypes causing IPD was high when considered individually.

  19. Changes in vocal loudness following intensive voice treatment (LSVT) in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a comparison with untreated patients and normal age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Ramig, L O; Sapir, S; Fox, C; Countryman, S

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) on vocal loudness [sound pressure level (SPL)] in a group of dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Pre- to post-treatment changes in SPL in the treated group were compared with changes in voice SPL during the same time in two control groups: individuals with IPD not treated with the LSVT and in non-disordered individuals, age-matched to the patients. All subjects produced the same voice and speech tasks--sustaining vowel phonation, reading the "Rainbow Passage," producing a short monologue, and describing a picture. These tasks were recorded at three different occasions: just prior to treatment, just after treatment, and 6 months following treatment. The individuals treated with LSVT increased voice SPL from baseline to post-treatment by an average of 8 dB and from baseline to 6 months follow-up by an average of 6 dB. These changes were statistically significant and perceptibly audible. No significant changes in SPL were observed in the control groups during the time corresponding to the treatment and follow-up. Differences in SPL between the treated and untreated patients at post-treatment and follow-up were statistically significant for all voice and speech tasks. These findings, along with others, provide additional support for the efficacy of the LSVT.

  20. Hip fracture risk assessment: artificial neural network outperforms conditional logistic regression in an age- and sex-matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic hip fractures with a significant morbidity and excess mortality among the elderly have imposed huge health and economic burdens on societies worldwide. In this age- and sex-matched case control study, we examined the risk factors of hip fractures and assessed the fracture risk by conditional logistic regression (CLR) and ensemble artificial neural network (ANN). The performances of these two classifiers were compared. Methods The study population consisted of 217 pairs (149 women and 68 men) of fractures and controls with an age older than 60 years. All the participants were interviewed with the same standardized questionnaire including questions on 66 risk factors in 12 categories. Univariate CLR analysis was initially conducted to examine the unadjusted odds ratio of all potential risk factors. The significant risk factors were then tested by multivariate analyses. For fracture risk assessment, the participants were randomly divided into modeling and testing datasets for 10-fold cross validation analyses. The predicting models built by CLR and ANN in modeling datasets were applied to testing datasets for generalization study. The performances, including discrimination and calibration, were compared with non-parametric Wilcoxon tests. Results In univariate CLR analyses, 16 variables achieved significant level, and six of them remained significant in multivariate analyses, including low T score, low BMI, low MMSE score, milk intake, walking difficulty, and significant fall at home. For discrimination, ANN outperformed CLR in both 16- and 6-variable analyses in modeling and testing datasets (p?

  1. Differences in audiovisual integration, as measured by McGurk phenomenon, among adult and adolescent patients with schizophrenia and age-matched healthy control groups.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Doron; Yodashkin-Porat, Dorit; Katz, Nachum; Valevski, Avi; Aizenberg, Dov; Sigler, Maayanit; Weizman, Abraham; Kikinzon, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon that reflects the integration of visual and auditory information during speech perception. Using McGurk effect, the authors examined the audiovisual integration in adolescents and adults with schizophrenia as compared with healthy volunteers. Thirty hospitalized patients with schizophrenia and 20 age-matched healthy controls were examined for perception of ambiguous audiovisual stimuli. The mean of McGurk-positive responses was significantly lower in adolescent patients with schizophrenia than in healthy adolescents (3.13 +/- 2.09 vs 5.60 +/- 0.7, respectively; t = 3.591, P = .001). The McGurk-positive responses were significantly higher in healthy adolescents than in healthy adults (5.60 +/- 0.7 vs 3.60 +/- 1.43, respectively; t = 3.974, P = .001). No significant difference in McGurk-positive responses was found between adults with schizophrenia and healthy adult individuals, or between adolescent and adults with schizophrenia. Duration of schizophrenia, soft sign status, type of symptoms, and type of antipsychotic medication showed no influence on the audiovisual integration ability. (I) Age effect: It seems that the audiovisual integrative function increases from childhood to adolescence and decreases from adolescence to early adulthood. (II) Schizophrenia: Audiovisual integration is poor in adolescent and adult patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it seems that schizophrenia is associated with early and persistent impairment in the development of the audiovisual integration ability. (III) Reliance on visual cue stimuli: Although several previous investigations concluded that patients with schizophrenia rely less on visual cue stimuli than healthy controls, our data suggest that this is true only for specific types of visual cue stimuli.

  2. Use of antidepressants and the risk of myocardial infarction in middle-aged and older adults: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Noordam, Raymond; Aarts, Nikkie; Leening, Maarten J G; Tiemeier, Henning; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Visser, Loes E

    2016-02-01

    Antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake-inhibiting antidepressants (SSRIs), decrease platelet activation and aggregation in in vitro experiments and could therefore decrease the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). However, prior studies addressing this hypothesis showed contradictory results. Our purpose was to investigate the association between the use of any antidepressant drug and incident MI among middle-aged and older adults. We embedded a case-control study in the prospective Rotterdam Study (1991-2011). Controls were matched to MI cases based on sex and age at the same calendar date, and confounding factors were taken into account as time-varying covariates. The relative risk of MI during current and past use of an antidepressant was analyzed with conditional logistic regression with never use of antidepressant drugs as the reference category. A total of 744 out of a cohort of 9499 study participants developed MI during follow-up. After statistical adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and depression, current use of any antidepressant was associated with a lower risk of MI (odds ratio (OR), 0.71; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.51-0.98) compared with never use of any antidepressant. SSRI use showed the lowest relative risk (OR, 0.65; 95 % CI, 0.41-1.02), albeit marginally not statistically significant. Past use of any of the antidepressant classes was not associated with a lower risk of MI. Current use of antidepressants was associated with a lower risk of MI. Of the different classes, the use of SSRIs showed the lowest risk of MI, and therefore confirming the research hypothesis.

  3. Body Size Changes Among National Collegiate Athletic Association New England Division III Football Players, 1956−2014: Comparison With Age-Matched Population Controls

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Kayla R.; Harmatz, Jerold S.; Zhao, Yanli; Greenblatt, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Collegiate football programs encourage athletes to pursue high body weights. Objective:  To examine position-dependent trends over time in body size characteristics among football players in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC) from 1956 to 2014 and to compare the observed absolute and relative changes with those in age-matched male population controls. Design:  Descriptive laboratory study. Setting:  Medical school affiliated with a NESCAC institution. Patients or Other Participants:  Football team rosters from the 10-member NESCAC schools, available as public documents, were analyzed along with body size data from general population males aged 20 to 29 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Main Outcome Measure(s):  Body weight, height, and calculated body mass index were evaluated using analysis of variance, linear regression, and nonlinear regression to determine the distribution features of size variables and changes associated with time (year), school, and position. Results:  Among NESCAC linemen, absolute and relative changes over time in body weight and body mass index exceeded corresponding changes in the NHANES population controls. New England Small College Athletic Conference offensive linemen body weights increased by 37.5% from 1956 to 2014 (192 to 264 lb [86.4 to 118.8 kg]), compared with a 12% increase (164 to 184 lb [73.8 to 82.8 kg]) since 1961 in the NHANES population controls. Body mass index changed in parallel with body weight and exceeded 35 kg/m2 in more than 30% of contemporary NESCAC offensive linemen. Among skill players in the NESCAC group, time-related changes in body size characteristics generally paralleled those in the NHANES controls. Conclusions:  High body weight and body mass indices were evident in offensive linemen, even among those in Division III football programs with no athletic

  4. Outcome of 60 neonates who had ARED flow prenatally compared with a matched control group of appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Hartung, J; Kalache, K D; Heyna, C; Heling, K-S; Kuhlig, M; Wauer, R; Bollmann, R; Chaoui, R

    2005-06-01

    To describe the course and outcome of fetuses with absent or reversed end-diastolic (ARED) flow in the umbilical artery (UA) and to examine the influence of prematurity according to gestational age at delivery. Sixty pregnancies complicated by ARED flow in the UA were monitored by repeat Doppler measurements of arterial and venous vessels, non-stress tests (cardiotocogram (CTG)) and maternal investigations, and were delivered between 24 and 34 weeks. Fetal outcome was investigated and compared to a control group of appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) preterm neonates, matched for gestational age. Mortality, birth weight, Apgar scores, postnatal cord arterial pH and need for ventilation were all recorded, as were cases of respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, persistent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, abnormal neurological findings and those requiring surgical intervention. Additionally, the group of fetuses with ARED flow was divided into three subgroups of different degrees of prematurity (delivery between 24 + 0 and 28 + 6 weeks, delivery between 29 + 0 and 31 + 6 weeks, and delivery after 32 weeks) and compared according to the above parameters. Pre- or postnatal death occurred in 16 cases. Comparing the 44 (61%) that were born alive with the AGA neonates, significant differences were found in birth weight (P < 0.001), arterial pH value (P < 0.001), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P = 0.002) and intestinal complications (P < 0.01). Prematurity-related complications were: need for ventilation (P = 0.001), respiratory distress syndrome (P < 0.0001), periventricular leukomalacia (P = 0.002) and pathological neurological testing (P = 0.005). Neonates displaying ARED flow before birth are growth restricted, acidemic at delivery and are at high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intestinal complications. While perinatal mortality seems to be related to abnormal

  5. RELN-expressing Neuron Density in Layer I of the Superior Temporal Lobe is Similar in Human Brains with Autism and in Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C.; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. PMID:25067827

  6. RELN-expressing neuron density in layer I of the superior temporal lobe is similar in human brains with autism and in age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Jasmin; Ejaz, Ehsan; Ariza, Jeanelle; Noctor, Stephen C; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2014-09-05

    Reelin protein (RELN) level is reduced in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of subjects with autism. RELN is synthesized and secreted by a subpopulation of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex termed Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. These cells are abundant in the marginal zone during cortical development, many die after development is complete, but a small population persists into adulthood. In adult brains, RELN is secreted by the surviving CR cells, by a subset of GABAergic interneurons in layer I, and by pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in deeper cortical layers. It is widely believed that decreased RELN in layer I of the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism may result from a decrease in the density of RELN expressing neurons in layer I; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. We examined RELN expression in layer I of the adult human cortex and found that 70% of cells express RELN in both control and autistic subjects. We quantified the density of neurons in layer I of the superior temporal cortex of subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. Our data show that there is no change in the density of neurons in layer I of the cortex of subjects with autism, and therefore suggest that reduced RELN expression in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism is not a consequence of decreased numbers of RELN-expressing neurons in layer I. Instead reduced RELN may result from abnormal RELN processing, or a decrease in the number of other RELN-expressing neuronal cell types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise-trained young men have higher calcium absorption rates and plasma calcitriol levels compared with age-matched sedentary controls.

    PubMed

    Zittermann, A; Sabatschus, O; Jantzen, S; Platen, P; Danz, A; Dimitriou, T; Scheld, K; Klein, K; Stehle, P

    2000-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on human calcium (Ca) metabolism is still not completely understood. Thus, we investigated fractional Ca absorption using a stable strontium test (Fc(240)), calciotropic hormones, and renal Ca excretion in 31 young men with a high activity level (GH) and in 26 age-matched sedentary control subjects (GL). Weekly hours spent on physical activity, obtained with a questionnaire were 15.0 +/- 6.6 (GH) and 1.0 +/- 1.4 (GL), respectively. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in GH compared with GL (P < 0.005). Dietary Ca intake (4-day food record) was twice as high in GH compared with GL men (P < 0.001). GH had significantly higher serum calcitriol levels and Fc(240) values than GL (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). In a stepwise multiple regression analysis including serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcitriol, testosterone, and dietary Ca intake, only calcitriol was significantly correlated with Fc(240) (P = 0. 017). Twenty-four hour renal Ca excretion was only slightly higher in GH compared with GL (P < 0.05). However, additional Ca losses might have occurred through the extensive sweating of GH, as indicated by a difference of 1.7 liter between fluid intake and renal fluid excretion (P < 0.001). In summary, we observed a higher fractional Ca absorption rate in physically active young men compared with sedentary controls which is probably mediated by calcitriol. The low testosterone serum levels of the athletes were obviously not a limiting factor in Ca absorption efficiency. An additional Ca retention might, however, only be obtained if absorbed Ca exceeded total obligatory Ca losses.

  8. A case-control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls.

    PubMed

    Löfvander, Monica; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wiklund, Tony; Bennström, Halina; Leppert, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. A prospective case-control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18-65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group. These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants' fast integration into society. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. A case–control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblad, Andreas; Wiklund, Tony; Bennström, Halina; Leppert, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. Methods: A prospective case–control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18–65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar’s test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results: There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group. Conclusions: These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants’ fast integration into society. PMID:25249583

  10. Severe fatigue after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ: A comparison with age-matched breast cancer survivors and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, H J G; Smits, L; Lugt, M de; Roos, W K de; Kamm, Y; Heins, M J; Verhagen, C A H H V M; Gielissen, M F M; Knoop, H

    2017-02-01

    Severe fatigue after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has not been studied before. The current study examined (i) the prevalence of severe fatigue in DCIS patients versus breast cancer survivors (BCS) and healthy controls (HC), (ii) quality of life and functioning of severely versus non-severely fatigued DCIS patients and BCS, and (iii) the association of fatigue with psychosocial and behavioral factors in DCIS patients. 89 patients treated for DCIS were matched on age and gender to 67 BCS and 178 HC (ratio 1:1:2). Fatigue was measured with the Fatigue Severity subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength. 23% of DCIS patients, 25% of BCS, and 6% of HC were severely fatigued (DCIS versus HC: p < 0.001). Severely fatigued DCIS patients had a lower quality of life and were more impaired in all domains of functioning than non-severely fatigued DCIS patients. Sleep problems, dysfunctional cognitions regarding fatigue, avoidance of activities, all-or-nothing behavior, perceived lack of social support, DCIS-related coping problems, and fear of future cancer occurrence were related to fatigue. The prevalence of severe fatigue in DCIS patients was similar to BCS, but higher than in HC. Severely fatigued DCIS patients had a lower quality of life and more functional impairments. The psychosocial and behavioral fatigue-related factors in DCIS patients are known to perpetuate fatigue in BCS. These factors can be targeted in interventions for cancer-related fatigue. Our findings suggest that the same treatment elements might be applicable to severely fatigued DCIS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal analysis of arterial blood pressure and heart rate response to acute behavioral stress in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Randall, David C; Speakman, Richard O; Silcox, Dennis L; Brown, Laura V; Brown, David R; Gong, Ming C; Patwardhan, Abhijit; Reynolds, L Raymond; Karounos, Dennis G; Burgess, Don E; Anigbogu, Chikodi N

    2011-01-01

    We recorded via telemetry the arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response to classical conditioning following the spontaneous onset of autoimmune diabetes in BBDP/Wor rats vs. age-matched, diabetes-resistant control (BBDR/Wor) rats. Our purpose was to evaluate the autonomic regulatory responses to an acute stress in a diabetic state of up to 12 months duration. The stress was a 15-s pulsed tone (CS+) followed by a 0.5-s tail shock. The initial, transient increase in BP (i.e., the "first component," or C(1)), known to be derived from an orienting response and produced by a sympathetic increase in peripheral resistance, was similar in diabetic and control rats through ∼9 months of diabetes; it was smaller in diabetic rats 10 months after diabetes onset. Weakening of the C(1) BP increase in rats that were diabetic for >10 months is consistent with the effects of sympathetic neuropathy. A longer-latency, smaller, but sustained "second component" (C(2)) conditional increase in BP, that is acquired as a rat learns the association between CS+ and the shock, and which results from an increase in cardiac output, was smaller in the diabetic vs. control rats starting from the first month of diabetes. A concomitant HR slowing was also smaller in diabetic rats. The difference in the C(2) BP increase, as observed already during the first month of diabetes, is probably secondary to the effects of hyperglycemia upon myocardial metabolism and contractile function, but it may also result from effects on cognition. The small HR slowing concomitant with the C(2) pressor event is probably secondary to differences in baroreflex activation or function, though parasympathetic dysfunction may contribute later in the duration of diabetes. The nearly immediate deficit after disease onset in the C(2) response indicates that diabetes alters BP and HR responses to external challenges prior to the development of structural changes in the vasculature or autonomic nerves.

  12. Adenomatous-Dominant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (AdBPH) as a Predictor for Clinical Success Following Prostate Artery Embolization: An Age-Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; Boardman, P; Macdonald, A C; Taylor, N; Macpherson, R; Crew, J; Tapping, C R

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the clinical impact of performing prostate artery embolization (PAE) on patients with adenomatous-dominant benign prostatic hyperplasia (AdBPH). Twelve patients from the ongoing proSTatic aRtery EmbolizAtion for the treatMent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (STREAM) trial were identified as having AdBPH; defined as two or more adenomas within the central gland of ≥1 cm diameter on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI). These patients were age-matched with patients from the STREAM cohort, without AdBPH. Patients were followed up with repeat MP-MRI at 3 months and 1 year. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), international index for erectile function (IIEF), and quality of life assessment from the IPSS and EQ-5D-5S questionnaires were recorded pre-PAE and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year. The mean age of patients was 68 (61-76). All patients had PAE as a day-case procedure. The technical success in the cohort was 23/24 (96%). There was a significant reduction in prostate volume following embolization with a median reduction of 34% (30-55) in the AdBPH group, compared to a mean volume reduction of 22% (9-44) in the non-AdBPH group (p = 0.04). There was a significant reduction in IPSS in the AdBPH group following PAE when compared with the control group [AdBPH median IPSS 8 (3-15) vs. non-AdBPH median IPSS 13 (8-18), p = 0.01]. IPSS QOL scores significantly improved in the AdBPH group (p = 0.007). There was no deterioration in sexual function in either group post-PAE. This is the first time that AdBPH has been identified as being a predictor of clinical success following PAE.

  13. Intensively managed young children with type 1 diabetes consume high-fat, low-fiber diets similar to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjeev N; Volkening, Lisa K; Quinn, Nicolle; Laffel, Lori M B

    2014-05-01

    Despite significant emphasis on nutrition, older children with diabetes demonstrate poor dietary quality. We tested the hypothesis that dietary quality in young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) would be better than age-matched children in the US population. Dietary data from children with T1D (n = 67) aged 2 to 12 years attending a pediatric diabetes clinic were compared with a nationally representative, age-matched sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1691). Multiple 24-hour dietary recalls were used. Recommended intakes were based on national guidelines, and dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. More children with T1D were overweight or obese compared with children participating in NHANES (42% vs 30%, P = .04). Greater proportions of children with T1D met daily recommendations for vegetables (22% vs 13%, P = .03), whole grains (12% vs 5%, P = .005), and dairy (55% vs 36%, P = .001) compared with NHANES children, whereas similar proportions met daily fruit recommendations (40% vs 33%, P = .2). Less than one-third of all children limited total fat to recommended levels; children with T1D consumed more saturated fat than did NHANES children (14% vs 12% total energy intake, P = .0009). Fiber intakes were very low in both groups. Compared with NHANES children, children with T1D had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores (59.6 vs 49.7, P = .0006) primarily because of lower intakes of added sugars. The nutritional intake of young children with T1D remains suboptimal in the contemporary era of diabetes management. Despite focused nutrition management, young children with T1D consume high-fat, low-fiber diets comparable with youth in the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  15. Assessment of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy among the known diabetics and age-matched controls using noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests in a South-Indian population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sukla, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Rao, Nambaru Lakshmana

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by hyperglycemia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a rural area of South India, among the known diabetics after comparing them with the age-matched healthy controls, utilizing noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. A case-control study was conducted for 4 months (October 2014 to January 2015) at an Urban Health and Training Center (UHTC) of a Medical College located in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted among 126 diagnosed Type 2 diabetes patients and in 152 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to ensure comparability between the cases and controls and, thus, reduce variability due to demographic variables. All the study subjects (cases and controls) were selected from the patients attending UHTC during the study duration, provided they satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study participants were subjected to undergo noninvasive cardiac autonomic neuropathy reflex tests. The associations were tested using paired t-test for the continuous (mean ± standard deviation) variables. The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2% (67/126). On further classification, positive (abnormal) results were obtained in 56 (sympathetic - 44.4%) and 51 (parasympathetic - 40.5%) diabetic cases. Overall, heart rate variation during deep breathing was found to be the most sensitive test to detect parasympathetic autonomic neuropathy while the diastolic blood pressure response to sustained handgrip exercise was the most sensitive method to detect sympathetic neuropathy dysfunction. The overall prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy among diabetic patients was found to be as 53.2%. Even though cardiac autonomic neuropathy can be detected by various invasive tests, noninvasive tests remain a key tool to detect it in the remote settings in a cost-effective and user

  16. Characteristics of the personal and environmental components of person-environment fit in very old age: a comparison between people with self-reported Parkinson's disease and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Slaug, Björn; Nilsson, Maria H; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    To investigate differences and similarities in person-environment (P-E) fit problems between very old people with self-reported Parkinson's disease (PD) and matched controls. Data collected for the cross-national ENABLE-AGE Survey Study were used to identify people with self-reported PD (n = 20), and to select three matched controls per individual (n = 60). The matching criteria were age (mean = 82 years), sex, country, and type of housing. The data analysis targeted P-E fit (i.e. accessibility) problems, including studying the personal and environmental components separately. The personal component was analyzed in terms of functional limitations, and the environmental component in terms of physical environmental barriers. In comparison to the matched controls, the participants with PD had more functional limitations, used more mobility devices and were subjected to more P-E fit problems, though the number of environmental barriers did not differ from the controls. In the PD sample, P-E fit problems were significantly stronger associated with poor balance and incoordination, and the environmental barriers that generated the most severe P-E fit problems were more often located to the exterior surroundings of the housing compared to the controls. The novel contribution of this explorative study is the demonstration of the type of knowledge that can be generated by unfolding and comparing the composition of P-E fit (accessibility) problems among people with self-reported PD as compared with matched controls. The knowledge thereby generated can be used to develop more targeted rehabilitation approaches, efficient housing adaptation services and societal planning for people with neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  18. Quantum memory based on phase matching control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi-Wen; Kalachev, A.; Hemmer, P.; Scully, M. O.; Kocharovskaya, O.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss a class of quantum memory (QM) scheme based on phase matching control (PMC). A single-photon wave packet can be mapped into and retrieved on demand from a long-lived spin grating in the presence of a control field, forming along with the signal field a Raman configuration, when the wave vector of the control field is continuously changed in time. Such mapping and retrieval takes place due to the phase matching condition and requires neither a variation of the amplitude of the control field nor inhomogeneous broadening of the medium. We discuss the general model of PMC QM and its specific implementation via (i) modulation of the refractive index, (ii) angular scanning of the control field, and (iii) its frequency chirp. We show that the performance of the PMC QM protocol may be as good as those realized in the gradient echo memory (GEM) but achieved with less stringent requirements on the medium. We suggest the experimental realization of PMC QM in nitrogen vacancies (NV) and silicon vacancies (SiV) in diamond as well as in rare-earth doped crystals. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Professor Igor Yevseyev, the internationally renowned scientist, one of the pioneers of the field of quantum coherence effects. We have warm memories of many fruitful and pleasant communications with Professor Yevseyev during the International Laser Physics Workshops, which he so successfully organized and hosted.

  19. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  20. Aqueous acupuncture for postoperative pain--a matched controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Lu, S N; Lai, C T; Jean, J Y; Hsiao, C L; Hsu, P T

    1991-09-01

    The analgesic effects of acupuncture are well-documented. Aqueous acupuncture, or point injection, is a conveniently modified modern acupuncture method. This matched controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous acupuncture in postoperative pain control. A total of 12 patients were selected as age-, sex- and operative-style-matched controls. In treating group, 2 to 5 ml of 20% glucose solution was injected into Ho-Ku (LI 4) and Yang-Ling-Chuan (GB 34) when patients had regained conciousness from operation anesthesia. The pain intensity were recorded as score system included verbal, sleep disturbance and use of narcotics. In comparisons with the control group, the intensity of postoperative pain, and the amounts and frequency of narcotics used were significantly lower in the study group, especially for the first 12 postoperative hours. Aqueous acupuncture is a convenient and effective procedure in postoperative pain control.

  1. A matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Weber, Matthew J; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter.

  2. A Matched Filter Hypothesis for Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a Matched Filter Hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter. PMID:24200920

  3. Youth Suicide in Norway, 1990-1992: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents Completing Suicide and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes all residents in Norway, ages 19 and younger, who committed suicide from 1990 to 1992 so as to describe characteristics of young suicide victims. Results indicate that depression, disruption disorders, and previous suicidal behavior were main risk factors for suicide. Of the group, 74% had mental disorders, but few had received treatment.…

  4. Youth Suicide in Norway, 1990-1992: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents Completing Suicide and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes all residents in Norway, ages 19 and younger, who committed suicide from 1990 to 1992 so as to describe characteristics of young suicide victims. Results indicate that depression, disruption disorders, and previous suicidal behavior were main risk factors for suicide. Of the group, 74% had mental disorders, but few had received treatment.…

  5. Age-Related Shift in Neuro-Activation during a Word-Matching Task

    PubMed Central

    Methqal, Ikram; Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Monchi, Oury; Amiri, Mahnoush; Pinsard, Basile; Ansado, Jennyfer; Joanette, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence from the neuroscience of aging suggests that executive function plays a pivotal role in maintaining semantic processing performance. However, the presumed age-related activation changes that sustain executive semantic processing remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the executive aspects of semantic processing during a word-matching task with regard to age-related neuro-functional reorganization, as well as to identify factors that influence executive control profiles. Twenty younger and 20 older participants underwent fMRI scanning. The experimental task was based on word-matching, wherein visual feedback was used to instruct participants to either maintain or switch a semantic-matching rule. Response time and correct responses were assessed for each group. A battery of cognitive tests was administrated to all participants and the older group was divided into two subgroups based on their cognitive control profiles. Even though the percentage of correct responses was equivalent in the task performance between both groups and within the older groups, neuro-functional activation differed in frontoparietal regions with regards to age and cognitive control profiles. A correlation between behavioral measures (correct responses and response times) and brain signal changes was found in the left inferior parietal region in older participants. Results indicate that the shift in age-related activation from frontal to parietal regions can be viewed as another form of neuro-functional reorganization. The greater reliance on inferior parietal regions in the older compared to the younger group suggests that the executive control system is still efficient and sustains semantic processing in the healthy aging brain. Additionally, cognitive control profiles underlie executive ability differences in healthy aging appear to be associated with specific neuro-functional reorganization throughout frontal and parietal regions. These findings

  6. Personality in patients with pituitary adenomas is characterized by increased anxiety-related traits: comparison of 70 acromegalic patients with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and age- and gender-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sievers, C; Ising, M; Pfister, H; Dimopoulou, C; Schneider, H J; Roemmler, J; Schopohl, J; Stalla, G K

    2009-03-01

    Although neuropsychiatric and morphological brain alterations in acromegalic patients have been described and a distinct disease personality is clinically suspected, this has never been systematically investigated. We examined whether patients with acromegaly showed an altered personality profile compared with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 70 acromegalic patients and 58 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas were compared with 140 mentally healthy population controls, matched for age and gender. Personality traits were measured by standardized personality questionnaires (Eysenck personality questionnaire-RK and tridimensional personality questionnaire). Compared with healthy controls, acromegalic patients described themselves as distinctly more harm avoidant and neurotic and presented themselves with high social conformity. On harm avoidant subscales, they reported more anticipatory worries and pessimism, higher fear of uncertainty, higher fatigability and asthenia. This personality pattern was not specific for acromegaly, but could similarly be observed in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. However, specific for patients with GH-producing adenomas was an even more reduced novelty-seeking behaviour, especially in terms of lower impulsiveness, compared with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Patients with pituitary adenomas show a distinct pattern of increased anxiety-related personality traits compared with the general population, potentially as a result of the pituitary lesion and/or associated hormonal dysregulations and comorbidities. Acromegaly is additionally associated with reduced impulsivity and novelty-seeking behaviour, which might affect patients' management and their quality of life.

  7. Prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (stages 3-5) in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls: A study from Kashmir Valley Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Najar, M Saleem; Mir, Mohamad Muzzafer; Muzamil, Mudasir

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a range of metabolic bone diseases. Fracture rates are higher in CKD patients than age-matched controls throughout all the five stages of CKD. Dialysis patients have 4 times as many hip fractures as expected for their age. CKD forms an independent risk factor for osteoporosis, even in the absence of traditional risk factors. This study was carried out at the nephrology unit in a tertiary care center of Kashmir to know the prevalence of osteoporosis in CKD patients having glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min (stages 3-5). Among the 151 cases studied, the average estimated GFR was 16.78 ± 10.714 mL/min. There were 98 males (64.9%) and 53 females (35.1%). Their mean age was 51.01 ± 14.138 years. Osteoporosis based on femoral neck T-Score was seen in 31 patients (31.6%) while 43 patients (28.5%) had osteoporosis at L1, L2 lumbar vertebrae. The prevalence of osteoporosis based on femoral neck T-Score as well as osteopenia was highest in stage-5 CKD. In our study, the body mass index (BMI) had a positive correlation with osteoporosis; low BMI patients were at higher risk for osteoporosis (P = 0.014). In the Kashmir valley, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 31.8% in CKD patients against 22% in controls. Thus, CKD forms an important risk factor for osteoporosis even in the absence of traditional risk factors. We recommend early screening, detection, and management of osteoporosis to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in this subset of patients.

  8. Improving statistical analysis of matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Conway, Aaron; Rolley, John X; Fulbrook, Paul; Page, Karen; Thompson, David R

    2013-06-01

    Matched case-control research designs can be useful because matching can increase power due to reduced variability between subjects. However, inappropriate statistical analysis of matched data could result in a change in the strength of association between the dependent and independent variables or a change in the significance of the findings. We sought to ascertain whether matched case-control studies published in the nursing literature utilized appropriate statistical analyses. Of 41 articles identified that met the inclusion criteria, 31 (76%) used an inappropriate statistical test for comparing data derived from case subjects and their matched controls. In response to this finding, we developed an algorithm to support decision-making regarding statistical tests for matched case-control studies.

  9. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza illness among children aged 6-59 months, October 2011-September 2012: A matched test-negative case-control study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liling; Greene, Carolyn; Ding, Yunfang; Cheng, Yuejia; Yang, Chao; Zeng, Shanshan; Hua, Jun; Zhou, Suizan; Song, Ying; Luan, Lin; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Genming

    2016-05-05

    Seasonal influenza infections among young children in China lead to substantial numbers of hospitalizations and financial burden. This study assessed the seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory confirmed medically attended influenza illness among children in Suzhou, China, from October 2011-September 2012. We conducted a test-negative case-control study among children aged 6-59 months who sought care at Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from October 2011-September 2012. A case was defined as a child with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) with an influenza-positive nasopharyngeal swab by rRT-PCR. Controls were selected from children presenting with ILI or SARI without laboratory confirmed influenza. We conducted 1:1 matching by age and admission date. Vaccination status was verified from the citywide immunization system database. VE was calculated with conditional logistic regression: (1-OR)×100%. During the study period, 2634 children aged 6-59 months presented to SCH with ILI (1975) or SARI (659) and were tested for influenza. The vaccination records were available for 69% (1829; ILI: 1354, SARI: 475). Among those, 23% (427) tested positive for influenza, and were included as cases. Among influenza positive cases, the vaccination rates were 3.2% for SARI and 4.5% for ILI. Among controls, the vaccination rates were 13% for SARI, and 11% for ILI. The overall VE against lab-confirmed medically attended influenza virus infection was 67% (95% CI: 41-82). The VE for SARI was 75% (95% CI: 11-93) and for ILI was 64% (95% CI: 31-82). The seasonal influenza vaccine was effective against medically attended lab-confirmed influenza infection in children aged 6-59 months in Suzhou, China in the 2011-12 influenza season. Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination among young children in Suzhou may decrease medically attended influenza-associated ILI and SARI cases in this population. Copyright

  10. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Pellicer, Ana; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana Victoria; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Calvo, Enrique; Aix, Esther; González-Guerra, Andrés; Logan, Angela; Bernad-Miana, María Luisa; Romanos, Eduardo; Cruz, Raquel; Cogliati, Sara; Sobrino, Beatriz; Carracedo, Ángel; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Ruíz-Cabello, Jesús; Murphy, Michael P; Flores, Ignacio; Vázquez, Jesús; Enríquez, José Antonio

    2016-07-28

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shows extensive within population sequence variability. Many studies suggest that mtDNA variants may be associated with ageing or diseases, although mechanistic evidence at the molecular level is lacking. Mitochondrial replacement has the potential to prevent transmission of disease-causing oocyte mtDNA. However, extension of this technology requires a comprehensive understanding of the physiological relevance of mtDNA sequence variability and its match with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Studies in conplastic animals allow comparison of individuals with the same nuclear genome but different mtDNA variants, and have provided both supporting and refuting evidence that mtDNA variation influences organismal physiology. However, most of these studies did not confirm the conplastic status, focused on younger animals, and did not investigate the full range of physiological and phenotypic variability likely to be influenced by mitochondria. Here we systematically characterized conplastic mice throughout their lifespan using transcriptomic, proteomic,metabolomic, biochemical, physiological and phenotyping studies. We show that mtDNA haplotype profoundly influences mitochondrial proteostasis and reactive oxygen species generation,insulin signalling, obesity, and ageing parameters including telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in profound differences in health longevity between conplastic strains.

  11. Effects of age and spa treatment on match running performance over two consecutive games in highly trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Simpson, Ben M; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age and spa treatment (i.e. combined sauna, cold water immersion, and jacuzzi) on match running performance over two consecutive matches in highly trained young soccer players. Fifteen pre- (age 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and 13 post- (15.9 ± 1 y) peak height velocity (PHV) players played two matches (Matches 1 and 2) within 48 h against the same opposition, with no specific between-match recovery intervention (control). Five post-PHV players also completed another set of two consecutive matches, with spa treatment implemented after the first match. Match running performance was assessed using a global positioning system with very-high-intensity running (> 16.1-19.0 km · h(-1)), sprinting distance (>19 km · h(-1)), and peak match speed determined. Match 2 very-high-intensity running was "possibly" impaired in post-PHV players (-9 ± 33%; ± 90% confidence limits), whereas it was "very likely" improved for the pre-PHV players (+27 ± 22%). The spa treatment had a beneficial impact on Match 2 running performance, with a "likely" rating for sprinting distance (+30 ± 67%) and "almost certain" for peak match speed (+6.4 ± 3%). The results suggest that spa treatment is an effective recovery intervention for post-PHV players, while its value in pre-PHV players is questionable.

  12. Postural finger tremor exhibited by Parkinson patients and age-matched subjects.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S S; Hutton, J T

    1995-09-01

    Physiological correlates of postural tremor of the finger seen in Parkinson's disease patients are different from those seen in age-matched control subjects. A significant correlation between the spectral peak of acceleration and the spectral peak of rectified electromyographic activity from the muscle responsible for finger extension was found in Parkinson's disease patients. This correlation was not seen in age-matched control subjects. Any neural drive imposed on the motoneuron pool from supraspinal levels would enhance the electromyographic activity. Likewise, any feedback effects via spinal stretch reflexes or supraspinal stretch responses would be mediated through the motoneuron pool and electromyographic activity. The results of this research support the theory that Parkinson tremor is a centrally driven rhythm that may be influenced by feedback effects, whereas physiological tremor is due to a complex interaction of central, feedback, and mechanical effects.

  13. Stimulus control of delayed matching in pigeons: Directed forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Donald F.; Rilling, Mark; Stonebraker, Thomas B.

    1981-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in delayed matching-to-sample with two postsample stimuli. A postsample R-cue signaled that a matching choice phase would follow. A postsample F-cue signaled that a matching choice phase would not follow. Previous research found reduced matching accuracy on F-cued probe trials when comparison stimuli were presented in the choice phase. The present four experiments systematically varied the events following an F-cue to determine the conditions under which the F-cue reduces delayed-matching accuracy. When F-cues and R-cues controlled different behavior, matching on probe trials was poor. When both cues controlled the same behavior, matching on probe trials was good. This result is best explained by the theory that comparison stimuli retrieve the sample representation, but only in the behavioral context established by the R-cue. The present research supports the view that response-produced stimuli serve a contextual role in animal short-term memory. PMID:16812243

  14. Association between migraine and asthma: matched case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Gail; Sedgwick, Philip; Maier, Will; Visick, George; Strachan, David P; Anderson, H Ross

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested a link between asthma and severe headache, and also between migraine and wheezing illness. Recent analysis have also shown an increase of asthma among cases with a prior history of migraine but without a history of hay fever, allergic rhinitis or eczema. AIM: To examine whether there is an association between migraine and asthma in the United Kingdom. DESIGN OF STUDY: Matched case-control study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). SETTING: Practices in the United Kingdom providing data on 5,110,619 patients to the GPRD. METHOD: The subjects were the patients with one or more diagnoses of migraine plus treatment for migraine. Each case was matched by general practice, sex, and age, with one control who had never been given a diagnosis of migraine. Case and control groups were compared for prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory symptoms treated with inhalers or hay fever. Investigations were carried out to determine whether the association between migraine and asthma was stronger among patients with hayfever or those without hayfever, and whether patients with migraine had an increased prescription of other (non-migraine and non-asthma) medications. RESULTS: Among 64 678 case-control pairs, the relative risk of asthma in patients with migraine was 1.59 (95% CI = 1.54 to 1.65) among definite cases, and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.83) among those whose selection as case included beta-blocker prophylaxis. Among definite migraine cases, relative risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory symptoms, eczema, and hay fever (pollinosis), were all raised (at 1.22, 1.85, 1.55, and 1.67, respectively). The association between migraine and asthma was stronger in patients without a diagnosis of hay fever, than in those with hayfever (relative risk = 1.32 and 1.19, respectively). The relative risk of prescription for a range of non-migraine, non-asthma medications was raised

  15. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group…

  16. Performance of Disease Risk Score Matching in Nested Case-Control Studies: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rishi J; Glynn, Robert J; Wang, Shirley; Gagne, Joshua J

    2016-05-15

    In a case-control study, matching on a disease risk score (DRS), which includes many confounders, should theoretically result in greater precision than matching on only a few confounders; however, this has not been investigated. We simulated 1,000 hypothetical cohorts with a binary exposure, a time-to-event outcome, and 13 covariates. Each cohort comprised 2 subcohorts of 10,000 patients each: a historical subcohort and a concurrent subcohort. DRS were estimated in the historical subcohorts and applied to the concurrent subcohorts. Nested case-control studies were conducted in the concurrent subcohorts using incidence density sampling with 2 strategies-matching on age and sex, with adjustment for additional confounders, and matching on DRS-followed by conditional logistic regression for 9 outcome-exposure incidence scenarios. In all scenarios, DRS matching yielded lower average standard errors and mean squared errors than did matching on age and sex. In 6 scenarios, DRS matching also resulted in greater empirical power. DRS matching resulted in less relative bias than did matching on age and sex at lower outcome incidences but more relative bias at higher incidences. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of DRS model misspecification might be more pronounced at higher outcome incidences, resulting in higher relative bias. These results suggest that DRS matching might increase the statistical efficiency of case-control studies, particularly when the outcome is rare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Nested case-control studies: should one break the matching?

    PubMed

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Keogh, Ruth

    2015-10-01

    In a nested case-control study, controls are selected for each case from the individuals who are at risk at the time at which the case occurs. We say that the controls are matched on study time. To adjust for possible confounding, it is common to match on other variables as well. The standard analysis of nested case-control data is based on a partial likelihood which compares the covariates of each case to those of its matched controls. It has been suggested that one may break the matching of nested case-control data and analyse them as case-cohort data using an inverse probability weighted (IPW) pseudo likelihood. Further, when some covariates are available for all individuals in the cohort, multiple imputation (MI) makes it possible to use all available data in the cohort. In the paper we review the standard method and the IPW and MI approaches, and compare their performance using simulations that cover a range of scenarios, including one and two endpoints.

  18. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  19. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  20. Pooled exposure assessment for matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2011-09-01

    Exposure assessment using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure assessment can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched case-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched case-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and assessment of effect modification by a categorical variable. We assess the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched case-control studies.

  1. Epigenetic Control of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Organismal aging and longevity are influenced by many complex interacting factors. Epigenetics has recently emerged as another possible determinant of aging. Here, we review some of the epigenetic pathways that contribute to cellular senescence and age-associated phenotypes. Strategies aimed to reverse age-linked epigenetic alterations may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to delay or alleviate some of the most debilitating age-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 241–259. PMID:20518699

  2. Matching trajectory optimization and nonlinear tracking control for HALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjong; Jang, Jieun; Ryu, Hyeok; Lee, Kyun Ho

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns optimal trajectory generation and nonlinear tracking control for stratospheric airship platform of VIA-200. To compensate for the mismatch between the point-mass model of optimal trajectory and the 6-DOF model of the nonlinear tracking problem, a new matching trajectory optimization approach is proposed. The proposed idea reduces the dissimilarity of both problems and reduces the uncertainties in the nonlinear equations of motion for stratospheric airship. In addition, its refined optimal trajectories yield better results under jet stream conditions during flight. The resultant optimal trajectories of VIA-200 are full three-dimensional ascent flight trajectories reflecting the realistic constraints of flight conditions and airship performance with and without a jet stream. Finally, 6-DOF nonlinear equations of motion are derived, including a moving wind field, and the vectorial backstepping approach is applied. The desirable tracking performance is demonstrated that application of the proposed matching optimization method enables the smooth linkage of trajectory optimization to tracking control problems.

  3. Lighting the match:using haiku to teach about aging.

    PubMed

    Savishinsky, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative teaching method in which American undergraduate students were asked to write haiku--a Japanese poetry form--about the lives of nursing home residents. Drawing on both their own experiences and May Sarton's novel As We Are Now, class members created poems about institutionalization that exhibited descriptive, analytic and reflective qualities. Since Sarton's central character, Caroline Spencer, eventually burns down the facility where she has been consigned--setting what she herself calls a "cleansing holocaust"--students were also asked to address the question: Did she have the right to do it? Their responses expressed themes of compassion, condemnation, and moral ambiguity. Numerous examples of the poems produced by the students are provided to show how they struggled with and used the concise framework of haiku to explore their own insights, emotions, and ethical values about aging, power and institutionalization.

  4. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:28070424

  5. Match explosionproof motors with variable-frequency controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Petro, D.; Basso, D.

    1995-10-01

    The correct application of variable-frequency drive controllers to AC induction motors can be difficult, even for relatively simple applications. When using a variable-frequency controller (inverter), the non-pure sine-wave power output cases additional motor heating, primarily because of harmonics and below-base-speed operation. Add to that a hazardous environment requiring an explosion proof (XP) motor and the selection of a suitable, as well as efficient, motor and variable-frequency controller combination, and selection becomes even more complicated. Hazardous locations are found in a wide range of chemical process industries (CPI) plants, including chemical, petrochemical textile, rubber-making,, agriculture, food-processing, and metalworking facilities. Because standard constant-speed XP motors are not designed of use with variable-frequency controllers in these potentially explosive applications, it is necessary to understand how drive controllers affect motor performance. The multitude of motors and controllers--which can be purchased separately--and the numerous hazardous-application restrictions make it difficult to select the right XP motor/controller combination. The paper discusses how variable frequency affects motors, hazardous environments as found in UL 674 and UL 1836, matching XP motors with variable-frequency controllers, preventing motor overheating, motor and controller packaging, and non-thermostat applications in the CPI.

  6. Issues related to obtaining intelligence quotient-matched controls in autism research.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vanitha S; Raman, Vijaya; Mysore, Ashok V

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is considered to be an index of global cognitive functioning and has traditionally been used as a fulcral measure in case-control studies in neuro-developmental disorders such as autism. The aim is to highlight the issues of "matching for IQ" with controls in autism research. Percentile scores on the Coloured Progressive Matrices of 20 children with autism in the age range of 5 to 12 years have been graphically compared with 21 age matched typically developing children. The percentile scores of the so-called high functioning children with autism from special schools were well below that of typically developing children. There are many challenges when using IQ in case-control studies of autism. Alternative approaches need to be considered.

  7. Issues Related to Obtaining Intelligence Quotient-Matched Controls in Autism Research

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vanitha S.; Raman, Vijaya; Mysore, Ashok V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is considered to be an index of global cognitive functioning and has traditionally been used as a fulcral measure in case-control studies in neuro-developmental disorders such as autism. Aim: The aim is to highlight the issues of “matching for IQ” with controls in autism research. Materials and Methods: Percentile scores on the Coloured Progressive Matrices of 20 children with autism in the age range of 5 to 12 years have been graphically compared with 21 age matched typically developing children. Results and Conclusions: The percentile scores of the so-called high functioning children with autism from special schools were well below that of typically developing children. There are many challenges when using IQ in case-control studies of autism. Alternative approaches need to be considered. PMID:25969598

  8. Small gain stability theory for matched basis function repetitive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunde; Longman, Richard W.; Nagashima, Masaki

    2014-02-01

    Many spacecraft suffer from jitter produced by periodic vibration sources such as momentum wheels, reaction wheels, or control moment gyros. Vibration isolation mounts are needed for fine pointing equipment. Active control methods directly addressing frequencies of interest have the potential to completely cancel the influence of these disturbances. Typical repetitive control methods initially address all frequencies of a given period. Matched basis function repetitive control individually addresses each frequency, finding error components at these frequencies using the projection algorithm, and can converge to zero error, using only frequency response knowledge at addressed frequencies. This results in linear control laws but with periodic coefficients. Frequency domain raising produces a time invariant pole/zero model of the control law. A small gain stability theory is developed, that exhibits very strong stability robustness properties to model error. For convergence to zero tracking error it needs only knowledge of the phase response at addressed frequencies, and it must be known within an accuracy of ±90°. Controllers are then designed by pole-zero placement, bypassing the complexity of original periodic coefficient equations. Compared to the usual repetitive control approaches, the approach here eliminates the need for a robustifying zero phase low pass filter, eliminates the need for interpolation in data, and handles multiple unrelated frequencies easily and naturally.

  9. Outcomes of hematopoietic SCT recipients with rhinovirus infection: a matched, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abandeh, F I; Lustberg, M; Devine, S; Elder, P; Andritsos, L; Martin, S I

    2013-11-01

    The impact of rhinovirus in hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) recipients is not well defined. A retrospective, matched, case-control study of HSCT recipients with rhinovirus was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Controls were matched for timing relative to transplant, malignancy, and stem cell source. There were 47 cases and 94 controls. The cases and controls did not differ with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, donor source, malignancy, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis or significant comorbidities. There were no differences in need for intensive care unit care, 100 day mortality, hospice discharge, relapse of disease, GVHD or development of disease or infection due to CMV or EBV. Other infectious complications after rhinovirus diagnosis were also equal. However, there was an increased number of recurrent hospitalizations from any cause among the cases (46.8% vs 24.5%, P=0.007). Recurrent hospitalizations due to any infection were also more common in cases (34% vs 14.9%, P=0.015). For patients who were diagnosed with rhinovirus pre-transplant (n=13), there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. HSCT recipients with rhinovirus have an increased risk of hospital readmission. However, there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. Transplantation in patients with active rhinovirus infection appears to be safe.

  10. Effectiveness of oral polio vaccination against paralytic poliomyelitis: a matched case-control study in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Webeck, Jenna; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Birungi, Julianne; Nurbile, Yassin; Ehrhardt, Derek; Shukla, Hemant; Chatterjee, Anirban; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    After the last case of type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was reported in 2007, Somalia experienced another outbreak of WPV1 (189 cases) in 2013. We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral polio vaccine (OPV). We retrieved information from the Somalia Surveillance Database. A case was defined as any case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with virological confirmation of WPV1. We selected two groups of controls for each case: non-polio AFP cases ("NPAFP controls") matched to WPV1 cases by age, date of onset of paralysis and region; and asymptomatic "neighborhood controls," matched by age. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated the VE of OPV as (1-odds ratio)×100. We matched 99 WPV cases with 99 NPAFP controls and 134 WPV1 cases with 268 neighborhood controls. Using NPAFP controls, the overall VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86), 59% (2-83) among 1-3 dose recipients, 77% (95% CI, 46-91) among ≥4 dose recipients. In neighborhood controls, the overall VE was 95% (95% CI, 84-98), 92% (72-98) among 1-3 dose recipients, and 97% (89-99) among ≥4 dose recipients. When the analysis was limited to cases and controls ≤24 months old, the overall VE in NPAFP and neighborhood controls was 95% (95% CI, 65-99) and 97% (95% CI, 76-100), respectively. Among individuals who were fully vaccinated with OPV, vaccination was effective at preventing WPV1 in Somalia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Real time control of a fast RF impedance matching system

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.H.; Senko, T.; LaRue, P.; Wilson, J.R.; Arnold, W.; Martin, S.; Pivit, E.

    1996-12-31

    A real time control system has been developed to maintain an RF impedance match in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This system is designed to adjust output parameters with a cycle period of approximately 100 {mu}seconds using commercially available VME based components and a UNIX workstation host. Advanced Ferrite Technologies (AFT) has developed the hybrid tuning system (HTS) which has the capability of tracking a mismatch on the time scale of milliseconds (2.5 MW, 60 MHz) by varying the magnetic field bias of ferrite loaded transmission lines. The control algorithm uses a combination of neural network and fuzzy logic techniques. Initial results of a test facility using a low power prototype are presented. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Use of smell test identification in Parkinson's disease in Mexico: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Lees, Andrew J; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Corona, Teresa; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Smell tests can be useful in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) but are affected by cultural factors. Currently there is no smell test tailored for the Mexican population but the brief smell identification test (B-SIT) was created as a cross-cultural SIT. We have created a translation of this test into Spanish adapted to the Mexican population and have applied it to 70 PD patients and 70 age- and gender-matched controls. The B-SIT differentiated PD and controls with 71.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity, when subjects were divided into two age groups. Copyright © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Age-related deficit in a bimanual joint position matching task is amplitude dependent

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive load associated with joint position sense increases with age but does not necessarily result in impaired performance in a joint position matching task. It is still unclear which factors interact with age to predict matching performance. To test whether movement amplitude and direction are part of such predictors, young and older adults performed a bimanual wrist joint position matching task. Results revealed an age-related deficit when the target limb was positioned far from (25°) the neutral position, but not when close to (15°, 5°) the neutral joint position, irrespective of the direction. These results suggest that the difficulty associated with the comparison of two musculoskeletal states increases towards extreme joint amplitude and that older adults are more vulnerable to this increased difficulty. PMID:26347649

  14. Indirect Estimates of Jaw Muscle Tension in Children with Suspected Hypertonia, Children with Suspected Hypotonia, and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…

  15. Indirect Estimates of Jaw Muscle Tension in Children with Suspected Hypertonia, Children with Suspected Hypotonia, and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…

  16. Recall memory in children with Down syndrome and typically developing peers matched on developmental age.

    PubMed

    Milojevich, H; Lukowski, A

    2016-01-01

    Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. In the present research, 10 children with DS and 10 TD children participated in a two-session study to examine basic processes associated with hippocampus-dependent recall memory. At the first session, the researcher demonstrated how to complete a three-step action sequence with novel stimuli; immediate imitation was permitted as an index of encoding. At the second session, recall memory was assessed for previously modelled sequences; children were also presented with two novel three-step control sequences. The results indicated that group differences were not apparent in the encoding of the events or the forgetting of information over time. Group differences were also not observed when considering the recall of individual target actions at the 1-month delay, although TD children produced more target actions overall at the second session relative to children with DS. Group differences were found when considering memory for temporal order information, such that TD children evidenced recall relative to novel control sequences, whereas children with DS did not. These findings suggest that children with DS may have difficulty with mnemonic processes associated with consolidation/storage and/or retrieval processes relative to TD children. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  18. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  19. Hospitalization experience of Navajo subjects with type II diabetes and matched controls: an historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Crabtree, B F; Nakamura, R M; Kelley, D

    1990-01-01

    Using an historical cohort study design with a 12 year follow-up, we found that 77 Navajo adults with type II diabetes mellitus were hospitalized at a rate of 335 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years compared to a rate of 167 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years for 77 age, sex, and residence matched non-diabetic controls, yielding a risk ratio of 2.0. Using matched pairs analysis (sign test), the observed difference in number of hospital admissions is statistically significant (z = 2.30, p less than 0.05). The average duration of hospitalization, however, was not statistically different in matched pairs analysis (z = 0.95, p greater than 0.05). The 136 excess hospitalizations of the diabetic subjects included 45 admissions for poor metabolic control of diabetes, 50 excess admissions for infectious disease, and 26 excess admissions for conditions of the heart, eye, kidney, or non-traumatic amputation. In multivariate analyses, variables found to be associated with greater hospitalization experience among the 77 diabetic subjects in the 12 years follow-up period included older age at entry to the study, poorer metabolic control early in the study period, and presence of diabetic complications.

  20. Risk factors for campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, T D; Stafford, R J

    2001-12-01

    Campylobacter infection has one of the highest rates of all the notifiable diseases in Australia, with a peak in children aged 0-35 months. A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for campylobacter infection for children in this age group. Eighty-one cases and 144 controls were enrolled in the study that was conducted between 24 January 1996 and 21 January 1997. The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with illness: ownership of pet puppies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 16.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.73-73.65) and pet chickens (OR 11.80, CI 1.37-101.75), and consumption of mayonnaise (OR 4.13, CI 1.61-10.59). We propose that children aged less than 3 years are at risk of campylobacter infection if residing in a household which has puppies or chickens as pets.

  1. Risk factors for campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Tenkate, T. D.; Stafford, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has one of the highest rates of all the notifiable diseases in Australia, with a peak in children aged 0-35 months. A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for campylobacter infection for children in this age group. Eighty-one cases and 144 controls were enrolled in the study that was conducted between 24 January 1996 and 21 January 1997. The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with illness: ownership of pet puppies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 16.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.73-73.65) and pet chickens (OR 11.80, CI 1.37-101.75), and consumption of mayonnaise (OR 4.13, CI 1.61-10.59). We propose that children aged less than 3 years are at risk of campylobacter infection if residing in a household which has puppies or chickens as pets. PMID:11811871

  2. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-02-01

    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally. To estimate the degree of exposure and adverse skin reactions to chemical substances in a cohort of hairdressing apprentices, at the start of their education, as compared with a matched sample from the general population. During their first 2 weeks of training, 382 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in this study. All apprentices completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions regarding, for example, exposures and skin reactions to hair dye, perfumed products, and piercings. For comparison, the questionnaire was sent to a control group from the general population, matched on age, sex, and postal code (n = 1870). Within the previous year, 95.2% of hairdressing apprentices and 66.9% of the control group had dyed their hair (p < 0.001); the apprentices dyed their hair, on average, 6.6 times per year, as compared with 3.7 times per year in the control group (p < 0.001). The mean age of the first hair dying among the apprentices was 12.1 years, as compared with 13.3 years for the matched control group (p < 0.001). The hairdressing apprentices reported more eczematous reactions to hair dye (p = 0.002) than the controls. Semi-permanent so-called 'black henna tattoos' had been carried out in 48.1% of the apprentices, as compared with 31.0% of the controls (p < 0.001). Both hairdressing apprentices and the matched control group of young people from the general population were highly exposed to potent allergens. The hairdressing apprentices were even more exposed to products containing hair dye substances and piercings, and reported more adverse reactions to hair dye products than their matched controls from the general population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Nutrient intake and haematological status of vegetarians and age-sex matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D; Ball, M J; Mann, J

    1994-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the nutritional intake and haematological status of adult vegetarians. Cross-sectional comparison of vegetarians and age/sex-matched omnivores. Free-living community subjects. Fifty vegetarians were recruited by local advertisement. Each vegetarian selected their own age/sex-matched 'friend' control. Each subject completed a 12 day dietary record. Haemoglobin, red cell indices, and serum ferritin, B12 and folate were measured. Protein, saturated fat and vitamin D intake were significantly lower in the vegetarians, particularly in the vegans. Dietary fibre was higher in the vegetarians, and intake of calcium and zinc was similar. Mean (SD) iron intake in the vegetarians and vegans of 16.8 (4.8) mg/day was significantly greater than that of the omnivores: 14.6 (4.3) mg/day (P = 0.02). All the iron consumed by the vegetarians was non-haem; for the omnivores 10% was haem iron. Serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower in male vegetarians than omnivores; mean (SD): 36.6 (36.0) and 105.4 (78.7) ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.01; and significantly more had values below 12 ng/ml (P < 0.001), despite having higher iron intakes which exceeded the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). Female vegetarians also had lower ferritin concentrations than omnivores; mean (SD) 13.6 (7.5) compared to 33.6 (54.3) ng/ml, P < 0.01, but similar numbers of women had values below 12 ng/ml (42% and 39%). The vegans all had B12 intakes below the RNI; and 35% of the long-term vegetarians and vegans had serum vitamin B12 concentrations below the reference range. Although the vegetarians had diets nearer to the recommended diet with a lower fat and salt content, a significant number need advice to improve their haematological status. Recommended intakes of iron may also need to be higher for vegetarians, particularly men.

  4. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2 ± 3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P < 0.01) and LV ejection fraction was higher (P < 0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging revealed an augmented LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P < 0.001) and longitudinal 2D strain was 12% higher (P < 0.05), in VPG. In VPG, resting heart rate was lower (6 bpm, P < 0.05), and VO2max was higher (18%, P < 0.05). In addition, RHI was 21% higher (P < 0.05) in VPG. VPG also had lower body mass index (P < 0.05), body fat percentage, total body fat mass, android fat percentage, and gynoid fat percentage (all P < 0.01). Lifelong participation in football training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  5. Emotional and physiologic responses to laboratory challenges: patients with temporomandibular disorders versus matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Curran, S L; Carlson, C R; Okeson, J P

    1996-01-01

    This study explored psychologic and physiologic factors differentiating patients with temporomandibular disorders (n = 23) from sex-, age-, and weight-matched asymptomatic control subjects. Each subject completed several standard psychologic questionnaires and then underwent two laboratory stressors (mental arithmetic and pressure-pain stimulation). Results indicated that patients with temporomandibular disorders had greater resting respiration rates and reported greater anxiety, sadness, and guilt relative to control subjects. In response to the math stressor, patients with temporomandibular disorders reacted with greater anger than did control subjects. There were no differences between patients with temporomandibular disorders and control subjects on pain measures or any other measured variable for the pressure-pain stimulation trial. In addition, there were no differences in electromyography levels between patients with temporomandibular disorders and control subjects. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of this common and debilitating set of disorders.

  6. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    PubMed

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI <0.9 or >1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the care of children with Down's syndrome with the care of matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A prospective study of the care of 134-children with Down's syndrome and 134 age- and sex-matched control children during 1981 has shown that the former group had significantly greater contact with the general practitioner, mostly owing to respiratory problems which were treated significantly more often with antibiotics. Referrals to specialist care were more common in the Down's children but the interface between general practice and paediatric care was not great. The study emphasizes the need for general practitioners to plan the care of Down's children and normal children with respect both to acute illness and the monitoring of chronic childhood illness. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:6239032

  8. Risk Factors for Primary Pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHUSSUPOV, Baurzhan; HERMOSILLA, Sabrina; TERLIKBAYEVA, Assel; AIFAH, Angela; MA, Xin; ZHUMADILOV, Zhaxybay; ABILDAYEV, Tleukhan; DARISHEVA, Meruyert; BERIKKHANOVA, Kulzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions. PMID:27252913

  9. Dermatoglyphic traits in Thai schizophrenia patients: a matching case-control study.

    PubMed

    Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Nanakorn, Somsong; Mongconthawornchai, Paiboon; Virasiri, Surapol; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Thepsuthummarat, Kaewchai

    2011-03-01

    To compare fingerprint patterns, means of dermatoglyphic variables i.e., total finger ridge count, total a-b ridge count, pattern complexity index, and fingerprint pattern asymmetry between patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. A cross-sectional, matching case-control was conducted. Thirty-four males and 34 females with schizophrenia and an equal number of age and sex matched normal controls were selected. Fingerprints and partial palm prints of all of the subjects were obtained using the Automated Inkless Fingerprint Imaging Software and the transparent-adhesive tape technique, respectively. Using paired t-tests (p < 0.05), the cases and controls, males and females separately, were compared for fingerprint pattern asymmetry, total finger ridge counts (TFRC), a-b ridge counts of the right (RABRC), left (LABRC), and both hands (TABRC), and pattern complexity index (PCI). Between cases and controls, neither sex had any significant differences in the mean scores for the pattern asymmetries, TFRC, right-left-ABRC and TABRC. However, the mean scores for PCI were significantly different between the male cases and controls (2.82 vs. 4.94, p = 0 009). Only male patients exhibited average scores for complex patterns (whorls minus arches less than 2), which might be a biomarker for screening of schizophrenia in males.

  10. Comparison of psychologic and physiologic functioning between patients with masticatory muscle pain and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Carlson, C R; Okeson, J P; Falace, D A; Nitz, A J; Curran, S L; Anderson, D

    1993-01-01

    This study explored the physiologic and psychologic distinctions between masticatory muscle pain patients and age and sex-matched normal controls. Subjects completed several standardized psychologic tests. They then underwent a laboratory stress profile evaluation to obtain physiologic measures (EMG, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) under conditions of rest, mental stress, and relaxation. The pain patients reported greater anxiety, especially cognitive symptoms, and feelings of muscle tension than did the controls. Under stress, pain patients had higher heart rates and systolic blood pressure than the controls. Electromyogram activity in the masseter regions was not significantly different between the pain and control group. The results are discussed in terms of the likely mechanisms that might account for the observed differences between masticatory pain patients and normal subjects.

  11. Soluble BACE-1 Activity and sAβPPβ Concentrations in Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Healthy Control Cerebrospinal Fluid from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 Baseline Cohort.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mary J; Holder, Daniel J; Wu, Guoxin; Kaplow, June; Siuciak, Judith A; Potter, William Z

    2015-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), freeing the amyloid-β (Aβ) N-terminus from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), the first step in Aβ formation. Increased BACE1 activity in AD brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported. Other studies, however, found either no change or a decrease with AD diagnosis in either BACE1 activity or sAβPPβ, the N-terminal secreted product of BACE1 (sBACE1) activity on AβPP. Here, sBACE1 enzymatic activity and secreted AβPPβ (sAβPPβ) were measured in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-1 (ADNI-1) baseline CSF samples and no statistically significant changes were found in either measure comparing healthy control, mild cognitively impaired, or AD individual samples. While CSF sBACE1 activity and sAβPPβ demonstrated a moderate yet significant degree of correlation with each other, there was no correlation of either analyte to CSF Aβ peptide ending at residue 42. Surprisingly, a stronger correlation was demonstrated between CSF sBACE1 activity and tau, which was comparable to that between CSF Aβ₄₂ and tau. Unlike for these latter two analytes, receiver-operator characteristic curves demonstrate that neither CSF sBACE1 activity nor sAβPPβ concentrations can be used to differentiate between healthy elderly and AD individuals.

  12. Physical activity and energy expenditure in rheumatoid arthritis patients and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Henchoz, Yves; Bastardot, François; Guessous, Idris; Theler, Jean-Marc; Dudler, Jean; Vollenweider, Peter; So, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    To compare daily energy expenditure between RA patients and matched controls, and to explore the relationship between daily energy expenditure or sedentariness and disease-related scores. One hundred and ten patients with RA and 440 age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. Energy expenditure was assessed using the validated physical activity (PA) frequency questionnaire. Disease-related scores included disease activity (DAS-28), functional status (HAQ), pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and fatigue VAS. Total energy expenditure (TEE) and the amount of energy spent in low- (TEE-low), moderate- (TEE-mod) and high-intensity (TEE-high) PAs were calculated. Sedentariness was defined as expending <10% of TEE in TEE-mod or TEE-high activities. Between-group comparisons were computed using conditional logistic regression. The effect of disease-related scores on TEE was investigated using linear regression. TEE was significantly lower for RA patients compared with controls [2392 kcal/day (95% CI 2295, 2490) and 2494  kcal/day (2446, 2543), respectively, P = 0.003]. A significant difference was found between groups in TEE-mod (P = 0.015), but not TEE-low (P = 0.242) and TEE-high (P = 0.146). All disease-related scores were significantly poorer in sedentary compared with active patients. TEE was inversely associated with age (P < 0.001), DAS-28 (P = 0.032) and fatigue VAS (P = 0.029), but not with HAQ and pain VAS. Daily energy expenditure is significantly lower in RA patients compared with matched controls, mainly due to less moderate-intensity PAs performed. Disease activity and fatigue are important contributing factors. These points need to be addressed if promoting PA in RA patients is a health goal. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01228812.

  13. Differences in Activation and Deactivation in Children with Sickle Cell Disease Compared with Demographically Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Brown, R C; Burns, T G; Murdaugh, D; Palasis, S; Jones, R A

    2017-06-01

    Declines in both functional activation and functional connectivity have been reported in patients with sickle cell disease. In this study, we derived the functional and default mode responses to a word stem paradigm in age-, ethnicity-, and background-matched subjects with sickle cell disease and control groups, with the aim of testing whether both networks were similarly attenuated and whether the changes were related to physiologic parameters that characterize sickle cell disease. Both the functional and default mode responses were obtained from age- and background-matched controls and the sickle cell population by using a visually presented word stem paradigm on a 3T scanner. We observed an attenuated response to both activation and deactivation in the sickle cell disease group. There were no significant differences in the activation response between the 2 groups for the contrast control > sickle cell disease; however, significant differences were observed in the medial parietal cortex, the auditory cortex, and the angular gyrus for the default mode. For the sickle cell group, a significant correlation between the activation z scores and the physiologic parameters was observed; for the deactivation, the results were not significant but the trend was similar. The results indicate that the physiologic parameters modulate the activation in the expected fashion, but that the effect was weaker for deactivation. Given that significant differences between the 2 groups were only seen for deactivation, additional factors must modulate the deactivation in sickle cell disease. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Case-Control Study of Postoperative Blood Pressure in Patients with Hemorrhagic Complications after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy and Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Janik, Michał Robert; Rogula, Tomasz; Kowalewski, Piotr; Walędziak, Maciej; Matłok, Maciej; Brągoszewski, Jakub; Kwiatkowski, Andrzej; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is associated with a moderate risk of hemorrhagic complications (HC). There is a debate regarding the relationship between HC and high blood pressure in postoperative period. The aim is to clarify whether the postoperative blood pressure is an independent risk factor for hemorrhagic complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Medical records of 522 patients were reviewed. A case-control study of postoperative blood pressure was undertaken in patients with bleeding after LSG and matched controls. Patients who required surgical revision, due to the hemorrhagic complications within 72 hours, were identified as the cases. Controls were matched (1:1) with cases by age (±1 year), gender (female versus male), staple line reinforcement (running suture versus haemostatic clips) and surgeon's experience (>50 or <50 LSG procedures per year). 12-hour postoperative blood pressure was recorded. 17 patients after LSG with HC in postoperative period were matched with 17 controls. Patients who experienced hemorrhagic complications after LSG had non statistically significant decreased mean systolic blood pressure (mmHg) in 12 hours observation (130.7 ± 12.9 versus 139.1 ± 10.8); p = 0.15; mean difference - 11.6 (95% CI -29.5 - 6.1). Mean 12 hour diastolic pressure was also comparable. The detailed analysis of controls revealed a significantly higher systolic blood pressure measurements in 5th and 11th hour postoperatively, as well as higher diastolic blood pressure in 12th hour postoperatively. However, the differences were not clinically significant. Compared with closely matched control subjects, patients with HC after LSG have decreased systolic blood pressure without clinical significance.

  15. Crater Retention Ages from (4) Vesta Matching Independent Ar-Ar Ages of HED Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Kneissl, Thomas; Ivanov, Boris A.; Michael, Gregory G.; Neukum, Gerhard; Nathues, Andreas; Sierks, Holger; Wagner, Roland; Krohn, Katrin; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-04-01

    In July 2012 the Dawn spacecraft completed its mapping task of the Main Belt asteroid Vesta with a second high altitude mapping orbit. Dawn is now on its way to the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, where it will perform a similar mapping campaign like that at Vesta [1]. The Main Belt is the source region of most impactors in the inner solar system [2,3,4], making it a key region for understanding the early history of our Solar System. In order to determine absolute surface ages from Vesta we derived a crater production function and a chronology function for Vesta. We derived these functions from the respective lunar functions [2] and scaled [5] them to the impact conditions on Vesta [6]. In general we find good agreement between the derived crater production function and the measured crater distribution. However, we also find disagreement between 8 and 15 km crater size, on areas older ~2.2 Ga. Older areas show a steep (~-6 cumulative) slope, which we link to a decaying influence of the vestan collisional family (Vestoids). The lower boundary of 8 km crater size may be explained by fast ejected small spalls and/or a more efficient Yarkovsky effect [7]. This influence is not observed for instance inside the large Rheasilvia basin, which we date with ~2.2 Ga. Since the formation of this basin is believed to be a major source of replenishment of the Vestoids, it's currently observed cratering record is not indicative for the basin formation age in contrast to [8]. The young interior of the Rheasilvia basin is likely a result of repeated resets of the crater retention age due to mass wasting processes on the basin walls. We use topographic heights, which are less affected by mass wasting such as the top of the central peak of the basin as well as proximal ejecta blankets outside the basin to date the formation age of Rheasilvia. For the central peak we derive a surface age of 3.59 (+0.079/-0.18) Ga. The proximal ejecta blanket at the Oppia crater is dated with 3.62 (+0

  16. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.

  17. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  18. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  19. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect.

  20. Analysis of Abstract and Concrete Word Processing in Persons with Aphasia and Age-Matched Neurologically Healthy Adults Using fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia. Three persons with aphasia and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas whereas concrete words additionally activated multi-modal association areas. Persons with aphasia show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  1. Combining matched and unmatched control groups in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    le Cessie, Saskia; Nagelkerke, Nico; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Pomp, Elisabeth R; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2008-11-15

    Multiple control groups in case-control studies are used to control for different sources of confounding. For example, cases can be contrasted with matched controls to adjust for multiple genetic or unknown lifestyle factors and simultaneously contrasted with an unmatched population-based control group. Inclusion of different control groups for a single exposure analysis yields several estimates of the odds ratio, all using only part of the data. Here the authors introduce an easy way to combine odds ratios from several case-control analyses with the same cases. The approach is based upon methods used for meta-analysis but takes into account the fact that the same cases are used and that the estimated odds ratios are therefore correlated. Two ways of estimating this correlation are discussed: sandwich methodology and the bootstrap. Confidence intervals for the pooled estimates and a test for checking whether the odds ratios in the separate case-control studies differ significantly are derived. The performance of the method is studied by simulation and by applying the methods to a large study on risk factors for thrombosis, the MEGA Study (1999-2004), wherein cases with first venous thrombosis were included with a matched control group of partners and an unmatched population-based control group.

  2. Longitudinal Differences in Aerobic Capacity between Children with Sickle Cell Anemia and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Liem, Robert I.; Lu, Zengqi; Saville, Ben; Acra, Sari; Shankar, Sadhna; Buchowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare longitudinal trajectories of maximal aerobic capacity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and matched healthy controls, and explore whether these trajectories were associated with selected physiologic variables. Procedures Children with SCA (n=33) and healthy controls (n=30) matched at baseline for race, sex, Tanner stage, height, and weight completed three consecutive annual fitness assessments (VO2peak). Data were compared between the groups at each time point and within groups over time. Change in VO2peak between the two groups over time was assessed using a linear mixed model with age, sex, fat-free mass (FFM), Tanner stage, and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration as covariates. Results At baseline, children with SCA had significantly lower Hgb concentration (8.9 vs. 13.7 g/dL, p<0.001) and relative VO2peak (24.2 vs. 27.9 ml/kg/min, p=0.006) than healthy controls. Over time, children with SCA had smaller increases than healthy controls in VO2peak (−0.1 and +4.9 ml/kg/min, p<0.001), Tanner stage at year 2 (15% and 66% Tanner 4, p<0.001), and FFM (+4.0 and +6.8 kg, p=0.02). Changes in Hgb concentration did not differ between groups (+0.03 and +0.09 g/dL, p=1.0). After adjusting for age, sex, Tanner stage, FFM, and Hgb concentration the differences in change in VO2peak over time remained significant (p<0.001). Conclusion Children with SCA demonstrate lower relative VO2peak compared to healthy children and the difference increases over time. The difference in VO2peak trajectories between the two groups during puberty remains significant after adjusting for age, sex, FFM, Tanner stage, and Hgb concentration. PMID:25556359

  3. Tongue Stiffness is Lower in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Wakefulness Compared with Matched Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth C.; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K.; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Bilston, Lynne E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness. Design: Controlled experimental study. Setting: Medical research institute. Participants: Patients with OSA and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Measurements: Magnetic resonance elastography was performed in nine patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 events/h) and seven controls (AHI < 10 events/h) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Six of these OSA subjects were also scanned while 10 cmH2O CPAP was applied. Mean isotropic shear modulus and anisotropic shear moduli parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fascicles in the tongue were calculated. Results: Tongue shear modulus in patients with OSA was lower than that in matched controls (2.68 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) kPa versus 2.98 ± 0.44 kPa, P < 0.001). Shear modulus decreased with increasing AHI (R = −0.496, P = 0.043), but not age, BMI, or percentage tongue fat. Anisotropic analysis revealed that reduction in stiffness was greatest parallel to the muscle fibers. CPAP had no significant effect on tongue shear modulus. Conclusions: In awake subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, the tongue is less stiff than in similar healthy subjects and this difference occurs in the muscle fiber direction. CPAP did not significantly reduce tongue stiffness. Thus, any change in neural drive to genioglossus during wakefulness is insufficient to restore normal tongue stiffness. Citation: Brown EC, Cheng S, McKenzie DK, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects. SLEEP 2015;38(4):537–544. PMID:25409103

  4. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    PubMed

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  5. A comparison of the Sensory Profile scores of children with autism and an age- and gender-matched sample.

    PubMed

    Brockevelt, Barbara L; Nissen, Ranelle; Schweinle, William E; Kurtz, Eric; Larson, Kyle J

    2013-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects one in 88 children in the United States. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) defines ASD as a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairment in communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behavior patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with autism differ in their response to sensory input relative to typically developing age- and gender-matched peers. The Sensory Profile (SP) is a 125-item caregiver questionnaire designed to measure a child's ability to process sensory information and to profile the effect of sensory processing on daily life activity. The results of the SP of 21 participants with autism ages 3 to 9 years were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of typically developing children. Significant differences were found across all four SP quadrants (Registration, Seeking, Sensitivity, and Avoiding) as well as eight of the nine SP factor scores. This study adds to the evidence indicating that children with autism process and respond to sensory input differently than typically-developing peers. The findings from this study support previous research findings that sensory processing differences exist between children with ASD and their typically-developing peers, as measured by the SP.

  6. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY... certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance... purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian Country. The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe...

  7. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  8. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  9. A Comparison of the Metalinguistic Performance and Spelling Development of Children With Inconsistent Speech Sound Disorder and Their Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Peers.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Brigid C; Wolter, Julie; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-05-17

    This study explored the specific nature of a spelling impairment in children with speech sound disorder (SSD) in relation to metalinguistic predictors of spelling development. The metalinguistic (phoneme, morphological, and orthographic awareness) and spelling development of 28 children ages 6-8 years with a history of inconsistent SSD were compared to those of their age-matched (n = 28) and reading-matched (n = 28) peers. Analysis of the literacy outcomes of children within the cohort with persistent (n = 18) versus resolved (n = 10) SSD was also conducted. The age-matched peers outperformed the SSD group on all measures. Children with SSD performed comparably to their reading-matched peers on metalinguistic measures but exhibited lower spelling scores. Children with persistent SSD generally had less favorable outcomes than children with resolved SSD; however, even children with resolved SSD performed poorly on normative spelling measures. Children with SSD have a specific difficulty with spelling that is not commensurate with their metalinguistic and reading ability. Although low metalinguistic awareness appears to inhibit these children's spelling development, other factors should be considered, such as nonverbal rehearsal during spelling attempts and motoric ability. Integration of speech-production and spelling-intervention goals is important to enhance literacy outcomes for this group.

  10. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in relatives of alcoholics. Preliminary study with matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Shaskan, E; Duby, J; Vega, R; Moss, M

    1982-02-01

    Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity levels were determined before and 180 minutes after ingestion of ethyl alcohol in 30 healthy men aged 21 to 25 years. The subjects included 15 men with alcoholic first-degree relatives who were matched by demography, height-weight ratio, and drinking history with 15 control subjects who had no family history of alcoholism. There was a nonsignificant trend toward lower platelet MAO activities at baseline and after ethyl alcohol ingestion in the group with alcoholic relatives when compared with the control subjects who had no family history of alcoholism. With an arbitrary MAO cutoff of 5.24 nmole/mg of protein per hour, eight of the 15 subjects with alcoholic relatives and 12 of the 15 without alcoholic relatives were correctly identified. However, because of the number of false-positive and false-negative findings, the results have limited clinical usefulness.

  11. Age-matched reference values for B-lymphocyte subpopulations and CVID classifications in children.

    PubMed

    Schatorjé, E J H; Gemen, E F A; Driessen, G J A; Leuvenink, J; van Hout, R W N M; van der Burg, M; de Vries, E

    2011-11-01

    Age-matched reference values are generally presented with 5th and 95th percentiles as 'normal' reference range. However, they are mostly determined in relatively small groups, which renders this presentation inaccurate. We determined reference values for B-lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy children with the statistical method of tolerance intervals that deals far better with the relatively small numbers tested, and compared these to the cut-off values used in the currently used EUROclass classification for common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) in children. CVID is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by low serum immunoglobulin levels and inadequate response to vaccination. Disease-modifying heterozygous amino acid substitutions in TACI are found in around ±10% of CVID patients. Interestingly, we found that age is the primary determinant of TACI-expression on B-lymphocytes, independent of switched memory B-lymphocyte numbers. Immunophenotyping of B-lymphocyte subpopulations is increasingly used to classify patients with CVID into subgroups with different clinical prognosis according to the composition of their B-lymphocyte compartment. These classifications were mainly developed with data obtained in adults. Because of the maturing paediatric immune system, they may not be equally applicable in children: our and other age-matched reference values show great changes in the composition of the B-lymphocyte compartment during development. Although the greatest changes in B-lymphocyte subpopulations occur below the age of 2 years, when the diagnosis of CVID cannot yet be made, it is likely that a classification developed in adults cannot be used to classify the prognosis of children. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (<18 years old and total BSA >1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P < .05) after adjustment (major depression RR = 1.5 [confidence limit {CL}: 1.2-1.8], anxiety disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8), substance abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population.

  13. Risk Factors for Scleral Buckle Removal: A Matched, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Covert, Douglas J.; Wirostko, William J.; Han, Dennis P.; Lindgren, Kevin E.; Hammersley, Jill A.; Connor, Thomas B.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative risk factors for scleral buckle (SB) removal. Methods A retrospective, consecutive, matched, case-control study. Cases included all patients undergoing SB removal between 1988 and 2007 at a single academic center. Case patients were matched against 4 randomly selected control patients who underwent SB implantation during the same year as the case patients. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each factor investigated. Results Forty cases of SB removal and 148 matched control cases were identified. Three cases of SB removal were omitted from analysis because of incomplete records. Factors associated with SB removal for any reason, according to univariate analysis, included concurrent globe-penetrating injury at the time of SB placement (OR, 24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9–200), concurrent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (OR, 17.3; CI, 4.9–61), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR, 7.3; CI, 1.8–30), prior long-term topical ocular therapy (OR, 4.3; CI, 1.7–11), and subsequent ocular procedures (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.5–7.5). Factors independently associated with SB removal according to multivariate analysis included concurrent globe-penetrating injury (OR, 27.3; CI, 1.7–426), concurrent PPV (OR, 11.3; CI, 2.9–45), DM (OR, 8.9; CI, 1.3–58), and subsequent ocular procedures (OR, 3.9; CI, 1.4–11). Factors that did not alter SB removal risk included patient age; sex; and type, size, or location of buckling elements used. Conclusions Awareness of these risk factors may be valuable for the surgical planning of retinal detachment repair in patients at higher risk for subsequent SB removal and for risk stratification subsequent to SB implantation. PMID:19277232

  14. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  15. Causal diagrams and the logic of matched case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

    2012-01-01

    It is tempting to assume that confounding bias is eliminated by choosing controls that are identical to the cases on the matched confounder(s). We used causal diagrams to explain why such matching not only fails to remove confounding bias, but also adds colliding bias, and why both types of bias are removed by conditioning on the matched confounder(s). As in some publications, we trace the logic of matching to a possible tradeoff between effort and variance, not between effort and bias. Lastly, we explain why the analysis of a matched case-control study – regardless of the method of matching – is not conceptually different from that of an unmatched study. PMID:22701093

  16. A concordance index for matched case-control studies with applications in cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Field, John; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-02-10

    In unmatched case-control studies, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) may be used to measure how well a variable discriminates between cases and controls. The AUC is sometimes used in matched case-control studies by ignoring matching, but it lacks interpretation because it is not based on an estimate of the ROC for the population of interest. We introduce an alternative measure of discrimination that is the concordance of risk factors conditional on the matching factors. Parametric and non-parametric estimators are given for different matching scenarios, and applied to real data from breast and lung cancer case-control studies. Diagnostic plots to verify the constancy of discrimination over matching factors are demonstrated. The proposed simple measure is easy to use, interpret, more efficient than unmatched AUC statistics and may be applied to compare the conditional discrimination performance of risk factors.

  17. Lifestyle habits and fatigue among people with systemic lupus erythematosus and matched population controls.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, S; Boström, C; Eriksson, K; Svenungsson, E; Gunnarsson, I; Henriksson, E Welin

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify clusters of fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and matched controls, and to analyze these clusters with respect to lifestyle habits, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Patients with SLE (n = 305) and age- and gender-matched population controls (n = 311) were included. Three measurements of fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Vitality (VT, from SF-36) and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale (MAF) and hierarchic cluster analysis were used to define clusters with different degrees of fatigue. Lifestyle habits were investigated through questionnaires. HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 and anxiety/depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Three clusters, denominated "High," "Intermediate" and "Low" fatigue clusters, were identified. The "High" contained 80% patients, and 20% controls (median; VT 25, FSS 5.8, MAF 37.4). These had the most symptoms of depression (51%) and anxiety (34%), lowest HRQoL (p < 0.001) and they exercised least frequently. The "Intermediate" (48% patients and 52% controls) (median; VT 55, FSS 4.1, MAF 23.5) had similarities with the "Low" regarding sleep/rest whereas social status and smoking were closer to the "High." The"Low" contained 22% patients and 78% controls (median; VT 80, FSS 2.3, MAF 10.9). They had the highest perceived HRQoL (p < 0.001), least symptoms of anxiety (10%), no depression, smoked least (13%) and reported the highest percentage (24%) of exercising ≥ 3 times/week. Fatigue is common, but not a general feature of SLE. It is associated with depression, anxiety, low HRQoL and less physical exercise. Patients with SLE and population controls with a healthy lifestyle reported lower levels of fatigue. Whether lifestyle changes can reduce fatigue, which is a major problem for a majority of SLE patients, needs to be further explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Allanite age-dating: Non-matrix-matched standardization in quadrupole LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, M.; Lanari, P.; Pettke, T.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Allanite Th-U-Pb age-dating has recently been found to be powerful in unraveling the timing of geological processes such as the metamorphic dynamics in subduction zones and crystallization velocity of magmas. However, inconsistencies among analytical techniques have raised doubts about the accuracy of allanite age data. Spot analysis techniques such as LA-ICP-MS are claimed to be crucially dependent on matrix-matched standards, the quality of which is variable. We present a new approach in LA-ICP-MS data reduction that allows non-matrix-matched standardization via well constrained zircon reference materials as primary standards. Our data were obtained using a GeoLas Pro 193 nm ArF excimer laser ablation system coupled to an ELAN DRC-e quadrupole ICP-MS. We use 32 μm and 24 μm spot sizes; laser operating conditions of 9 Hz repetition rate and 2.5 J/cm2 fluence have proven advantageous. Matrix dependent downhole fractionation evolution is empirically determined by analyzing 208Pb/232Th and 206Pb/238U and applied prior to standardization. The new data reduction technique was tested on three magmatic allanite reference materials (SISSb, CAPb, TARA); within error these show the same downhole fractionation evolution for all allanite types and in different analytical sessions, provided measurement conditions remain the same. Although the downhole evolution of allanite and zircon differs significantly, a link between zircon and allanite matrix is established by assuming CAPb and TARA to be fixed at the corresponding reference ages. Our weighted mean 208Pb/232Th ages are 30.06 ± 0.22 (2σ) for SISSb, 275.4 ± 1.3 (2σ) for CAPb, and 409.9 ± 1.8 (2σ) for TARA. Precision of single spot age data varies between 1.5 and 8 % (2σ), dependent on spot size and common lead concentrations. Quadrupole LA-ICP-MS allanite age-dating has thus similar uncertainties as do other spot analysis techniques. The new data reduction technique is much less dependent on quality and homogeneity

  19. "Bloodless" Neurosurgery Among Jehovah's Witnesses: A Comparison with Matched Concurrent Controls.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Doerfler, Sean; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Whitmore, Robert G; Ford, Patricia; Rushton, Scott; LeRoux, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) are a Christian faith with >1 million members in the United States who do not accept autologous blood transfusions. The optimal management of these patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures is not well defined. Here, we examined the feasibility and safety of JW undergoing neurosurgery in a blood management program. Sixty-eight JW patients including 23 men and 45 women (mean age 53 ± 12 years) who underwent a variety of cranial (n = 19) and spinal (n = 49) neurosurgical procedures during a 5-year period were identified retrospectively and their hospital charts, anesthetic records, and operative reports reviewed. A concurrent cohort of sex-, age-, and procedure-matched non-JW controls also was identified. Among JW patients, a cell-saving system was used in 27 cases, with blood retransfused in 13 cases. Lactated Ringers solution was used extensively intraoperatively; albumin was given to 15 patients. The median decrease in hemoglobin was 2.1 g/dL. One patient had a postoperative hemoglobin value <7 g/dL. One patient returned to the operating room to revise a lumbar pedicle screw, and one patient had postoperative seizures. No cardiopulmonary complications, sepsis, pneumonia, or wound infection were observed. Compared with the matched control group, similar outcome results were observed. Blood loss and operative time also were similar in JW patients and controls. Neurosurgical procedures in Jehovah's Witnesses are feasible, safe, and have similar outcomes to patients willing to accept transfusion when managed within a multidisciplinary blood-management program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lynn; Harrild, Kirsten

    2010-05-27

    An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361) were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083) were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05). A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99). This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  1. Vocational Rehabilitation of Transition-Age Youth with Disabilities: A Propensity-Score Matched Study.

    PubMed

    Langi, F L Fredrik G; Oberoi, Ashmeet; Balcazar, Fabricio E; Awsumb, Jessica

    2017-03-01

    Objective To investigate the employment outcomes of vocational rehabilitation (VR) services for youth with disabilities in a targeted, enhanced, and contract-based secondary transition program as compared to the traditional VR transition services. Methods A population-based study was conducted on 4422 youth with physical, intellectual, learning, mental and hearing disabilities aged 14-21 at application and whose case was closed after receiving VR transition services in a Midwestern state. Selected youth were classified into either targeted secondary transition program (START) or non-START treatment group. The employment outcomes of the groups were compared using propensity-score matching procedures. Results 2211 youth with disabilities in each treatment group were successfully matched based on demographic characteristics, types of disabilities, existence of severe functional limitations, and year of referral. The overall rehabilitation rate was 57 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 56-59 %], where the START group rate was 61 % (95 % CI 59-63 %) and the non-START group 53 % (95 % CI 51-55 %). The propensity-score matched odds ratio (OR) was 1.40 (95 % CI 1.24-1.58; p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that the odds of rehabilitation in youth with disabilities were consistently higher when they were in START as compared to non-START (OR ranged from 1.27 to 1.92 with p < 0.05 except for the Hispanic subgroup). Conclusion The results suggest that VR services in a targeted, enhanced, and contract-based secondary transition program are more effective in transitioning youth with disabilities to employment than the regular VR transition services.

  2. [Risk factors on road traffic accidents in middle school students: a matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-chun; Jin, Hui-qing; Tao, Xing-yong; Zhang, Shu-lin; Hu, Chuan-lai

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the predictors of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in middle school students, a case-control study was designed to seek new clues for prevention and control on RTAs in this population. Cases were 116 students who experienced RTAs from 2005/01/01 to 2005/12/31. 116 students were served as controls who were from the same class of the cases and matched by age and sex. Information on personal behavior, family conditions, and knowledge, attitude, practice (KAB) on road traffic of these children were collected and compared. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the relationship between these factors and RTAs. Compared to the controls, the cases showed more negative attitude and risk-taking-behaviors especially in riding bicycle. However, knowledge on road safety showed less significant differences between case and control groups. The negative attitude and risk-taking-behaviors were independent risk factors for RTAs by logistic regression. In addition, distance from home to school that longer than 1000 m seemed a risk factors for RTAs, while high education levels among mothers was a protective factor. Road safety attitude and behavior, distance from home to school were the main influence factors for RTAs among middle school students. It seemed more important in improving the attitude and behavior on road safety than to enhance the knowledge for prevention and control of RTAs among middle school students.

  3. Employment Status, Quality of Matching, and Retirement in Korea: Evidence from Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chulhee; Lee, Jinkook

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the differing probabilities of retirement for self-employed and wage-and-salary workers. It finds self-employed workers are less likely to retire than wage-and-salary ones, and that differences in retirement incomes, health, productivity, job characteristics, and compulsory retirement practices do not explain the disparity. The difference between self-employed and wage-and-salary workers in the quality of matching between the job and the worker (i.e., between required and desired amount of work) explains the later retirement of the self-employed. We note the implications of these findings for labor-force participation at older ages and how policies might boost employment of the elderly.

  4. Physical activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, K; Svenungsson, E; Karreskog, H; Gunnarsson, I; Gustafsson, J; Möller, S; Pettersson, S; Boström, C

    2012-08-01

    As physical activity reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, studies concerning the frequency of physical activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are needed. Earlier studies indicate that patients with SLE are physically inactive but there are few studies that compare physical activity in SLE to that in the general population. The aim of this study was to examine different aspects of physical activity in patients with SLE and population controls and to investigate how they relate to disease activity and organ damage. Two hundred and seventy-two patients with SLE and 272 population controls, individually matched for age, gender, and living region, were investigated clinically. For patients, the investigation included assessment of disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and organ damage using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC) Damage Index. All participants filled out an extensive questionnaire concerning physical activity, exercise capacity, and sedentary behaviour. The mean age of the patients was 47 (SD 15) years. Patients reported lower (p < 0.001) capacity for walking, jogging, and running and more limiting factors for these activities than controls (p < 0.001). Patients exercised less often than controls (p < 0.01) and patients with SLICC ≥ 2 points reported less physical activity on 'low to moderate' intensity compared to their controls (p < 0.05). Sedentary behaviour was reported by 18% of the patients and 26% of the controls (ns). Patients with SLE reported lower exercise capacity and less frequent exercise than controls. Additionally, patients with more organ damage reported less physical activity, and these, together with patients who have a sedentary behaviour, should be the focus of intervention programmes to support increased physical activity and exercise in SLE.

  5. Physical assessment of 30 chronic cannabis users and 30 matched controls.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, E K

    1976-01-01

    Ganja is used extensively in the working-class population of Jamaica, particularly in certain agricultural and fishing communities. Ganja, smoking is illegal but can be accepted as part of the culture in these areas. Sixty male subjects were chosen for assessment, 30 chronic smokers and 30 controls from comparable social, economic, and cultural backgrounds, and were matched for height and age. A chronic smoker had somked a minimum of three spliffs per day for a minimum of 10 years. The subjects were admitted to the hospital for 1 week for psychologic and physical assessment. The physical assessment included a detailed medical history and examination, heart and lung radiography, electrocardiograms, respiratory, liver, and renal function tests, hematology, treponemal serology, and chromosomal studies. No significant physical abnormalities were found, except in two smokers, and there was no reason to suspect that these disabilities were related to ganja. No significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated in the wide range of tests administered.

  6. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  7. Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching-to-sample by positive and negative stimulus relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Osborne, J G

    1982-01-01

    In Experiment 1, four developmentally delayed adolescents were taught an A-B matching-to-sample task with nonidentical stimuli: given Sample A1, select Comparison B1; given A2, select B2. During nonreinforced test trials, appropriate matching occurred when B stimuli appeared as samples and A stimuli as comparisons, i.e., the sample and comparison functions were symmetrical (B-A matching). During A-B or B-A matching test trials in which familiar samples and correct comparisons were presented along with novel comparisons, the subjects selected the correct comparisons. In tests with familiar samples and both incorrect and novel comparisons, subjects selected the novel comparisons, demonstrating control by both positive ("matching") and negative ("nonmatching") stimulus relations in A-B and B-A arrays. In Experiment 2, 12 developmentally delayed subjects were taught a two-stage arbitrary-matching task (e.g., A-B, C-B matching). Test sessions showed sample-comparison symmetry (e.g., B-A, B-C matching) and derived sample-comparison relations (e.g., A-C, C-A matching) for 11 subjects. These subjects also demonstrated control by positive and negative stimulus relations in the derived relations. PMID:6178786

  8. Impact of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of referees.

    PubMed

    Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Abreu, Laurinda; Tuimil, José Luis; Leicht, Anthony Scott

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) in soccer referees. Sixteen Spanish regional and third division referees (11 males: 26 ± 7 years, 74.4 ± 4.1 kg, 178 ± 3 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~600-1,560 m; 5 females: 22 ± 3 years, 59.3 ± 4.8 kg, 158 ± 8 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~200-520 m) participated with 24-h HR recordings measured with a Polar RS800 during a rest and a match day. Autonomic control of HR was assessed from HR variability (HRV) analysis. Inclusion of a soccer match (92.5% spent at >75% maximum HR) reduced pre-match (12:00-17:00 hours; small to moderate), post-match (19:00-00:00 hours; moderate to almost perfect), and night-time (00:00-05:00 hours; small to moderate) HRV. Various moderate-to-large correlations were detected between resting HRV and the rest-to-match day difference in HRV. The rest-to-match day differences of low and high-frequency bands ratio (LF/HF) and HR in the post-match period were moderately correlated with time spent at different exercise intensities. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was highly correlated with jump capacity and peak lactate, but not with any HRV parameter. These results suggest that a greater resting HRV may allow referees to tolerate stresses during a match day with referees who spent more time at higher intensities during matches exhibiting a greater LF/HF increment in the post-match period. The relationship between match activities, [Formula: see text] and HR recovery kinetics in referees and team sport athletes of different competitive levels remains to be clarified.

  9. Tongue stiffness is lower in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during wakefulness compared with matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth C; Cheng, Shaokoon; McKenzie, David K; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Bilston, Lynne E

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine whether tongue stiffness (shear modulus) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is different for controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), and to investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on stiffness. Controlled experimental study. Medical research institute. Patients with OSA and age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Magnetic resonance elastography was performed in nine patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15 events/h) and seven controls (AHI < 10 events/h) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Six of these OSA subjects were also scanned while 10 cmH2O CPAP was applied. Mean isotropic shear modulus and anisotropic shear moduli parallel and perpendicular to the muscle fascicles in the tongue were calculated. Tongue shear modulus in patients with OSA was lower than that in matched controls (2.68 ± 0.35 (mean ± standard deviation) kPa versus 2.98 ± 0.44 kPa, P < 0.001). Shear modulus decreased with increasing AHI (R = -0.496, P = 0.043), but not age, BMI, or percentage tongue fat. Anisotropic analysis revealed that reduction in stiffness was greatest parallel to the muscle fibers. CPAP had no significant effect on tongue shear modulus. In awake subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, the tongue is less stiff than in similar healthy subjects and this difference occurs in the muscle fiber direction. CPAP did not significantly reduce tongue stiffness. Thus, any change in neural drive to genioglossus during wakefulness is insufficient to restore normal tongue stiffness. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Delayed neuropsychologic dysfunction after liver transplantation for acute liver failure: a matched, case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Elizabeth W; Zacks, Steven; Zinn, Sandra; Ryan, John; Johnson, Mark W; Gerber, David A; Andreoni, Kenneth; Fair, Jeffrey H; Shrestha, Roshan; Fried, Michael W

    2002-10-01

    Although several studies have identified posttransplant neurologic sequelae in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), the effects of these sequelae on neuropsychologic functioning after transplant is unknown. This study compared neuropsychologic functioning of ALF patients with chronic liver disease patients after liver transplantation. After liver transplantation, seven ALF patients were compared with a matched control group of patients who had been transplanted for chronic liver disease. The patients were matched by gender, age (within 5 years), and time since transplantation (within 2 years). Patients completed a 2-hour battery of tests, which included measures of attention, memory, motor performance, abstract conceptualization, and visuospatial perception. There were no significant differences between the groups on measures of socioeconomic status or education. Significant differences were found on three separate tests: WAIS-III Vocabulary, WAIS-III Similarities, and WMS-III Paired Associate Learning II. Although these tests measure distinct functions (vocabulary knowledge, abstract conceptualization, and delayed verbal recall), they may be influenced by broader verbal functions, such as verbal fluency, conceptualization, and the ability to articulate ideas. When patients were asked what functions had noticeably deteriorated since transplantation, nearly all complained of memory difficulties, and there was no difference between groups. However, more ALF than chronic liver disease (CLD) patients complained of concentration difficulties. The results of this study suggest that ALF patients may experience more neuropsychologic dysfunction after transplant. Further studies are required to expand on these initial observations with the potential to improve patient care and referral to appropriate rehabilitative services.

  11. Examining the Relationships between Bone Tissue Composition, Compositional Heterogeneity and Fragility Fracture: A Matched Case Controlled FTIRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, Adele L; Donnelly, Eve; Boskey, Elizabeth; Spevak, Lyudmila; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) provides information on spatial distribution of the chemical composition of thin tissue specimens at ~7um spatial resolution. This study of 120 age-and BMD-matched patients was designed to investigate the association of FTIRI variables, measured in iliac crest biopsies, with fragility fractures at any site. An earlier study of 54 different women found hip BMD to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture risk for cortical bone, but not for cancellous bone. In the current study, where age and BMD were controlled through matching, no such association is seen, validating the pairing scheme. Our first study of un-matched iliac crest biopsies found increases in collagen maturity (cancellous and cortical bone) and mineral crystal size (cortical bone only) to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture when combined with other covariates. The ratio for collagen maturity has been correlated to the amount of enzymatic collagen cross-links. To assess the impact of other FTIRI variables (acid phosphate substitution, carbonate-to-phosphate ratio, and the pixel-distribution (heterogeneity) of all relevant FTIRI variables), we examined biopsies from a matched case-controlled study, in which 60 women with fractures, were each paired with an age-and BMD-matched female control. With the matched data set of 120 women, conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that significant explanatory variables of fracture were decreased carbonate-to-phosphate ratio in both cancellous (Odds Ratio =0.580, 95% confidence interval (CI)=[0.37, 0.909], p= 0.0176) and cortical bone (Odds Ratio= 0.519, 95% CI=[0.325, 0.829], p= 0.0061), and increased heterogeneity (broadened pixel distribution) of collagen maturity for cancellous bone (Odds Ratio = 1.549, 95% CI= [1.002, 2.396], p=0.0491). The observation that collagen maturity was no longer linked to fracture in age-and BMD-matched samples suggests that age-dependent variation in collagen

  12. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings. © 2015 The Authors. Eur J Oral Sci published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Association between herpetic burden and chronic ischemic heart disease: matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Esteban-Hernández, Jesús; San Román Montero, Jesús; Gil, Ruth; Anegón, María; Gil, Angel

    2011-07-09

    Previous studies showed a plausible association between herpetic burden and ischemic heart disease. Our aim is to test this hypothesis in an spanish seroepidemiological context. Sex and age matched case-control study (1:1) including patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and healthy controls. Herpetic burden was defined as the aggregate number of antibody seropositivities (IgG) for Epstein Barr Virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, Herpes simplex type 1 and type 2. We found that 90.7% of cases and 70,7% of controles (P=.002), were seropositive to 4 or more herpesvirus (high herpetic burden). Within control group, hypercholesterolemic subjects had a higher proportion of high burden (88,5% vs. 61,2%, P=.02). High herpetic burden was associated with ischemic heart disease, even after adjusting for diabetes, smoking, hypertension and literacy level, (OR: 4,5 [1,23-16,53]), but not when hypercholesterolemia was included in the model (OR 2,2 [0,45-10,62]). The hypothesized relationship is independent from most but not all classical cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ventilator-associated pneumonia. A retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Johannes B J; Zhou, Tan Lai; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; Rohde, Gernot G U; Winkens, Bjorn; Van Dessel, Helke A; Dormans, Tom P J; Linssen, Catharina F M; Roekaerts, Paul M H J; Savelkoul, Paul H M; van Mook, Walther N K A

    2016-10-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly identified in critically ill patients, but it is considered a pathogen with limited pathogenicity and it is therefore infrequently targeted. This study explores whether S. maltophilia may cause ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and whether it affects intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and 28-day mortality when compared to VAP caused by other Gram-negative bacilli. Retrospective analysis of a 19-year prospectively collected database. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a cause was considered in VAP-suspected cases when S. maltophilia growth of ≥10(4) cfu/ml was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. Cases were matched on hospital, gender, age and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score in a 1:3 ratio with controls from the same database suffering from VAP caused by other Gram-negative bacilli. Eight cases met the inclusion criteria, of which three were labelled as 'probable' SM-VAP and three as 'possible' SM-VAP. These six patients constitute 1.8% of all VAPs in the studied period. No significant differences in baseline characteristics and duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.68), length of stay in the ICU (p = 0.55) and hospital (p = 0.84) between cases and controls were identified between cases and controls. Intensive care unit mortality odds ratio was 1.7 (p = 0.55; 95% CI 0.3-10.5) and 28-day mortality odds ratio was 1.4 (p = 0.70; 95% CI 0.2-9.1). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a possible, yet infrequent cause of VAP. No outcome differences were found when compared to matched VAP caused by other Gram-negative bacilli.

  15. Challenging Cognitive Control by Mirrored Stimuli in Working Memory Matching.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Maria; Gaschler, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive conflict has often been investigated by placing automatic processing originating from learned associations in competition with instructed task demands. Here we explore whether mirror generalization as a congenital mechanism can be employed to create cognitive conflict. Past research suggests that the visual system automatically generates an invariant representation of visual objects and their mirrored counterparts (i.e., mirror generalization), and especially so for lateral reversals (e.g., a cup seen from the left side vs. right side). Prior work suggests that mirror generalization can be reduced or even overcome by learning (i.e., for those visual objects for which it is not appropriate, such as letters d and b). We, therefore, minimized prior practice on resolving conflicts involving mirror generalization by using kanji stimuli as non-verbal and unfamiliar material. In a 1-back task, participants had to check a stream of kanji stimuli for identical repetitions and avoid miss-categorizing mirror reversed stimuli as exact repetitions. Consistent with previous work, lateral reversals led to profound slowing of reaction times and lower accuracy in Experiment 1. Yet, different from previous reports suggesting that lateral reversals lead to stronger conflict, similar slowing for vertical and horizontal mirror transformations was observed in Experiment 2. Taken together, the results suggest that transformations of visual stimuli can be employed to challenge cognitive control in the 1-back task.

  16. Challenging Cognitive Control by Mirrored Stimuli in Working Memory Matching

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Maria; Gaschler, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive conflict has often been investigated by placing automatic processing originating from learned associations in competition with instructed task demands. Here we explore whether mirror generalization as a congenital mechanism can be employed to create cognitive conflict. Past research suggests that the visual system automatically generates an invariant representation of visual objects and their mirrored counterparts (i.e., mirror generalization), and especially so for lateral reversals (e.g., a cup seen from the left side vs. right side). Prior work suggests that mirror generalization can be reduced or even overcome by learning (i.e., for those visual objects for which it is not appropriate, such as letters d and b). We, therefore, minimized prior practice on resolving conflicts involving mirror generalization by using kanji stimuli as non-verbal and unfamiliar material. In a 1-back task, participants had to check a stream of kanji stimuli for identical repetitions and avoid miss-categorizing mirror reversed stimuli as exact repetitions. Consistent with previous work, lateral reversals led to profound slowing of reaction times and lower accuracy in Experiment 1. Yet, different from previous reports suggesting that lateral reversals lead to stronger conflict, similar slowing for vertical and horizontal mirror transformations was observed in Experiment 2. Taken together, the results suggest that transformations of visual stimuli can be employed to challenge cognitive control in the 1-back task. PMID:28503160

  17. Communication Skills of Young Children Implanted Prior to Four Years of Age Compared to Typically Hearing Matched Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Judith Anne Lakawicz

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare the conversational language skills and interactions of four children who are d/hh and who received cochlear implants (CI) prior to the age of four years with four typically hearing peers matched for age, gender, teacher perceived language ability and race. This exploratory, descriptive study was…

  18. A multicenter, matched case-control study of risk factors for equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Alford, P; Geller, S; Richrdson, B; Slater, M; Honnas, C; Foreman, J; Robinson, J; Messer, M; Roberts, M; Goble, D; Hood, D; Chaffin, M

    2001-05-01

    Risk factors for equine laminitis were examined in a prospective case-control study of the 258 cases seen at six collaborating veterinary teaching hospitals over a 32-month period. Case-control pairs were matched on institution, clinician, and season of diagnosis. The 90% of case-control pairs (78 acute, 155 chronic) that had complete data for age, gender, and breed were used in separate conditional logistic-regression models for acute and chronic laminitis. There was an increase in risk for horses with acute laminitis from 5 to 7 years of age (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3-16) and from 13 to 31 years of age (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12) (both compared to <5 years); risk was increased for chronic laminitis from 10 to 14 years (OR 3, 95% CI 1.4-6.8) and from 15 to 38 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.1) (both compared to <6 years). Mares - but not stallions - were more likely than geldings to develop acute laminitis (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2) and chronic laminitis (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6). In the small acute-laminitis data set, the breed variable was collapsed into three categories: Thoroughbred (THB, reference), the Quarter Horse (QH), and other (non-QH-THB). The non-QH-THB group was at increased risk of acute laminitis (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.8). For the seven breed-group categories used in the chronic-laminitis model, however, all non-THB breed groups appeared significantly at risk as compared to the THB, with odds ratios ranging from 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.30) for the QH to 9.1 (95% CI 2.1-39.3) for ponies.

  19. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.

  20. Birth outcomes in primiparous women who were raped as adults: a matched controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Oian, P; Sørlie, T; Straume, B; Blix, E

    2010-02-01

    To compare the duration of labour and the birth outcome in a group of primiparous women who had been raped after the age of 16, with a control group from the same birth cohort. Cohort study. University Hospital of North Norway. Fifty women raped as adults and 150 controls. Data about birth outcomes in the first pregnancy were collected from the patient files and data concerning the assault were obtained in a subsequent pregnancy through consultations with the women who had been raped. Birth outcomes in the group of women who had been raped were compared with matched controls using a multivariable logistic regression model. Caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. During their first delivery, the women who had been raped had an increased risk for caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio 15.7, 95% CI 5.0-49.1) and for assisted vaginal delivery (adjusted odds ratio 13.1, 95% CI 4.9-34.5) when compared with controls. The group of women who had been raped had a longer second stage of labour than the control group (120 versus 55 minutes, P < 0.01). They were more often single mothers, unemployed and smokers, and had a higher body mass index and more previous pregnancy terminations and miscarriages than the control group. The women who had been raped had a longer second stage of labour, and an increased risk of caesarean section and operative vaginal delivery compared with controls from the general birth cohort. These findings indicate that the consequences for delivery for women who had been raped as adults could be specific and may warrant particular attention. The birth experience of women who had been raped should also be illuminated in future studies.

  1. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35), gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25), pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66) and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score) were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family history of hypertension

  2. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  3. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. Methods We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Conclusions Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted. PMID:28611864

  4. Relationship between time in the operating room and incident pressure ulcers: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rachel M; Spear, Marcia E; Lee, Sheree I; Krauser Lupear, Buffy E; Benoit, Richard A; Valerio, Rainy; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between time in the operating room (OR) and hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs), controlling for temporality. The research team identified 931 HAPUs among surgical patients and matched them to 4 controls by hospital length of stay at the time the pressure ulcer (PU) was documented. A regression model estimated the relationship between OR time and HAPU after controlling for matching, age, sex, admission and current Braden score, weight, year, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score. OR time in the 24 hours prior to PU documentation was associated with PUs. Only 5% of HAPUs occurred within 24 hours of extended (>4 hours) surgery and 58% occurred after hospital day 5. Extended surgery is confirmed as a risk factor for PU development. Most PUs do not appear in the immediate postoperative period, and prevention efforts should focus on postoperative patient care, when most HAPUs develop.

  5. Keeping children safe at home: protocol for three matched case–control studies of modifiable risk factors for falls

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Denise; Stewart, Jane; Clacy, Rose; Coffey, Frank; Cooper, Nicola; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Mike; McColl, Elaine; Reading, Richard; Sutton, Alex; M L Towner, Elizabeth; Craig Watson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood falls result in considerable morbidity, mortality and health service use. Despite this, little evidence exists on protective factors or effective falls prevention interventions in young children. Objectives To estimate ORs for three types of medically attended fall injuries in young children in relation to safety equipment, safety behaviours and hazard reduction and explore differential effects by child and family factors and injury severity. Design Three multicentre case–control studies in UK hospitals with validation of parental reported exposures using home observations. Cases are aged 0–4 years with a medically attended fall injury occurring at home, matched on age and sex with community controls. Children attending hospital for other types of injury will serve as unmatched hospital controls. Matched analyses will use conditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. Unmatched analyses will use unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, deprivation and distance from hospital in addition to other confounders. Each study requires 496 cases and 1984 controls to detect an OR of 0.7, with 80% power, 5% significance level, a correlation between cases and controls of 0.1 and a range of exposure prevalences. Main outcome measures Falls on stairs, on one level and from furniture. Discussion As the largest in the field to date, these case control studies will adjust for potential confounders, validate measures of exposure and investigate modifiable risk factors for specific falls injury mechanisms. Findings should enhance the evidence base for falls prevention for young children. PMID:22628151

  6. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin; Elahi, Elham; Barati, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  7. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  8. A frequency response model matching method for PID controller design for processes with dead-time.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Nishat; Pan, Somnath

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a PID controller design method for the integrating processes based on frequency response matching is presented. Two approaches are proposed for the controller design. In the first approach, a double feedback loop configuration is considered where the inner loop is designed with a stabilizing gain. In the outer loop, the parameters of the PID controller are obtained by frequency response matching between the closed-loop system with the PID controller and a reference model with desired specifications. In the second approach, the design is directly carried out considering a desired load-disturbance rejection model of the system. In both the approaches, two low frequency points are considered for matching the frequency response, which yield linear algebraic equations, solution of which gives the controller parameters. Several examples are taken from the literature to demonstrate the effectiveness and to compare with some well known design methods. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Berthiaume, Luc R; Fick, Gordon H; Laupland, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer-reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis. Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%). Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02). They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08). In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001). The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.

  10. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J; Berthiaume, Luc R; Fick, Gordon H; Laupland, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Background Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer-reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis. Results Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%). Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02). They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08). In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature. PMID:22570570

  11. Sleep bruxism in individuals with and without attrition-type tooth wear: An exploratory matched case-control electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Jonsgar, Christine; Hordvik, Paul-Arne; Berge, Morten E; Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Svensson, Peter; Johansson, Anders

    2015-12-01

    To examine if there is a difference in possible sleep bruxism activity (SB) in subjects with or without attrition-type tooth wear. Sixteen individuals with pronounced attritional-type tooth wear were compared with sex and aged matched controls without tooth wear by means of measurement of electromyographic (EMG) activity during a minimum of four consecutive nights of sleep. Mean age and range for the study- and control- group was 23.7 years (range 19.9-28.5) and 23.6 years (range 20.3-27.9), respectively. There were 11 females and five males in each of the two groups. The attrition group presented incisal/occlusal attrition wear into dentin and matching wear facets between opposing anterior teeth. The controls had negligible signs of incisal/occlusal wear and a minimal number of matching wear facets. The prevalence of both self-reported and partner-reported SB was significantly more common in the attrition group compared to the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.007, respectively). Self-reported morning facial pain was similarly more common in the attrition group (P=0.014). Maximum opening capacity, number of muscles painful to palpation, salivary flow rate and buffering capacity were not significantly different between the groups. Interestingly, none of the measures of jaw muscle EMG activity during sleep, as recorded by the portable EMG equipment, differed significantly between the attrition group and the matched controls (P>0.05). The results from this exploratory study suggest that there is no difference in EMG activity between subjects with and without attrition-type tooth wear. Further research is needed in order to substantiate these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    CHE, D.; CAMPESE, C.; SANTA-OLALLA, P.; JACQUIER, G.; BITAR, D.; BERNILLON, P.; DESENCLOS, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an aetiology of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, with a high case-fatality ratio (CFR). We conducted a matched case-control study to identify risk factors for sporadic, community-acquired LD. Cases of sporadic, community-acquired and biologically confirmed LD, in metropolitan France from 1 September 2002 to 31 September 2004, were matched with a control subject according to age, sex, underlying illness and location of residence within 5 km. We performed a conditional logistic regression on various host-related factors and exposures. Analysis was done on 546 matched pairs. The CFR was 3·5%. Age ranged from 18–93 years (mean 57 years), with a 3·6 male:female sex ratio. Cases were more likely to have smoked with the documentation of a dose-effect relation, to have travelled with a stay in a hotel (OR 6·1, 95% CI 2·6–14·2), or to have used a wash-hand basin for personal hygiene (OR 3·5, 95% CI 1·6–7·7) than controls. Tobacco and travel have been previously described as risk factors for LD, but this is the first time that such a dose-effect for tobacco has been documented among sporadic cases. These findings will provide helpful knowledge about LD and help practitioners in identifying patients at high risk. PMID:18211725

  13. Wilson's disease with and without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder compared to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Cardoso Alves, Rosana; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Schenck, Carlos H; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative data are reported on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a cohort of predominantly neurological Wilson's disease (WD). A total of 41 patients with WD and 41 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were studied by conducting face-to-face interviews, neurological and clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and WD- and RBD-specific scales. Video-polysomnography and quantification of REM sleep without atonia (RWA) were conducted in 35 patients and 41 controls. Patients with WD showed significantly worse sleep quality, less sleep efficiency, increased wakefulness after sleep onset, and more arousals compared to healthy controls. Five patients with WD (four women) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for RBD with significantly higher values in RWA, RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong, and RBD Screening Questionnaire compared to patients with WD without RBD. In three patients with WD, RBD had manifested before any other symptom that could be attributed to WD. Percentage of RWA was significantly lower in WD without RBD than in WD with RBD, but still significantly increased compared to controls. RBD can be comorbid with WD. RWA is commonly present in WD, both in the presence or absence of clinical RBD. A causal connection is possible, though retrospective determination of RBD onset and the low number of patients do not allow a definitive conclusion at this point. However, screening for WD in idiopathic RBD is available at low cost and is recommended. Early-stage copper chelation therapy provides a highly effective treatment to prevent further WD manifestations and might also control the comorbid RBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in east China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, W X; Dai, Y; Zhou, Y J; Liu, H; Duan, S G; Han, H H; Chen, Y

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY To determine risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, we conducted a population-based case-control study in sentinel hospital surveillance areas of Shanghai and Jiangsu province, China. Seventy-one patients with diarrhoea and confirmed V. parahaemolyticus infections were enrolled, and they were matched with 142 controls for gender, age and residential area. From the multivariable analysis, V. parahaemolyticus infections were associated with antibiotics taken during the 4 weeks prior to illness [odds ratio (OR) 7·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–54·4)], frequent eating out (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·0–10·4), and shellfish consumption (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·0–11·1), with population-attributable fractions of 0·09, 0·24, and 0·14, respectively. Protective factors included keeping the aquatic products refrigerated (OR 0·4, 95% CI 0·2–1·0) and pork consumption (OR 0·2, 95% CI 0·1–0·9) [corrected] .

  15. Voxel-based morphometry of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory G; Lee, Jun-Seok; Strigo, Irina A; Caligiuri, Michael P; Meloy, M J; Lohr, James

    2011-11-30

    Controlled trials provide critical tests of hypotheses generated by meta-analyses. Two recent meta-analyses have reported that gray matter volumes of schizophrenia and bipolar I patients differ in the amygdala, hippocampus, or perigenual anterior cingulate. The present magnetic resonance imaging study tested these hypotheses in a cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry (VBM) design of 17 chronic schizophrenia and 15 chronic bipolar patients and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and duration of illness. Whole brain gray matter volume of both the schizophrenia and bipolar groups was smaller than among healthy control subjects. Regional voxel-wise comparisons showed that gray matter volume was smallest within frontal and temporal regions of both patient groups. Region of interest analyses found moderately large to large differences between schizophrenia and healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus. There were no group differences in the perigenual anterior cingulate. When schizophrenia and bipolar groups were directly compared, the schizophrenia group showed smaller gray matter volumes in right subcortical regions involving the right hippocampus, putamen, and amygdala. The hippocampal and amygdala findings confirm predictions derived from recent meta-analyses. These structural abnormalities may be important factors in the differential manifestations of these two functional psychotic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Metformin and ageing: improving ageing outcomes beyond glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Palacio, Ana; Tamariz, Leonardo; Florez, Hermes

    2017-08-02

    In a world where the population is ageing, there is growing interest and demand for research evaluating strategies that address the ageing process. After 60 years of successful use of metformin in our pharmaceutical armamentarium, we are learning that, beyond improving glycaemic control, metformin may have additional mechanisms and pathways of action that need further study. Although, metformin's effect on clinical ageing outcomes may still be considered speculative, the findings from studies into cellular and animal models and from observational and pilot human studies support the existence of beneficial effects on ageing. At present, progress for human research, using randomised clinical trials to evaluate metformin's clinical impact, has just started. Here, we present a review on the ageing process and the mechanisms involved, and the role that metformin may have to counter these. We go on to discuss the upcoming large randomised clinical trials that may provide insight on the use of metformin for ageing outcomes beyond glycaemic control.

  17. Influence of BMI on health-related quality of life: comparison between an obese adult cohort and age-matched population norms.

    PubMed

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; Caterson, Ian D; Leibman, Steven; Smith, Garett S; Sambrook, Phillip N; Fransen, Marlene; March, Lyn M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine health-related quality of life and fatigue measures in obese subjects and to compare scores with age- and gender-matched population norms. A total of 163 obese subjects were recruited from laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or exercise and diet weight loss programs between March 2006 and December 2007. All subjects completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL), and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) questionnaires. One-sample t-tests were used to compare transformed scores with age- and gender-matched population norms and controls. Obese subjects have significantly lower SF-36 physical and emotional component scores, significantly lower AQoL utility scores and significantly higher fatigue scores compared to age-matched population norms. Within the study cohort, the SF-36 physical functioning, role physical and bodily pain scores, and AQoL utility index were even lower in subjects with clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, obese individuals without OA still had significantly lower scores compared to population norms. Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life and disability as measured by the SF-36, AQoL, and fatigue score (MAF) compared to matched population norms.

  18. Common Mental Disorders Associated with Tuberculosis: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Gleide Santos; Pereira, Susan Martins; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Marinho, Jamocyr Moura; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the availability of treatment and a vaccine, tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Mental disorders might contribute to the burden of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted. The study population included symptomatic respiratory patients who attended three referral hospitals and six community clinics in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A doctor’s diagnosis defined potential cases and controls. Cases were newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases, and controls were symptomatic respiratory patients for whom tuberculosis was excluded as a diagnosis by the attending physician. Cases and controls were ascertained in the same clinic. Data collection occurred between August 2008 and April 2010. The study instruments included a structured interview, a self-reporting questionnaire for the identification of common mental disorders, and a questionnaire for alcoholism. An univariate analysis included descriptive procedures (with chi-square statistics), and a multivariate analysis used conditional logistic regression. Results The mean age of the cases was 38 years, and 61% of the cases were males. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of tuberculosis were significantly higher in patients dignosed with a common mental disorder (OR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.05–1.70). Conclusion There appears to be a positive and independent association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis; further epidemiological studies are required to increase our understanding of the possible biological and social mechanisms responsible for this association. Independent of the direction of the association, this finding has implications for the provision of care for mental disorders and for tuberculosis. PMID:24937319

  19. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertensive Organ Damage in COPD Patients and Matched Controls. The RETAPOC Study

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, Rafael; Mateos-Colino, Alfonso; Pena-Seijo, Marta; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Martín-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Pose-Reino, Antonio; Domínguez-Pin, Nuria; Garnacho-Gayarre, Nuria; Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that there is a pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased sympathetic tone has been described in several respiratory diseases. Our objective was to determine whether hypertension mediated by sympathetic overactivity is a mechanism that explains the association between COPD and cardiovascular diseases. Methods Prospective nested case-control observational study; 67 COPD patients were matched 1:1 by sex and age to controls with smoking history. 24 hour-blood pressure monitoring, urinary catecholamines and their metabolites measurement, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, nocturnal oximetry and retinography were performed. Findings classic cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were similarly distributed between cases and controls. No significant differences for blood pressure variables (difference for mean systolic blood pressure: -0·13 mmHg; 95% CI: -4·48,4·20; p = 0·94; similar results for all blood presssure variables) or catecholamines values were found between both groups. There was a tendency for lower left ventricle ejection fraction in the COPD cases, that approached statistical significance (64·8 ± 7·4 vs 67·1 ± 6·2, p = 0·05). There were no differences in the retinal arteriovenous ratio, the carotid intima-media thickness, or the number of carotid plaques, between cases and controls. Fibrinogen values were higher in the COPD group (378·4 ± 69·6 vs 352·2 ± 45·6 mg/dL, p = 0·01) and mean nocturnal oxygen saturation values were lower for COPD patients (89·0 ± 4·07 vs 92·3 ± 2·2%, p < 0·0001). Interpretation Hypertension induced by sympathetic overactivity does not seem to be a mechanism that could explain the association between COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27362479

  20. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  1. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  2. Oncologic Outcomes after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Following Total Mastectomy in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jai Min; Paik, Hyun-June; Park, Sungmin; Yi, Ha Woo; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Se Kyung; Yu, Jonghan; Bae, Soo Youn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) following total mastectomy (TM) has increased markedly in patients with breast cancer. As the indications for IBR have been broadened and more breast-conserving surgery-eligible patients are undergoing IBR, comparing the oncologic safety between TM only and IBR following TM becomes more difficult. This study aimed to analyze the oncologic outcomes between TM only and IBR following TM via a matched case-control methodology. Methods A retrospective review was conducted to identify all patients who underwent TM between 2008 and 2014. We excluded patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, including palliative chemotherapy, and had a follow-up duration <12 months, inflammatory breast cancer, or incomplete data. We divided the remaining patients into two groups: those who underwent TM only (control group) and those who underwent IBR following TM (study group). The groups were propensity score-matched. Matched variables included age, pathologic stage, estrogen or progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, and year of operation. Results After matching, 878 patients were enrolled in the control group and 580 patients in the study group. The median follow-up duration was 43.4 months (range, 11–100 months) for the control group and 41.3 months (range, 12–100 months) for the study group (p=1.000). The mean age was 47.3±8.46 years for the control group and 43.9±7.14 years for the study group (p>0.050). Matching was considered successful for the matching variables and other factors, such as family history, histology, multiplicity, and lymphovascular invasion. There were no significant differences in overall survival (log-rank p=0.454), disease-free survival (log-rank p=0.186), local recurrence-free survival (log-rank p=0.114), or distant metastasis-free survival rates (logrank p=0.537) between the two groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that IBR following TM is a feasible

  3. Higher seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korean adolescent athletes compared to age- and sex-matched non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Choe, Yon Ho; Hwang, tae Sook; Hong, Yun Chul

    2002-02-01

    Poor living conditions, such as overcrowding and bed-sharing, are reported to be significant risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection throughout childhood. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Korean athletes who are obliged to live together in training camps for more than 6 months in a year. Blood sampling and surveying through questionnaire were performed on 440 students from a regular high school (228 boys and 212 girls) and 220 athletes (148 boys and 72 girls) of a physical education high school. We measured serum immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG Ab) to H. pylori in order to compare the prevalence of H. pylori infection between normal adolescents and athletes. In addition, we conducted a nutritional analysis and questionnaire survey for socioeconomic status in order to compare other risk factors that might influence H. pylori infection between groups. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in athletes (43.2%) was higher than that in the controls (22.7%). No significant differences in the nutritional factors or socioeconomic status, such as Hollingshead index, type of house, number of siblings, and crowding index, were found between the groups. Multivariate analysis showed that crowding and the difference in school type were the significant predictors of H. pylori seropositivity after controlling for dietary and socioeconomic factors. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in adolescent athletes than in age- and sex-matched regular students. Further prospective study is needed to confirm the observation.

  4. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    PubMed

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Immunocompromised Patients: Outcomes from a Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fábio C M; Monga, Manoj; Dall'Aqua, Vinicius; Marchini, Giovanni S; Vicentini, Fabio C; Danilovic, Alexandre; Srougi, Miguel; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in immunocompromised patients with those of PCNL in healthy population. A matched case-control study was performed from January 2009 through December 2014 using our prospectively collected kidney stone database. Patients with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C (cellular immune dysfunction), and patients on high dose of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of autoimmune diseases composed the case group. Control group included patients with kidney stones and no other comorbidity. Patients were randomly matched based on Guy's score as a surrogate of case complexity. Sixty-two patients were enrolled in this study, 21 cases and 42 controls. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and body mass index between groups. Regarding PCNL technique, there were no differences in patient positioning, number of accesses, and operative time. Complication rate was higher in the case group (38.1% vs 14.3%; p = 0.032); however, major complications, defined by Clavien score ≥3, were not statistically different (4.8% vs 2.4%; p = 0.611). There was a tendency of more postoperative urinary tract infection in the case group (19% vs 4.8%; p = 0.069). Mean decrease in hemoglobin level (3.3 vs 2.4 mg/dL; p = 0.037) and blood transfusion rate (23.8% vs 4.8%; p = 0.036) was significantly higher in the case group. Immunocompromised patients had a 2.8-fold increased risk of complications (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 7.74) and a 5.8-fold increased risk of blood transfusion (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 1.29, 26.55). There were no differences in stone-free rate, nephrostomy tube time, and length of hospital stay. Immunocompromised patients are at higher risk for complications such as bleeding after PCNL.

  6. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used.

  7. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used.

  8. Vertebral Size, Bone Density, and Strength in Men and Women Matched for Age and Areal Spine BMD

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Alexander G; Broe, Kerry E; Zhang, Xiaochun; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Meng, Ching-An; Manoharan, Rajaram; D’Agostino, John; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms underlying sex-specific differences in skeletal fragility that may be obscured by two-dimensional areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measures, we compared quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based vertebral bone measures among pairs of men and women from the Framingham Heart Study Multidetector Computed Tomography Study who were matched for age and spine aBMD. Measurements included vertebral body cross-sectional area (CSA, cm2), trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD, g/cm3), integral volumetric BMD (Int.vBMD, g/cm3), estimated vertebral compressive loading and strength (Newtons) at L3, the factor-of-risk (load-to-strength ratio), and vertebral fracture prevalence. We identified 981 male-female pairs (1:1 matching) matched on age (± 1 year) and QCT-derived aBMD of L3 (± 1%), with an average age of 51 years (range 34 to 81 years). Matched for aBMD and age, men had 20% larger vertebral CSA, lower Int.vBMD (−8%) and Tb.vBMD (−9%), 10% greater vertebral compressive strength, 24% greater vertebral compressive loading, and 12% greater factor-of-risk than women (p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher prevalence of vertebral fracture. After adjusting for height and weight, the differences in CSA and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) between men and women were attenuated but remained significant, whereas compressive strength was no longer different. In conclusion, vertebral size, morphology, and density differ significantly between men and women matched for age and spine aBMD, suggesting that men and women attain the same aBMD by different mechanisms. These results provide novel information regarding sex-specific differences in mechanisms that underlie vertebral fragility. PMID:23955966

  9. Hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers in controlled ovarian stimulation: tools for matching patients and protocols.

    PubMed

    Alviggi, Carlo; Humaidan, Peter; Ezcurra, Diego

    2012-02-06

    Variability in the subfertile patient population excludes the possibility of a single approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) covering all the requirements of a patient. Modern technology has led to the development of new drugs, treatment options and quantitative methods that can identify single patient characteristics. These could potentially be used to match patients with the right treatment options to optimise efficacy, safety and tolerability during COS. Currently, age and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level remain the most commonly used single patient characteristics in clinical practice. These variables only provide a basic prognosis for success and indications for standard COS treatment based on gross patient categorisation. In contrast, the anti-Müllerian hormone level appears to be an accurate predictor of ovarian reserve and response to COS, and could be used successfully to guide COS. The antral follicle count is a functional biomarker that could be useful in determining the dose of FSH necessary during stimulation and the success of treatment. Finally, in the future, genetic screening may allow an individual patient's response to stimulation during COS to be predicted based on genotype. Unfortunately, despite the predictive power of these measures, no single biomarker can stand alone as a guide to determine the best treatment option. In the future, hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers will be used together to personalise COS.

  10. Individual and community factors for railway suicide: a matched case-control study in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; McClure, Roderick; Milner, Allison

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to simultaneously examine individual- and community-level factors associated with railway suicide. We performed a case-control study in Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2012. Data on cases of railway suicide were obtained from the National Coronial Information System (a database of coronial investigations). Controls were living individuals randomly selected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia study, matching to cases on age groups, sex and year of exposures. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the individual-level and community-level influences on individual odds of railway suicide, controlling for socioeconomic status. Individual-level diagnosed mental illness increased railway suicide odds by six times [95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 9.2]. Community-level factors such as living in an area with a presence of railway tracks [odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 2.8], within a city (OR 3.2, 95 % CI 1.9, 5.4), and with a higher overall suicide rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) were independently associated with greater individual odds of railway suicide compared to living in an area without a presence of railway tracks, outside a city, and with a relatively lower overall suicide rate. The effects of mental illness and high incidence of overall suicides are prominent, but not specific on railway suicide. The effects of presence of railway tracks and city residence suggest the importance of accessibility to the railways for individual risk of railway suicide. Prevention efforts should focus on vulnerable people live in areas with easy access to the railways.

  11. Impact of multiple matched controls on design sensitivity in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    In an observational study, one treated subject may be matched for observed covariates to either one or several untreated controls. The common motivation for using several controls rather than one is to increase the power of a test of no effect under the doubtful assumption that matching for observed covariates suffices to remove bias from nonrandom treatment assignment. Does the choice between one or several matched controls affect the sensitivity of conclusions to violations of this doubtful assumption? With continuous responses, it is known that reducing the heterogeneity of matched pair differences reduces sensitivity to unmeasured biases, but increasing the sample size has a highly circumscribed effect on sensitivity to bias. Is the use of several controls rather than one analogous to a reduction in heterogeneity or to an increase in sample size? The issue is examined for Huber's m-statistics, including the t-test, the examination having three components: an example, asymptotic calculations using design sensitivity, and a simulation. Use of multiple controls with continuous responses yields a nontrivial reduction in sensitivity to unmeasured biases. An example looks at lead and cadmium in the blood of smokers from the 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A by-product of the discussion is a new result giving the design sensitivity for the permutation distribution of m-statistics.

  12. Cervical spinal cord dimensions and clinical outcomes in adults with klippel-feil syndrome: a comparison with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woojin; Lee, Dong-Ho; Auerbach, Joshua D; Sehn, Jennifer K; Nabb, Colin E; Riew, K Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Retrospective case-control study. Objectives To confirm the fact that spinal cord dimensions are smaller in adults with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) than in pediatric patients with KFS and to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of neurologic complications in patients with KFS with matched controls. Methods We performed an independent 1:2 case-control retrospective radiographic and chart review of a consecutive series of adults with KFS who underwent surgical intervention. The control group consisted of consecutive non-KFS surgical patients. Patients were matched in 1:2 case-control manner. Their charts were reviewed and the clinical characteristics were compared. Axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure the anteroposterior and mediolateral axial spinal cord and spinal canal at the operative levels and measurements were compared. Results A total of 22 patients with KFS and 44 controls were identified. The KFS group had a tendency of more myeloradiculopathy, and the control group had a tendency toward more radiculopathy. Both tendencies, however, were not significantly different. MRIs of 10 patients from the KFS group and 22 controls were available. There was no difference in the area of both spinal cord and canal at the operative levels. Conclusion Contrary to the finding in previous reports on pediatric patients, there were no differences between KFS and well-matched control groups in terms of age of onset, presentation, revision rate, complication rate, surgical outcome, and cross-sectional spinal cord and canal dimensions at the operative level.

  13. Neurocognitive Function Surrounding the Resection of Frontal WHO Grade I Meningiomas: A Prospective Matched-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Philipp; Hans, Elisa; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Simgen, Andreas; Oertel, Joachim; Karbach, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Patients with intracranial meningiomas can experience neurocognitive dysfunctions in specific cognitive domains depending on tumor location and size. The literature regarding cognitive function surrounding the resection of frontal meningiomas is sparse. We performed a prospective matched-control study to investigate the cognitive performance of frontal meningioma patients undergoing resection. The neurocognitive status 1 week and 2 months after resection was compared with the preoperative status and matched-controls. Matching was performed for age, sex, handedness, education, and profession. An extensive test battery was used to assess perceptual speed, executive function, visual-spatial and verbal working memory, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, fluid intelligence, anxiety, and depression. Twelve patients with frontal World Health Organization grade I meningioma and 12 matched-controls underwent cognitive testing. Macroscopically, complete removal was achieved in all cases. Comparison of patients and controls revealed significant cognitive impairments in perceptual speed, executive function, short-term memory, and verbal fluency preoperatively and postoperatively. At 2 months' follow-up, perceptual speed and verbal fluency were still significantly impaired, whereas executive function and short-term memory were equal to that in the control group. None of the patients experienced cognitive deterioration after surgical therapy. Patients with frontal meningiomas display preoperative and postoperative deficits in perceptual speed, executive function, short-term memory, and verbal fluency. The risk for cognitive deterioration owing to surgical resection is low. Within the first two months after surgery, executive function and short-term memory appear to recover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral sensation and function: a comparison of patients with innervated radial forearm free flap reconstruction to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Irene J; Boliek, Carol A; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi; Rieger, Jana M

    2010-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the use of innervated radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects. This study reports on sensation, mastication, and speech outcomes for patients with innervated RFFF reconstruction of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Sensation, mastication, and speech intelligibility were assessed in 8 patients and age- and sex-matched controls. Sensation of intact tongue tissue after reconstruction of the hemitongue did not differ from controls. Although some sensory ability was restored to patients' reconstructed tongue, differences existed between the patient group and controls. However, whole mouth sensations resulted in similar sensory ability as controls. Whereas patients demonstrated adequate masticatory and speech ability, differences existed between patients and controls. Although some sensory ability is preserved in patients who have had tongue reconstruction with an innervated RFFF, functional outcomes such as masticatory ability and speech intelligibility may be affected in some patients.

  15. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service

  16. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case-control study in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990-2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. A matched case-control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0-7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service intervention associated with neonatal deaths in normal and low

  17. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Use of sleep medications and risk of cancer: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between sleep-medication use and mortality, especially cancer deaths, but findings are mixed, and large population-based studies are lacking. Data from the Finnish Public Sector study were linked to the Finnish Cancer Register and the Drug Prescription Register of Finland. A total of 5053 cancer cases (mean age of 57.4 years) diagnosed in 2002-2011, and their 24,388 controls free of cancer and matched for sex, age, socioeconomic status, employer, and geographical area, were identified. The use of sleep medications was defined as purchases of prescribed sleep medications. Both quantity and duration of prior sleep-medication use during the seven years studied were associated with increased odds of having cancer. Compared with participants not using sleep medications, the odds ratio was 1.18-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.39) for those who used >100 defined daily doses per year and 1.16-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.34) for those who had such a medication for >3 years. Site-specific analyses showed a more pronounced association of quantity and duration of sleep-medication use with subsequent cancer of the respiratory system (odds ratio for >100 defined daily doses per year vs. no use: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.97-6.11). No associations were found with other cancer sites. In this register-based study, sleep-medication use was associated with an increased cancer incidence of the respiratory system. Further studies are needed to examine potential carcinogenic mechanisms associated with hypnotic medications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  20. Executive function performance on the children's kitchen task assessment with children with sickle cell disease and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; King, Allison

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare executive function abilities of 8- to 12-year-old children with sickle cell disease (SCD) with a matched control sample. The measures included the parent and teacher Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF); the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), Free Sorting Test and Color Word Interference Test; and the Children's Kitchen Task Assessment (CKTA), a new performance measure. Twenty-two children with SCD were recruited from one hematology clinic and 22 community children, matched on characteristics of age, gender, and race, were selected from a larger sample of controls for comparison. Parents and teachers completed rating scales. As hypothesized, children with SCD scored significantly lower than matched controls on Digit Span Forward; on 5 of the 9 D-KFES Color Word Interference and Sorting tasks; on CKTA organization, initiation, and task completion; and on the BRIEF's parent and teacher Metacognitive Index (MI) and Global Executive Composite (GEC) scores. Cognitive and performance evaluations indicate lower executive function among children with SCD. Results substantiate the need for evaluative triangulation for children with SCD: Neurocognitive testing supported by performance testing, and adult reflection of a child's daily performance compared to other children. These elements will provide rich data to create educational support for children with SCD who have frequent hospitalizations, school absences, and the potential presence of cerebral vascular accident symptomology.

  1. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  2. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  3. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  4. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  5. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self-rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36-3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20-0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources.

  6. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ruangsri, Supanigar; Jorns, Teekayu Plangkoon; Puasiri, Subin; Luecha, Thitisan; Chaithap, Chariya; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls). Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29) years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04) years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6, narrow lateral pharyngeal wall, and Mallampati class 4. There were two other significant factors associated with having OSA, namely, BMI and Mallampati classification. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of these two factors were 1.445 (1.017, 2.052) and 5.040 (1.655, 15.358), respectively. Conclusion Dentists may play an important role in the detection of OSA in patients with high BMI through careful oropharyngeal examination in routine dental treatment. A large torus mandibularis

  7. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on the results of total knee arthroplasty: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Tom M; Bakker, Wouter; Reijman, Max; Verhaar, Jan AN

    2007-01-01

    Background We performed a matched case control study to assess the effect of prior high tibia valgus producing osteotomy on results and complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods From 1996 until 2003 356 patients underwent all cemented primary total knee replacement in our institution. Twelve patients with a history of 14 HTO were identified and matched to a control group of 12 patients with 14 primary TKA without previous HTO. The match was made for gender, age, date of surgery, body mass index, aetiology and type of prosthesis. Clinical and radiographic outcome were evaluated after a median duration of follow-up of 3.7 years (minimum, 2.3 years). The SPSS program was used for statistical analyses. Results The index group had more perioperative blood loss and exposure difficulties with one tibial tuberosity osteotomy and three patients with lateral retinacular releases. No such procedures were needed in the control group. Mid-term HSS, KSS and WOMAC scores were less favourable for the index group, but these differences were not significant. The tibial slope of patients with prior HTO was significantly decreased after this procedure. The tibial posterior inclination angle was corrected during knee replacement but posterior inclination was significantly less compared to the control group. No deep infection or knee component loosening were seen in the group with prior HTO. Conclusion We conclude that TKA after HTO seems to be technically more demanding than a primary knee arthroplasty, but clinical outcome was almost identical to a matched group that had no HTO previously. PMID:17683549

  8. Error Control with Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer Treatments for Computational Aeroacoustics with Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles. These layer and profile combinations allow the relative error introduced by a layer to be kept as small as desired, in principle. Tradeoffs between error and cost are explored.

  9. Dynamic compensatory pattern matching in a fuzzy rule-based control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    1991-01-01

    A dynamic compensatory matching procedure is suggested as a method to generate an aggregated measure for evaluating the appropriateness of rules for control systems. It is a dynamic weighted matching technique which takes into account incomplete information under real-time requirements. The initial weights of importance of variables are generated with a generalized neural network architecture and a gradient descent algorithm. An intuitive compensatory scheme based on correlations among input variables of training data is adopted so that the system is coherent to a noisy environment.

  10. Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in Parents of Children with Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jessica; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Stone, James; Doupe, Malcolm; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric burn injuries are common, and the stress of caring for them can affect caregivers' health. This study's objective was to examine the rates of common mental and physical disorders of parents of burn-injured children (cases) compared with matched controls (controls). This is a population-based study linking the Regional Pediatric burn registry with administrative health information. Pediatric burn cases were matched 1:5 with control children from the general population based on age, sex, and geographical location then parents identified. One thousand and twenty-six parental cases and 4858 controls were identified. International Classification of Disease codes were used to identify diagnoses of common mental and physical disorders. Using rates of disease 2 years before and 2 years after the date of burn, the changes in the relative rates of health outcomes were compared between the cases and the controls. The cases had higher rates of postinjury mental and physical illness compared with the matches. However, it was found that controls also had increased rates postindex date and additionally cases had increased rates of preinjury illnesses. There was no difference in the relative rates of illnesses between the groups from pre- to post-index date. The higher rate of illness in cases postinjury could be explained by preinjury illness, and similar rate increases in the control cohort. Evaluation of the effect of a child's burn injury on parents should take into context the preexisting health of the parent. Socioeconomic factors associated with increased risk of burns may also be associated with adverse health outcomes.

  11. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  12. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  13. Incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate use: Matched case–control study in the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Muller, Sara; Paskins, Zoe; Hider, Samantha L.; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Mallen, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Acute pseudogout is anecdotally reported to occur following bisphosphonate initiation but empirical data are lacking. We investigated whether treatment with oral bisphosphonates is a risk factor for incident acute pseudogout. A matched case–control study was undertaken using data from the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Adults who consulted for incident acute pseudogout between 1987 and 2012 were each matched for gender, age at pseudogout diagnosis, and general practice to up to 4 control subjects without pseudogout. The exposure of interest was a prescription for an oral bisphosphonate issued within the 60-day period prior to the date of incident acute pseudogout. Associations between incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate prescription were examined using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for hyperparathyroidism, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, and prescriptions for diuretics and oral corticosteroids. Two thousand eleven acute pseudogout cases were compared with 8013 matched controls without acute pseudogout (mean age [standard deviation] 72 years [14]; 52% male). One hundred twenty-three cases (6.1%) had received an oral bisphosphonate prescription in the 60-day exposure period compared with 305 controls (3.8%) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.69). This association was stronger in females (adjusted IRR 1.49; 95% CI 1.15–1.94) and was nonsignificant in males (0.83; 0.48–1.44). Incident acute pseudogout was associated with prescription of an oral bisphosphonate in the preceding 60 days. Prescribers should be aware of acute pseudogout as a possible side effect of bisphosphonate treatment. Further research is needed to explore the risks conferred by different bisphosphonates and the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:28328803

  14. High-accuracy stereo matching based on adaptive ground control points.

    PubMed

    Chenbo Shi; Guijin Wang; Xuanwu Yin; Xiaokang Pei; Bei He; Xinggang Lin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-accuracy stereo matching scheme based on adaptive ground control points (AdaptGCP). Different from traditional fixed GCP-based methods, we consider color dissimilarity, spatial relation, and the pixel-matching reliability to select GCP adaptively in each local support window. To minimize the global energy, we propose a practical solution, named as alternating updating scheme of disparity and confidence map, which can effectively eliminate the redundant and interfering information of unreliable pixels. The disparity values of those unreliable pixels are reassigned with the information provided by local plane model, which is fitted with GCPs. Then, the confidence map is updated according to the disparity reassignment and the left-right consistency. Finally, the disparity map is refined by multistep filers. Quantitative evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of our AdaptGCP scheme for regularizing the ill-posed matching problem. The top ranks on Middlebury benchmark with different error thresholds show that our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance among the latest stereo matching algorithms. This paper provides a new insight toward high-accuracy stereo matching.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Symptom Checklist-90 in adolescent psychiatric inpatients and age- and gender-matched community youth.

    PubMed

    Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Kettunen, Kirsi; Therman, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) is a questionnaire that is widely used to measure subjective psychopathology. In this study we investigated the psychometric properties of the SCL-90 among adolescent inpatients and community youth matched on age and gender. The final SCL-90 respondents comprised three subsets: 201 inpatients at admission, of whom 152 also completed the instrument at discharge, and 197 controls. The mean age at baseline was 15.0 years (SD 1.2), and 73 % were female. Differential SCL-90 item functioning between the three subsets was assessed with an iterative algorithm, and the presence of multidimensionality was assessed with a number of methods. Confirmatory factor analyses for ordinal items compared three latent factor models: one dimension, nine correlated dimensions, and a one-plus-nine bifactor model. Sensitivity to change was assessed with the bifactor model's general factor scores at admission and discharge. The accuracy of this factor in detecting the need for treatment used, as a gold standard, psychiatric diagnoses based on clinical records and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) interview. Item measurement properties were largely invariant across subsets under the unidimensional model, with standardized factor scores at admission being 0.04 higher than at discharge and 0.06 higher than those of controls. Determination of the empirical number of factors was inconclusive, reflecting a strong main factor and some multidimensionality. The unidimensional factor model had very good fit, but the bifactor model offered an overall improvement, though subfactors accounted for little item variance. The SCL-90s ability to identify those with and without a psychiatric disorder was good (AUC = 83 %, Glass's Δ = 1.4, Cohen's d = 1.1, diagnostic odds ratio 12.5). Scores were also fairly sensitive to change between admission and discharge (AUC 72 %, Cohen's d = 0

  16. Control of force during rapid visuomotor force-matching tasks can be described by discrete time PID control algorithms.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Jakob Lund; Feeney, Daniel F; Almuklass, Awad M; Enoka, Roger M

    2017-08-01

    Force trajectories during isometric force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions vary substantially across individuals. In this study, we investigated if this variability can be explained by discrete time proportional, integral, derivative (PID) control algorithms with varying model parameters. To this end, we analyzed the pinch force trajectories of 24 subjects performing two rapid force-matching tasks with visual feedback. Both tasks involved isometric contractions to a target force of 10% maximal voluntary contraction. One task involved a single action (pinch) and the other required a double action (concurrent pinch and wrist extension). 50,000 force trajectories were simulated with a computational neuromuscular model whose input was determined by a PID controller with different PID gains and frequencies at which the controller adjusted muscle commands. The goal was to find the best match between each experimental force trajectory and all simulated trajectories. It was possible to identify one realization of the PID controller that matched the experimental force produced during each task for most subjects (average index of similarity: 0.87 ± 0.12; 1 = perfect similarity). The similarities for both tasks were significantly greater than that would be expected by chance (single action: p = 0.01; double action: p = 0.04). Furthermore, the identified control frequencies in the simulated PID controller with the greatest similarities decreased as task difficulty increased (single action: 4.0 ± 1.8 Hz; double action: 3.1 ± 1.3 Hz). Overall, the results indicate that discrete time PID controllers are realistic models for the neural control of force in rapid force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions.

  17. Measures of Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Incident Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Matched Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lekavich, Carolyn L; Barksdale, Debra J; Wu, Jia-Rong; Neelon, Virginia; Crandell, Jamie; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence continues to demonstrate increasing prevalence, cost, and mortality implications of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but clearly defined parameters that distinguish between control subjects and HFpEF have not been established. This study was designed to detect differences in markers associated with Ventricular-arterial coupling and HFpEF when comparing matched case and control groups. A study cohort of case (incident patients with HFpEF; n = 155) and matched control (patients with no prior heart failure; n = 155) groups was retrospectively identified. Matching criteria included race, sex, age, and date of echocardiography (within 1 year). Physiologic and echocardiographic markers were collected from previously acquired transthoracic echocardiograms. These echocardiographic images were reanalyzed, and measures of ventricular-arterial coupling were calculated. Using conditional logistic regression and controlling for covariates, models were fitted to detect differences in HFpEF markers between case and control subjects. Statistically significant differences in markers that reflect ventricular elastance (Ees; P = .007) and left atrial diameter (LAdiam; P = .04) were detected when comparing the case and control groups. Conditional logistic regression analyses suggested a 40% higher odds of being in the case group with every 1-unit increase in Ees (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.79) and a 2.92 times higher odds of being in the case group for every 1 cm increase in LAdiam (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.064-7.994). Ees and LAdiam are easily measurable echocardiographic markers that may have a role in identifying and tracking the progression toward incident HFpEF without increasing cost or risk to the patient. Prospective studies are indicated to explore the use of Ees and LAdiam as predictors of impending HFpEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures associated with distal radius fractures: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hideyoshi; Shinohara, Takaaki; Natsume, Tadahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ulnar styloid fractures are often associated with distal radius fractures. However, controversy exists regarding whether to treat ulnar styloid fractures. This study aimed to evaluate clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures after distal radius fractures were treated with the volar locking plate system. We used prospectively collected data of distal radius fractures. 111 patients were enrolled in this study. A matched case-control study design was used. We selected patients who underwent fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (case group). Three control patients for each patient of the case group were matched on the basis of age, sex, and fracture type of distal radius fractures from among patients who did not undergo fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (control group). The case group included 16 patients (7 men, 9 women; mean age: 52.6 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 3; base, 11; and proximal, 2). The control group included 48 patients (15 men, 33 women; mean age: 61.1 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 10; base, 31; and proximal, 7). For radiographic examination, the volar tilt angle, radial inclination angle, and ulnar variance length were measured, and the union of ulnar styloid fractures was judged. For clinical examination, the range of motions, grip strength, Hand20 score, and Numeric Rating Scale score were evaluated. There was little correction loss for each radiological parameter of fracture reduction, and these parameters were not significantly different between the groups. The bone-healing rate of ulnar styloid fractures was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group, but the clinical results were not significantly different. We revealed that there was no need to fix ulnar styloid fractures when distal radius fractures were treated via open reduction and internal fixation with a volar locking plate system. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  19. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    PubMed

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  20. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  1. Motion Analysis of Match Play in New Zealand U13 to U15 Age-Group Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Atan, Siti A; Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Atan, SA, Foskett, A, and Ali, A. Motion analysis of match play in New Zealand U13 to U15 age-group soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2416-2423, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate motion analysis in 85 players (U13-U15 years) from Auckland's Metropolitan League during 2 competitive soccer matches. Five-Hz global positioning system (with interpolated 10-Hz output) units were used to measure total distance (absolute and relative) and time spent in standing, walking, low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running, and sprinting. Speed thresholds for each match activity were determined through mean 10-m flying sprint peak speed for each age group. Under 15 years (U15, 6600 ± 1480 m) covered more absolute distance because of longer playing time than under 14 years (U14, 5385 ± 1296 m, p = 0.001) and under 13 years (U13, 4516 ± 702.6 m, p = 0.001). However, there were no differences in relative distances covered (U15, 94.5 ± 11.2 m·min, U14, 96.1 ± 11.9 m·min, U15, 97.3 ± 17.6 m·min, p = 0.685). Maximum speed attained during the match was faster for U15 (26.5 ± 1.68 km·h) than U14 (25.4 ± 1.93 km·h, p = 0.022) and U13 (23.5 ± 1.74 km·h, p = 0.001); there were no differences in average distance per sprint, with all age groups covering ∼16 m per sprint (p = 0.603). The current findings provide useful information for developing specific training programs for young soccer players and a framework for developing age-specific soccer simulation protocols.

  2. Quality Control Systems in Cardiac Aging

    PubMed Central

    Quarles, Ellen K; Dai, Dao-Fu; Tocchi, Autumn; Basisty, Nathan; Gitari, Lemuel; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. These degenerative changes are intimately associated with quality control mechanisms. This review provides a general overview of the clinical and cellular changes which manifest in cardiac aging, and the quality control mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis and retarding aging. These mechanisms include autophagy, ubiquitin-mediated turnover, apoptosis, mitochondrial quality control and cardiac matrix homeostasis. Finally, we discuss aging interventions that have been observed to impact cardiac health outcomes. These include caloric restriction, rapamycin, resveratrol, GDF11, mitochondrial antioxidants and cardiolipin-targeted therapeutics. A greater understanding of the quality control mechanisms that promote cardiac homeostasis will help to understand the benefits of these interventions, and hopefully lead to further improved therapeutic modalities. PMID:25702865

  3. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and risk of stroke or transient ischaemic attack-matched case control study.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Asghar, Zahid; Coupland, Carol C A

    2014-03-10

    Evidence that respiratory infections trigger stroke suggests that influenza or pneumococcal vaccination might prevent stroke. We aimed to investigate whether influenza or pneumococcal vaccination or both together were associated with reduced risk of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). We used a matched 1:1 case-control design with data from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Cases, aged 18 years or above with stroke (fatal or non-fatal) and TIA during September 2001 to August 2009, were compared with controls matched for age, sex, calendar time and practice, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, vaccine risk groups, comorbidity and indicators of functional ability. We included 26,784 cases of stroke and 20,227 cases of TIA with equal numbers of matched controls. Influenza vaccination within-season was associated with 24% reduction in stroke risk (adjusted OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.80) but no reduction in TIA (1.03, 0.98 to 1.09). Stroke risk was significantly lower with early (September to mid-November: 0.74, 0.70 to 0.78) but not later influenza vaccination (mid-November onwards: 0.92, 0.83 to 1.01). Associations persisted after multiple imputation of missing data and sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounders. Pneumococcal vaccination was not associated with a reduction in risk of stroke (0.98, 0.94 to 1.00) or TIA (1.15, 1.08 to 1.23). Influenza vaccination was associated with a 24% reduction in risk of stroke but not TIA. Pneumococcal vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of stroke or TIA. This has important implications for potential benefits of influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for tube shunt exposure: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koval, Michael S; El Sayyad, Fouad F; Bell, Nicholas P; Chuang, Alice Z; Lee, David A; Hypes, Stephen M; Grover, Davinder S; Baker, Laura A; Huddleston, Stephen M; Budenz, Donald L; Feldman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate potential risk factors for developing tube shunt exposure in glaucoma patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-one cases from 41 patients that had tube shunt exposure from 1996 to 2005 were identified from the Robert Cizik Eye Clinic and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Each case was matched with 2 controls of the same gender and with tube shunts implanted within 6 months of the index case. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Results. The study cohort includes a total of 121 eyes from 121 patients. The mean age was 63.6 ± 19.7 years, ranging from 1 to 96 years. The average time to exposure was 19.29 ± 23.75 months (range 0.36-85.74 months). Risk factors associated with tube exposure were Hispanic ethnicity (P = 0.0115; OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.7), neovascular glaucoma (P = 0.0064; OR = 28.5; 95% CI, 2.6-316.9), previous trabeculectomy (P = 0.0070; OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7), and combined surgery (P = 0.0381; OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1-12.7). Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity, neovascular glaucoma, previous trabeculectomy, and combined surgery were identified as potential risk factors for tube shunt exposure. These potential risk factors should be considered when determining the indication for performing tube shunt implantation and the frequency of long-term followup.

  5. Canine diabetes mellitus risk factors: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pöppl, Alan Gomes; de Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho; Vivian, Itatiele Farias; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; González, Félix Hilário Díaz

    2017-08-04

    Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables. In the UMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.86, 95%CI 2.2-10.7, P<0.001) and "Overweight" (OR 3.51, 95%CI 1.6-7.5, P=0.001) were statistically significant, while in the FMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.14, 95%CI 1.3-12.7, P=0.01), "Table scraps abuse" (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.1-12.2, P=0.03), "Overweight" (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.2-12.6, P=0.02), and "Dioestrus" (OR 5.53, 95%CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.002) were statistically significant. The findings in this study support feeding not exclusively balanced commercial dog food, overweight, treats abuse, and diestrus, as main CDM risk factors. Moreover, those results give subside for preventive care studies against CDM development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparisons of six different intrafield control paradigms in an advanced mix-and-match environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Joseph C.

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of DUV step-and-scan exposure tools into a mix-and-match manufacturing environment with traditional i- line step-and-repeat systems has presented many unique challenges to lithographic process engineers. One of these challenges has been the development and selection of reliable methods for controlling intrafield patten overlay registration. We examined a spectrum of overlay control methods and compared the benefits and costs of each. We analyzed six different intrafield overly control approaches including: (1) traditional static tuning to a fixed archive wafer; (2) dedicated stepper routing; (3) static LEMSYS matching; (4) static cluster sorting; (5) global feedforward control, and; (6) combined cluster sorting with feed-forward control. In traditional static tuning, each stepper is calibrated to an arbitrary fixed reference and wafers are allowed to flow freely within the entire stepper population. Dedicated stepper routing imposes a restriction that wafers must return to the same stepper during critical layer processing. With static LEMSYS matching each stepper is calibrated to an ideal reference that is generated to minimize higher order intrafield errors. Static cluster sorting uses LEMSYS data to divide steppers into clusters then critical layer exposures for a given wafer are kept within a local cluster. Feedforward control attempts to aggressively adapt magnification offsets based upon the known lens signatures of steppers used to print previous layers. Our comparisons were based upon data from 12 actual exposure systems. The result showed that significant gains in overlay control can be achieved with incremental costs in dollars and complexity. Cost-benefits analysis showed that the more aggressive control techniques, involving feed- forward control, were best suited to large fabs operating near the physical limits of their steppers.

  7. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Mana A.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y) responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ) and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control), dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1) and subjects with MIS only (Group 2). Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ), critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92%) were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33%) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7%) and control (27/414, 7%) subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82%) in Group 2 and less positive (46%) in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the responses were

  8. Chattering free adaptive multivariable sliding mode controller for systems with matched and mismatched uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sanjoy; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a chattering free adaptive sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed for stabilizing a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems affected by both matched and mismatched types of uncertainties. The proposed controller uses a proportional plus integral sliding surface whose gain is adaptively tuned to prevent overestimation. A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft system is simulated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Croatia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of tuberculosis. A number of studies have addressed the issue of risk factors for tuberculosis development. Croatia is a European country with an incidence rate of 14/100 000 which is slowly decreasing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and biological risk factors for tuberculosis in Croatia in comparison to other high-income, low-incidence European countries. Methods A total of 300 tuberculosis patients were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 300 controls randomly selected from general practitioners’ registers. They were interviewed and their medical records were evaluated for variables broadly described as potential risk factors. Results In multiple logistic regression, the following factors were significant: parents born in a particular neighbouring county (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI 2.01-7.58), the lowest level of education (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.39-8.50), poor household equipment (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.51-14.76), unemployment (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.16), contact with tuberculosis (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), former (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.19-4.33) and current smoking habits (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.36), diabetes (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.05-5.38), a malignant disease (OR = 5.79, 95% CI 1.49-22.42), being underweight in the previous year (OR = 13.57, 95% CI 1.21-152.38). Conclusion In our study, the identified risk groups for tuberculosis reflect a complex interaction between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle and non-communicable diseases. Interventions focused on poverty will undoubtedly be useful, but not sufficient. Tuberculosis control would benefit from a combination of broad public health activities aimed at the prevention and control of risky lifestyles and non-communicable diseases, interventions outside the health sector, and efforts to constantly

  10. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  11. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group.

    PubMed

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Verma, Akash; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-07-01

    Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP's inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Participation in "DMP" was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and total hospital days.

  12. [The matched case-control study of the risk factors associated with edema-proteinuria hypertension syndrome (EPHS)].

    PubMed

    Guo, Z C

    1992-12-01

    This paper conducted a matched case-control study to determine the possible risk factors associated with EPHS. 208 cases and 208 matched controls were selected from two affiliated hospitals of Tianjin Medical College between 1 Dec. 1986 and 30 Oct. 1987. The conditional logistic regression analysis showed that basic diastolic blood pressure, the history of hypertension TH Time Hurry) +CH (Competition and Hostility) scores and quetelet index were the major risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence of OR for these factors were 1.08 (1.04-1.12), 3.58 (1.88-6.83), 1.05 (1.03-1.09), 1.17 (1.05-1.31), respectively. Compared with Type B behavior, OR for Type A behavior is 3.06 (2.24-4.19). OR for women with history of hypertension of her father is 2.5 (1.49-4.20). The lower the average family income, education level, the higher the risk of EPHS. Basic systolic blood Pressure and body weight were positively related to EPHS. Did not find relationship between fetal sex, maternal age, parity, age of menarche, rest period during pregnancy and EPHS.

  13. Sequential tests for gene-environment interactions in matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Schipper, Maria

    2004-12-30

    The sample size necessary to detect a significant gene x environment interaction in an observational study can be large. For reasons of cost-effectiveness and efficient use of available biological samples we investigated the properties of sequential designs in matched case-control studies to test for both non-hierarchical and hierarchical interactions. We derived the test statistics Z and V and their characteristics when applied in a two-sided triangular test. Results of simulations show good agreement with theoretical values for V and the type I error. Power values were larger than their theoretical values for very large sample sizes. Median gain in efficiency was about 27 per cent. For a 'rare' phenotype gain in efficiency was larger when the alternative hypothesis was true than under the null hypothesis. Sequential designs lead to substantial efficiency gains in tests for interaction in matched case-control studies.

  14. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal. PMID:26797164

  15. Output feedback model matching in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough: a structural approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattoni, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of structural model matching by output feedback in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough. Namely, given a linear impulsive plant, possibly featuring an algebraic link from the control input to the output, and given a linear impulsive model, the problem consists in finding a linear impulsive regulator that achieves exact matching between the respective forced responses of the linear impulsive plant and of the linear impulsive model, for all the admissible input functions and all the admissible sequences of jump times, by means of a dynamic feedback of the plant output. The problem solvability is characterized by a necessary and sufficient condition. The regulator synthesis is outlined through the proof of sufficiency, which is constructive.

  16. Health expenditures among high-risk patients after gastric bypass and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Livingston, Edward H; Smith, Valerie A; Kahwati, Leila C; Henderson, William G; Arterburn, David E

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether bariatric surgery is associated with reduced health care expenditures in a multisite cohort of predominantly older male patients with a substantial disease burden. Retrospective cohort study of bariatric surgery. Outpatient, inpatient, and overall health care expenditures within Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers were examined via generalized estimating equations in the propensity-matched cohorts. Bariatric surgery programs in VA medical centers. Eight hundred forty-seven veterans who were propensity matched to 847 nonsurgical control subjects from the same 12 VA medical centers. Bariatric surgical procedures. Health expenditures through December 2006. Outpatient, inpatient, and total expenditures trended higher for bariatric surgical cases in the 3 years leading up to the procedure and then converged back to the lower expenditure levels of nonsurgical controls in the 3 years after the procedure. Based on analyses of a cohort of predominantly older men, bariatric surgery does not appear to be associated with reduced health care expenditures 3 years after the procedure.

  17. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal.

  18. Handling missing data in matched case-control studies using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Shaun R; Keogh, Ruth H

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of matched case-control studies is often complicated by missing data on covariates. Analysis can be restricted to individuals with complete data, but this is inefficient and may be biased. Multiple imputation (MI) is an efficient and flexible alternative. We describe two MI approaches. The first uses a model for the data on an individual and includes matching variables; the second uses a model for the data on a whole matched set and avoids the need to model the matching variables. Within each approach, we consider three methods: full-conditional specification (FCS), joint model MI using a normal model, and joint model MI using a latent normal model. We show that FCS MI is asymptotically equivalent to joint model MI using a restricted general location model that is compatible with the conditional logistic regression analysis model. The normal and latent normal imputation models are not compatible with this analysis model. All methods allow for multiple partially-observed covariates, non-monotone missingness, and multiple controls per case. They can be easily applied in standard statistical software and valid variance estimates obtained using Rubin's Rules. We compare the methods in a simulation study. The approach of including the matching variables is most efficient. Within each approach, the FCS MI method generally yields the least-biased odds ratio estimates, but normal or latent normal joint model MI is sometimes more efficient. All methods have good confidence interval coverage. Data on colorectal cancer and fibre intake from the EPIC-Norfolk study are used to illustrate the methods, in particular showing how efficiency is gained relative to just using individuals with complete data.

  19. Is Older Age a Real Adverse Prognostic Factor in Women With Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma? A Matched Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haley, Laura; Burmeister, Charlotte; Buekers, Thomas; Elshaikh, Mohamed A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if older age alone negatively impacts survival endpoints in women with early-stage uterine endometrioid carcinoma (EC), or its reported prognostic impact is due to an interaction with other well-known adverse factors using matched-analysis methodology. We identified 1254 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II EC who underwent hysterectomy at our institution. We created 2 matched groups based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor grade, lymph node dissection status, and the type of adjuvant management. Recurrence-free (RFS), disease-specific (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. A total 297 women 70 years or older were matched with 297 women younger than 70 years. The 2 groups were well balanced except for age and higher body mass index in younger patients. There were no significant difference between older and younger patients in regard to 5-year RFS (85% vs 87%; P = 0.52) or DSS (93% for both groups with P = 0.77). Five-year OS was shorter in older patients (76% vs 88% with P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis for RFS and DSS, high tumor grade and the presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) were the only 2 predictors of shorter RFS and DSS (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, and P = 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively). Tumor grade and LVSI also were predictors of shorter OS. Our study suggests that when older patients with EC are matched with younger patients based on tumor stage, grade, and adjuvant management the prognostic impact of old age disappears. High tumor grade and LVSI remained as independent predictors of survival endpoints.

  20. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  1. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  2. Determinants of unwanted pregnancies in India using matched case-control designs.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Priyanka; Ram, Faujdar; Dwivedi, Laxmi Kant

    2012-08-11

    In India, while the total fertility rate has been declined from 3.39 in 1992-93 to 2.68 in 2005-06, the prevalence of unintended pregnancy is still stagnant over the same period. A review of existing literature shows that within the country, there are variations in fertility preferences between different regions. Also there is a strong argument that the availability of a health facility at the village level plays an important role in reshaping the fertility behavior of women. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no information at the village level (which is the lowest geographical boundary) in the recent round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the specific objective of this study is to examine the impact of individual and household level variables on unwanted pregnancies without controlling the village level variation. Further, once the village level variation (i.e. unobserved variation) has been controlled, it is necessary to study whether there has been any alteration in the contribution of factors from earlier results of without adjusting the village level variation. This paper attempts to examine the associated factors of unwanted pregnancies, without matching the village and after matching the village, by using the matched case-control design. Nationwide data from India's latest NFHS-3 conducted during 2005-06 was used for the present study. Frequency and pair wise matching has been applied in the present paper and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to work out the models and to find out the factors associated with unwanted pregnancies. A major finding of this study was that 1:3 case-control study (without matching the village) shows that women belonging to non Hindu/Muslim religion, Scheduled Tribe, women who have experienced child loss and if the previous birth interval is 24 through 36 months were significant predictors of unwanted pregnancy. However, this relationship did not hold significant after village wise matching. Other

  3. Stereo Sound Field Controller Design Using Partial Model Matching on the Frequency Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, Makoto; Miike, Katsuhiro; Eguchi, Kazuki; Mizumoto, Ikuro; Iwai, Zenta

    The objective of sound field control is to make the acoustic characteristics of a listening room close to those of the desired system. Conventional methods apply feedforward controllers, such as digital filters, to achieve this objective. However, feedback controllers are also necessary in order to attenuate noise or to compensate the uncertainty of the acoustic characteristics of the listening room. Since acoustic characteristics are well modeled on the frequency domain, it is efficient to design controllers with respect to frequency responses, but it is difficult to design a multi input multi output (MIMO) control system on a wide frequency domain. In the present study, a partial model matching method on the frequency domain was adopted because this method requires only sampled data, rather than complex mathematical models of the plant, in order to design controllers for MIMO systems. The partial model matching method was applied to design two-degree-of-freedom controllers for acoustic equalization and noise reduction. Experiments demonstrated effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  5. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  6. Risk factors for and impact of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection: matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Henig, O; Weber, G; Hoshen, M B; Paul, M; German, L; Neuberger, A; Gluzman, I; Berlin, A; Shapira, C; Balicer, R D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and its association with mortality. A population-based matched case-control study using the computerized database of Clalit Health Services (CHS) in the period between 2007 and 2012 was conducted. Hospitalized patients with CRAB colonization or infection were compared to hospitalized patients without evidence of A. baumannii, matched by age, ward of hospitalization, season, Charlson score, and length of hospitalization. Risk factors for CRAB isolation were searched for using multivariate analysis. Association of CRAB and other risk factors with mortality were assessed in the cohort. A total of 1190 patients with CRAB were matched to 1190 patients without CRAB. Low socioeconomic status was independently associated with CRAB isolation and CRAB bacteremia [odds ratio 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-5]. Other risk factors were invasive procedures and bacteremia with other pathogens prior to CRAB isolation, and various comorbidities. Among all patients, CRAB isolation was independently associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.33, 95% CI 2.08-2.6). Socioeconomic status is associated with health outcomes. Our population-based study revealed an almost doubled risk for CRAB in patients at lower socioeconomic status and an association with healthcare exposure. CRAB was associated with mortality and might become a risk indicator for complex morbidity and mortality.

  7. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  8. The sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on and off methylphenidate: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Tripp, E Gail; Taylor, Barry J

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of regular use of methylphenidate medication in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on sleep timing, duration and sleep architecture. Twenty-seven children aged 6-12 years meeting diagnostic criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV ADHD and 27 control children matched for age (+/-3 months) and gender. Two nights of standard polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were conducted. ADHD children were allocated randomly to an on- or 48 h off-methylphenidate protocol for first or second recordings. Control children's recordings were matched for night, but no medication was used. Mixed modelling was employed in the analyses so that the full data set was used to determine the degree of medication effects. Methylphenidate in ADHD children prolonged sleep onset by an average of 29 min [confidence interval (CI) 11.6, 46.7], reduced sleep efficiency by 6.5% (CI 2.6, 10.3) and shortened sleep by 1.2 h (CI 0.65, 1.9). Arousal indices were preserved. Relative amounts of stages 1, 2 and slow wave sleep were unchanged by medication. Rapid eye movement sleep was reduced (-2.4%) on the medication night, an effect that became non-significant when control data were incorporated in the analyses. PSG data from ADHD children off-medication were similar to control data. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate reduces sleep quantity but does not alter sleep architecture in children diagnosed with ADHD. An adequate amount of sleep is integral to good daytime functioning, thus the sleep side effects of methylphenidate may affect adversely the daytime symptoms the drug is targeted to control.

  9. [Information conception of the control at aging].

    PubMed

    Ban'kov, V I; Miakotnykh, V S; Talankina, N Z; Lespukh, N I; Borovkova, T A

    2004-01-01

    The exchange of energy between organism and environment perhaps may be to describe with help "entropia"--notion of thermodynamics. Point of view information technologies authors suggest to use "factor of controls", which work with help principle of reverse biological connection. This principle may be to use for control aging, when complicated modulated electromagnetic (information) field has regulationing negative entropic component. There are three principles of information control. All principles have on the basis of utilization by quantitative exponents of functional asymmetry.

  10. GOLIAH (Gaming Open Library for Intervention in Autism at Home): a 6-month single blind matched controlled exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Jouen, Anne-Lise; Narzisi, Antonio; Xavier, Jean; Tilmont, Elodie; Bodeau, Nicolas; Bono, Valentina; Ketem-Premel, Nabila; Anzalone, Salvatore; Maharatna, Koushik; Chetouani, Mohamed; Muratori, Filippo; Cohen, David

    2017-01-01

    To meet the required hours of intensive intervention for treating children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we developed an automated serious gaming platform (11 games) to deliver intervention at home (GOLIAH) by mapping the imitation and joint attention (JA) subset of age-adapted stimuli from the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) intervention. Here, we report the results of a 6-month matched controlled exploratory study. From two specialized clinics, we included 14 children (age range 5-8 years) with ASD and 10 controls matched for gender, age, sites, and treatment as usual (TAU). Participants from the experimental group received in addition to TAU four 30-min sessions with GOLIAH per week at home and one at hospital for 6 months. Statistics were performed using Linear Mixed Models. Children and parents participated in 40% of the planned sessions. They were able to use the 11 games, and participants trained with GOLIAH improved time to perform the task in most JA games and imitation scores in most imitation games. GOLIAH intervention did not affect Parental Stress Index scores. At end-point, we found in both groups a significant improvement for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores, Vineland socialization score, Parental Stress Index total score, and Child Behavior Checklist internalizing, externalizing and total problems. However, we found no significant change for by time × group interaction. Despite the lack of superiority of TAU + GOLIAH versus TAU, the results are interesting both in terms of changes by using the gaming platform and lack of parental stress increase. A large randomized controlled trial with younger participants (who are the core target of ESDM model) is now discussed. This should be facilitated by computing GOLIAH for a web platform. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02560415.

  11. Ankle joint proprioception and passive mechanical properties of the calf muscles after an Achilles tendon rupture: a comparison with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Larsen, Brian T; McNair, Peter J; Cronin, John

    2004-03-01

    To examine if ankle joint proprioception, passive stiffness, and torque relaxation responses of the involved and uninvolved limbs of persons with a previous history of an Achilles tendon rupture were different from matched controls. Quasi-experimental mixed design. The influence of an Achilles tendon rupture on the proprioceptive and kinetic performance of the involved and uninvolved ankle is not known. Twenty persons (mean age, 44.8 years) with a unilateral rupture and 20 matched controls (mean age, 44.2 years) volunteered. Proprioception was tested with a position-matching protocol from which absolute errors were quantified. A dynamometer was used to measure ankle joint angle and passive torque from which stiffness and torque relaxation were calculated. Proprioception absolute errors for the involved and uninvolved limbs of the experimental group were 27% and 31% greater respectively, than values for the control group. Torque relaxation values were greater in the involved limb versus the uninvolved limb or the control group (P=0.003-0.04). In conclusion, participants with a previous history of an Achilles tendon rupture display proprioception deficits in both limbs and greater torque relaxation in the involved limb in comparison to matched controls. Bilateral deficits in ankle joint proprioception, as reported in this study, suggest the uninvolved limb may not serve as an effective control and because proprioception deficits influence some functional tests, Achilles tendon rupture patients may benefit from proprioception training.

  12. New Power Sharing Control for Inverter-Dominated Microgrid Based on Impedance Match Concept

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24453910

  13. New power sharing control for inverter-dominated microgrid based on impedance match concept.

    PubMed

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  15. [Clinical and epidemiological differences between Bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: a matched case control study].

    PubMed

    Giménez-Sánchez, Francisco; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Sánchez-Forte, Miguel; López-Sánchez, María Ángeles; González-Jiménez, Yolanda; Azor-Martínez, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    An increase in cases of pertussis, mainly in young infants, has been reported in the last few years. The clinical presentation of this disease is very similar to that produced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which makes the diagnosis difficult. To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics between Bordetella pertussis and RSV infections in infants admitted to hospital. An analytical matched case-control study was conducted during the period 2008-2011. Cases were defined as infants admitted with pertussis confirmed by PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirate. Each case was matched by age, sex and date of admission to two controls defined as patients with RSV infection detected by immunochromatography in nasal aspirate. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data were compared. Seventy eight patients (26 cases of pertussis and 52 controls RSV+) were included. Sociodemographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Cases had more days of symptoms prior to admission, longer hospital stays, and increased frequency of epidemic family environment. Apnoea and cyanosis were more frequent. Cases of pertussis were more likely to have apnoea, cyanosis, and lymphocytosis while RSV infections had more frequent fever, vomiting and respiratory distress. The clinical presentations of pertussis and RSV infection are similar, but there are some characteristics that can help to distinguish between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. A GIS-based Matched Case-control Study of Road Characteristics in Farm Vehicle Crashes.

    PubMed

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Mello, Elizabeth R; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2016-11-01

    Farm vehicle-related crashes (crashes) are hazardous for farm and non-farm vehicle users; however, most studies examine risk factors of injury given a crash, and shed little light on risk factors of crashes. We evaluated the association of road sinuosity and gradient with crashes in nine Midwestern States from 2005 to 2010. We collected crash data from the state departments of transportation, and road segment data from the Environmental Sciences Research Institute. We measured gradient and sinuosity of road segments using ArcGIS. A road segment with a crash was defined as a case (n = 6,848), and that without a crash was defined as a control. Controls were matched to cases by ZIP code, road type, and length in 1:1 (controls = 6,808) matching scheme. In addition, a 1:many control matched scheme was employed such that all road segments adjacent to the case would serve as controls (n = 24,390). We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable conditional logistic regression. The adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% gradient was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.75) as compared with a leveled (<1% gradient) road segment. Compared with a straight (<1% sinuosity) road segment, the adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% sinuosity was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.52). Roads with increased gradient and sinuosity had fewer farm crashes. These associations may be due to cautious driving behaviors on curvy or steep roads and road side signage alerting drivers of impending curve or grade.

  17. Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Cheng, Yan; Wang, He; Wu, Yi; Cunningham, Eric; Li, Peng-Cheng; Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.; Chang, Zenghu

    2014-06-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses at ultrahigh repetition rates (>1 MHz) promises to revolutionize ultrafast spectroscopy. Such vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray sources could potentially be driven directly by plasmonic enhancement of laser pulses from a femtosecond oscillator, but recent experiments suggest that the VUV signal is actually dominated by incoherent atomic line emission. Here, we demonstrate a new regime of phase-matched below-threshold harmonic generation, for which the generation and phase matching is enabled only near resonance structures of the atomic target. The coherent VUV line emission exhibits low divergence and quadratic growth with increasing target density up to nearly 1,000 torr mm and can be controlled by the sub-cycle field of a few-cycle driving laser with an intensity of only ~1 × 1013 W cm-2, which is achievable directly from few-cycle femtosecond oscillators with nanojoule energy.

  18. Identifying microwave magnetic resonance in chiral elements for creation of controlled matched absorbing metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, G. A.; Butylkin, V. S.; Kazantsev, Yu. N.; Mal'tsev, V. P.; Temirov, Yu. Sh.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested a method for identifying and separating magnetic and electric microwave resonance responses of conductive chiral and bianisotropic elements by reflection of electromagnetic waves in the standing and traveling-wave modes. It has been observed experimentally (in waveguide) and confirmed numerically (in free space) that magnetic resonance, which is excited by microwave magnetic field h, and electric resonances, excited by electric field E, show drastically different resonance curves of reflection. These distinctions allow to identifying the magnetic resonance response and using magnetically excited elements for broadband matching of absorbers instead of traditional quarter-wavelength layer. We have fabricated and investigated matched absorbing metastructures which are controlled by voltage as well by light of remote laser pointer.

  19. Divergent muscle sympathetic responses to dynamic leg exercise in heart failure and age-matched healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Morris, Beverley L; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul; Floras, John S

    2015-02-01

    People with diminished ventricular contraction who develop heart failure have higher sympathetic nerve firing rates at rest compared with healthy individuals of a similar age and this is associated with less exercise capacity. During handgrip exercise, sympathetic nerve activity to muscle is higher in patients with heart failure but the response to leg exercise is unknown because its recording requires stillness. We measured sympathetic activity from one leg while the other leg cycled at a moderate level and observed a decrease in nerve firing rate in healthy subjects but an increase in subjects with heart failure. Because these nerves release noradrenaline, which can restrict muscle blood flow, this observation helps explain the limited exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. Lower nerve traffic during exercise was associated with greater peak oxygen uptake, suggesting that if exercise training attenuated sympathetic outflow functional capacity in heart failure would improve. The reflex fibular muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) response to dynamic handgrip exercise is elicited at a lower threshold in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The present aim was to test the hypothesis that the contralateral MSNA response to mild to moderate dynamic one-legged exercise is augmented in HFrEF relative to age- and sex-matched controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and MSNA were recorded in 16 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction = 31 ± 2%; age 62 ± 3 years, mean ± SE) and 13 healthy control subjects (56 ± 2 years) before and during 2 min of upright one-legged unloaded cycling followed by 2 min at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). Resting HR and blood pressure were similar between groups whereas MSNA burst frequency was higher (50.0 ± 2.0 vs. 42.3 ± 2.7 bursts min(-1), P = 0.03) and V̇O2,peak lower (18.0 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.001) in HFrEF. Exercise increased HR (P < 0.001) with no group

  20. Comparison of body mass index at diagnosis of diabetes in a multi-ethnic population: A case-control study with matched non-diabetic controls.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sanjoy K; Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Samanta, Mayukh; Patel, Kiran; Bellary, Srikanth; Hanif, Wasim; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the probability of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different body mass index levels compared to matched non-diabetic controls in a multi-ethnic population. This was a case-control study of 90 367 patients with incident diabetes and 362 548 age-sex-ethnicity matched controls from UK primary care. The probability of developing T2DM was estimated. Case and control patients were 56 years old at index and 56% were male. Patients with T2DM had significantly higher mean BMI levels by about 5 kg/m(2) at diagnosis (32.2 kg/m(2) ) compared to the matched controls (27.4 kg/m(2) ). White Europeans (n = 79 270), African-Caribbeans (n = 4115) and South Asians (n = 7252) were 58, 48 and 46 years old with a mean BMI of 32.5, 31.1 and 29.2 kg/m(2) , respectively, at diagnosis. More South Asians developed T2DM at BMI below 30 kg/m(2) (38%) than White Europeans (26%) and African-Caribbeans (29%) (all P  < .01). Within the 18 to 70-year age range, South Asian males and females had a significantly higher probability of developing diabetes in the continuously measured BMI range of 18 to 30 kg/m(2) , compared to White Europeans and African-Caribbeans. Across all age groups <70 years, South Asians and African-Caribbeans had a significantly higher probability of developing T2DM in the normal weight and overweight categories, compared to White Europeans. However, this risk pattern of developing diabetes was reversed amongst the obese in all age groups. Risk patterns of developing diabetes at different levels of obesity varies among ethnic groups across all ages, while South Asians and African-Caribbeans carry the highest risk at a younger age and at lower adiposity burden. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  2. Microvascular diabetes complications in Wolfram syndrome (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness [DIDMOAD]): an age- and duration-matched comparison with common type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cano, Aline; Molines, Laurent; Valéro, René; Simonin, Gilbert; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique; Vialettes, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Some previous studies suggested that patients suffering from Wolfram syndrome or DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness) might be relatively preserved from diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. However, these data were not conclusive because either observations were only anecdotic or did not match with control type 1 diabetic populations. A group of 26 French diabetic patients with DIDMOAD was compared with a population of 52 patients with common type 1 diabetes matched for age at diabetes diagnosis (8.62 +/- 1.84 vs. 8.27 +/- 1.30 years; P = NS) and diabetes duration (12.88 +/- 1.58 vs. 12.87 +/- 1.13 years; P = NS) to study the quality of glycemic control and the incidence of microvascular complications. Glycemic control was significantly better in the DIDMOAD group than in the type 1 diabetic group (A1C: 7.72 +/- 0.21 vs. 8.99 +/- 0.25%, respectively; P = 0.002), with significant lower daily insulin requirements (0.71 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.04 UI x kg(-1) x day(-1), respectively; P = 0.0325). The prevalence of microvascular complications in the DIDMOAD group was half that observed in the type 1 diabetic group, but the difference was not significant. Diabetes in DIDMOAD patients is more easily controlled despite the presence of other handicaps. This better glycemic control could explain the trend to decreased microvascular diabetes complications observed in previous studies.

  3. Assessment of risk factors for development of active pulmonary tuberculosis in northern part of Ethiopia: a matched case control study.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Gebretsadik; Enquselassie, Fikre; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the role of various determinants of tuberculosis (TB) is particularly important in countries like Ethiopia where TB is endemic and the resources available to public health intervention are limited However, little information is available on risk factors of TB to be able to effectively and efficiently control TB. To identify and determine the potential host and environmental-related risk factors for development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A matched case-control study was conducted from April-August 2011. Cases were defined as all newly diagnosed of PTB patients aged 15 years and above, who were registered by directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) program health centers found in the randomly selected 16 districts in the region. Controls were age matched with no previous history of TB and chronic cough. For each case, two controls were recruited. Trained nurses collected data using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Predictors of caseness were identified using conditional logistic regression method. Odds ratio were calculated with 95% confidence intervals to assess the strength of association. Data was collected from 463 cases and 860 controls. The mean age of the cases and controls were 37 +/- 14.9 and 39 +/- 14.5 years, respectively. In the multivariable analysis significant risk factors for active PTB were illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.93), household food shortage (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.73), HIV seropositivity (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.42, 5.13), and past alcohol consumption (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.50). Marriage (OR = 95% CI: 0.37, 0.89) was identified as protective factor. Consumption of raw milk, history of imprisonment, having a separate kitchen, history of asthma and history of TB contact were significant risk factors on crude analysis but their significance was not maintained in multivariable analysis. Our study results indicated that household food shortage, HIV sero

  4. Social inappropriateness, executive control, and aging.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Baynes, Kate

    2009-03-01

    Age-related deficits in executive control might lead to socially inappropriate behavior if they compromise the ability to withhold inappropriate responses. Consistent with this possibility, older adults in the current study showed greater social inappropriateness than younger adults--as rated by their peers--and this effect was mediated by deficits in executive control as well as deficits in general cognitive ability. Older adults also responded with greater social inappropriateness to a provocative event in the laboratory, but this effect was unrelated to executive functioning or general cognitive ability. These findings suggest that changes in both social and cognitive factors are important in understanding age-related changes in social behavior.

  5. Test of Continental Drift by Comparison of Radiometric Ages: A pre-drift reconstruction shows matching geologic age provinces in West Africa and Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M; Rand, J R; Pinson, W H; Fairbairn, H W; de Almeida, F F; Melcher, G C; Cordani, U G; Kawashita, K; Vandoros, P

    1967-08-04

    1) The distribution of age values obtained by potassium-argon determinations and whole-rock rubidium-strontium determinations appears to be almost identical for West African rocks of the pervasive Eburnean Orogenic Cycle and basement rocks at opposite locations in South America. 2) There is also a close correlation, with respect to potassium-argon age determinations on micas, rubidium-strontium determinations on total-rock samples, and the extent to which these two sets of values differ, between rocks of the Pan-African Orogenic Cycle and rocks of the Caririan Orogenic Cycle in Brazil, where these two groups of rocks lie opposite each other in the two continents. 3) When Africa and South America are "fitted together," the sharply defined boundary between the Eburnean and the Pan-African age provinces in West Africa strikes directly toward the corresponding age boundary in northeast Brazil. 4) The transition from the 550-million-year Pan-African age province to the 2000-million-year age province in the Congo Craton in Cameroun-Gabon is matched in the rocks near the corresponding part of the east coast of Brazil. However the geological and age data are insufficient to do more than suggest the possibility of another age-boundary correlation here. 5) The evidence reported here supports the hypothesis of continental drift.

  6. A dynamic model of the marriage market-part 1: matching algorithm based on age preference and availability.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L

    2013-09-01

    The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included.

  7. The association between current low-dose oral contraceptive pills and periodontal health: a matched-case-control study.

    PubMed

    Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Moeintaghavi, Amir; Talebi-Ardakani, Mahammadreza Reza; Sohrabi, Keyvan; Bahmani, Shahin; Dargahi, Maede

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed the influence of current oral contraceptive pills on periodontal health in young females. Seventy women ranging in age from 17 to 35 years (mean 24 years) had a comprehensive periodontal examination. Their current and previous oral contraceptive pill use was assessed by a questionnaire. A periodontal assessment was performed that included recording the following: plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and attachment level at six sites per tooth. The periodontal health of women taking birth control pills for at least two years was compared to that of women not taking an oral contraceptive. The control and test groups were matched for socioeconomic status, age, oral habits, occupation, and educational levels. Although there was no difference in plaque index levels between the two groups, current oral contraceptive pill users had higher levels of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing. However, no significant differences were found regarding mean probing depths and attachment loss between the two groups. As birth control policies are advocated by most countries, and because oral contraceptives are the most widely used method for birth control, a need exists to assess the effects of oral contraceptives on the periodontal health of young women. Although additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of OC-induced gingivitis, female patients should be informed of the oral and periodontal side effects of OCs and the need for meticulous home care and compliance with periodontal maintenance.

  8. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  9. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88–0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23–0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self–rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36–3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23–3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20–0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources. PMID:27529704

  10. Humeral Retrotorsion and Glenohumeral Motion in Youth Baseball Players Compared With Age-Matched Nonthrowing Athletes.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Elliot M; Lawrence, J Todd R; Fernandez-Fernandez, Alicia; McClure, Philip

    2017-02-01

    Baseball players exhibit a more posteriorly oriented humeral head in their throwing arm. This is termed humeral retrotorsion (HRT) and likely represents a response to the stress of throwing. This adaptation is thought to occur while the athlete is skeletally immature, however currently there is limited research detailing how throwing activity in younger players influences the development of HRT. In addition, it is presently unclear how this changing osseous orientation may influence shoulder motion within young athletes. To determine the influence of throwing activity and age on the development of side-to-side asymmetry in HRT and shoulder range of motion (ROM). Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Healthy athletes (age range, 8-14 years) were categorized into 2 groups based upon sports participation; throwers (n = 85) and nonthrowers (n = 68). Bilateral measurements of HRT, shoulder external rotation (ER), internal rotation (IR), and total range of motion (TROM) at 90° were performed using diagnostic ultrasound and a digital inclinometer. Side-to-side asymmetry (dominant minus nondominant side) in HRT and in shoulder ER, IR, and TROM were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with 2-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients. Throwers demonstrated a larger degree of HRT on the dominant side, resulting in greater asymmetry compared with nonthrowers (8.7° vs 4.8°). Throwers demonstrated a gain of ER (5.1°), a loss of IR (6.0°), and no change in TROM when compared with the nondominant shoulder. Pairwise comparisons identified altered HRT and shoulder ROM in all age groups, including the youngest throwers (age range, 8-10.5 years). A positive correlation existed between HRT and ER ROM that was stronger in nonthrowers ( r = 0.63) than in throwers ( r = 0.23), while a negative correlation existed with IR that was stronger in throwers ( r = -0.40) than in nonthrowers ( r = -0.27). Throwing activity causes adaptive changes in HRT and

  11. Do selected drugs increase the risk of lupus? A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Schoonen, W Marieke; Thomas, Sara L; Somers, Emily C; Smeeth, Liam; Kim, Joseph; Evans, Stephen; Hall, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between risk of lupus and exposure to selected drugs implicated in risk of lupus in a number of case reports. METHODS In this matched nested case-control study we utilized primary care data from the UK General Practice Research Database recorded between 1987 and 2001. Cases with at least one medical code for systemic lupus erythematosus or drug-induced lupus in their computerized records were matched to controls without a medical code for lupus or any other autoimmune disorder. Using conditional logistic regression we computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of lupus associated with exposure to selected drugs. RESULTS There were 875 incident cases, of which 12% (n = 107) had evidence of a prescription for one or more of the suspected drugs, and 3632 matched controls. For some drugs, prescriptions were too uncommon to be able to estimate associated risk of lupus. Despite small numbers of exposed patients and low statistical precision we observed an increased risk of lupus for hydralazine (OR = 6.62, 95% CI 1.03, 42.74), minocycline (OR = 4.23, 95% CI 2.65, 6.75) and carbamazepine (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.09, 3.22). There was some indication that the effect of carbamazepine was restricted to women (P for interaction by gender = 0.047). CONCLUSION This study shows that even those drugs suggested by case reports as causing lupus cannot all be clearly shown to be associated, even in a very large population-based database. Our findings support causal relationships for carbamazepine, minocycline and possibly hydralazine. Overall, drugs do not seem to be a major cause of lupus. PMID:20840450

  12. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies.

    PubMed

    De Souza, E; Morris, J K

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months. Data from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 12 European countries. Diagnoses with observed or (for terminations) predicted year of birth from 1980 to 2005, comprising live births, fetal deaths with gestational age ≥ 20 weeks and terminations after prenatal diagnosis of the anomaly. Data include 374 cases of Patau syndrome, 929 of Edwards syndrome, 295 of Klinefelter syndrome, 28 of XYY syndrome and 5627 controls with Down syndrome. Odds ratio (OR) associated with a 10-year increase in paternal age for each anomaly was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results were adjusted to take account of the estimated association of paternal age with Down syndrome (1.11; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23). The OR for Patau syndrome was 1.10 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.45); for Edwards syndrome, 1.15 (0.96 to 1.38); for Klinefelter syndrome, 1.35 (1.02 to 1.79); and for XYY syndrome, 1.99 (0.75 to 5.26). There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of Klinefelter syndrome with increasing paternal age. The larger positive associations of Klinefelter and XYY syndromes with paternal age compared with Patau and Edwards syndromes are consistent with the greater percentage of these sex chromosome anomalies being of paternal origin.

  13. Equine grass sickness is associated with low antibody levels to Clostridium botulinum: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, H E; French, N P; Edwards, G B; Poxton, I R; Kelly, D F; Payne-Johnson, C E; Miller, K; Proudman, C J

    2004-03-01

    Equine grass sickness is a high mortality disease which, despite many years of investigation, is of unknown aetiology. Recent findings indicating that the disease is associated with Clostridium botulinum require support from an epidemiological study that recognises and controls for potential confounders, e.g. age, time of year and premises. EGS is associated with low antibody levels to C. botulinum antigens. A matched case-control study was conducted. Data were collected from 66 histologically confirmed cases of EGS and 132 premises-matched control horses. The probability of EGS in horses was modelled using conditional logistic regression. EGS was significantly associated (age-adjusted P < 0.005) with low antibody levels to each of 3 clostridial antigens; C. botulinum type C and C. novyi type A surface antigens and a C. botulinum type C toxin complex toxoid. These serological risk factors for EGS remained highly significant when entered into multivariable models. This study also identified new horse-level risk factors for EGS; feeding hay or haylage was associated with a decreased risk of disease, change of feed type or quantity during the 14 days prior to disease was associated with increased risk, and the use of an ivermectin anthelmintic at both the ultimate and penultimate treatments was also associated with a significantly increased risk of EGS. This study provides strong support for the role of C. botulinum in the aetiology of EGS and identifies managemental risk factors for the disease. Increasing anticlostridial antibody levels by vaccination and appropriate managemental interventions may decrease the risk of EGS occurring.

  14. Psychophysiology of duration estimation in experienced mindfulness meditators and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Wittmann, Marc; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that bodily signals and interoception are strongly related to our sense of time. Mindfulness meditators train to be aware of their body states and therefore could be more accurate at interval timing. In this study, n = 22 experienced mindfulness meditators and n = 22 matched controls performed both, an acoustic and a visual duration reproduction task of 8, 14, and 20 s intervals, while heart rate and skin conductance were continuously assessed. In addition, participants accomplished a heart beat perception task and two selective attention tasks. Results revealed no differences between meditators and controls with respect to performance in duration reproduction or attentional capacities. Additionally no group difference in heart beat perception scores was found. Across all subjects, correlational analyses revealed several associations between performance in the duration reproduction tasks and psychophysiological changes, the latter being also related to heart beat perception scores. Furthermore, former findings of linearly increasing cardiac periods and decreasing skin conductance levels during the auditory duration estimation task (Meissner and Wittmann, 2011) could be replicated, and these changes could also be observed during a visual duration reproduction task. In contrast to our earlier findings, the heart beat perception test was not related with timing performance. Overall, although experienced meditators did not differ from matched controls with respect to duration reproduction and interoceptive awareness, this study adds significantly to the emerging view that time perception is related to autonomic regulation and awareness of body states. PMID:26347684

  15. Psychophysiology of duration estimation in experienced mindfulness meditators and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Wittmann, Marc; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that bodily signals and interoception are strongly related to our sense of time. Mindfulness meditators train to be aware of their body states and therefore could be more accurate at interval timing. In this study, n = 22 experienced mindfulness meditators and n = 22 matched controls performed both, an acoustic and a visual duration reproduction task of 8, 14, and 20 s intervals, while heart rate and skin conductance were continuously assessed. In addition, participants accomplished a heart beat perception task and two selective attention tasks. Results revealed no differences between meditators and controls with respect to performance in duration reproduction or attentional capacities. Additionally no group difference in heart beat perception scores was found. Across all subjects, correlational analyses revealed several associations between performance in the duration reproduction tasks and psychophysiological changes, the latter being also related to heart beat perception scores. Furthermore, former findings of linearly increasing cardiac periods and decreasing skin conductance levels during the auditory duration estimation task (Meissner and Wittmann, 2011) could be replicated, and these changes could also be observed during a visual duration reproduction task. In contrast to our earlier findings, the heart beat perception test was not related with timing performance. Overall, although experienced meditators did not differ from matched controls with respect to duration reproduction and interoceptive awareness, this study adds significantly to the emerging view that time perception is related to autonomic regulation and awareness of body states.

  16. Risk Factors for Farmers' Suicides in Central Rural India: Matched Case–control Psychological Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. Objective: To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. Materials and Methods: A matched case–control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Results: Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. Conclusions: There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy. PMID:28031593

  17. Tests on a mock-up of the feedback controlled matching options of the ITER ICRH system

    SciTech Connect

    Grine, D.; Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.

    2009-11-26

    Automatic control of the matching of the ITER ICRH antenna array on a reference load is presently developed and tested for optimization on a low-powered scaled (1:5) mock-up. Resilience to fast load variations is obtained either by 4 Conjugate-T (CT) or 4 quadrature hybrid circuits, the latter being the reference option. The main results are (i) for the CT option: successful implementation of the simultaneous feedback control of 11 actuators for the matching of the 4 CT and for the control of the array toroidal phasing; (ii) for the hybrid option: the matching and the array current control via feedback control of the decouplers and double stub tuners. This system is being progressively implemented and the simultaneous control of matching and antenna current has already been successfully tested on half of the array for heating and current drive phasings.

  18. Contact Heat Evoked Potentials (CHEPs) in Patients with Mild-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease and Matched Control--A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Madsen, Caspar Skau; Waldemar, Gunhild; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Johnsen, Birger; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2016-04-01

    Clinical studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease report pain of less intensity and with a lower affective response, which has been thought to be due to altered pain processing. The authors wished to examine the cerebral processing of non-painful and painful stimuli using somatosensory evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in healthy elderly controls. Case-control study Twenty outpatients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease and in 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included Contact heat evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in all subjects. Furthermore, warmth detection threshold and heat pain threshold were assessed. Patients and controls also rated quality and intensity of the stimuli. The authors found no difference on contact heat evoked potential amplitude (P = 0.59) or latency of N2 or P2 wave (P = 0.62 and P = 0.75, respectively) between patients and controls. In addition, there was no difference in regard to pain intensity scores or pain quality. The patients and controls had similar warmth detection threshold and heat pain threshold. Somatosensory evoked potentials, amplitude, and latency were within normal range and similar for the two groups. The findings suggest that the processing of non-painful and painful stimuli is preserved in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of age and gender on finger coordination in MVC and submaximal force-matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Minoru; Li, Sheng; Kang, Ning; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the effects of age and gender on finger coordination. Twelve young (24 +/- 8 yr; 6 men and 6 women) and 12 elderly (75 +/- 5 yr; 6 men and 6 women) subjects performed single-finger maximal contraction [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], four-finger MVC, and four-finger ramp force production tasks by pressing on individual force transducers. A drop in the force of individual fingers during four-finger MVC tasks compared with single-finger MVC tasks (force deficit) was larger, whereas unintended force production by other fingers during single-finger MVC tasks (enslaving) was smaller, in elderly than in young subjects and in women than in men. Force deficit was smaller and enslaving was larger in subjects with higher peak force. During the ramp task, the difference between the variance of total force and the sum of variances of individual forces showed a logarithmic relation to the level of total force, across all subject groups. These findings suggest that indexes of finger coordination scale with force-generating capabilities across gender and age groups.

  20. Effect of smoking on serum RANKL and OPG in sex, age and clinically matched supportive-therapy periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Lappin, David F; Sherrabeh, Sakhr; Jenkins, William M M; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2007-04-01

    The serum concentrations of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in age- and sex-matched groups of smokers and non-smokers with almost identical levels of periodontal disease were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We ensured that the 35 smokers were gender, age and clinically matched with a group of 35 non-smokers (confirmed by cotinine immunoassay) from the same population of maintained patients with susceptibility to periodontitis. Cigarette smoker patients tended to have lower serum concentrations of RANKL and OPG than non-smoker patients. While no statistically significant difference was observed for RANKL, there were significant differences in the median serum concentration of OPG (smokers 23.76 pM, non-smokers 59.28 pM) and the ratio of serum concentrations of RANKL and OPG. Concentrations of OPG in the smoker patients also had a statistically significant negative correlation with tobacco consumption. Bone loss in smoker-related periodontitis patients may be partially explained by suppression of OPG production.

  1. Peak match speed and maximal sprinting speed in young soccer players: effect of age and playing position.

    PubMed

    Al Haddad, Hani; Simpson, Ben M; Buchheit, Martin; Di Salvo, Valter; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the relationship between peak match speed (PMS) and maximal sprinting speed (MSS) in regard to age and playing positions. MSS and absolute PMS (PMSAbs) were collected from 180 male youth soccer players (U13-U17, 15.0 ± 1.2 y, 161.5 ± 9.2 cm, and 48.3 ± 8.7 kg). The fastest 10-m split over a 40-m sprint was used to determine MSS. PMSAbs was recorded using a global positioning system and was also expressed as a percentage of MSS (PMSRel). Sprint data were compared between age groups and between playing positions. Results showed that regardless of age and playing positions, faster players were likely to reach higher PMSAbs and possibly lower PMSRel. Despite a lower PMSAbs than in older groups (eg, 23.4 ± 1.8 vs 26.8 ± 1.9 km/h for U13 and U17, respectively, ES = 1.9 90%, confidence limits [1.6;2.1]), younger players reached a greater PMSRel (92.0% ± 6.3% vs. 87.2% ± 5.7% for U13 and U17, respectively, ES = -0.8 90% CL [-1.0;-0.5]). Playing position also affected PMSAbs and PMSRel, as strikers were likely to reach higher PMSAbs (eg, 27.0 ± 2.7 vs 23.6 ± 2.2 km/h for strikers and central midfielders, respectively, ES = 2.0 [1.7;2.2]) and PMSRel (eg, 93.6% ± 5.2% vs 85.3% ± 6.5% for strikers and central midfielders, respectively, ES = 1.0 [0.7;1.3]) than all other positions. The findings confirm that age and playing position affect the absolute and relative intensity of speed-related actions during matches.

  2. Comparison of polysomnographic data in age-, sex- and Axis I psychiatric diagnosis matched HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative insomnia patients.

    PubMed

    Low, Yinghui; Goforth, Harold W; Omonuwa, Toma; Preud'homme, Xavier; Edinger, Jack; Krystal, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    There is a high prevalence of insomnia in HIV-seropositive patients. Insomnia is associated with poorer disease outcomes, cognitive impairment and HIV-associated dementia. However there is limited data characterizing the type of sleep disturbances, and the cause. Previous studies report conflicting results, and observed changes in the distribution of REM and SWS were hypothesized to result from co-morbid mood disorders, although this is not established. We carried out this study to determine if there are differences in polysomnographic (PSG) sleep data in age-, sex- and Axis I diagnoses- matched HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Eighteen HIV-seropositive insomniacs were matched to HIV-seronegative insomniacs based on age, sex and Axis I diagnoses. Participants spent 2 consecutive nights in a sleep lab recording of PSG data. Multivariate analysis revealed an overall significant match-by-variable interaction (p=0.0126). Follow-up analysis show that compared to HIV-seronegative insomnia controls, HIV-seropositive insomniacs have significantly longer SOL, 8% decreased sleep efficiency, and 8-10% decreased time spent in REM sleep (p's<0.05). This study provides preliminary evidence that even after accounting for differences in age, sex and psychiatric diagnoses, HIV-seropositive patients with insomnia have significantly worse sleep than HIV-seronegative patients with insomnia. Unlike what previous authors have proposed, our results do not support the view that comorbid psychiatric disorders like depression are responsible for the observed differences in PSG findings and the greater incidence of insomnia, in HIV-seropositive patients when compared with other groups of insomnia patients. This suggests the presence of other etiologies including neuronal damage, psychosocial stressors, or comorbid medical conditions. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which these play a role in insomnia in the HIV-seropositive population. Copyright © 2012

  3. Medication use trajectories of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors and matched cancer-free controls

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Kathy; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Simon, Michael S.; Ray, Roberta M.; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Sullivan, Shannon D.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Wallace, Robert B.; LeBoff, Meryl; Bluhm, Elizabeth Carhart; Paskett, Electra D.

    2016-01-01

    While adverse medical sequelae are associated with breast cancer therapies, information on breast cancer impact on medication use is limited. Therefore, we compared medication use before and after diagnosis of early stage breast cancer to medication use in matched, cancer-free controls. Of 68,132 Women’s Health Initiative participants, 3726 were diagnosed with breast cancer and, after exclusions, in 1731 breast cancer cases, medication use before and >3 years after diagnosis (mean 5.3 ± 2.1 SD) was compared to use in 1731 cancer-free matched controls on similar inventory dates. The medication category number at follow-up inventory was the primary study outcome. Medication category use (n, mean, SD) was comparable at baseline and significantly increased at follow-up in both cases (2.48 ± 1.66 vs. 4.15 ± 2.13, baseline vs follow-up, respectively, P < .0001) and controls (2.44 ± 1.67 vs. 3.95 ± 2.13, respectively, P < .0001), with clinically marginal but statistically significant additional medication category use by cases (0.20 ± 2.40, P < .0001). Tamoxifen users used somewhat more selected medication categories at follow-up assessment (mean 3.40 ± 1.89 vs. 3.21 ± 1.99, respectively, P = 0.05), while aromatase inhibitor users used more medication categories (mean 4.85 ± 2.10 vs. 4.44 ± 1.94, respectively, P = 0.02). No increase in medication category was seen in cases who were not current endocrine therapy users. Breast cancer survivors having only a clinically marginal increase in medication use compared to cancer-free controls. These findings highlight the importance of incorporation of control populations in studies of cancer survivorship. PMID:27075917

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Employer Matching of Employees' Monetary Contributions to Deposit Contracts to Promote Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Troxel, Andrea B; Loewenstein, George; Norton, Laurie A; Gatto, Dana; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Schofield, Heather; Shea, Judy A; Asch, David A; Pellathy, Thomas; Driggers, Jay; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-07-01

    To test whether employer matching of employees' monetary contributions increases employees' (1) participation in deposit contracts to promote weight loss and (2) weight loss. A 36-week randomized trial. Large employer in the northeast United States. One hundred thirty-two obese employees. Over 24 weeks, participants were asked to lose 24 pounds and randomized to monthly weigh-ins or daily weigh-ins with monthly opportunities to deposit $1 to $3 per day that was not matched, matched 1:1, or matched 2:1. Deposits and matched funds were returned to participants for each day they were below their goal weight. Rates of making ≥1 deposit, weight loss at 24 weeks (primary outcome), and 36 weeks. Deposit rates were compared using χ(2) tests. Weight loss was compared using t tests. Among participants eligible to make deposits, 29% made ≥1 deposit and matching did not increase participation. At 24 weeks, control participants gained an average of 1.0 pound, whereas 1:1 match participants lost an average of 5.3 pounds (P = .005). After 36 weeks, control participants gained an average of 2.1 pounds, whereas no match participants lost an average of 5.1 pounds (P = .008). Participation in deposit contracts to promote weight loss was low, and matching deposits did not increase participation. For deposit contracts to impact population health, ongoing participation will need to be higher. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Functional electrical stimulation with cycling in the critically ill: a pilot case-matched control study.

    PubMed

    Parry, Selina M; Berney, Sue; Warrillow, Stephen; El-Ansary, Doa; Bryant, Adam L; Hart, Nicholas; Puthucheary, Zudin; Koopman, Renè; Denehy, Linda

    2014-08-01

    The purpose was to determine (a) safety and feasibility of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-cycling and (b) compare FES-cycling to case-matched controls in terms of functional recovery and delirium outcomes. Sixteen adult intensive care unit patients with sepsis ventilated for more than 48 hours and in the intensive care unit for at least 4 days were included. Eight subjects underwent FES-cycling in addition to usual care and were compared to 8 case-matched control individuals. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility of FES-cycling. Secondary outcomes were Physical Function in Intensive Care Test scored on awakening, time to reach functional milestones, and incidence and duration of delirium. One minor adverse event was recorded. Sixty-nine out of total possible 95 FES sessions (73%) were completed. A visible or palpable contraction was present 80% of the time. There was an improvement in Physical Function in Intensive Care Test score of 3.9/10 points in the intervention cohort with faster recovery of functional milestones. There was also a shorter duration of delirium in the intervention cohort. The delivery of FES-cycling is both safe and feasible. The preliminary findings suggest that FES-cycling may improve function and reduce delirium. Further research is required to confirm the findings of this study and evaluate the efficacy of FES-cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  7. The quality control theory of aging.

    PubMed

    Ladiges, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The quality control (QC) theory of aging is based on the concept that aging is the result of a reduction in QC of cellular systems designed to maintain lifelong homeostasis. Four QC systems associated with aging are 1) inadequate protein processing in a distressed endoplasmic reticulum (ER); 2) histone deacetylase (HDAC) processing of genomic histones and gene silencing; 3) suppressed AMPK nutrient sensing with inefficient energy utilization and excessive fat accumulation; and 4) beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) signaling and environmental and emotional stress. Reprogramming these systems to maintain efficiency and prevent aging would be a rational strategy for increased lifespan and improved health. The QC theory can be tested with a pharmacological approach using three well-known and safe, FDA-approved drugs: 1) phenyl butyric acid, a chemical chaperone that enhances ER function and is also an HDAC inhibitor, 2) metformin, which activates AMPK and is used to treat type 2 diabetes, and 3) propranolol, a beta blocker which inhibits BAR signaling and is used to treat hypertension and anxiety. A critical aspect of the QC theory, then, is that aging is associated with multiple cellular systems that can be targeted with drug combinations more effectively than with single drugs. But more importantly, these drug combinations will effectively prevent, delay, or reverse chronic diseases of aging that impose such a tremendous health burden on our society.

  8. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourzand, Ali; Tajaddini, Aynaz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Samadi, Nasser; Ostadrahimi, Ali-Reza; Sanaat, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. Methods A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25–65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Multivariate analysis showed that there was a negative association between the consumption of raw onion and risk of breast cancer after adjustment for covariates (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–1.00); however, this association was insignificant. On the other hand, there was a positive association between consumption of cooked onion and risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for covariates (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02–2.32). However, reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with higher consumption of garlic and leek with adjusted ORs of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20–0.83) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15–0.51), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that high consumption of certain Allium vegetables, in particular garlic and leek, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of cooked onion may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27721879

  9. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Salivary Cortisol, Perceived Stress, and Metabolic Syndrome: A Matched Case-Control Study in Female Shift Workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Canuto, Raquel; Lecke, Sheila Bünecker; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-07-01

    Although the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and multifactorial, there is limited information if psychological factors, such as stress exposure, are involved in the etiology of MetS. Therefore, this study investigated the associations between MetS and cortisol levels and perceived stress levels among women shift workers in Southern Brazil. A matched case-control study was conducted, including 50 cases of MetS and 200 age-matched controls (±3 years, 4 for each case). Salivary cortisol levels were evaluated immediately after waking and one upon returning home from work. Perceived stress levels were measured by the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items (PSS-10). Multivariate-adjusted associations between MetS and salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress levels were assessed by conditional logistic regression. Means±standard deviations of salivary cortisol levels were not significantly different between cases and controls either immediately after waking (5.37±4.10 vs. 6.03±5.39 nmol/l; p = 0.53) or after work (2.74±2.87 vs. 2.78±2.85 nmol/l; p = 0.93). There was no significant difference in perceived stress level between cases and controls (14.2±5.9 vs. 15.5±5.6; p = 0.15). No independent association was observed in the multivariate model between MetS and salivary cortisol level or perceived stress level after these exposures were stratified into tertiles. Overall, there was no difference between women with or without MetS in regard to the free salivary cortisol and perceived stress. Our results do not support an association between stress exposure and MetS among women shift workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Children with Hearing Impairment versus Age and Height Matched Normal Hearing Peers.

    PubMed

    Das, Barshapriya; Chatterjee, Indranil; Kumar, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Lack of proper auditory feedback in hearing-impaired subjects results in functional voice disorder. It is directly related to discoordination of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles and disturbed contraction and relaxation of antagonistic muscles. A total of twenty children in the age range of 5-10 years were considered for the study. They were divided into two groups: normal hearing children and hearing aid user children. Results showed a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, and fast adduction abduction rate having equal variance for normal and hearing aid user children, respectively, but no significant difference was found in the peak flow value with being statistically significant. A reduced vital capacity in hearing aid user children suggests a limited use of the lung volume for speech production. It may be inferred from the study that the hearing aid user children have poor vocal proficiency which is reflected in their voice. The use of voicing component in hearing impaired subjects is seen due to improper auditory feedback. It was found that there was a significant difference in the vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation (MSP), and fast adduction abduction rate and no significant difference in the peak flow.

  12. Newborns prefer the odor of milk and nipples from females matched in lactation age: Comparison of two mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Goudet, Camille; Schaal, Benoist; Patris, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Newborn mice are attracted to mammary odor cues carried in murine milk and nipple secretions. However, murine milk odor is not equally attractive along lactation. The present study focuses on the differential response of 2day-old mouse pups of C57Bl/6 (C) and Balb/C (B) strains to the odor of milk (Experiment 1) and nipples (Experiment 2) that are matched/unmatched in terms of pup's age or strain. In Experiment 1, C and B pups were tested in a series of tests simultaneously opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two milks collected in early and late lactation (lactation days 2 and 15, respectively) from females belonging to their own or the other strain. Results showed that C and B pups were attracted to the odor of the different milks regardless of the lactation age and the strain of the donor female. Nevertheless, C and B pups preferred the odor conveyed by early- than late-lactation milk of either strain. Moreover, early-lactation milk from C females was more attractive than early-lactation milk from B females for pups of either strain. In Experiment 2, differential nipple grasping response of C and B pups was measured when they were exposed to nipples of females in early or late lactation. The proportion of C pups that grasped a nipple was greater when they were exposed to a nipple in early lactation regardless of the strain of the donor females, whereas the proportion of B pups that grasped a nipple was greater when they were exposed to a nipple in early lactation, but only from own strain. Thus, newborn mice prefer the odor of milk and nipples from females that are matched in lactation age. This result is discussed in terms of reciprocally adaptive mechanisms between lactating females and their newborn offspring.

  13. Risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy after cardiopulmonary bypass: a matched case/control study.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, G A; Garrity, J A; Dearani, J A; Abel, M D; Schroeder, D R; Mullany, C J

    2001-12-01

    Visual loss (acuity or field) secondary to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is a rare but devastating complication of cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We determined clinical features and risk factors for ION by a retrospective time-matched, case-control study. ION was identified in 17 (0.06%) patients out of 27,915 patients who underwent CPB between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1994. For each ION patient, two patients who underwent CPB exactly 2 wk before the ION patient were selected as controls. Data were analyzed by using conditional logistic regression with the 1:2 matched-set feature of 17 cases and 34 controls. Two-tailed P values < or =0.05 were considered significant. From bivariate analysis, smaller minimum postoperative hemoglobin concentration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, P = 0.047) and the presence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (OR = 7.0, P = 0.026) were found to be independently associated with ION after CPB, as were smaller minimum postoperative hemoglobin concentration (OR = 2.2, P = 0.027) and preoperative angiogram within 48 h of surgery (OR = 7.2, P = 0.042). In ION patients, 13 (76.5%) of 17 experienced a minimum postoperative hemoglobin value of < 8.5 g/dL, whereas only 14 (41.2%) of 34 control patients experienced values < 8.5 g/dL. Patients with clinically significant vascular disease history or preoperative angiogram may be at increased risk for ischemic optic neuropathy after cardiac surgery, especially if the hemoglobin remains low in the postoperative period.

  14. Is It Time to Phase Out the Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty? A Propensity Score Matched Case Control Comparison versus Cemented Hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Ping; Lau, Tak-Wing; Leung, Anderson; Wong, Tak-Man; Pun, Terence

    2016-01-01

    We compared the Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty versus cemented hemiarthroplasties using a propensity score matched cased control study. For a consecutive cohort of 450 patients with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures, 128 matched cases in each group were selected based on age, gender, walking status, nursing home residency, delays in surgery, ASA score, and the Charlson comorbidity score. At a mean follow-up of 16.3 months, we evaluated their outcomes. Significantly more patients with AMA experienced thigh pain (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.67–7.33,  p = 0.000), overall complications (RR = 4.47, 95% CI: 1.77–11.3, p = 0.000), and implant loosening (RR = 8.42, 95% CI: 2.63–26.95, p = 0.000). There were no definite cement related deaths in this series. There was no significant difference in mortality, walking status, and the number of revisions between the groups. We support the routine use of cemented hemiarthroplasty instead of the Austin Moore for treating elderlies with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures. PMID:27042669

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Dolutegravir in HIV-Seronegative Subjects With Moderate Hepatic Impairment Compared to Healthy Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Song, Ivy H; Borland, Julie; Savina, Paul M; Chen, Shuguang; Patel, Parul; Wajima, Toshihiro; Peppercorn, Amanda F; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated dolutegravir pharmacokinetics (PK) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment compared to matched, healthy controls. In this open-label, parallel-group study, eight adult subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score 7-9) and eight healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and body mass index received a single dolutegravir 50-mg dose. Following dosing, 72-hour PK sampling was performed to determine total and unbound dolutegravir concentrations. PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Geometric least squares mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) in subjects with hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects were generated by analysis of variance. Results showed that PK parameters of total plasma dolutegravir were similar between subject groups. The unbound fraction was higher in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment than in healthy subjects with GMR (90% CI) of 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) for unbound fraction at 3 hours post-dose and 1.76 (1.23, 2.51) for unbound fraction at 24 hours post-dose; this correlated with lower serum albumin concentrations and was not considered clinically significant. Dolutegravir was well tolerated in both groups; all adverse events were reported as minor. Although free fraction was increased, no dose adjustment is required for patients treated with dolutegravir who have mild to moderate hepatic impairment.

  16. Predicting Future Hip Fractures on Routine Abdominal CT Using Opportunistic Osteoporosis Screening Measures: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott J; Anderson, Paul A; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2017-08-01

    Hip fracture is a major consequence of low bone mineral density, which is treatable but underdiagnosed. The purpose of this case-control study is to determine whether lumbar vertebral trabecular attenuation, vertebral compression fractures, and femoral neck T scores readily derived from abdominopelvic CT scans obtained for various indications are associated with future hip fragility fracture. A cohort of 204 patients with hip fracture (130 women and 74 men; mean age, 74.3 years) who had undergone abdominopelvic CT before fracture occurred (mean interval, 24.8 months) was compared with an age- and sex-matched control cohort without hip fracture. L1 trabecular attenuation, vertebral compression fractures of grades 2 and 3, and femoral neck T scores derived from asynchronous quantitative CT were recorded. The presence of one or more clinical risk factor for fracture was also recorded. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association of each measurement with the occurrence of hip fracture. The mean L1 trabecular attenuation value, the presence of one or more vertebral compression fracture, and CT-derived femoral neck T scores were all significantly different in patients with hip fracture versus control subjects (p < 0.01). Logistic regression models showed a significant association of all measurements with hip fracture outcome after adjustments were made for age, sex, and the presence of one or more clinical risk factor. L1 trabecular attenuation and CT-derived femoral neck T scores showed moderate accuracy in differentiating case and control patients (AUC, 0.70 and 0.78, respectively). L1 trabecular attenuation, CT-derived femoral neck T scores, and the presence of at least one vertebral compression fracture on CT are all associated with future hip fragility fracture in adults undergoing routine abdominopelvic CT for a variety of conditions.

  17. Risk factors for idiopathic cystitis in Norwegian cats: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Heidi S; Sævik, Bente K; Finstad, Øystein W; Grøntvedt, Elin T; Vatne, Terese; Eggertsdóttir, Anna V

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare a group of cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) with a group of control cats without present or previous signs of lower urinary tract disease in order to identify factors in characteristics, personality, behaviour, environment and daily life that would make them more susceptible to the disease. The study was a matched case-control study comparing results from telephone interviews based on a standardised questionnaire. The questions were organised into six subject groups: the characteristics of the cat; the cat's environment; the presence of other pets in the household; the cat's feeding and drinking regime; management of the cat's litter box; and the cat's opportunity to perform natural behaviour. The results from the present study showed that a cat diagnosed with FIC was more likely to be overweight and to be of a nervous disposition than the control cats. In addition, several differences between cases and controls were detected at a univariable level of analysis, related to outdoor access and the cats' perceived safety and comfort in their home environments. While not significant after multivariable analysis, these variables may still be of importance owing to potential interrelations. Several significant differences between cats with FIC and control cats were revealed, and the results support the hypothesis of environmental stress as being a potential factor in the development of FIC. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  18. Can Opium Use Contribute to a Higher Risk of Colorectal Cancers? A Matched Case-control Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    NAGHIBZADEH-TAHAMI, Ahmad; YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; KHANJANI, Narges; ASHRAFI-ASGARABAD, Ahad; ALIZAEH, Hosniyeh; BORHANINEJAD, Vahid Reza; MORADI-JOO, Mohammad; ZEINALI, Masoud; ZAHEDI, Mohammad Javad; AGHAEE-AFSHAR, Mahmoud; HAGHDOOST, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) including colon, rectum and anal cancers are the third most prevalent cancers in the world. There are strong evidence showing the risk of the cigarette smoking, alcohol use, low physical activity and some types of diets in CRCs; however, few studies explored the relationship between opium use and CRCs. This study aimed to investigate the association between opioid use and the incidence of CRCs. Methods: In a population-based matched case-control study in Kerman, Iran, 175 patients with colorectal cancers and 350 healthy controls (matched for age, sex, and place of residence) were interviewed from Sep 2014 to Nov 2014. Opium and its derivatives, cigarette, alcohol, and diet use were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of CRCs (adjusted odds ratio= 4. 5, 95% CI: 2. 4–8. 7). In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed between the cumulative use of opioids and the incidence of CRCs (with low use OR=3. 7; 95% CI: 1. 5–8. 6 and high use OR= 8. 0; 95% CI: 2. 9–21. 7). This dose-response relationship was also strong in patients with colon cancers, with OR= 3. 9 (95% CI: 1. 5–9. 9) and 9. 4 (95% CI: 3. 3–27. 0) for the low and high uses of opioids, respectively. Conclusion: Opioid use can lead to an increased risk of CRCs. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive policies to control the use of opioids. PMID:27957439

  19. [Personality differences between alcohol abusers and matched controls: Relation to frontal symptoms and subtypes of addicts].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo José; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Olivar Arroyo, Alvaro; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies usually show a link between personality disorders and addictions. Dimensional models of personality, such as that of Cloninger, are able to diagnose and discriminate between transient dysfunctional behavior styles and relatively more stable traits. Certain brain areas have been proposed, as trait locations, based on their activation. This paper explores differences in personality traits among a sample of alcohol abusers (N= 95) and a control group of non-clinical population (N= 95), matched in sociodemographic variables, using the TCI-R-67 and the FrSBe-Sp. It is hypothesized that such differences are associated with frontal symptomatology. The existence of different subgroups of addicts based on certain combinations of traits is also analyzed. Results showed significant differences in two temperament traits (Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance) and a characterial trait (Self-Direction). We also found a correlation with a large effect size between these traits and frontal symptomatology. Cluster analysis classified the participants into several subtypes with different combinations of traits that matched diverse frontal symptomatology. Possible neurobiological explanations of these differences and their importance in the clinical practice are discussed.

  20. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake; Gong, Chen

    2017-08-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power.

  1. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake

    2017-01-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power. PMID:28763011

  2. Employment Status, Quality of Matching, and Retirement in Korea: Evidence from Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee; Lee, Jinkook

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the differing probabilities of retirement for self-employed and wage-and-salary workers. It finds self-employed workers are less likely to retire than wage-and-salary ones, and that differences in retirement incomes, health, productivity, job characteristics, and compulsory retirement practices do not explain the disparity. The difference between self-employed and wage-and-salary workers in the quality of matching between the job and the worker (i.e., between required and desired amount of work) explains the later retirement of the self-employed. We note the implications of these findings for labor-force participation at older ages and how policies might boost employment of the elderly. PMID:23935768

  3. Injurious falls and subsequent adverse drug events among elderly - a Swedish population-based matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rausch, C; Laflamme, L; de Rooij, S E; Bültmann, U; Möller, J

    2017-09-04

    Fall injuries are stressful and painful and they have a range of serious consequences for older people. While there is some clinical evidence of unintentional poisoning by medication following a severe fall injuries, population-based studies on that association are lacking. This is investigated in the current study, in which attention is also paid to different clinical conditions of the injured patients. We conducted a matched case-control study of Swedish residents 60 years and older from various Swedish population-based registers. Cases defined as adverse drug events (ADE) by unintentional poisoning leading to hospitalization or death were extracted from the National Patient Register (NPR) and the Cause of Death Register from January 2006 to December 2009 (n = 4418). To each case, four controls were matched by sex, age and residential area. Information on injurious falls leading to hospitalization six months prior to the date of hospital admission or death from ADE by unintentional poisoning, and corresponding date for the controls, was extracted from the NPR. Data on clinical conditions, such as dispensed medications, comorbidity and previous fall injuries were also extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) and NPR. Effect estimates were calculated using conditional logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found a three-fold increased risk of unintentional poisoning by medication in the six-month period after an injurious fall (OR 3.03; 95% CI, 2.54-3.74), with the most pronounced increase 1-3 weeks immediately after (OR, 7.66; 95% CI, 4.86-12.1). In that time window, from among those hospitalized for a fall (n = 92), those who sustained an unintentional poisoning (n = 60) tended to be in poorer health condition and receive more prescribed medications than those who did not, although this was not statistically significant. Age stratified analyses revealed a higher risk of poisoning among

  4. Understanding the Sexual Satisfaction of Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: Comparison With Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    O Rosen, Natalie; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-11-28

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD)-a recurrent, localized vulvar pain-interferes with couples' sexual relationships as evidenced by lower sexual satisfaction compared to controls. Little is known about what components of sexual satisfaction contribute to this lower satisfaction. Using the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction (IEMSS), we compared the sexual exchanges (sexual rewards and costs, relative sexual rewards and costs, balance of sexual rewards and costs, balance of relative sexual rewards and costs, equality of sexual rewards and costs) and sexual satisfaction of 50 women with PVD and their male partners to 50 matched-control couples. We also compared women with PVD and their partners on these same components. Participants completed standardized measures of sexual exchanges and sexual satisfaction. Women with PVD and their partners reported lower relative sexual rewards, a less favorable balance of relative sexual rewards to costs, and lower sexual satisfaction than controls, although differences were larger for women. Women with PVD also reported lower levels of sexual rewards, higher levels of sexual costs, a less favorable balance of sexual rewards to costs, and lower equality of sexual costs, than control women. Findings identify IEMSS exchange components that may contribute to overall lower satisfaction in couples affected by PVD.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system activity in disruptive children and matched controls.

    PubMed

    van Goozen, S H; Matthys, W; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Buitelaar, J K; van Engeland, H

    2000-11-01

    To investigate whether a pattern of lower autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is found in children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) under nonstressful and stressful conditions, and whether such a pattern would correspond with their feelings of control and negative emotionality. The effects of stress were studied by comparing cortisol response, heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), and subjective feelings of 26 children with DBD and 26 matched normal controls. An additional 12 normal control children were studied in a nonstress control condition. Baseline HR and SCL but not cortisol were lower in the DBD group. Stress significantly affected cortisol, HR, SCL, and negative moods, although children with DBD showed a weaker HPA stress response and the difference between the groups was greater under stress. Children with DBD are characterized by lower ANS activity and HPA axis responsivity, but higher levels of emotional arousal. It is possible that in children with DBD the HPA axis and ANS, on the one hand, and their emotional arousal, on the other, are less well coordinated. It is speculated that this could be due to differences in genetic makeup or to stressful conditions during pre- or postnatal life.

  6. Decreased portal vein velocity is predictive of the development of portal vein thrombosis: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jonathan G; Wang, Jennifer; Shah, Puja M; Argo, Curtis K; Intagliata, Nicolas; Uflacker, Andre; Caldwell, Stephen H; Northup, Patrick G

    2017-06-20

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in cirrhosis may lead to hepatic decompensation and increased mortality. We aimed to investigate if decreased portal vein (PV) velocity is associated with future PVT. Data on adult patients with cirrhosis and PVT between January 1, 2005 and July 30, 2015 were obtained. Cases with PVT were matched by age, gender and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to corresponding controls without PVT. Cox proportional hazards models, receiver operator curves and Kaplan Meier curves were constructed. One hundred subjects (50 matched pairs) with mean age 53.8±13.1 y and MELD score 14.9±5.5 were included in our analysis. Sixty-four percent were male and 76% were Child-Turcotte-Pugh Class A or B. Baseline characteristics (prior to development of PVT) were similar, except for baseline PV velocity (16.9 cm/s, 95% CI 13.9-20.0 PVT vs 25.0, 95% CI 21.8-28.8 no PVT, P<.001). 30 PVT subjects had PV velocity <15 cm/s compared to five without PVT (P<.001). On adjusted multivariable analysis, PV velocity was the strongest independent risk factor predicting PVT development (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93). The predictive value for PVT development was greatest for flow <15 cm/s (c-statistic 0.77). PV velocity <15 cm/s had a highly significant association with future PVT (HR 6.00, 95% CI 2.20-16.40, P=<.001). Decreased PV velocity is associated with increased risk of future PVT. Patients with cirrhosis and decreased PV velocity are a high-risk subgroup that warrants further investigation with prospective study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Point source modeling of matched case–control data with multiple disease subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose nonlinear distance-odds models investigating elevated odds around point sources of exposure, under a matched case-control design where there are subtypes within cases. We consider models analogous to the polychotomous logit models and adjacent-category logit models for categorical outcomes and extend them to the nonlinear distance-odds context. We consider multiple point sources as well as covariate adjustments. We evaluate maximum likelihood, profile likelihood, iteratively reweighted least squares, and a hierarchical Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under these distance-odds models. We compare these methods using an extensive simulation study and show that with multiple parameters and a nonlinear model, Bayesian methods have advantages in terms of estimation stability, precision, and interpretation. We illustrate the methods by analyzing Medicaid claims data corresponding to the pediatric asthma population in Detroit, Michigan, from 2004 to 2006. PMID:22826092

  8. Point source modeling of matched case-control data with multiple disease subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we propose nonlinear distance-odds models investigating elevated odds around point sources of exposure, under a matched case-control design where there are subtypes within cases. We consider models analogous to the polychotomous logit models and adjacent-category logit models for categorical outcomes and extend them to the nonlinear distance-odds context. We consider multiple point sources as well as covariate adjustments. We evaluate maximum likelihood, profile likelihood, iteratively reweighted least squares, and a hierarchical Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under these distance-odds models. We compare these methods using an extensive simulation study and show that with multiple parameters and a nonlinear model, Bayesian methods have advantages in terms of estimation stability, precision, and interpretation. We illustrate the methods by analyzing Medicaid claims data corresponding to the pediatric asthma population in Detroit, Michigan, from 2004 to 2006.

  9. Risk factors associated with the development of seizures among adult patients treated with ertapenem: A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Cho, Hui-Ling; Lai, Li-Fen; Tong, Show-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of those ertapenem-treated adult patients with and without development of seizures, and identify the associated factors for the development of seizures. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. Patients developing seizures during their ertapenem treatment course were identified as case patients. Those without seizures who had received ertapenem for at least five days were considered as the pool of control patients. For each case patient, four matched patients from the control pool were randomly selected as the final control group, based on age, gender, and the date of ertapenem prescription. Results A total of 1706 ertapenem-treated patients were identified, 33 (1.9%) individuals developed seizures with the enrollment of 132 matched control patients. Among these 33 patients, the average age was 79.3 ± 7.5 years, and 20 (60.6%) were male. The mean Charlson co-morbidity score was 4.5 ± 2.4, and the first episode of seizure happened 3.3 ± 2.6 days after receiving ertapenem. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors associated with the development of ertapenem-associated seizures were old stroke (OR, 14.36; 95% CI, 4.38–47.02; p < 0.0001), undergoing brain images within one year prior to the admission (OR, 5.73; 95% CI, 1.78–18.43; p = 0.0034), low hemoglobin level (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.28–12.75; p = 0.0165) and low platelet count (OR, 4,94; 95% CI, 1.56–15.68; p = 0.0067) at presentations, and protective factors against the development of seizures were heart failure (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.00–0.63; p = 0.0222), concomitant use of steroids (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.77; p = 0.0201), or antiplatelet agents (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02–0.63, p = 0.0123) with ertapenem. Conclusions The development of ertapenem-associated seizures may occur more frequently and much earlier due to its widespread

  10. Live birth rates after combined adjuvant therapy in IVF-ICSI cycles: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Motteram, C; Vollenhoven, B; Hope, N; Osianlis, T; Rombauts, L J

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of combined co-treatment with aspirin, doxycycline, prednisolone, with or without oestradiol patches, was investigated on live birth (LBR) rates after fresh and frozen embryo transfers (FET) in IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Cases (n = 485) and controls (n = 485) were extensively matched in a one-to-one ratio on nine physical and clinical parameters: maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, stimulation cycle number, cumulative dose of FSH, stimulation protocol, insemination method, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. No significant differences were found in fresh cycles between cases and controls for the pregnancy outcomes analysed, but fewer surplus embryos were available for freezing in the combined adjuvant group. In FET cycles, LBR was lower in the treatment group (OR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.95). The lower LBR in FET cycles seemed to be clustered in patients receiving combined adjuvant treatment without luteal oestradiol (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.80). No difference was found in LBR between cases and controls when stratified according to the number of previous cycles (<3 or ≥3). There is no benefit of this combined adjuvant strategy in fresh IVF cycles, and possible harm when used in frozen cycles.

  11. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C. J.; Stone, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60–79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125–6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18–27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5–180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in

  12. Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Is a Risk Factor for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A 1:2 Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wen-Ze; Tian, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Cao, Ka-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been identified as an adverse prognostic variable which associated with an increased mortality in various cancers, including colorectal, lung, and breast cancers. However, previous studies provided inconsistent results on the association between diabetes and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between diabetes mellitus and the survival of NPC patients. Methods This study was designed as a 1:2 matched case–control study. Cases were patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) below. Controls, matched 1:2, were patients who were normoglycemic (NDM). The survival rates were assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis, and the survival curves were compared using a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results Both locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the NDM group were higher than that in the DM group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.033). Additionally, subset analyses revealed that the differences in OS, LRRFS, and DFS were all significant between the two groups in the N0-N1 subset (p = 0.007, p =.000 and p = 0.002). The LRRFS was higher in the NDM group in the III-IV, T3-T4 and N0-N1 subsets (p = 0.004, p = 0.002 and p =.000). In T3-T4 subset, the NDM group experienced higher DFS than the DM group (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, T stage and N stage were found to be independent predictors for OS, DMFS and DFS; chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for DMFS and DFS, age for OS, and diabetes for LRRFS and DFS. Conclusions Type 2 diabetic mellitus is associated with poorer prognosis among patients with NPC. PMID:27760202

  13. Risk factors for non-syndromic oral clefts: a matched case-control study in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Yang, M; Gong, T; Shen, M; Du, Y

    2015-01-01

    To explore the risk factors for CL/P in Hubei Province, China. A hospital-based, matched case-control study was conducted. One hundred and eight cases with CL/P were matched by age and sex with 108 normal controls. Their parents were retrospectively interviewed using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to calculate the relative risk by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Univariate analysis identified ten factors as significantly related to CL/P (P < 0.05). Multivariate conditional logistic regression models showed that five of these factors were significantly associated with CL/P. Paternal occupational exposure (OR = 13.08, 95% CI: 2.35-72.86), first-trimester maternal illness (OR = 36.67, 95% CI: 5.37-250.36), first-trimester maternal bad mood (OR = 8.69, 95% CI: 1.35-55.84), first-trimester maternal diet of eggs or milk (≥5 meals per week, OR = 6.72, 95% CI: 1.23-36.69), and first-trimester maternal sexual activity (OR = 5.98, CI 95%:1.14-31.49) were risk factors for CL/P. In our study, we identified that paternal occupational exposure, first-trimester maternal illness, first-trimester maternal bad mood, first-trimester maternal diet of eggs or milk (≥5 meals per week), and first-trimester maternal sexual activities were significantly associated with increased CL/P. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Type A personality, hostility, time urgency and unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between type A behaviour pattern (TABP) and injuries are inconsistent. These inconsistencies may be due to different effects of various components of TABP, namely time urgency/impatience, hostility and competitive drive. It is important to examine the relationship between the global TABP, its two components, and unintentional injuries, among undergraduates in China. Methods On the basis of a previous cross-sectional study, we conducted a matched case–control study. 253 cases and an equal number of age-, gender-, and major-matched controls were included. The questionnaire solicited socio-demographic information, the experience of injuries, the scale of TABP, and other potential confounding factors. Besides the correlation between the global TABP and injuries, the influences of the two components of TABP on injuries were also evaluated. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs of injury events. Results A dose–response relationship was apparent among students who rated themselves higher on the TABP scale (P-value for trend, 0.002), with a crude OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 0.93–9.19) for injuries comparing those with TABP to those with type B behaviour pattern (TBBP). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, TABP remained statistically significant, and the adjusted OR was 5.52 (95% CI: 1.43–21.27); from a comparison of students with TABP to those with TBBP. A dose–response relationship was also apparent between the hostility component and nonfatal injuries, both in crude analysis and after adjusting for other confounders. The relationship between time-hurry and injuries was not statistically significant, based on univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions Both the global TABP and the hostility component were associated with a dose response increase in the risk of non-fatal unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates. Further studies need to be conducted to

  15. Realization of the three-qubit quantum controlled gate based on matching Hermitian generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Kumar; Rawat, Tarun Kumar; Parthasarathy, Harish; Sharma, Navneet; Upadhyaya, Varun

    2017-05-01

    This paper deals with the design of quantum unitary gate by matching the Hermitian generators. A given complicated quantum controlled gate is approximated by perturbing a simple quantum system with a small time-varying potential. The basic idea is to evaluate the generator H_φ of the perturbed system approximately using first-order perturbation theory in the interaction picture. H_φ depends on a modulating signal φ(t){:} 0≤t≤T which modulates a known potential V. The generator H_φ of the given gate U_g is evaluated using H_g=ι log U_g. The optimal modulating signal φ(t) is chosen so that \\Vert H_g - H_φ \\Vert is a minimum. The simple quantum system chosen for our simulation is harmonic oscillator with charge perturbed by an electric field that is a constant in space but time varying and is controlled externally. This is used to approximate the controlled unitary gate obtained by perturbing the oscillator with an anharmonic term proportional to q^3. Simulations results show significantly small noise-to-signal ratio. Finally, we discuss how the proposed method is particularly suitable for designing some commonly used unitary gates. Another example was chosen to illustrate this method of gate design is the ion-trap model.

  16. Family history interview of a broad phenotype in specific language impairment and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Kalnak, N; Peyrard-Janvid, M; Sahlén, B; Forssberg, H

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to study a broader phenotype of language-related diagnoses and problems in three generations of relatives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Our study is based on a family history interview of the parents of 59 children with SLI and of 100 matched control children, exploring the prevalence of problems related to language, reading, attention, school achievement and social communication as well as diagnoses such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, Asperger syndrome, dyslexia, mental retardation, cleft palate and stuttering. The results show a spectrum of language-related problems in families of SLI children. In all three generations of SLI relatives, we found significantly higher prevalence rates of language, literacy and social communication problems. The risk of one or both parents having language-related diagnoses or problems was approximately six times higher for the children with SLI (85%) than for the control children (13%) (odds ratio = 37.2). We did not find a significantly higher prevalence of the diagnoses ADHD, autism or Asperger syndrome in the relatives of the children with SLI. However, significantly more parents of the children with SLI had problems with attention/hyperactivity when compared with the parents of controls. Our findings suggest common underlying mechanisms for problems with language, literacy and social communication, and possibly also for attention/hyperactivity symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M.; Manley, Alison R.; Goldberg, Simon B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking continues to take an enormous toll on society, and although most smokers would like to quit, most are unsuccessful using existing therapies. These findings call on researchers to develop and test therapies that provide higher rates of long-term smoking abstinence. We report results of a randomized controlled trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment using mindfulness training to a matched control based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking program. Data were collected on 175 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2011-2012 in a medium sized Midwestern city. A significant difference was not found in the primary outcome; intent-to-treat biochemically confirmed 6-month smoking abstinence rates were Mindfulness = 25.0%, Control= 17.9% (p = 0.35). Differences favoring the mindfulness condition were found on measures of urges and changes in mindfulness, perceived stress, and experiential avoidance. While no significant differences were found in quit rates, the mindfulness intervention resulted in positive outcomes. PMID:24957302

  18. Predictors of Drug-Use Patterns in Maltreated Children and Matched Controls Followed Up Into Middle Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether child abuse; child neglect; demographic, family and social, behavioral, economic, and neighborhood risk; and protective factors predict different drug-use patterns into middle adulthood. Method: Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (processed during 1967-1971) and a matched control group were followed into middle adulthood. Participants completed in-person interviews in 1989-1995 (average age 29), 2000-2002 (average age 39.5), and 2003-2004 (average age 41). The sample for this study included 374 women and 332 men. Results: Four patterns of drug use were revealed: (a) abstinence and low use (34%), (b) adolescent and young adult limited use (31 %), (c) chronic-persistent use (29%), and (d) late use (7%). The chronic-persistent pattern was associated with being male, parental substance-use problems, involvement in crime, and neighborhood problems. The late-use pattern was significantly associated with childhood neglect and being Black, when other risk factors were controlled; bivariate analyses also indicated associations with female gender, lower income, and greater neighborhood disadvantage. Conclusions: This study revealed two patterns of drug use involving substance use and substance-related problems in middle adulthood that are associated with different sets of risk factors. Further research is needed to understand the late-drug-use pattern, which appears to disproportionately involve low-income Black women with histories of childhood neglect. These individuals may be missed in efforts to prevent or reduce drug use among youths. PMID:20946736

  19. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  20. Tattoo frequency and types among homicides and other deaths, 2007-2008: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Justin; Cleveland, John; Griffin, Russell; Davis, Gregory G; Lienert, Jeffrey; McGwin, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    An estimated 25% of the US population aged 18 to 50 years has a tattoo, which have been associated with markers of high-risk behaviors including alcohol and drug use, violence, carrying weapons, sexual activity, eating disorders, and suicide. This study compares tattoo prevalence and type in a homicide population to those of an age-, race-, and sex-matched control group of nonhomicide deaths. The data for this study were abstracted from autopsy records maintained by the Jefferson County Alabama Coroner/Medical Examiner's Office for the years 2007 and 2008. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between homicide and tattoo presence and characteristics were calculated using conditional logistic regression. There was no association between tattoo presence and death by homicide; however, among blacks, memorial tattoos were significantly more common among homicides compared with other types of deaths (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.68). The results of the current study suggest that specific types of tattoos, but not all tattoos, may be risk factors for homicide. Other factors, such as race and lifestyle, along with tattoos may need to be considered.

  1. Performance evaluation of real-simulated image matching techniques in the acquisition of ground control for ERS-1 image geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidon, B.

    Recently, a large-area digital ERS-1 image mosaic was generated of a mountainous region of British Columbia, Canada. Ground control for the geocoding of each of the 53 constituent scenes was derived by matching real and simulated image chips, the latter generated from digital elevation models (DEMs) and a knowledge of the ERS-1 imaging configuration. This paper presents an analysis of automated and manual matching performance based on a study of the aggregate data set of 1270 control points (CPs). The CP selection methodology is described as well as the relationship between matching accuracy and the level of goodness-of-match as quantified by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. A statistical approach is proposed for the selection of an optimum correlation threshold for operational geocoding scenarios.

  2. Average ambulatory measures of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and vocal dose do not differ between adult females with phonotraumatic lesions and matched control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Barbu, Anca M.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Methods Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Results Paired t-tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t-tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. PMID:26024911

  3. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Kobusingye, Olive K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15–29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda’s capital city. Methods The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19–4.45), lower engine capacity (<100cc)(OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91–8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19–3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58–14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62–25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. Recommendations More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding

  4. Matched case-control analysis comparing oncologic outcomes between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Park, In Ja; Kim, Chan Wook; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate patterns of recurrence and oncologic outcomes after recurrence between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods Records of patients with stage II or III locally advanced rectal cancer seen between January 2000 and December 2010 were analyzed. The outcomes for patients undergoing preoperative CRT followed by radical resection (n = 466) were compared with outcomes of patients matched for sex, age, and stage who had surgery and then postoperative CRT (n = 466). Recurrence rates and sites, treatment of recurrence, and oncologic outcomes after recurrence were investigated. The rate of sphincter preservation and permanent stoma formation were also evaluated. Results Recurrence occurred in 124 and 140 patients in the pre- and postoperative CRT groups, respectively. The local and systemic recurrence rates were 3.6% and 20.8%, respectively, in the preoperative CRT group and 3.0% and 25.3%, respectively, in the postoperative CRT group (P = 0.245). Time to recurrence was longer in the postoperative CRT group (19 months vs. 24.2 months, P = 0.029). The overall rates of sphincter preservation (sphincter preservation operation and postoperative permanent stoma formation) did not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.381). The 5-year overall survival rate after recurrence did not differ between the two groups (25.6% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.051). Conclusion Preoperative and postoperative CRT are both safe and suitable treatment methods for rectal cancer, so the choice can be tailored to the patient's situation. PMID:28382292

  5. Markers of thrombogenesis are activated in unmedicated patients with acute psychosis: a matched case control study.

    PubMed

    Masopust, Jiří; Malý, Radovan; Andrýs, Ctirad; Vališ, Martin; Bažant, Jan; Hosák, Ladislav

    2011-01-03

    Antipsychotic treatment has been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in schizophrenia. The extent to which the propensity for venous thromboembolism is linked to antipsychotic medication alone or psychosis itself is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether markers of thrombogenesis are increased in psychotic patients who have not yet been treated with antipsychotic medication. We investigated the plasma levels of markers indicating activation of coagulation (D-dimers and Factor VIII) and platelets (soluble P-selectin, sP-selectin) in an antipsychotic-naive group of fourteen men and eleven women with acute psychosis (age 29.1 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 23.6 ± 4.7), and twenty-five healthy volunteers were matched for age, gender and body mass index. D-dimers (median 0.38 versus 0.19 mg/l, mean 1.12 ± 2.38 versus 0.28 ± 0.3 mg/l; P = 0.003) and sP-selectin (median 204.1 versus 112.4 ng/ml, mean 209.9 ± 124 versus 124.1 ± 32; P = 0.0005) plasma levels were significantly increased in the group of patients with acute psychosis as compared with healthy volunteers. We found a trend (median 148% versus 110%, mean 160 ± 72.5 versus 123 ± 62.5; P = 0.062) of increased plasma levels of factor VIII in psychotic patients as compared with healthy volunteers. The results suggest that at least a part of venous thromboembolic events in patients with acute psychosis may be induced by pathogenic mechanisms related to psychosis rather than by antipsychotic treatment. Finding an exact cause for venous thromboembolism in psychotic patients is necessary for its effective treatment and prevention.

  6. Markers of thrombogenesis are activated in unmedicated patients with acute psychosis: a matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic treatment has been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in schizophrenia. The extent to which the propensity for venous thromboembolism is linked to antipsychotic medication alone or psychosis itself is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether markers of thrombogenesis are increased in psychotic patients who have not yet been treated with antipsychotic medication. Methods We investigated the plasma levels of markers indicating activation of coagulation (D-dimers and Factor VIII) and platelets (soluble P-selectin, sP-selectin) in an antipsychotic-naive group of fourteen men and eleven women with acute psychosis (age 29.1 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 23.6 ± 4.7), and twenty-five healthy volunteers were matched for age, gender and body mass index. Results D-dimers (median 0.38 versus 0.19 mg/l, mean 1.12 ± 2.38 versus 0.28 ± 0.3 mg/l; P = 0.003) and sP-selectin (median 204.1 versus 112.4 ng/ml, mean 209.9 ± 124 versus 124.1 ± 32; P = 0.0005) plasma levels were significantly increased in the group of patients with acute psychosis as compared with healthy volunteers. We found a trend (median 148% versus 110%, mean 160 ± 72.5 versus 123 ± 62.5; P = 0.062) of increased plasma levels of factor VIII in psychotic patients as compared with healthy volunteers. Conclusions The results suggest that at least a part of venous thromboembolic events in patients with acute psychosis may be induced by pathogenic mechanisms related to psychosis rather than by antipsychotic treatment. Finding an exact cause for venous thromboembolism in psychotic patients is necessary for its effective treatment and prevention. PMID:21199572

  7. No Difference in Cross-Modal Attention or Sensory Discrimination Thresholds in Autism and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Sarah M; Heeger, David J; Heller, Laurie; Gupta, Akshat; Dinstein, Ilan; Minshew, Nancy J; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Autism has been associated with abnormalities in sensory and attentional processing. Here, we assessed these processes independently in the visual and auditory domains using a visual contrast-discrimination task and an auditory modulation-depth discrimination task. To evaluate changes in sensory function by attention, we measured behavioral performance (discrimination accuracy) when subjects were cued to attend and respond to the same stimulus (frequent valid cue) or cued to attend to one stimulus and respond to the non-cued stimulus (infrequent invalid cue). The stimuli were presented at threshold to ensure equal difficulty across participants and groups. Results from fifteen high-functioning adult individuals with autism and fifteen matched controls revealed no significant differences in visual or auditory discrimination thresholds across groups. Furthermore, attention robustly modulated performance accuracy (performance was better for valid than invalid cues) in both sensory modalities and to an equivalent extent in both groups. In conclusion, when using this well-controlled method, we found no evidence of atypical sensory function or atypical attentional modulation in a group of high functioning individuals with clear autism symptomatology. PMID:26940029

  8. Scoring system to predict asymptomatic choledocholithiasis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Costi, R; Gobbi, S; Iusco, D; Sgobba, G; Roncoroni, L

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate if a recently proposed score system based on six preoperative parameters [history of colic pain and/or jaundice, dyspepsia, cholecystitis, ultrasound (US), evidence of common bile duct stones (CBDS), number and size of gallbladder stones at US, level of serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and/or alkaline phosphatase is effective in the selection of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with asymptomatic CBDS and could allow a significant reduction of the total number of preoperative examinations. In the case group, 408 patients were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-risk classes and underwent, respectively, no further preoperative assessment of the bile duct, intravenous cholangiography (IVC), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was performed whenever the surgeon was in doubt as to biliary anatomy or bile duct clearance. These patients were compared with 408 retrospectively matched patients (control group) undergoing routine preoperative IVC and/or ERC. In the case group, significantly lower numbers of IVC (120 vs 392) and IOC (3 vs 16) were performed ( p < 0.005), whereas no difference in the total number of ERCs was noted. One patient in the control group had retained CBDS detected during follow-up evaluation, whereas none occurred in the case group. The proposed scoring system allows selective use of IVC, ERC, and/or IOC in patients undergoing elective LC.

  9. Fundamental differences in axial and appendicular bone density in stress fractured and uninjured Royal Marine recruits--a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davey, Trish; Lanham-New, Susan A; Shaw, Anneliese M; Cobley, Rosalyn; Allsopp, Adrian J; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Arnett, Timothy R; Taylor, Pat; Cooper, Cyrus; Fallowfield, Joanne L

    2015-04-01

    Stress fracture is a common overuse injury within military training, resulting in significant economic losses to the military worldwide. Studies to date have failed to fully identify the bone density and bone structural differences between stress fractured personnel and controls due to inadequate adjustment for key confounding factors; namely age, body size and physical fitness; and poor sample size. The aim of this study was to investigate bone differences between male Royal Marine recruits who suffered a stress fracture during the 32 weeks of training and uninjured control recruits, matched for age, body weight, height and aerobic fitness. A total of 1090 recruits were followed through training and 78 recruits suffered at least one stress fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and whole body (WB) using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in 62 matched pairs; tibial bone parameters were measured using peripheral Quantitative Computer Tomography in 51 matched pairs. Serum C-terminal peptide concentration was measured as a marker of bone resorption at baseline, week-15 and week-32. ANCOVA was used to determine differences between stress fractured recruits and controls. BMD at the LS, WB and FN sites was consistently lower in the stress fracture group (P<0.001). Structural differences between the stress fracture recruits and controls were evident in all slices of the tibia, with the most prominent differences seen at the 38% tibial slice. There was a negative correlation between the bone cross-sectional area and BMD at the 38% tibial slice. There was no difference in serum CTx concentration between stress fracture recruits and matched controls at any stage of training. These results show evidence of fundamental differences in bone mass and structure in stress fracture recruits, and provide useful data on bone risk factor profiles for stress fracture within a healthy military population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published

  10. Fatal injuries in the slums of Nairobi and their risk factors: results from a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ziraba, Abdhalah Kasiira; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

    2011-06-01

    Injuries contribute significantly to the rising morbidity and mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases in the developing world. Unfortunately, active injury surveillance is lacking in many developing countries, including Kenya. This study aims to describe and identify causes of and risk factors for fatal injuries in two slums in Nairobi city using a demographic surveillance system framework. The causes of death are determined using verbal autopsies. We used a nested case-control study design with all deaths from injuries between 2003 and 2005 as cases. Two controls were randomly selected from the non-injury deaths over the same period and individually matched to each case on age and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modeling to identity individual- and community-level factors associated with fatal injuries. Intentional injuries accounted for about 51% and unintentional injuries accounted for 49% of all injuries. Homicides accounted for 91% of intentional injuries and 47% of all injury-related deaths. Firearms (23%) and road traffic crashes (22%) were the leading single causes of deaths due to injuries. About 15% of injuries were due to substance intoxication, particularly alcohol, which in this community comes from illicit brews and is at times contaminated with methanol. Results suggest that in the pervasively unsafe and insecure environment that characterizes the urban slums, ethnicity, residence, and area level factors contribute significantly to the risk of injury-related mortality.

  11. Cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk: a nested case-control study matched on cigarette smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Ruczinski, Ingo; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Shugart, Yin Yao; Caulfield, Laura E.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Due predominantly to cigarette smoking, lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death worldwide. Cruciferous vegetables may reduce lung cancer risk. The association between intake of cruciferous vegetables and lung cancer risk was investigated in the CLUE II study, a community-based cohort established in 1989. Methods We matched 274 incident cases of lung cancer diagnosed from 1990–2005 to 1089 cancer-free controls on age, sex, and cigarette smoking. Dietary information was collected at baseline. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results Intake of cruciferous vegetables were inversely associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest fourth: OR Q4vsQ1=0. 57; 95%CI = 0.38–0.85; p-trend=0.01). The inverse associations held true for former smokers (ORQ4vsQ1=0.49; 95%CI = 0.27–0.92; p-trend=0.05) and current smokers (ORQ4vsQ1)= 0.52; 95%CI = 0.29–0.95; p-trend=0.02). Conclusions After careful control of cigarette smoking, higher intake of cruciferous vegetable was associated with lower risk of lung cancer. Impact The observed inversed association coupled with the accumulating evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetables are inversely associated lung cancer risk and this association seems to hold true beyond the confounding effects of cigarette smoking. PMID:20841387

  12. Patients with endometriosis have aneuploidy rates equivalent to their age-matched peers in the in vitro fertilization population.

    PubMed

    Juneau, Caroline; Kraus, Emily; Werner, Marie; Franasiak, Jason; Morin, Scott; Patounakis, George; Molinaro, Thomas; de Ziegler, Dominique; Scott, Richard T

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether endometriosis ultimately results in an increased risk of embryonic aneuploidy. Retrospective cohort. Infertility clinic. Patients participating in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle from 2009-2015 using preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) who had endometriosis identified by surgical diagnosis or by ultrasound findings consistent with a persistent space-occupying disease whose sonographic appearance was consistent with endometriosis. None. Rate of aneuploidy in endometriosis patients undergoing IVF compared to controls without endometriosis undergoing IVF. There were 305 patients with endometriosis who produced 1,880 blastocysts that met the criteria for inclusion in the endometriosis group. The mean age of the patients with endometriosis was 36.1 ± 3.9 years. When the aneuploidy rates in patients with endometriosis and aneuploidy rates in patients without endometriosis were stratified by Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology age groups and compared, there were no statistically significant differences in the rate of aneuploidy (odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.85). Patients with endometriosis undergoing IVF have aneuploidy rates equivalent to their age-matched peers in IVF population who do not have endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Network-based regularization for matched case-control analysis of high-dimensional DNA methylation data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hokeun; Wang, Shuang

    2013-05-30

    The matched case-control designs are commonly used to control for potential confounding factors in genetic epidemiology studies especially epigenetic studies with DNA methylation. Compared with unmatched case-control studies with high-dimensional genomic or epigenetic data, there have been few variable selection methods for matched sets. In an earlier paper, we proposed the penalized logistic regression model for the analysis of unmatched DNA methylation data using a network-based penalty. However, for popularly applied matched designs in epigenetic studies that compare DNA methylation between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues or between pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions, applying ordinary logistic regression ignoring matching is known to bring serious bias in estimation. In this paper, we developed a penalized conditional logistic model using the network-based penalty that encourages a grouping effect of (1) linked Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites within a gene or (2) linked genes within a genetic pathway for analysis of matched DNA methylation data. In our simulation studies, we demonstrated the superiority of using conditional logistic model over unconditional logistic model in high-dimensional variable selection problems for matched case-control data. We further investigated the benefits of utilizing biological group or graph information for matched case-control data. We applied the proposed method to a genome-wide DNA methylation study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) where we investigated the DNA methylation levels of tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from HCC patients by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 Beadchip. Several new CpG sites and genes known to be related to HCC were identified but were missed by the standard method in the original paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Katz, R T; Golden, R S; Butter, J; Tepper, D; Rothke, S; Holmes, J; Sahgal, V

    1990-02-01

    Driving after brain damage is a vital issue, considering the large number of patients who suffer from cerebrovascular and traumatic encephalopathy. The ability to operate a motor vehicle is an integral part of independence for most adults and so should be preserved whenever possible. The physician may estimate a patient's ability to drive safely based on his own examination, the evaluation of a neuropsychologist, and a comprehensive driving evaluation--testing, driving simulation, behind-the-wheel observation--with a driving specialist. This study sought to evaluate the ability of brain-damaged individuals to operate a motor vehicle safely at follow-up. These patients had been evaluated (by a physician, a neuropsychologist, and a driving specialist) and were judged able to operate a motor vehicle safely after their cognitive insult. Twenty-two brain-damaged patients who were evaluated at our institution were successfully followed up to five years (mean interval of 2.67 years). Patients were interviewed by telephone. Their driving safely was compared with a control group consisting of a close friend or spouse of each patient. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between patient and control groups in the type of driving, the incidence of speeding tickets, near accidents, and accidents, and the cost of vehicle damage when accidents occurred. The patient group was further divided into those who had, and those who had not experienced driving difficulties so that initial neuropsychologic testing could be compared. No significant differences were noted in any aspect of the neuropsychologic test battery. We conclude that selected brain-damaged patients who have passed a comprehensive driving assessment as outlined were as fit to drive as were their normal matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  16. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. Methods: We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40–79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Results: Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86–7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13–16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke. PMID:27025681

  17. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Chiaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40-79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86-7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13-16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke.

  18. Comparing risk factors for primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and primary drug-susceptible tuberculosis in Jiangsu province, China: a matched-pairs case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Lu, Wei; Zu, Rong-Qiang; Zhu, Li-Mei; Yang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Cheng; Shen, Tao; Zeng, Guang; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2015-02-01

    To find out the reason why some people get infected directly with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), whereas some get infected with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB), a 1:1:1 matched-pairs case-control study was conducted to identify predictors associated with primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB against the control in Jiangsu Province, China. All three groups were geographically matched (by neighborhood) and matched on sex and age (±5 years). In total, 110 participants were enrolled in each of three matched groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that predictors independently associated with primary MDR-TB were illiteracy or primary school education, annual per capita income ≤ US$2,000, per capita living space < 40 m(2), and interval ≥ 7 days of eating fruits; predictors with primary DS-TB were body mass index ≤ 20 and feeling higher life pressure. This indicates that there are different predictors impacting the transmission range of primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB in the general population.

  19. Hippocampus age-related microstructural changes in schizophrenia: a case-control mean diffusivity study.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-08-01

    Macrostructural-volumetric abnormalities of the hippocampus have been described in schizophrenia. Here, we characterized age-related changes of hippocampal mean diffusivity as an index of microstructural damage by carrying out a neuroimaging study in 85 patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and 85 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We performed analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor, mean diffusivity as dependent variable and age as covariate. Patients showed an early increase in mean diffusivity in the right and left hippocampus that increased with age. Thus, microstructural hippocampal changes associated with schizophrenia cannot be confined to a specific time window.

  20. Dynamic oropharyngeal and faecal microbiota during treatment in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis compared with age-matched healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qian; Dai, Wenkui; Zhou, Qian; Fu, Dan; Zheng, Yuejie; Wang, Wenjian; Liu, Yanhong; Yang, Qin; Dai, Dongling; Liu, Sixi; Liu, Guosheng; Li, Shuaicheng; Wen, Feiqiu

    2017-09-12

    Bronchiolitis is one of the most severe diseases affecting infants worldwide. An imbalanced oropharynx (OP) microbiota has been reported in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis; however, the microbiota dynamics in the OP and faeces during therapy remain unexplored. In total, 27 infants who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis were selected for this study, and sampling was conducted before therapy and after clinical recovery. We also recruited 22 age-matched healthy infants for this study. The faecal and OP microbiota diversity in the patients was lower than that in the healthy children. The faecal microbiota (FM) in the diseased children significantly differed from that in the healthy subjects and contained accumulated Bacteroides and Streptococcus. The OP microbiota in both the healthy and diseased infants was dominated by Streptococcus. After the treatment, the FM and OP microbiota in the patients was comparable to that before the treatment. This study may serve as an additional reference for future bronchiolitis studies, and the "risk microbiota model" of clinically recovered infants suggests an increased susceptibility to pathogen intrusion.

  1. Factors associated with rifampin resistance in staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJI): a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Y; Eigenmann, K; Ledergerber, B; Derksen, L; Rafeiner, P; Clauss, M; Nüesch, R; Zellweger, C; Vogt, M; Zimmerli, W

    2013-04-01

    Rifampin combination therapy plays an important role in the management of staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, the emergence of rifampin resistance is a feared complication. We retrospectively analysed predetermined potential risk factors in patients with rifampin-resistant staphylococcal PJI in a multicentre case-control study. Cases (n = 48) were defined as PJI caused by rifampin-resistant staphylococci. Rifampin-susceptible controls (n = 48) were matched for microorganism and type of prosthetic joint. Uni- and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Forty-eight cases (31 men; median age 67 years; age range 39-88 years) with hip- (n = 29), knee- (n = 13), elbow- (n = 4), shoulder- (n = 1) or ankle-PJI (n = 1) were enrolled in the study. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in ten and 38 episodes, respectively. Most of the cases (n = 44, 92 %) had a previous PJI, and 93 % (n = 41) of these had been treated with rifampin. There was an independent association of emergence of rifampin resistance with male sex (OR 3.6, 95 % CI 1.2-11), ≥ 3 previous surgical revisions (OR 4.7, 95 % CI 1.6-14.2), PJI treatment with high initial bacterial load (inadequate surgical debridement, <2 weeks of intravenous treatment of the combination medication; OR 4.9, 95 % CI 1.6-15) and inadequate rifampin therapy (OR 5.4, 95 % CI 1.2-25). Based on our results, extensive surgical debridement and adequate antibiotic therapy are needed to prevent the emergence of rifampin resistance.

  2. Dissociative Symptoms and Reported Trauma Among Patients with Spirit Possession and Matched Healthy Controls in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gernaat, Hajo B. P. E.; de Jong, Joop T.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events. PMID:20401630

  3. On the matching equations of energy shaping controllers for mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasta, N.; Ortega, Romeo; Pillai, Harish K.

    2015-09-01

    Total energy shaping is a controller design methodology that achieves (asymptotic) stabilisation of mechanical systems endowing the closed-loop system with a Lagrangian or Hamiltonian structure with a desired energy function. The success of the method relies on the possibility of solving two partial differential equations (PDEs) which identify the kinetic and potential energy functions that can be assigned to the closed loop. Particularly troublesome is the PDE associated to the kinetic energy (KE) which is quasi-linear and non-homogeneous, and the solution that defines the desired inertia matrix must be positive definite. This task is simplified by the inclusion of gyroscopic forces in the target dynamics, which translates into the presence of a free skew-symmetric matrix in the KE matching equation that reduces the number of PDEs to be solved. Recently, it has been claimed that considering a more general form for the target dynamic forces that relax the skew-symmetry condition further reduces the number of KE PDEs. The purpose of this paper is to prove that this claim is wrong.

  4. Preliminary Experience Using Full-Spectrum Endoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sayo; Imai, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Masao; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. High-quality colonoscopy is needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) has recently shown potential in improving adenoma detection during colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Methods. From April 2015 to February 2016, 130 patients underwent FUSE colonoscopy for screening at a tertiary cancer center. Cecal intubation rate (CIR), procedure time, polyp/adenoma detection rate (PDR/ADR), and mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC) were compared in matched-control patients (n = 260) who underwent standard colonoscopy (SC). Accordingly, endoscopists subjectively evaluated the utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Results. The CIR of FUSE colonoscopy was 94.6%. Cecal intubation time (8.8 min versus 5.1 min, P < 0.001) and total procedure time (21.6 min versus 17.3 min, P < 0.001) in the FUSE group were significantly longer than those in the SC group. PDR (68.3 versus 71.2%, P = 0.567), ADR (63.4% versus 58.5%, P = 0.355), and APC (1.4 versus 1.4, P = 0.917) were not significantly different between the two groups. The wide view of FUSE colonoscopy was superior to that of SC based on the questionnaires. Conclusions. FUSE colonoscopy did not demonstrate superiority to SC in a clinical setting. PMID:27994617

  5. Dissociative symptoms and reported trauma among patients with spirit possession and matched healthy controls in Uganda.

    PubMed

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H; Gernaat, Hajo B P E; de Jong, Joop T

    2010-06-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events.

  6. Self-injury in people with intellectual disability and epilepsy: a matched controlled study.

    PubMed

    Buono, Serafino; Scannella, Fabio; Palmigiano, Maria Bernadette; Elia, Maurizio; Kerr, Mike; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to identify the presence of self-injurious behavior in a sample of 158 people with intellectual disability and epilepsy as compared with a control sample consisting of 195 people with intellectual disability without epilepsy. The Italian Scale for the Assessment of self-injurious behaviors was used to describe self-injurious behavior in both groups. The groups were matched for ID degree: mild/moderate (20 and 20 respectively), severe/profound (45 in both samples) and unknown (4 in both samples). Seventy-four percent of the first sample were diagnosed with symptomatic partial epilepsy. The prevalence of self-injurious behaviors was 44% in the group with intellectual disability and epilepsy and 46.5% in the group with intellectual disability without epilepsy (difference not significant). The areas most affected by self-injurious behaviors in both samples were the hands, the mouth and the head. The most frequent types of self-injurious behaviors were self-biting, self-hitting with hands and with objects. Self-injurious behavior is frequently observed in individuals with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Our study does not suggest that the presence of epilepsy is a risk factor for self-injurious behavior in this patient group. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicidal ideation in adult offspring of depressed and matched control parents: childhood and concurrent predictors.

    PubMed

    Valenstein, Helen; Cronkite, Ruth C; Moos, Rudolf H; Snipes, Cassandra; Timko, Christine

    2012-10-01

    Suicidal ideation predicts suicide behaviors; however, research is needed on risk factors for suicidal ideation in adults, a common developmental period for first suicide attempts. To examine childhood and concurrent predictors of suicidal ideation among 340 adult offspring of depressed and matched control parents. Parents were assessed at baseline, and adult offspring were assessed 23 years later. Offspring who reported past-month suicidal ideation (7%) had parents who, 23 years earlier, reported suicidal ideation, psychological inflexibility and use of avoidance coping. Offspring experiencing suicidal ideation were more likely to be unemployed and more depressed, consumed more alcohol and had more drinking problems. They were more anxious and inflexible, had weaker social ties and less cohesive families and had more negative life events and used more avoidance coping. A childhood risk index predicted offspring's suicidal ideation above and beyond concurrent factors. Along with concurrent risk factors, poor parental functioning may confer long-term risk for adult suicidal ideation. Interventions to prevent the transmission of suicidal ideation to offspring should focus on ameliorating parental risk factors.

  8. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Independently ambulant, community-dwelling stroke survivors have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility and knee strength compared to an age- and gender-matched cohort.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ashlee; Marsden, Dianne L; Van Vliet, Paulette; Spratt, Neil J; Callister, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Most exercise interventions for stroke survivors are designed for those who have substantial motor and functional disabilities. There remains a group of well-recovered stroke survivors who have yet to be investigated in terms of their physical capacity and fitness levels. To assess and compare the physical capacities of independently ambulant, community-dwelling stroke survivors to age- and gender-matched comparison participants. Data were obtained from 17 stroke survivors participating in the How FITSS? Trial, all with functional ambulatory category of ≥4 and a self-selected walking speed ≥0.8 m s(-1). An additional 17 healthy control participants were recruited. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was measured using oxygen consumption (VO2peak), and additional measures of walking speed (m s(-1)), leg strength and body composition were also assessed. Differences between groups were assessed by matched pairs t-tests. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, muscle mass or body fat between groups (p > 0.05). Peak VO2 was lower in the stroke group for the shuttle walk test (p = 0.037) and progressive cycle test (p = 0.019), as were all CRF test performance measures (p < 0.05). Stroke survivors walked significantly (p < 0.001) slower at both self-selected and fast speeds. Effect sizes of group differences for all leg strength variables were medium to large, with peak torque lower in the stroke group for all trials. Despite being independently ambulant and community dwelling, the CRF, walking speed and leg strength of this group were reduced compared to non-stroke comparison participants. These patients may benefit from undertaking targeted exercise programmes.

  10. Association between Oral Health Status and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Sudanese Adults: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hasaan G.; Idris, Shaza B.; Ahmed, Mutaz F.; Bøe, Olav E.; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O.; Åstrøm, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and subjective oral health indicators of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) with age and gender matched non-diabetic controls. A second aim was to identify clinical and subjective oral health indicators that discriminate between well-controlled and poorly controlled T2DM patients as well as between patients with long and short duration of the disease. Methods A total of 457 individuals participated in the study (154 T2DM cases and 303 non-diabetic controls). The T2DM group was sub-divided according to metabolic control [(well-controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test ≤8%), (poorly controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test > 8%)] and according to duration of T2DM [(long duration: >10 years), (short duration: ≤10 years)]. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including socio-demographics, lifestyle and oral health related quality of life factors. The clinical examination comprised full mouth probing depths, plaque index, tooth mobility index, furcation involvement and coronal and root surface caries. Results The T2DM patients presented with more probing depths ≥4mm, furcation involvement, tooth mobility, missing teeth, and oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP). The corresponding adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were 4.07 (1.74–9.49), 2.96 (1.36–6.45), 5.90 (2.26–15.39), 0.23 (0.08–0.63) and 3.46 (1.61–7.42), respectively. Moreover, the odds ratio was 2.60 (1.21–5.55) for the poorly controlled T2DM patients to have high levels of mobility index and 2.94 (1.24–6.94) for those with long duration of T2DM to have high decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT) values. Conclusion This study revealed that chronic periodontitis, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and OIDP were more prevalent among T2DM patients compared to their non-diabetic controls. PMID:24349205

  11. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Menno; Brinkman, Sally A; Beatty, Amanda; Maika, Amelia; Satriawan, Elan; de Ree, Joppe; Hasan, Amer

    2013-08-16

    This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline data collections. Considering the

  12. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. Methods/Design The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. Discussion This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline

  13. Lumbar spine movement patterns during prolonged sitting differentiate low back pain developers from matched asymptomatic controls.

    PubMed

    Dunk, Nadine M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how lumbar spine movement influences mechanical changes and the potential injurious effects of prolonged flexion associated with seated postures. The purpose of this study was to examine the postural responses and pain scores of low back pain sufferers compared with asymptomatic individuals during prolonged sitting in order to understand the biomechanical factors that may be associated with sitting induced low back pain. Sixteen participants with sitting-aggravated low back pain were age- and gender-matched with 16 asymptomatic participants. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to monitor lumbar spine angles during 90 minutes of seated computer work. Lumbar spine postures were examined using a movement pattern analysis of two types of postural adjustments, termed shifts (step-like adjustments larger than 5 degrees and fidgets (small change and return to approximately the same position). The LBP group reported large significant increases (P < 0.0001) in low back pain while asymptomatic individuals reported little to no pain. On average, every participant fidgeted every 40 to 50 seconds. However, only the LBP sufferers demonstrated a significant increase (P=0.04) in the number of shifts over 90 minutes of seated work; the LBP group shifted every 4 minutes in the last 30 minutes of sitting compared to every 10 minutes for the asymptomatic group. LBP sufferers also demonstrated larger amplitudes of shifts and fidgets when compared to the asymptomatic group. Greater and more frequent movement was not beneficial and did not reduce pain in individuals with pre-existing LBP. Future work to understand the biomechanical effects of proactively inducing movement may help to explain the paradox of the relationship between movement and pain.

  14. Symmetry and stimulus class formation in humans: Control by temporal location in a successive matching task.

    PubMed

    Beurms, Sarah; Traets, Frits; De Houwer, Jan; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Symmetry refers to the observation that subjects will derive B-A (e.g., in the presence of B, select A) after being trained on A-B (e.g., in the presence of A, select B). Whereas symmetry is readily shown in humans, it has been difficult to demonstrate in nonhuman animals. This difficulty, at least in pigeons, may result from responding to specific stimulus properties that change when sample and comparison stimuli switch roles between training and testing. In three experiments with humans, we investigated to what extent human responding is influenced by the temporal location of stimuli using a successive matching-to-sample procedure. Our results indicate that temporal location does not spontaneously control responding in humans, although it does in pigeons. Therefore, the number of functional stimuli that humans respond to in this procedure may be half of the number of functional stimuli that the pigeons respond to. In a fourth experiment, we tested this assumption by doubling the number of functional stimuli controlling responding in human participants in an attempt to make the test more comparable to symmetry tests with pigeons. Here, we found that humans responded according to indirect class formation in the same manner as pigeons do. In sum, our results indicate that functional symmetry is readily observed in humans, even in cases where the temporal features of the stimuli prevent functional symmetry in pigeons. We argue that this difference in behavior between the two species does not necessarily reflect a difference in capacity to show functional symmetry between both species, but could also reflect a difference in the functional stimuli each species responds to. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. [Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A multicenter matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Arias-Ortiz, Paola Mariana; Calderón, Libia Del Pilar; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Moreno, José; Leal, Aura Lucía; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Grebo, Grupo

    2016-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent pathogen at critical care services. Its presence leads to increased hospital stays and mortality risk in patients with bacteremia. However, the etiology of this resistance marker has not been fully studied. To identify risk factors associated with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in critically ill patients treated at intensive care units in Bogotá, Colombia. We conducted a retrospective paired case-control study, nested in a cohort of patients diagnosed with S. aureus bacteremia and treated at intensive care units between 2006 and 2008 in Bogotá. Cases were patients with positive blood culture to methicillin resistance, matched in a 1:1 ratio with methicillin-sensitive controls isolated from the same institution and hospitalization year. We used conditional logistic regression to analyze the risk factors associated with the presence of resistance, with emphasis on prior antibiotic therapy. We included 372 patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Factors such as the use of pre-hospital devices: vascular (OR=1.986, 95% CI 1.038 to 3.801) and urinary (OR=2.559, 95% CI: 1.170 to 5.596), along with the number of previously used antibiotics, were associated with the emergence of resistance. The number of antibiotics used previously was determined to have a gradient effect, particularly carbapenems. The rational use of antibiotics and surveillance of exposure to surgical procedures or use of invasive devices are interventions that could diminish the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia causes.

  16. Sex hormones and adipokines in healthy pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and elderly women, and in age-matched men: data from the Brisighella Heart study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F G; Magni, P; Lentini, P; Ruscica, M; Dozio, E; Strollo, F; Borghi, C

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones and adipokines seem to differently interact in both genders at different ages. To comparatively evaluate the serum level of adipokines and sex hormones in healthy non-pharmacologically treated premenopausal women, post-menopausal women, and elderly women, and in age-matched men. From the historical cohort of the Brisighella Heart Study we selected 199 adult healthy subjects (males: 89; females: 110), aged 62.5±12.4 yr. Men and women included in the age-class subgroups were matched for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, plasma lipids. Leptin did not differ among various age classes in men, while pre-menopausal women displayed significantly lower serum leptin than post-menopausal women (-6.7 ± 2.2 pg/ml, p=0.036). Post-menopausal women had significantly greater serum leptin when compared with age-matched men (+13.1 ± 2.0 pg/ml, p<0.001); the same was observed for elderly women when compared with elderly men (+11.2 ± 2.3 pg/ml, p<0.001). At any age, women had significantly lower serum testosterone/estrone ratio than age-matched men (p<0.01). Serum DHEAS was inversely proportional to age in both genders. The main predictors of adiponectin level are age in men (p=0.027) and BMI in women (p=0.003). The main predictors of leptin level are BMI and the testosterone/estrone ratio in both sexes (p<0.05). The testosterone/estrone ratio is also the main predictor of ghrelin levels in women (p=0.006). Sex hormones and adipokines show specific interactions in the two genders and in different age-classes in a representative sample of adult healthy subjects.

  17. Degradation of postural control with aging.

    PubMed

    Baltich, Jennifer; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Benno M

    2015-09-01

    Aging negatively impacts the ability to maintain postural stability due to degraded control systems. The entropic half-life, a non-linear variable that quantifies the transition of sample entropy with increasing time scales, quantifies the time that elapses before old positional information no longer influences, or is no longer related to, the control mechanisms that regulate the movement at the current center of pressure location. The entropic half-life provides a more representative and comprehendible way of detecting changes in complexity using measurement units of time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aging on the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure movement during quiet single-limb stance. Center of pressure data of 24 older and 24 younger subjects were analyzed. The complexity of the temporal structure of the center of pressure signal was quantified by calculating the entropic half-life of the center of pressure in the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. The magnitude of movement was quantified using excursion of the center of pressure in the medio-lateral and anterior-posterior directions, the path length, and the 95% ellipse area of the center of pressure. The older subjects demonstrated a significantly shorter entropic half-life for the center of pressure in the anterior-posterior direction (p < 0.001), longer excursions of the center of pressure in the medio-lateral (p < 0.001) and anterior-posterior (p = 0.001) directions, increased center of pressure path lengths (p < 0.001), and increased 95% ellipse areas of the center of pressure (p < 0.001). The results from this study showed that even though older subjects demonstrated more frequent postural adjustments (shorter entropic half-life), this did not help to reduce the magnitude of movement of their center of pressure during quiet stance, thus indicating an impaired peripheral and/or central neuromuscular control mechanism. © IMechE 2015.

  18. Concordance between decision analysis and matching systematic review of randomized controlled trials in assessment of treatment comparisons: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Rahul S; Wao, Hesborn; Mahony, Helen; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2014-07-15

    Systematic review (SR) of randomized controlled trials (RCT) is the gold standard for informing treatment choice. Decision analyses (DA) also play an important role in informing health care decisions. It is unknown how often the results of DA and matching SR of RCTs are in concordance. We assessed whether the results of DA are in concordance with SR of RCTs matched on patient population, intervention, control, and outcomes. We searched PubMed up to 2008 for DAs comparing at least two interventions followed by matching SRs of RCTs. Data were extracted on patient population, intervention, control, and outcomes from DAs and matching SRs of RCTs. Data extraction from DAs was done by one reviewer and from SR of RCTs by two independent reviewers. We identified 28 DAs representing 37 comparisons for which we found matching SR of RCTs. Results of the DAs and SRs of RCTs were in concordance in 73% (27/37) of cases. The sensitivity analyses conducted in either DA or SR of RCTs did not impact the concordance. Use of single (4/37) versus multiple data source (33/37) in design of DA model was statistically significantly associated with concordance between DA and SR of RCTs. Our findings illustrate the high concordance of current DA models compared with SR of RCTs. It is shown previously that there is 50% concordance between DA and matching single RCT. Our study showing the concordance of 73% between DA and matching SR of RCTs underlines the importance of totality of evidence (i.e. SR of RCTs) in the design of DA models and in general medical decision-making.

  19. Concordance between decision analysis and matching systematic review of randomized controlled trials in assessment of treatment comparisons: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic review (SR) of randomized controlled trials (RCT) is the gold standard for informing treatment choice. Decision analyses (DA) also play an important role in informing health care decisions. It is unknown how often the results of DA and matching SR of RCTs are in concordance. We assessed whether the results of DA are in concordance with SR of RCTs matched on patient population, intervention, control, and outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed up to 2008 for DAs comparing at least two interventions followed by matching SRs of RCTs. Data were extracted on patient population, intervention, control, and outcomes from DAs and matching SRs of RCTs. Data extraction from DAs was done by one reviewer and from SR of RCTs by two independent reviewers. Results We identified 28 DAs representing 37 comparisons for which we found matching SR of RCTs. Results of the DAs and SRs of RCTs were in concordance in 73% (27/37) of cases. The sensitivity analyses conducted in either DA or SR of RCTs did not impact the concordance. Use of single (4/37) versus multiple data source (33/37) in design of DA model was statistically significantly associated with concordance between DA and SR of RCTs. Conclusions Our findings illustrate the high concordance of current DA models compared with SR of RCTs. It is shown previously that there is 50% concordance between DA and matching single RCT. Our study showing the concordance of 73% between DA and matching SR of RCTs underlines the importance of totality of evidence (i.e. SR of RCTs) in the design of DA models and in general medical decision-making. PMID:25023450

  20. Lack of Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Diabetes Mellitus: A Matched Case-Control Study in a Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Loera-Moncivais, Nayely; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Madrid, Guillermina; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Centeno-Tinoco, Maria Magdalena; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada A; Salas-Pacheco, Jose M; Campos-Moreno, Oscar Vladimir; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema

    2017-06-01

    Very little is known about the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and diabetes mellitus. We perform an age- and gender-matched case-control study to determine the association of T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus. Cases included 156 patients with diabetes mellitus and 156 controls without diabetes mellitus who attended in two public clinics in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were tested for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked fluorescence assays (ELFA). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.4%) of the 156 cases and in five (3.2%) of the 156 controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 - 6.19; P = 0.18). The frequency of high (> 150 IU/mL) anti-T. gondii IgG levels in seropositive cases (1/10: 10.0%) was comparable to the one (1/5: 20%) in seropositive controls (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.02 - 9.03; P = 1.00). None of the 10 cases and five controls with seropositivity to anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Stratification by gender showed similar frequencies of T. gondii infection in female cases (7/107: 6.5%) and female controls (4/107: 3.7%) (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 0.51 - 6.34; P = 0.53), and in male cases (3/49: 6.1%) and male controls (1/49: 2.0%) (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 0.31 - 31.19; P = 0.61). We conclude that there is not serological evidence of an association between T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus in the studied subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to elucidate the role of T. gondii in diabetes should be conducted.

  1. Lack of Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Diabetes Mellitus: A Matched Case-Control Study in a Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Loera-Moncivais, Nayely; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Madrid, Guillermina; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Centeno-Tinoco, Maria Magdalena; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada A.; Salas-Pacheco, Jose M.; Campos-Moreno, Oscar Vladimir; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema

    2017-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and diabetes mellitus. We perform an age- and gender-matched case-control study to determine the association of T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus. Methods Cases included 156 patients with diabetes mellitus and 156 controls without diabetes mellitus who attended in two public clinics in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were tested for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked fluorescence assays (ELFA). Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.4%) of the 156 cases and in five (3.2%) of the 156 controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 - 6.19; P = 0.18). The frequency of high (> 150 IU/mL) anti-T. gondii IgG levels in seropositive cases (1/10: 10.0%) was comparable to the one (1/5: 20%) in seropositive controls (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.02 - 9.03; P = 1.00). None of the 10 cases and five controls with seropositivity to anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Stratification by gender showed similar frequencies of T. gondii infection in female cases (7/107: 6.5%) and female controls (4/107: 3.7%) (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 0.51 - 6.34; P = 0.53), and in male cases (3/49: 6.1%) and male controls (1/49: 2.0%) (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 0.31 - 31.19; P = 0.61). Conclusions We conclude that there is not serological evidence of an association between T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus in the studied subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to elucidate the role of T. gondii in diabetes should be conducted. PMID:28496551

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    PubMed

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (P<0.02). Black hypertensive patients versus white hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all P<0.001) and lower night-time BP fall 8.3 ± 6.9 versus 10.1 ± 8.7% (P<0.02) and higher BP variability. Differences were still significant in all decades above 30 years of age and when calculations were carried out separately for both men and women. The average 24-h heart rate did not differ between groups. Our data suggest that untreated black hypertensive patients systematically present higher clinic and ABP values and a lower night-time BP fall than untreated white hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  3. Factors affecting fetal bradycardia following combined spinal epidural for labor analgesia: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Su Lin Maureen; Bautista, Dianne; Leo, Serene; Sia, Tiong Heng Alex

    2013-04-01

    The combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique for labor analgesia has become increasingly popular owing to its rapid onset of analgesia. However, incidences of fetal bradycardia following CSE have been reported. This study aimed to identify predictors of fetal bradycardia post CSE, such as a decrease in pain scores, the block height, Prostin (dinoprostone; Pfizer) use, and dosage of oxytocin. From May 2008 to October 2008, 29 patients were identified to have had an episode of fetal bradycardia. Each case was then matched to three controls, according to age and American Society of Anesthesiology status, selected from 2345 parturients who received a CSE during this period. A unit improvement in the pain score was associated with an increase in the odds of fetal bradycardia by 1.28 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.60). In a second logistic regression model including sensory level higher than T9, the effect size remained consistent with an odds ratio of 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.97-1.53), supporting the theory that a higher level of sympathetic block (with a higher sensory block taken as a surrogate marker) results in an increased risk of fetal bradycardia. The dosage of oxytocin and the quantity of Prostin used were not found to be risk factors. The difference between pre- and post-CSE pain scores, and a higher sensory block height, which are surrogates for a greater degree of sympatholysis, were found to be risk factors for fetal bradycardia post CSE.

  4. Combined effects of neuroticism and extraversion: findings from a matched case control study of suicide in rural China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Le; Heisel, Marnin J; Duberstein, Paul R; Zhang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are potentially important markers of personality vulnerability to suicide. Whereas previous studies have examined these traits independently, we examined their combined effects. Data were collected from family members and/or friends of individuals 18 years or older who died by suicide (n = 64) in rural China and from age-, sex-, and geographically matched controls (n = 64). Personality was assessed with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Individuals with a personality style characterized by high neuroticism and low extraversion were at 3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-6.55) times greater risk for suicide than were individuals without this personality style; in contrast, a style characterized by low neuroticism and high extraversion conferred decreased suicide risk (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 1.44-6.55). We conclude that it may be clinically inadequate to conceptualize neuroticism, by itself, as a risk marker for suicide. However, when the negative affect characteristic of neuroticism is combined with the joylessness, pessimism, and hopelessness characteristic of low extraversion, risk for suicide is elevated.

  5. Change in dietary intake of adults with intermittent claudication undergoing a supervised exercise program and compared to matched controls.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Christopher L; Miller, Michelle D; Dickinson, Kacie M; Spark, J Ian

    2014-10-15

    Presence of numerous diet responsive comorbidities and high atherosclerotic burden among adults with intermittent claudication demands attention is given to diet in an effort to delay progression of peripheral artery disease. The aim of this study was to compare diet of adults with intermittent claudication: (a) against dietary recommendations; (b) following 12 weeks of supervised exercise training; and (c) against non-peripheral artery disease controls. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire pre and post supervised exercise training. Pre-exercise diet was compared against Suggested Dietary Targets and against non-peripheral artery disease controls matched for gender, age and body weight. Pre-exercise diet was also compared against post-exercise diet. Pre-exercise 25/31 participants, 5/31 participants, 16/31 participants and 4/31 participants achieved recommendations for protein, carbohydrate, total fat and saturated fat respectively. Few achieved recommended intakes for fibre (3/31 participants), cholesterol (8/31 participants), folate (11/31 participants), potassium (1/31 participants), sodium (4/31 participants), retinol equivalents (1/31 participants) and vitamin C (3/31 participants). There were no differences observed between participants compared to controls in achievement of recommendations. Post-exercise, marginally more participants were able to achieve targets for cholesterol, sodium and vitamin C but not for any other nutrients. Despite evidence to support benefits of dietary modification in risk reduction of peripheral artery disease, adults with intermittent claudication continue to consume poor diets. Research is required to determine whether dietary changes can be achieved with greater attention to nutrition counselling and the impact assessed in terms of delayed disease progression and long term health outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01871779.

  6. Association of AGTR1 Promoter Methylation Levels with Essential Hypertension Risk: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Mao, Shuqi; Zhong, Fade; Gong, Minli; Yin, Fengying; Hao, Lingmei; Zhang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether methylation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) promoter contributed to the risk of essential hypertension (EH). A total of 96 EH cases and 96 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Methylation of 8 CpG dinucleotides (CpG1-8) in the AGTR1 promoter was examined using the bisulphite pyrosequencing technology. Three CpG dinucleotides (CpG6-8) could not be well sequenced, therefore only the remaining 5 CpG sites were analysed. A significantly lower CpG1 methylation level was identified in EH cases than in controls (cases vs. 6.74 ± 4.32% vs. 9.66 ± 5.45%, p = 0.007), and no significant association was observed in the remaining analyses. In addition, significantly lower CpG1 (p = 0.028) and higher CpG2 (p = 0.032) methylation levels were observed in males than in females. In the breakdown association test by gender, a higher CpG1 methylation level was also identified in EH in both males (p = 0.034) and females (p = 0.020). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that CpG1 methylation was a significant predictor of EH. Furthermore, CpG1 methylation was inversely correlated with uric acid levels in controls. The present study suggests that CpG1 hypomethylation in the AGTR1 promoter is likely associated with the risk of EH in the population assessed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  8. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  9. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random…

  10. Comparison of water turnover rates in young swimmers in training and age-matched non-training individuals.

    PubMed

    Leiper, John B; Maughan, Ron J

    2004-06-01

    Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did no regular exercise. Water temperature in the swimming pool was between 26 and 29 degrees C during training sessions. Body mass at the beginning and end of the study period remained essentially the same in the SW (67.8+/- 6.3 kg) and CON (61.1 +/- 8.5 kg) groups. Mean +/- SD TBW of the SW (38.7+/- 5.6 L) was similar to that of the CON (37.5 +/- 8.0 L). Mean WTR was faster in the SW (54 +/- 18 ml x kg x day(- 1) than the CON (28+/- 21 ml x kg x day(-1)). Mean daily urine output was similar in the SW (14 +/- 5 ml x kg x day(-1)) and CON (14+/- 3 ml x kg x day(-1)). Calculated non-renal daily water loss was faster in the SW (41 +/- 21 ml x kg x day(-1)) than the CON (13 +/- 20 ml x kg x day(-1)). This study demonstrates that WTR are faster in young swimmers who exercise strenuously in cool water than in non-training individuals and that the difference was due to the approximately 3-times greater non-renal water losses that the exercising group incurred. This suggests that exercise-induced increases in sweat rates are a major factor in water loss in swimmers training in cool water.

  11. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  12. Late functional outcomes after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect: a double case-match control study.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Yasuhiro; Chetan, Devin; Ono, Naoki; Mertens, Luc L; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S; Honjo, Osami

    2013-06-01

    We sought to elucidate late functional outcomes of the right ventricular outflow tract and atrioventricular valves after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect. From 1990 to 2010, the data from 41 patients who underwent repair were retrospectively reviewed. The median age at repair was 22.4 months (interquartile range, 10.8-41.6 months). Of the 41 patients, 13 (32%) had received previous palliations. The preoperative anatomic differences, physiologic differences, and long-term functional outcomes were determined using a double case-matched control with isolated tetralogy of Fallot and isolated atrioventricular septal defect. The right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed, with the pulmonary valve preserved in 23 patients (56%). There were 3 early deaths and no late deaths. Survival was 92.1% at 15 years. During a median follow-up period of 5.9 years (interquartile range, 0.14-13.7 years), 29 reinterventions were performed in 13 (32%) patients. Freedom from all reintervention at 15 years was 52.8%. Of the 29 procedures, 12 (41%) were related to the right ventricular outflow tract. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract-related reintervention was greater in patients who had their pulmonary valve preserved (95% vs 70% at 10 years; P = .046). Reinterventions were performed for the atrioventricular valve in 2 (5%) patients and subaortic stenosis in 1 (2%) patient. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract-related reintervention (tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect, 88.6% vs tetralogy of Fallot alone, 83.9% at 5 years; P = .809) and atrioventricular valve/left ventricular outflow tract-related reintervention (tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect, 95.2% vs atrioventricular septal defect alone, 86.0% at 5 years; P = .332) were comparable between the tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect and matched control groups. Late survival and atrioventricular valve function after

  13. Frequent use of fresh frozen plasma is a risk factor for venous thrombosis in extremely low birth weight infants: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hidehiko; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Fujimura, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneously inserted central catheters (PICCs) are often used in neonatal medicine. Venous thrombosis (VT) is one of the complications associated with PICC use. According to some reports, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) may be a risk factor for VT. The purpose of this study was to determine whether FFP use is associated with VT in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). We performed a matched case-control study on risk factors for VT in ELBWIs born over a period of 5 years in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Controls were infants from the unit matched for gestational age and birth weight. We performed univariate analyses and created receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the cut-off values of continuous parameters such as FFP. We also conducted multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis and calculated adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen VT cases and 34 matched controls were examined. Using an ROC curve, FFP by day 5 > 50 mL/kg was selected as the cut-off value. In multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, FFP by day 5 > 50 mL/kg exhibited an adjusted odds ratio of 5.88 (95% confidence interval: 1.12-41.81, p = 0.036). FFP by day 5 > 50 mL/kg may be a risk factor for VT in ELBWIs.

  14. An outbreak of foodborne hepatitis A: the value of serologic testing and matched case-control analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, T L; Hutcheson, R H; Fricker, R S; Schaffner, W

    1983-01-01

    In April 1981, an outbreak of hepatitis A occurred among state legislators in Tennessee. Although the number of cases was small, we traced the source to a food handler who served cold meats and cheese. This investigation demonstrates the value of rapid serologic testing using a radioimmunoassay technique and matched case-control analysis to identify small foodborne outbreaks of hepatitis A. PMID:6311035

  15. Regression Artifacts in Nonequivalent Control Group Designs: An Empirical Investigation of Bias in ANCOVA and Matching Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermillion, James E.

    The presence of artifactual bias in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and in matching nonequivalent control group (NECG) designs was empirically investigated. The data set was obtained from a study of the effects of a television program on children from three day care centers in Mexico in which the subjects had been randomly selected within centers.…

  16. Perceptions and Congruence of Symptoms and Communication among Second-Generation Cambodian Youth and Parents: A Matched-Control Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perception of communication and report of symptoms among second-generation Cambodian children and their parents using a matched-control design of clinic and community children. Children reported significantly higher symptoms than parents in both samples. Clinic parents reported more symptoms than …

  17. Year 1 Evaluation of the KIPP DIAMOND Academy: Analysis of TCAP Scores for Matched Program-Control Group Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron; Gallagher, Brenda McSparrin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, 49 fifth-graders enrolled the KIPP D.I.A.M.O.N.D. Academy in the 2002-03 school year were individually matched to control student from five feeder schools on the basis of ethnicity, free-reduced lunch status, and fourth-grade achievement on the Reading and Mathematics subtests of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment…

  18. Perceptions and Congruence of Symptoms and Communication among Second-Generation Cambodian Youth and Parents: A Matched-Control Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perception of communication and report of symptoms among second-generation Cambodian children and their parents using a matched-control design of clinic and community children. Children reported significantly higher symptoms than parents in both samples. Clinic parents reported more symptoms than …

  19. The impact of matching the patient's vocabulary: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nigel; Ogden, Jane

    2004-12-01

    Research in general practice emphasizes the importance of matched models, beliefs and vocabulary in the consultation. The present study aimed to explore the impact of matched and unmatched vocabulary on patient satisfaction with consultations. The study took place in one inner city general practice. Patients (n=62) were randomized to either matched or unmatched vocabulary consultations when consulting for problems relating to sexual or bodily function or anatomy. Matched consultations required the doctor to use the same vocabulary as the patient. Unmatched consultations required the doctor to use medical vocabulary. Completed questionnaires were received from 60 patients. The main outcome measure was patient satisfaction (using the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale). This assesses total satisfaction and has four subscales: distress relief; communication comfort; rapport; and compliance intent. Doctor satisfaction with the consultation was also assessed. The results showed that the two groups were comparable for demographic variables and doctor satisfaction. However, patients in the matched consultation group had significantly higher total satisfaction scores and higher ratings of rapport, communication comfort, distress relief and compliance intent than those in the unmatched group. The results indicate that a doctor's choice of vocabulary affects patient satisfaction immediately after a general practice consultation and that using the same vocabulary as the patient can improve patient outcomes.

  20. Strategy Development in Children with Mathematical Disabilities: Insights from the Choice/No-Choice Method and the Chronological-Age/Ability-Level?Match Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, J.; Verschaffel, L.; Ghesquiere, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the strategy characteristics and development of children with mathematical disabilities (MD) in the domain of simple addition and subtraction, in terms of Lemaire and Siegler's model of strategic change, using the choice/no-choice method and the combined chronological-age (CA)/ability-level (AL)?match design. Four groups of…

  1. Donor age and degree of HLA matching have a major impact on the outcome of unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Carreras, E; Jiménez, M; Gómez-García, V; de la Cámara, R; Martín, C; Martínez, F; Iriondo, A; Sanz, G; Cañizo, C; Cabrera, R; Sierra, J; Vallejo, C; López, J; Martínez, C; Rovira, M; Fernández-Rañada, J M; Torres, A

    2006-01-01

    We analysed the outcome of 92 consecutive unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantations (UD-HCTs) performed in Spain to treat adult patients with CML in the first chronic phase (1CP). Patients' and donors' median age was 32 (15-49) and 36 (22-56) years, respectively. In all, 73 pairs (79%) matched for A, B+/-C and DRB1+/-DQB1 loci and 19 had > or =1 mismatch. Their probability of survival and disease-free survival at 4 years were 50 and 46%, respectively. Pretransplant factors associated with a better survival were patient age <25 years (P=0.035), donor age < or =36 years (P=0.012), use of cyclosporine since day -7 (P=0.001), and matching 8/8, 9/10 or 10/10 loci at allele level (P=0.003). In multivariate analysis only donor age (P=0.003; RR=3.1 (95% CI: 1.3-7.1)) and degree of HLA-matching (P=0.009; RR: 7.7 (95% CI: 1.8-33)) maintained their significance. The addition of these two variables to the EBMT prognostic score allowed an adequate risk assessment for patients receiving a UD-HCT during 1CP. Our analysis shows that in patients with a young and fully allele-matched donor, UD-HCT should be considered in the initial therapeutic algorithm due to its excellent outcome (92% survival at 2 years).

  2. Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: a matched case-control trial.

    PubMed

    Majić, Tomislav; Gutzmann, Hans; Heinz, Andreas; Lang, Undine E; Rapp, Michael A

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) on symptoms of agitation/aggression and depression in nursing home residents with dementia in a randomized controlled trial. Previous studies have indicated that AAT has beneficial effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms in various psychiatric disorders but few studies have investigated the efficacy of AAT in patients suffering from dementia. Of 65 nursing home residents with dementia (mean [standard deviation] age: 81.8 [9.2] years; mean Mini-Mental State Examination score: 7.1 [0.7]), 27 matched pairs (N = 54) were randomly assigned to either treatment as usual or treatment as usual combined with AAT, administered over 10 weekly sessions. Blinded raters assessed cognitive impairment with the Mini-Mental State Examination, presence of agitation/aggression with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and depression with the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale at baseline and during a period of 4 weeks after AAT intervention. In the control group, symptoms of agitation/aggression and depression significantly increased over 10 weeks; in the intervention group, patients receiving combined treatment displayed constant frequency and severity of symptoms of agitation/aggression (F1,48 = 6.43; p <0.05) and depression (F1,48 = 26.54; p <0.001). Symptom amelioration did not occur in either group. AAT is a promising option for the treatment of agitation/aggression and depression in patients with dementia. Our results suggest that AAT may delay progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms in demented nursing home residents. Further research is needed to determine its long-time effects. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brink-Elfegoun, Thibault; Ratel, Sébastien; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie; Metz, Lore; Ennequin, Gael; Doré, Eric; Martin, Vincent; Bishop, David; Aubineau, Nicolas; Lescuyer, Jean-François; Duclos, Martine; Sirvent, Pascal; Peltier, Sébastien L

    2014-01-01

    Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third 'rest' condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872.

  4. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. Objective The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. Methods This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third ‘rest’ condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. Results The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. Conclusions This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872. PMID:25302057

  5. Risk factors for hospital-acquired infections in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia: A matched-case control study.

    PubMed

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2017-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infection affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. It is a major global issue for patient safety. Understanding the potential risk factors is important to appreciate the local context. A matched case control study design, which is the first of its kind in the study region, was undertaken to identify risk factors in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. A matched case control study design matched with age and hospital type was used. The study was conducted in University of Gondar and Felege-Hiwot medical teaching hospital. Cases were patients who fulfilled the criteria based on CDC definition of hospital-acquired infection and controls were patients admitted to the hospital that stayed for more than 48 hours in the ward in the study period, but who did not develop infection. For one case, four controls were selected. Of 545 patients, 109 were cases and 436 were controls. Conditional logistic regression using STATA 13 was used for data analysis. The median length of stay for cases and controls was 7 and 8 days, respectively. Patients admitted in wards with the presence of medical waste container in the room had 82% less chance of developing hospital-acquired infection (AOR 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03-0.98). The odds of developing hospital-acquired infection among immune deficient patients were 2.34 times higher than their counterparts (95% CI; 1.17-4.69). Patients received antimicrobials, central vascular catheter and surgery since admission had 8.63, 6.91 and 2.35 higher odds of developing hospital-acquired infection, respectively. Health providers and mangers should consider the provision and availability of healthcare materials and facilities in all of the ward rooms, follow appropriate safe medical procedures for use of external devices on patients, and give attention to the immunocompromised patients for the prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections.

  6. Comparison of robotic-assisted and conventional acetabular cup placement in THA: a matched-pair controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domb, Benjamin G; El Bitar, Youssef F; Sadik, Adam Y; Stake, Christine E; Botser, Itamar B

    2014-01-01

    Improper acetabular component orientation in THA has been associated with increased dislocation rates, component impingement, bearing surface wear, and a greater likelihood of revision. Therefore, any reasonable steps to improve acetabular component orientation should be considered and explored. We therefore sought to compare THA with a robotic-assisted posterior approach with manual alignment techniques through a posterior approach, using a matched-pair controlled study design, to assess whether the use of the robot made it more likely for the acetabular cup to be positioned in the safe zones described by Lewinnek et al. and Callanan et al. Between September 2008 and September 2012, 160 THAs were performed by the senior surgeon. Sixty-two patients (38.8%) underwent THA using a conventional posterior approach, 69 (43.1%) underwent robotic-assisted THA using the posterior approach, and 29 (18.1%) underwent radiographic-guided anterior-approach THAs. From September 2008 to June 2011, all patients were offered anterior or posterior approaches regardless of BMI and anatomy. Since introduction of the robot in June 2011, all THAs were performed using the robotic technique through the posterior approach, unless a patient specifically requested otherwise. The radiographic cup positioning of the robotic-assisted THAs was compared with a matched-pair control group of conventional THAs performed by the same surgeon through the same posterior approach. The safe zone (inclination, 30°-50°; anteversion, 5°-25°) described by Lewinnek et al. and the modified safe zone (inclination, 30°-45°; anteversion, 5°-25°) of Callanan et al. were used for cup placement assessment. Matching criteria were gender, age ± 5 years, and (BMI) ± 7 units. After exclusions, a total of 50 THAs were included in each group. Strong interobserver and intraobserver correlations were found for all radiographic measurements (r > 0.82; p < 0.001). One hundred percent (50/50) of the robotic

  7. Poor nutrient intakes during 1-year follow-up with community-dwelling older adults with early-stage Alzheimer dementia compared to cognitively intact matched controls.

    PubMed

    Shatenstein, Bryna; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Reid, Isabelle

    2007-12-01

    Decreased food intakes, eating behavior disturbances, and loss of body weight are particularly significant problems among those with Alzheimer dementia. To follow the natural evolution of dietary and nutrition status among elderly community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer dementia. With their caregivers, 36 community-dwelling patients in early stages of Alzheimer dementia, aged > or =65 years, were recruited from memory clinics in Montréal, age-matched to cognitively intact community-based controls (n=58), and interviewed at four to five time points (T0 to T4) across an 18-month period. Current diet and supplement use were assessed monthly by two food records and/or 24-hour diet recalls (666 records/recalls from patients and 1,678 records/recalls from controls), using adapted data collection techniques among patients, and analyzed using CANDAT with the 2001b Canadian Nutrient File. Nutrient intakes from diet and supplements were higher in control subjects, with significant differences in energy, the macronutrients, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin K, vitamin A, and dietary fiber as well as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Repeated measures analysis of variance confirmed these observations among balanced groups of participants aged > or =70 years with full nutrient data during 12 months' follow-up. Dietary intakes by persons with Alzheimer dementia are poor compared to cognitively intact age-matched controls. Suboptimal diet is evident early in the onset of the disease. This vulnerable population would benefit from systematic dietary assessment and intervention to prevent further deterioration in food consumption and increased nutritional risk.

  8. Intertrial Sources of Stimulus Control and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dean C.; Johnston, Mark D.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments compared delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) accuracy under 2 procedures in adults with mental retardation. In the trial-unique procedure, every trial in a session contained different stimuli. Thus, comparison stimuli that were correct on one trial were never incorrect on other trials in that session (or vice versa). In the 2-sample…

  9. Intertrial Sources of Stimulus Control and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dean C.; Johnston, Mark D.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments compared delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) accuracy under 2 procedures in adults with mental retardation. In the trial-unique procedure, every trial in a session contained different stimuli. Thus, comparison stimuli that were correct on one trial were never incorrect on other trials in that session (or vice versa). In the 2-sample…

  10. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  11. Terminal differentiation of T cells is strongly associated with CMV infection and increased in HIV-positive individuals on ART and lifestyle matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Booiman, Thijs; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Girigorie, Arginell F.; Maurer, Irma; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Prins, Maria; Franceschi, Claudio; Deeks, Steven G.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1-positive individuals on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) are reported to have higher rates of age-associated non-communicable comorbidities (AANCCs). HIV-associated immune dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to increased AANCC risk. Here we performed a cross-sectional immune phenotype analysis of T cells in ART-treated HIV-1-positive individuals with undetectable vireamia (HIV-positives) and HIV-1-negative individuals (HIV-negatives) over 45 years of age. In addition, two control groups were studied: HIV negative adults selected based on lifestyle and demographic factors (Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS, or COBRA) and unselected age-matched donors from a blood bank. Despite long-term ART (median of 12.2 years), HIV-infected adults had lower CD4+ T-cell counts and higher CD8+ T-cell counts compared to well-matched HIV-negative COBRA participants. The proportion of CD38+HLA-DR+ and PD-1+ CD4+ T-cells was higher in HIV-positive cohort compared to the two HIV-negative cohorts. The proportion CD57+ and CD27−CD28− cells of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in HIV-positives was higher compared to unselected adults (blood bank) as reported before but this difference was not apparent in comparison with well-matched HIV-negative COBRA participants. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of an increased proportion of terminally differentiated T cells was strongly associated with CMV infection. Compared to appropriately selected HIV-negative controls, HIV-positive individuals on ART with long-term suppressed viraemia exhibited incomplete immune recovery and increased immune activation/exhaustion. CMV infection rather than treated HIV infection appears to have more consistent effects on measures of terminal differentiation of T cells. PMID:28806406

  12. Rotator cuff surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: clinical outcome comparable to age, sex and tear size matched non-rheumatoid patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, S J; Sun, J-H; Kekatpure, A L; Chun, J-M; Jeon, I-H

    2017-09-01

    Aims This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of rotator cuff repair in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with those of patients who have no known history of the disease. We hypothesised that the functional outcomes are comparable between patients and without rheumatoid arthritis and may be affected by the level of disease activity, as assessed from C-reactive protein (CRP) level and history of systemic steroid intake. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective review of the institutional surgical database from May 1995 to April 2012. Twenty-nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had rotator cuff repair were enrolled as the study group. Age, sex, and tear size matched patients with no disease who were selected as the control group. The mean duration of follow-up was 46 months (range 24-92 months). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire, Constant score and visual analogue scale (VAS). All data were recorded preoperatively and at regular postoperative follow-up visits. CRP was measured preoperatively as the disease activity marker for rheumatoid arthritis. Medication history was thoroughly reviewed in the study group. Results In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, all shoulder functional scores improved after surgery (ASES 56.1-78.1, Constant 50.8-70.5 and VAS 5.2-2.5; P < 0.001). The functional outcome of surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was comparable to that of the control group (difference with control: ASES 78.1 vs. 85.5, P = 0.093; Constant 70.5 vs. 75.9, P = 0.366; VAS 2.5 vs. 1.8, P = 0.108). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an elevated CRP level (> 1 mg/dl) showed inferior clinical outcomes than those with normal CRP levels. Patients with a history of systemic steroid intake showed inferior functional outcomes than those who had not taken steroids. Conclusions Surgical intervention for rotator cuff tear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

  13. ANTERIOR CHAMBER DEPTH, LENS THICKNESS, AND RELATED MEASURES IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALES WITH LONG ANTERIOR ZONULES: A MATCHED STUDY WITH CONTROL FOR REFRACTIVE ERROR

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Daniel K.; Teitelbaum, Bruce A.; Castells, David D.; Winters, Janis E.; Wilensky, Jacob T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous body length (VBL), and axial length (AL) in African-American females with long anterior zonules (LAZ) while controlling for refractive error. Methods The eyes of 50 African-American females with LAZ were compared to 50 controls matched on age, race, sex, and refractive error. Central ACD, LT, VBL, and AL measurements were obtained in a masked fashion using a-scan ultrasonography. Results LAZ cases had a mean age ± SD (range) = 67.1 ± 7.6 years (52–85 years) and a mean refractive error = +1.85 ± 1.41D (−1.75 to +4.75D). Parameters were similar for controls. Mean ACD for cases was 2.45 ± 0.34 mm and 2.57 ± 0.38 mm for controls. Mean LT for cases was 4.94 ± 0.43 mm and 4.83 ± 0.45 mm for controls. Mean VBL for cases was 15.00 ± 0.72 mm and 15.17 ± 0.76 mm for controls. Mean AL for cases was 22.39 ± 0.82 mm and 22.57 ± 0.76 mm for controls. Using multiple logistic regression to control for any residual differences in age and refractive error, no significant differences were present between LAZ eyes and control eyes relative to the a-scan variables (P>0.1). Conclusions When refractive error was controlled for, this group of African-American females with LAZ did not exhibit clinically significant differences in ACD, LT, VBL, and AL as compared to controls. PMID:25093521

  14. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

  15. PREDICTORS OF INFLAMMATORY LOCAL RECURRENCE AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING THERAPY FOR BREAST CANCER: MATCHED CASE-CONTROL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Akoum, Riad; Abdalla, Eddie K; Saade, Michel; Awdeh, Adnan; Abi-Aad, Fouad; Bejjani, Noha; Ghossain, Antoine; Brihi, Emile; Audi, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory local recurrence (ILR) after breast-conserving surgery for noninflammatory breast cancer (BC) is associated with dismal prognosis. Risk factors for ILR are not well defined. Between 2001 and 2010, twelve patients at our hospital developed ILR after breast-conserving surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for BC. We compared their clinico-pathological characteristics to those of 24 patients with noninflammatory local recurrence (non-ILR), 24 patients with distant metastases, and 48 disease-free controls, matched for age and observation period. The median time to ILR was 10 months. In univariate analysis, extent of lymph node involvement (p < 0.05), multifocality (p < 0.05), c-erbB2 overexpression (p < 0.05), and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p < 0.001) affected the risk of ILR. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between ILR and combined LVI and high histopathological grade. The odds ratio (OR) for ILR versus non-ILR was 6.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-25.38) and for ILR versus distant metastases it was 3.05 (95% CI 0.09-97.83) when both LVI and high histopathological grade were present. Patients with family history of BC were more likely to present with ILR than non-ILR (OR 5.47; 95% CI 1.55-19.31) or distant relapse (OR 5.62; 95% CI 0.26-119.95). Pre- and postmenopausal women with high-grade BC and LVI are at increased risk to develop ILR, especially in the presence of family history of BC. Identification of risk factors for this lethal form of recurrent BC may lead to more effective preventive treatment strategies in properly selected patients.

  16. Adding Boolean-Quality Control to Best-Match Searching via an Improved User Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    librarians and others—preferred Boolean systems by a wide margin. For example, commercial services like Westlaw , DIALOG, and Lexis/Nexis began offering a...exact-match evaluation. In mid-1999, Joanne Claussen of Westlaw said of their service (Claussen 1999): “The usage of Boolean versus natural language...Joanne Claussen of Westlaw and Daniel Pliske of Lexis/Nexis provided information on Boolean versus natural language usage of their respective services

  17. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  18. Missing exposure data in stereotype regression model: application to matched case-control study with disease subclassification.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaeil; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gruber, Stephen B; Sinha, Samiran

    2011-06-01

    With advances in modern medicine and clinical diagnosis, case-control data with characterization of finer subtypes of cases are often available. In matched case-control studies, missingness in exposure values often leads to deletion of entire stratum, and thus entails a significant loss in information. When subtypes of cases are treated as categorical outcomes, the data are further stratified and deletion of observations becomes even more expensive in terms of precision of the category-specific odds-ratio parameters, especially using the multinomial logit model. The stereotype regression model for categorical responses lies intermediate between the proportional odds and the multinomial or baseline category logit model. The use of this class of models has been limited as the structure of the model implies certain inferential challenges with nonidentifiability and nonlinearity in the parameters. We illustrate how to handle missing data in matched case-control studies with finer disease subclassification within the cases under a stereotype regression model. We present both Monte Carlo based full Bayesian approach and expectation/conditional maximization algorithm for the estimation of model parameters in the presence of a completely general missingness mechanism. We illustrate our methods by using data from an ongoing matched case-control study of colorectal cancer. Simulation results are presented under various missing data mechanisms and departures from modeling assumptions.

  19. The mental health of adults born of unwanted pregnancies, their siblings, and matched controls: a 35-year follow-up study from Prague, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kubicka, Ludĕc; Roth, Zdenĕc; Dytrych, Zdenĕc; Matĕjcek, Zdenĕc; David, Henry P

    2002-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that being born of an unwanted pregnancy is a risk factor for poor mental health in adulthood. Self-report and objective data were collected at ages 28 to 31 and 32 to 35 years in a cohort of nearly 200 "unwanted" subjects born after their mothers had been twice denied an abortion for the same pregnancy. The same data were collected in a sociodemographically matched control cohort of "accepted" subjects whose mothers had not requested an abortion, and from siblings of both the unwanted subjects and the accepted control subjects. Logistic regression analyses conducted with several indicators of poor mental health in adulthood as dependent variables brought partial support for the hypothesis. Specifically, unwanted subjects became psychiatric patients (especially psychiatric inpatients) more frequently than their siblings and the accepted controls. Criminality, alcohol-related disorders, and heavy smoking were not associated with unwanted pregnancy.

  20. The relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control across adult age-groups.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates healthy ageing and health psychology theories to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between health control expectancies and age-attitudes on the process of ageing well. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control. A population-based survey of 739 adults aged 20-97 years (mean = 57.3 years, SD = 13.66; 42% female) explored attitudes towards ageing and health attitudes. A path-analytical approach was used to investigate moderating effects of age and gender. Higher age-stereotype endorsement was associated with higher chance (β = 2.91, p < .001) and powerful other (β = 1.07, p = .012) health expectancies, after controlling for age, gender, education and self-rated health. Significant age and gender interactions were found to influence the relationship between age-stereotypes and internal health locus of control. Our findings suggest that the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control dimensions must be considered within the context of age and gender. The findings point to the importance of targeting health promotion and interventions through addressing negative age-attitudes.

  1. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  2. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  3. Postural Sway, Balance Confidence, and Fear of Falling in Women With Knee Osteoarthritis in Comparison to Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Taglietti, Marcelo; Dela Bela, Laís Faganello; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pelegrinelli, Alexandre Roberto Marcondes; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Batista Júnior, João Pedro; Carvalho, Rodrigo Gustavo da Silva; McVeigh, Joseph Gerard; Facci, Ligia Maria; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease that commonly affects the knee joints. Individuals older than 65 years of age with knee OA have a greater risk of falls. However, there has been limited examination of the parameters of postural sway (increased time, speed, and postural sway area [center of pressure{CoP}]), and OA of the knee. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the CoP variables discriminate between patients with knee OA and matched healthy volunteers, and to correlate the CoP variables with the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and Falls Self-Efficacy Scale (FES). The secondary objective was to compare the CoP of older women with OA with a control group in bipedal support condition with eyes opened and closed. Cross-sectional study. University Biomechanics Laboratory. A total of 22 participants were divided into the following 2 groups of 11 participants each: an OA group (mean = 68 years, standard deviation = 7.4 years) and a control group (mean = 66 years, standard deviation = 4.4 years). Static postural balance was measured by a portable force platform. Data were collected in both visual conditions (eyes open and closed), in random order. Three attempts of 30 seconds were allowed for each participant on the force platform, with a 1-minute interval between attempts. Variables were the CoP total displacement of sway (TDS, in centimeters), anteroposterior amplitude displacement (APAD, in centimeters), medial-lateral amplitude displacement (MLAD, in centimeters), total mean velocity (TMV, in centimeters per second), and dispersion of the center of pressure (AREA, in centimeters squared). The postural sway analysis found statistically significant differences in the eyes open condition for the TDS (P = .020), APAD (P = .042), TMV (P = .010), and AREA (P = .045). In the discriminant analysis, none of the CoP variables were able to classify the groups (P = .15). The correlation analysis showed that only the

  4. Reduction in Sensorimotor Control with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Stelmach, George E.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews age-related declines in motor performance, examining the known types of sensorimotor deficits in the elderly. The article highlights recent data that show changes in kinematics of arm movements, prehension tasks, and handwriting that reveal why movement becomes slower and less accurate in older adults. (SM)

  5. Reduction in Sensorimotor Control with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Stelmach, George E.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews age-related declines in motor performance, examining the known types of sensorimotor deficits in the elderly. The article highlights recent data that show changes in kinematics of arm movements, prehension tasks, and handwriting that reveal why movement becomes slower and less accurate in older adults. (SM)

  6. Effects of smoking severity and moderate and severe periodontitis on serum C-reactive protein levels: an age- and gender-matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Arash; Sarlati, Fatemeh; Bidi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Leila; Azaminejad, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) which might affect cardiovascular events can be affected by chronic diseases and smoking. Since the effects of smoking dosage as well as the mutual effect of smoking and periodontitis on CRP levels have not been evaluated, we aimed to assess these. This retrospective age- and gender-matched study was performed on 120 dental patients. Clinical attachment loss, pocket probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), O'Leary plaque index and serum CRP were recorded. Patients were divided into one control and five cohort groups (n = 20 each) according to smoking severity [pack years (PY) below or above 30] and periodontal condition (healthy periodontium and moderate/severe periodontitis). The effects of clinical measurements, age, gender, smoking and periodontitis on CRP were assessed using one- and two-way analyses of variance, Tukey and Bonferroni post hoc tests, and multiple linear regression (α = 0.05). CRP concentrations were 0.07255 ± 0.009539, 0.09645 ± 0.010625, 0.122235 ± 0.018442, 0.3758 ± 0.187369, 0.81595 ± 0.0410299 and 1.8717 ± 0.652728 mg/l, respectively, in the control (PY ≤ 30 with healthy periodontium), cohort 1 (PY > 30 with healthy periodontium), cohort 2 (PY ≤ 30 with moderate periodontitis), cohort 3 (PY > 30 with moderate periodontitis), cohort 4 (PY ≤ 30 with severe periodontitis) and cohort 5 (PY > 30 with severe periodontitis). The positive effects of age, smoking severity, periodontitis and PPD, on CRP increase were significant (Regression p < 0.02). BoP had a negative effect (p = 0.015). Clinicians should warn the patients, especially the older ones, about the effects of their gingival health and smoking on their cardiovascular condition.

  7. Real-world surgical outcomes of a gelatin-hemostatic matrix in women requiring a hysterectomy: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Obermair, Helena; Janda, Monika; Obermair, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare adverse events and surgical outcomes of hysterectomy with or without use of a gelatin-hemostatic matrix (SURGIFLO(®) ). Prospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II2) of total hysterectomy (Piver Type 1) provided by surgeons in Australia between November 2005 and May 2015. Data were collected via SurgicalPerformance, a web-based data project which aims to provide confidential feedback to surgeons about their surgical outcomes. Of 2440 records of women who received a hysterectomy, 1351 were eligible for these analyses; 107 received SURGIFLO(®) hemostatic matrix to prevent postoperative blood loss and 1244 did not. Patients with or without SURGIFLO(®) differed in age, Charlson comorbidity index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system score (ASA), and also differed in clinical outcomes. After matching for patient's age and ASA at surgery, patients with and without SURGIFLO(®) had comparable baseline characteristics. Matched patients with and without SURGIFLO(®) had comparable clinical outcomes including risk of developing vault hematoma, return to the operating room, transfusion of red cells, surgical site infection (pelvis), readmission within 30 days and unplanned ICU admission. In a sample matched by age and ASA, SURGIFLO(®) neither prevented nor caused additional adverse events in women undergoing hysterectomy. Surgeons used SURGIFLO(®) more commonly among women who were older, had more comorbidities and a higher ASA score. This indicates that it may be most useful in complicated surgery or cases. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Tunkel, Sarah; Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in

  9. Sample frequency and sample duration as sources of stimulus control in delayed matching to sample.

    PubMed

    Parr, W V; Hunt, M; Williams, W A

    1999-05-03

    Three experiments examined sample duration and sample presentation frequency (SPF) on choice in a two-alternative, delayed matching-to-sample task. In Experiment 1, using a behavioural-detection approach, we demonstrated bias toward the more frequent sample, despite the conditional probability of reinforcement for a correct match on any particular trial remaining at 1.0 for both stimuli. Although retention-interval duration influenced both discriminability and bias in Experiment 1, bias was independent of retention interval in two subsequent experiments. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated the effects of SPF on bias, and demonstrated that discriminability of the stimuli was not influenced by the SPF manipulation. Experiment 2 also investigated the effect of a within-session variation in sample duration on discriminability and bias measures, both with and without unequal SPFs. Discriminability was enhanced to both the short and long samples of the unequal sample-durations' condition relative to discrimination in conditions where samples were presented for equal durations. Bias generated by varying SPF was independent of sample-duration effects and of retention-interval duration. Taken together, these data suggest independent and qualitatively different effects of sample frequency and sample duration on matching behaviour: Sample frequency has its effect on bias measures, while sample duration influences discriminability. We suggest that sample frequency is a global task factor influencing reference memory, and sample duration is a trial-specific, conditional discrimination factor, involving short-term or working memory processing. Copyright © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A matched case control study with propensity score balancing examining the protective effect of paracetamol against parentally reported apnoea in infants.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Paul; Shanholtzer, Lucas; Loewen, Mark; Trinh, Kim; McEnulty, Ben; Rothenberg, Stephen J

    2012-04-01

    Central apnoea occurs in infants and if not detected leads to death. Central apnoea is a prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2) mediated effect that is susceptible to pharmacologic manipulation in animal models. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are centrally and peripherally acting PGE2 inhibitors, respectively. To determine if infants who had received paracetamol or ibuprofen are relatively protected from apnoea. We performed a matched case control study using propensity score balancing to adjust for non-random drug assignment. We included infants from prospective studies of central apnoea and bronchiolitis. We matched on age, prematurity and fever to adjust for the infants' underlying risk of apnoea. The primary outcome measure was odds of exposure to paracetamol or ibuprofen by apneic infants compared to their controls. Forty-two apneic and 729 non-apneic infants were identified. Infants with apnoea were younger than those without, median age 6.5 versus 12.2 weeks and were more likely to be premature. These differences were balanced using matching. Differences between those who did and did not receive paracetamol were satisfactorily balanced using the propensity score. Ibuprofen was used too infrequently to analyse it further. In the unadjusted analysis fewer apneic infants had had prior paracetamol use 5/42 (12%) versus 211/729 (29%) or prior ibuprofen use 1/42 (2%) versus 51/729 (7%). In the adjusted analysis paracetamol was protective against apnoea; OR 0.30 (95% CI 0.11, 0.78). Prior paracetamol use was protective against apnoea in infants. We could not demonstrate an effect for ibuprofen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental arsenic exposure and risk of diabetes type 2 in Ron Phibun subdistrict, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand: unmatched and matched case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    Sripaoraya, Kwanyuen; Siriwong, Wattasit; Pavittranon, Sumol; Chapman, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Background There are inconsistent findings on associations between low-to-moderate level of arsenic in water and diabetes risk from previous epidemiological reports. In Ron Phibun subdistrict, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand, a low level of arsenic exposure among population was observed and increased diabetes mellitus (DM) rate was identified. Objectives We aimed to investigate the association between determinants (including low-level water arsenic exposure) of DM type 2 risk among residents of three villages of Ron Phibun subdistrict, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Materials and methods Secondary data from two previous community based-studies, conducted in 2000 and 2008, were utilized. Data on independent variables relating to arsenic exposure and sociodemographic characteristics were taken from questionnaires and worksheets for health-risk screening. Water samples collected during household visit were sent for analysis of arsenic level at certified laboratories. Diabetes cases (N=185) were those who had been diagnosed with DM type 2. Two groups of controls, one unmatched to cases (n=200) and one pair matched on age and gender (n=200), were selected for analysis as unmatched and matched case–control studies, respectively. A multiple imputation technique was used to impute missing values of independent variables. Multivariable logistic regression models, with independent variables for arsenic exposure and sociodemographic characteristics, were constructed. The unmatched and matched data sets were analyzed using unconditional and conditional logistic analyses, respectively. Results Older age, body mass index (BMI), having a history of illness in siblings and parents, and drinking were associated with increased DM type 2 risk. We found no convincing association between DM type 2 risk and water arsenic concentration in either study. Conclusion We did not observe meaningful association between diabetes risk and the low-to-moderate arsenic levels observed in

  12. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Rossi, Stefania; Panatto, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the main mean of preventing influenza in the elderly. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was performed in elderly subjects during the 2010-2011 season in Genoa (Italy). Cases and controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to gender, age, socio-economic status and type of influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as IVE = [(1-OR)x100] and crude odds ratios were estimated through conditional logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated through multivariable logistic models.   In the study area, influenza activity was moderate in the 2010-2011 season, with optimal matching between circulating viruses and vaccine strains. We recruited 187 case-control pairs; 46.5% of cases and 79.1% of controls had been vaccinated. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines (Fluad (®) considered together with Inflexal V (®) ) were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization, their effectiveness being 94.8% (CI 77.1-98.8). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 95.2% (CI 62.8-99.4) and 87.8 (CI 0.0-98.9) for Inflexal V (®) and Fluad (®) , respectively. Both adjuvanted vaccines proved effective, although the results displayed statistical significance only for Inflexal V (®) (p = 0.004), while for Fluad (®) statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.09). Our study is the first to provide information on the effectiveness of Inflexal V (®) in terms of reducing hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia in the elderly, and demonstrates that this vaccine yields a high degree of protection and that its use would generate considerable saving for the National Health Service.

  13. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  14. Male, but not Female, Alcohol-Dependent African Americans Discount Delayed Gains More Steeply than Propensity-Score Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol dependence is known to be associated with steep discounting of delayed rewards, but its relation to the discounting of delayed losses and probabilistic rewards is unclear. Moreover, patterns of alcohol consumption vary considerably between communities, but previous research has not examined the relation between discounting and alcohol dependence in low-income African Americans. Objectives The goal of the present study was to determine whether low-income, alcohol-dependent African Americans differ from controls in the degree to which they discount delayed rewards, delayed losses, or probabilistic rewards. Methods African American participants, both cases and controls, were recruited from the same low-income neighborhoods, and propensity-score matching was used to further control for demographic differences. Participants performed three tasks that assessed their discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes: delayed rewards, delayed losses, and probabilistic rewards. Results Alcohol-dependent cases discounted delayed gains, but not delayed losses or probabilistic gains, more steeply than their matched controls. The difference in discounting of delayed gains was localized to the male cases, whose discounting was steeper than either the male controls or the female cases; no gender difference was observed between male and female controls. Conclusions The present results extend findings regarding discounting by substance abusers to a previously unstudied group, low-income African Americans, and suggest that in this group at least, alcohol dependence, particularly in males, may be more a reflection of choosing immediate rewards than of ignoring their delayed negative consequences. PMID:26387518

  15. Pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule and age-associated pigment dispersion of variable degree in a group of older African-Americans: an age, race, and gender matched study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D K; Winters, J E; Castells, D D; Clark, C A; Teitelbaum, B A

    2001-01-01

    To investigate pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule in African-Americans, a potential indicator of significant anterior segment pigment dispersion. A group of 40 African-American subjects who exhibited pigmented lens striae (PLS) were identified from a non-referred, primary eye care population in Chicago, IL, USA. These subjects were then compared to an age, race, and gender matched control group relative to refractive error and the presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. The PLS subjects (mean age