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Sample records for age-0 channel catfish

  1. Validation of daily ring deposition in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We developed and validated methods for estimating the daily age of age-0 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Two clutches of channel catfish eggs were hatched in the laboratory; subsequently, one was stocked in a 186-m2 earthen nursery pond and the other in a 757-L outdoor circular tank. Before stocking, subsamples of fish were collected at swim-up and 3 d after swim-up to evaluate early ring formation. Fish were sampled from the pond and tank on eight occasions ranging from 30 to 119 d posthatch. Distinct differences in early ring formation were found between yolk sac and free-swimming larval stages. Mean ring count and known age were closely related for tank- and pond-raised fish, indicating that daily ring deposition occurred in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish up to 119 d posthatch. The accuracy of daily age estimation was similar between tank and pond samples, and daily ring counts were considerably accurate up to 60 d posthatch. Pond-raised fish were more difficult to age than tank-raised fish, which we attributed to ring compression resulting from slower growth among pond-raised fish after 30 d. The total length of tank- and pond-raised fish was positively related to otolith size; however, the slopes of the relationships between fish length and otolith radius were different between treatments. Therefore, we could not confirm that the relationship between fish length and otolith size was directly proportional for age-0 channel catfish. We encourage researchers to use this aging technique to determine how abiotic and biotic factors influence early life history characteristics and ultimately the population dynamics of catfishes (Ictaluridae). ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  2. Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  3. Flavobacterium columnare chemotaxis to channel catfish mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative pathogen of many species of wild and cultured fish, especially channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). This motile microbe is responsible for severe economic losses to the catfish industry. Flavobacterium columnare isolates from diseased channel catfish b...

  4. Evaluation of immune responses against the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is a dominant aquaculture species in the USA and has been cultured for several decades. Recently, an increasing number of producers are showing an interest in the culture of hybrid catfish (channel catfish × blue catfish) instead of channel catfish due to its performance traits. The ...

  5. The effect of calcium hardness on hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal level of calcium hardness in hatching waters to incubate channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish I. furcatus ' hybrid catfish eggs. Hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs was higher (p<0.05) at 75 mg L-1 of calcium hardness (C...

  6. Comparative production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on growth and yield (kg/ha) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the channel x blue hybrid catfish (I. punctatus female x I. furcatus male), which shared the Jubilee strain of channel catfish as the maternal parent, was evaluated...

  7. Habitat suitability index models: Channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.; Terrell, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The native range of channel catfish (Ictalurus Runctatus) extends from the southern portions of the Canadian prairie provinces south to the Gulf states, west to the Rocky Mountains, and east to the Appalachian Mountains (Trautman 1957; Miller 1966; Scott and Crossman 1973). They have been widely introduced outside this range and occur in essentially all of the Pacific and Atlantic drainages in the 48 contiguous states (Moore 1968; Scott and Crossman 1973). The greatest abundance of channel catfish generally occurs in the open (unleveed) floodplains of the Mississippi and Missouri River drainages (Walden 1964).

  8. Dietary phosphorus requirement of channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Robinson, E H; Gatlin, D M; Poe, W E

    1982-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bon phosphorus data indicate that 0.33% apparent available dietary phosphorus is adequate for maximum growth and bone mineralization. Based on these data and previous findings, we would suggest a value of 0.4% apparent available phosphorus be used in formulating catfish feeds. The apparent availability of phosphorus from soybean meal, as determined by the chromic oxide indicator method, was 29% for channel catfish.

  9. DEET toxicity to channel catfish sac fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of open facilities, moisture, and warm weather during channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus spawning season causes mosquito-infestation problems. A common solution to mosquito problems in hatcheries is to use mosquito repellents applied to exposed skin and clothing. DEET (N,N-diethyl-...

  10. Plankton Management for Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a series of studies examining the fertilization practices used for channel catfish nursery ponds. The best fertilization protocol would be one that uses low-cost fertilizers, quickly establishes a desirable phytoplankton bloom, and produces the greatest number of large zooplankton. In...

  11. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  12. Recent improvements in channel catfish reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of reproduction in fish is a primary requisite for reliable, predictable and quality seed stock for aquaculture production or a stock enhancement program. Channel catfish is the leading aquaculture species in USA, accounting for 335 million pounds with a farm gate value of over $ 400 millio...

  13. Calcium deprivation during channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish, I. furcatus F1 hybrid catfish embryo development affects hatching success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish are produced by fertilizing eggs from hormone-induced, strippable channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) females with sperm from blue catfish (I. furcatus). Many catfish hatchery supplies have low calcium concentrations and are supplemented with an external source of ca...

  14. Potency of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus (individual vs pooled) sperm to fertilize stripped channel catfish, I. punctatus eggs on the production and performance of progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the desired genotype for US farm-raised catfish industry. Induced spawning of gravid channel catfish, followed by fertilization of stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm is the only reliable means to produce hybrid catfish embryos in hatcheries. Hybrid catfish fry p...

  15. Effects of nutrient enrichment on channel catfish growth and consumption in Mount Storm Lake, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanc, T.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the objective of augmenting fish production in Mount Storm Lake, Virginia Electric and Power Company initiated a programme of phosphorus addition to increase primary production, and ultimately, channel catfish (Ictaturus punctatus) growth in the 486 ha cooling reservoir. We simulated channel catfish growth dynamics using two bioenergetics modelling scenarios: (i) effects of average reservoir temperature on growth, conversion efficiency and consumption; and (ii) effects of reservoir enrichment on growth, which is simulated by increasing feeding rates. During 1991-1993, fish were sampled monthly, but sampling was increased to every 2 weeks during the peak growing season (June-September). Most of the channel catfish collected were aged 0 year and aged 1 year with rapid annual growth rates ranging from 9.0 to 13.7 J/g. We found many age 1 250-300 mm catfish, but few beyond this size. Conversion efficiency (joules gained/joules consumed) was low at approximately 18-19%. High algae consumption (40%) was evident, but consumption of zooplankton and Asiatic clam (Corbicula sp.) increased over the study. Simulated increased feeding rates showed that channel catfish were food limited in summer and fall (July-December). Weight gains with 5 and 10% feeding increases were 6-13% and 18-38%, respectively, from the baseline. Catfish of all sizes should benefit from phosphorus additions.

  16. Low-Intensity channel catfish culture re-visited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farmers can use a variety of management strategies to produce the larger-sized fish that processing plants increasingly seek. A low-intensity production strategy based on low stocking and aeration rates can be used to produce larger channel catfish. Stocker catf...

  17. Effects of DO cencentration on growth of juvenile channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration has a major impact on feed consumption of channel catfish when raised in ponds; as DO concentration falls below 3.0 mg/L at night, feed consumption is negatively impacted. Channel catfish fry may experience a wide range of oxygen conditions in the hatchery depend...

  18. Pretreating channel catfish with copper sulfate affects susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is a costly bacterial disease of commercially grown channel catfish. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of pre-exposing channel catfish fingerlings to 0, 1/2, 1, or 2 times the recommended copper sulfate rate for 24 hours on their susceptibility to columnaris...

  19. Low-intensity, stocker-based channel catfish culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-intensity Channel Catfish production is characterized by low stocking rates, low installed aeration capacity, and no automated dissolved oxygen monitoring. Two studies conducted in nine 0.25-acre ponds quantified production characteristics of stocker Channel Catfish stocked for low-intensity foo...

  20. Production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the production and water quality responses of the channel x...

  1. Effects of DO concentration in growout performance of blue catfish with comparison to channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and production of blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and channel catfish I. punctatus were examined in one-acre ponds maintained at either a high or low (means of 4.29 and 2.54 ppm, [54.8 and 32.4 % air saturation] respectively) minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) co...

  2. Method for inducing saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Rach, J.J.; Olson, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to uniformly and systematically induce saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Three different methods for inducing saprolegniasis were evaluated in waters containing known zoospore concentrations of Saprolegnia parasitica (1) low-temperature shock to induce immunosuppression: (2) physical abrasion stress; and (3) a combination of both low temperature shock and abrasion stress. Low-temperature shock or abrasion stress alone were not effective for inducing saprolegniasis. Only 10% of fish stressed by low-temperature shock alone became infected. No fish receiving abrasion stress treatments alone became infected even though these fish were subject to significant abrasion and dewatering stress. A combination of low-temperature and abrasion stress, however, was sufficient to induce saprolegniasis in 100% of fish tested and resulted in 90% mortality. No fish became infected in the positive control group (exposed to zoospores of S. Parasitica without stress) or in the negative control group. The combined-stress method should enable researchers to induce saprolegniasis in channel catfish at will to study its pathogenesis or to test the efficacy of candidate antifungal treatments. In conducting efficacy studies, therapeutic treatments must begin immediately when the first signs of saprolegniasis are observed because the disease progresses quickly and is deadly.

  3. Effects of abrupt pH increases on survival of different stages of young channel catfish and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study showed channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fry are sensitive to pH increases, but tolerant to pH decreases. This study determined tolerance of channel catfish and hybrid catfish sac fry, swim-up fry, and fingerlings to abrupt pH increases. Sac fry, swim-up fry, and fingerlings of ...

  4. Essential oils enhance fillet composition of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival of pond raised channel catfish. Fifteen 0.4 ha ponds were stocked with 14,820 catfish (126 g/fish) per ha. Fish in control ponds were fed a 3...

  5. Routine Metabolic Rate of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish eggs are typically incubated at high density and are often subjected to sub-optimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations while in the hatchery. Since DO plays an important role in the development, hatch rate, and growth of catfish eggs and fry, we measured routine metabolic rate of ...

  6. Essential oils increase weight gain in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Biomin® P.E.P. MGE) on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival of channel catfish. Five hundred catfish (32.4 ± 1.7 g/fish) were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicate tanks/tre...

  7. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  8. Impact of Dissolved Oxygen on Feed Conversion, Feed Consumption, and Growth of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus, Channel Catfish I. punctatus, and Blue X Channel Catfish Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of blue catfish (BC), channel catfish (CC), and their hybrid (BC X CC). Control ...

  9. Incubation water temperature and parental effects on the hatching success and progeny performance of Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue catfish are exclusively produced by hormone-induced spawning of channel catfish and the stripped eggs are fertilized with pooled blue catfish sperm in hatcheries. Even though hybrid fry production has increased in recent years, variable and inconsistent hybrid catfish fry production ...

  10. Impact of minimum daily dissolved oxygen concentration on production performance of hybrid female channel catfish x male blue catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid Catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X male Blue Catfish I. furcatus) were reared during two years as single-batch crops under two different dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes each year; a high-DO (control) treatment in which the minimum daily DO was maintained above 3.8 ppm during ...

  11. Nitrite-induced anemia in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, C.S. ); Francis-Floyd, R.; Beleau, M.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Since 1983 numerous cases of anemia have been reported in populations of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque cultured in the southeastern United States. Environmental nitrite-nitrogen concentrations of 4 mg/L or more occur sporadically in channel catfish culture ponds, and the frequency of occurrence is greatest in the fall and spring. The authors have observed that some cases of anemia in populations of pond-raised channel catfish follow prolonged exposure to high concentrations of environmental nitrite. However, there was no evidence that exposure of channel catfish to environmental nitrite was the cause of the observed anemia. Hemolytic anemia following nitrite exposure has been described for sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, but not for channel catfish. In the present study the authors show that a variable, but generally mild, anemia develops in channel catfish exposed to nitrite. They also offer a management procedure for preventing the development of anemia during periods of elevated environmental nitrite concentrations.

  12. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  13. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  14. Comparative susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Reichley, Stephen R; Khoo, Lester H; Ware, Cynthia; Greenway, Terrence E; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David J

    2014-06-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Research supports anecdotal reports from the industry, suggesting that the hybrid of Channel Catfish×Blue Catfish I. furcatus is less susceptible to disease agents that have been historically prohibitive to Channel Catfish production, namely the gram-negative bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, as well as the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. This current research compared the susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to an experimental challenge by B. damnificus. Fish were exposed to 0, 100, 200, and 400 B. damnificus cercariae per fish, and the numbers of metacercariae per fish were determined 14 d postchallenge. Metacercariae were recovered from all challenged fish. There were no significant differences among fish groups challenged with the same dose, suggesting Channel and Blue Catfish and their hybrid are comparably susceptible to B. damnificus infection. As such, it is recommended that producers raising hybrid catfish remain diligent in controlling populations of the snail intermediate host to prevent production losses attributed to B. damnificus, especially when loafing pelicans have been observed at the aquaculture operation.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  16. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  17. Age, growth, sexual maturity, and food of channel catfish in central Lake Oahe, 1968-69

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starostka, Victor J.; Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were collected with gill nets, trawl, and trap nets at three localities in Lake Oahe for the study of year-class strength, growth in length and weight, age composition, sexual maturity, and food. Fish were recruited to all the collection gears at age II. Relatively strong year classes were produced in 1962, 1965, and 1966. Youngest fish were captured in the upper end of the Moreau River embayment, which apparently serves as a nursery area. Growth of age 0 fish was poor probably because the growing season was short; optimum spawning temperature were not reached until mid-summer. Growth of age II and older fish reached a peak in 1963 and declined rather steadily in 1964-68. Males began to mature at age VIII, and all fish of both sexes were mature at age XI. The diet changed from zooplankton to fish as channel catfish increased in length; aquatic insects (primarily chironomid larvae and pupae) were important foods for fish of all sizes. Fish less than 300 mm long selected large zooplankters -- Leptodora kindtii and Daphnia spp -- over smaller copepods. Larger channel catfish ate principally yellow perch, Perca flavescens.

  18. Temperature Cycles Induce Early Maturation in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major impediment in improvement of channel catfish by selective breeding is that a high percent of fish do not spawn until the third year. The conditions that lead to sexual maturation in fish have not been established. Size, nutritional state and number of seasonal cycles have all been suggeste...

  19. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and red...

  20. Chemotactic response of Flavobacterium columnare to channel catfish mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated that genomovar II Flavobacterium columnare isolates are more pathogenic for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and have a higher capacity for adhesion than genomovar I isolates. To begin to define the basis for this, the objectives of the present study were to determine...

  1. Pretreating channel catfish with copper sulfate affects susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. This disease can greatly diminish the profitability of aquaculture operations by large-scale mortality events, particularly in the fingerling production phase. ...

  2. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  3. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  4. Characterization of mannose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity capable of activating the lectin pathway of the complement system. A MBL gene was isolated from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The deduced protein contains a canonical collagen-like domain, a carbohydrate recognition d...

  5. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  6. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  7. Construction, characterization, expression and immune responses of flagellar proteins of channel catfish, important pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Edwardsiella ictaluri causes enteric septicemia of catfish, which is the leading disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)and is responsible for $50 - 60 million economic losses to catfish producers annually in the southeastern U.S. Bacterial flagella are complex polymeric structu...

  8. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  9. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  10. Channel catfish response to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, M.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Kocan, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to simulated ultraviolet-B radiation at an average daily dose of 2.9 J/cm2 were quite sensitive to the radiation. After a 24-h exposure, thinning of the most dorsal epidermis frequently was accompanied by edema. Compared with epidermis of unexposed fish, mucous cells in exposed fish were less superficial and club cells were less numerous both dorsally and high on the lateral surface of the body. Sunburn cells with pyknotic nuclei were evident in the epidermis of exposed fish. Among fish exposed for 48 h, focal necrosis and sloughing of the outer epidermal layer were widespread. A methanol-extractable skin substance that is associated with resistance to sunburn in other fish species was not detected in channel catfish.

  11. Catfishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfishes are esteemed and popular foodfish throughout much of the world. Important commercial and subsistence fisheries exist in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America. The popularity of catfishes as food stimulated rapid development of catfish aquaculture in the past quarter century. Ap...

  12. Disposition of 1-naphthol in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Plakas, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of 1-naphthol were examined in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus ). After oral dosing, peak plasma concentrations of 1-naphthol occurred at 1 hr; parent compound made up less than 15% of the total radioactivity, and the bioavailability was 32%. Plasma protein binding was 92% and was independent of concentration. 1-Naphthol and metabolites were rapidly eliminated from the tissues after oral dosing.

  13. Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus size and feed conversion ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, of five size-classes were stocked into 20, 0.04-ha earthen ponds at a rate of 14,826 fish/ha. Mean initial weights for each size-class were 0.232, 0.458, 0.678, 0.911, and 1.10 kg/fish. Four ponds were randomly allotted to each treatment. A commercial 28% protei...

  14. Palatability of diets for channel catfish that contain amprolium or salinomycin using feed conversion ratio as criterion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the palatability of diets for juvenile Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus that contained the poultry anticoccidial drugs Amprolium or Salinomycin, which are candidates to control the Channel Catfish myxozoan parasite, Henneguya ictaluri. These chemothe...

  15. Development and evaluation of an acoustic device to estimate size distribution of channel catfish in commercial ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As one step in the continued effort to utilize acoustic methods and techniques to the betterment of catfish aquaculture, an acoustic “catfish sizer” was designed to determine the size distribution of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus in commercial ponds. The catfish sizer employed a custom-built 4...

  16. Seasonal Differences in Steroids and Maturation-related Genes in Channel Catfish Under Normal and Accelerated Thermoperiods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is hampered by a long generation time. Female channel catfish typically spawn when they are 3-years-old; however, a low percentage of spawning may be observed at two years of age. Mature female channel catfish can spawn once annually. Their...

  17. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  18. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Expression analysis, lysozyme activity and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with...

  19. Effect of type and concentration of water hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue F1 hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consistent and improved performance of channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish fingerlings in production ponds in the US farm raised catfish industry has prompted an increase in demand of hybrid catfish fingerlings even at higher prices compared to commonly raised channel catfish. Hybrid catfish fry are e...

  20. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  1. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  2. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish <400 mm. Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally <40%. Tag returns indicated that angler exploitation was low, varying from 0 to 43% among lakes. This research provides insight on factors regulating channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  3. Plasma polar lipid profiles of channel catfish with different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased growth in channel catfish is an economically important trait and has been used as a criterion for the selection and development of brood fish. Selection of channel catfish toward increased growth usually results in the accumulation of large amounts of fats in their abdomen rather than incr...

  4. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  5. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  6. Biofloc production technology promising in temperate zones – Channel catfish perform during winter months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility to grow Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in an outdoor biofloc system during winter in a temperate zone. High biomasses of market-size channel catfish were successfully maintained through the winter with high survival and in good condition in both...

  7. Performance of a temperate-zone channel catfish biofloc technology production system during winter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc technology production system. Outdoor biofloc production systems in the tropics are operated year-round, whereas the channel catfish studies were conducted only during the growing season and biofloc production t...

  8. Evaluation of hydrolyzed poultry feathers as a dietary ingredient for pond-raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the use of hydrolyzed poultry feathers (HPF) as a replacement for soybean meal in diets for pond raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Four isonitrogenous (28% crude protein) diets were evaluated that contained 0, 5, 10, or 15% HPF. Fingerling Channel catfish (mean ±...

  9. No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  10. Sublethal effects of malathion on channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    SciTech Connect

    Areechon, N.; Plumb, J.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Malathion (O,O-dimethyl-S-1, 2-di-(ethoxycarbamyl)ethyl phosphorodithioate) is an organophosphate which is a widely used pesticide in the United States. This pesticide seems to be more toxic to insects and fish than to mammals due to the lack of hydrolytic enzymes in insects and fish. Malathion clearly affects the hematology of fish. The study reported here was designed to determine the effects of a commercially available malathion solution on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Objectives were to measure hematological changes and histopathological effects of a sublethal concentration of malathion on the fish.

  11. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Not a transcriptional coactivator?

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R.; Miller, Norman W.; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)is driven by the Eμ3′ enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a μE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH transcription. In mammals, the Oct co-activator BOB.1 (B cell Oct-binding protein1, also known as OCA-B and OBF-1) greatly enhances the transcriptional activity of Oct factors and plays an important role in the development of the immune system. An orthologue of BOB.1 has been cloned in the catfish, and its function characterized. The POU binding domain of the catfish BOB.1 was found to be 95% identical at the amino acid level with the binding domain of human BOB.1, and all the residues directly involved in binding to the Oct-DNA complex were conserved. Despite this conservation, catfish BOB.1 failed to enhance transcriptional activation mediated by endogenous or co-transfected catfish Oct2, and failed to rescue the activity of the inactive catfish Oct1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that catfish BOB.1 was capable of binding both catfish Oct1 and Oct2 when they formed a complex with the Oct motif. Analysis of recombinant chimeric catfish and human BOB.1 proteins demonstrated that the failure to drive transcription was due to the lack of a functional activation domain within the catfish BOB.1. PMID:19041136

  12. Effects of egg quality and method of incubation on the hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg quality of stripped eggs from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and method of incubation of fertilized hybrid catfish eggs on hatching success. Stripped eggs from 17 channel catfish females were evaluated in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  13. Effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on production of channel x blue hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to pond dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of the cha...

  14. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  15. Structure, Genomic Organization, and Phylogenetic Implications of Six New VH Families in the Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To define members of previously unknown VH gene families, a channel catfish immunoglobulin heavy chain cDNA library was constructed and screened with probes specific for the seven known catfish VH families. Reiterative screening and sequence studies defined six new VH families, designated VH8–VH13, ...

  16. Comparative genomics of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from an epidemic in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Aeromonas hydrophila was identified as the etiologic agent infecting farmed channel catfish in 2009/2010, resulting in higher mortality rates than typical for motile Aeromonas septicemia with over 5 million pounds of catfish lost to this outbreak. The biochemistry, molecular phylogeny, an...

  17. Molecular Identification of XY Sex-Reversed Female and YY Male Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of channel catfish leads U.S. aquaculture, and monosex culture may provide higher production efficiencies. Determination of phenotypic sex is labor intensive and not practical for large scale culture. Catfish have an X-Y sex determination system with monomorphic sex chromosomes. Hormonal...

  18. Improved survival in channel catfish fed mannanoligosaccharides in an extruded diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research examined the effects of extrusion temperature on the efficacy of mannanoligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) in channel catfish grown for 9 wks and then challenged with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri. Seven hundred and fifty catfish (10.3 ± 0.3 g) were randomly assigned to six treatments with five rep...

  19. Effects of Bio-Mos on growth and survival of channel catfish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research examined the effects of Bio-Mos on growth and disease resistance in channel catfish. Catfish were fed either a Con-Sink (36% crude protein (CP) diet) or Bio-Mos-Sink (36% CP diet with Bio-Mos supplemented at 2 g/kg) sinking pellet for 6 wks. followed by an E. ictaluri challenge. Growth pe...

  20. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  1. Comparative susceptibility of channel catfish, blue catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfis...

  2. Apparent phosphorus availabilities of selected traditional and alternative feedstuffs for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A digestibility trial with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was conducted to determine apparent availability coefficients (AACs) of phosphorus for selected common feedstuffs: soybean meal, cottonseed meal, wheat middlings, corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DD...

  3. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  4. Identification of potential genetic markers for improved growth rate in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of genetic polymorphism associated with muscle growth would improve selection efficiency of channel catfish broodstock. Because faster growth is typically associated with increased food intake, factors involved in food intake regulation may serve as potential gene markers for selecti...

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophages specific to the channel catfish pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri is a primary cause of mortality in channel catfish raised commercially in aquaculture farms. Additional treatment and diagnostic regimes are needed for this enteric pathogen, motivating the discovery and characterization of bacteriophages spe...

  6. Chronic pathology and longevity of Drepanocephalus spathans infections in juvenile channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a common parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The cercariae of D. spathans have been shown infective to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The developing metacercariae concentrate in the cranial regio...

  7. Changes of serum myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide in the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is an important farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), disease. The development of a monitoring system for assessing the catfish health status in hatcheries and ponds is in great demanding. Because of the...

  8. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  9. Vaccination of full-sib channel catfish families against enteric septicemia of catfish with an oral live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of an oral live-attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine against enteric septicemia of catfish in 20 full-sib fingerling channel catfish families. Each family was split into vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups. The vaccine was delivered orally by feeding fish diet...

  10. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  11. SEASONAL FORAGING BY CHANNEL CATFISH ON TERRESTRIALLY BURROWING CRAYFISH IN A FLOODPLAIN-RIVER ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seasonal use of terrestrially burrowing crayfish as a food item by channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was studied in channelized and non-channelized sections of the Yockanookany River (Mississippi, USA). During seasonal inundation of the floodplains, the crayfish occupied o...

  12. Influence of fertilizing water pH on the hatching success of stripped channel catfish eggs on channel x blue hybrid catfish embryo production in hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable egg quality is one of the most important constrains to the development of aquaculture. The quality of eggs that are manually stripped from channel catfish are affected by variation in parental genetics, maturity, type and dose of hormone, age and pre-spawning stress of female fish. Furthe...

  13. Channel catfish reovirus (CRV) inhibits replication of channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) by two distinct mechanisms: viral interference and induction of an anti-viral factor.

    PubMed

    Chinchar, V G; Logue, O; Antao, A; Chinchar, G D

    1998-06-19

    Catfish reovirus (CRV), a double stranded RNA virus, inhibited channel catfish herpes-virus (CCV) replication by 2 different mechanisms: (1) directly as a consequence of its own replication, and (2) indirectly due to the induction of an anti-viral factor. In the former, prior infection with CRV significantly reduced subsequent CCV protein synthesis and virus yield. CRV mediated-interference was greatest when CRV infection preceded CCV infection by 16 h, and was least when cell cultures were simultaneously infected with both viruses. in the latter case, the infection of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cultures with UV-inactivated CRV resulted in the synthesis (or release) of an anti-viral factor. Cells producing the factor were protected from CCV infection, as were cells which had been treated with spent culture medium containing anti-viral activity. Interestingly an anti-viral activity was constitutively present in long-term cultures of catfish T-cells and macrophages. Whether this factor and the one induced by UV-inactivated CRV are identical is not known, but analogy to mammalian systems suggests that the former may be similar to type II interferon, whereas the latter may be the piscine equivalent of type I interferon. These results suggest that UV-inactivated CRV may prove useful in the induction and characterization of interferon-like anti-viral proteins in the channel catfish and that long-term cultures of catfish T-cells and monocytes may serve as a ready source of additional anti-viral factors.

  14. Effect of paternal blue catfish strain effects on hatchery fry production and performance of channel catfish X blue catfish F1 hybrid fry production and fingerling performance under commercial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four hundred four-year old mature Gold Kist strain channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with 10 mg common carp pituitary extract (CPE) /kg BW in 8 spawning trials. The stripped eggs were fertilized with sperm of either D&B or Rio Grande blue catfish, I.furcatus to produce D&B ...

  15. Repeat structure of the catfish genome: a genomic and transcriptomic assessment of Tc1-like transposon elements in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Nandi, Samiran; Peatman, Eric; Xu, Peng; Wang, Shaolin; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2007-09-01

    We have assessed the distribution and diversity of members of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genome as well as evaluating the extent of transcription of Tc1 transposases in the species. Through use of PCR amplification and sequencing, assessment of random BAC end sequences (BES) equivalent to 1.2% genome coverage, and screening of over 45,000 catfish ESTs, a significant proportion of Tc1-like elements and their associated transcripts were captured. Up to 4.2% of the catfish genome in base pairs appears to be composed of Tc1-like transposon-related sequences and a significant fraction of the catfish cellular mRNA, approximately 0.6%, was transcribed from transposon-related sequences in both sense and antisense orientations. Based on results of repeat-masking, as much as 10% of BAC end sequences from catfish, which is a random survey of the genome, contain some remnant of Tc1 elements, suggesting that these elements are present in the catfish genome as numerous, small remnants of the transposons. Phylogenetic analysis allowed comparison of catfish Tc1 transposase types with those found in other vertebrate and invertebrate species. In spite of the existence of many types of Tc1-like sequences that are not yet able to be placed in clades with strong statistical support, it is clear that multiple families of Tc1-like elements exist in channel catfish.

  16. Cardioventilatory effects of acclimatization to aquatic hypoxia in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Mark L; Carlton, Anna L; Silva, Philip E

    2002-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for altering cardioventilatory control in vertebrates in response to chronic hypoxia are not well understood but appear to be mediated through the oxygen-sensitive chemoreceptor pathway. Little is known about the effects of chronic hypoxia on cardioventilatory control in vertebrates other than mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine how cardioventilatory control and the pattern of response is altered in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) by 1 week of moderate hypoxia. Fish were acclimatized for 7 days in either normoxia (P(O(2)) approximately 150 Torr) or hypoxia (P(O(2)) approximately 75 Torr). After acclimatization, cardioventilatory, blood-gas and acid/base variables were measured during normoxia (P(O(2)) 148+/-1 Torr) then at two levels of acute (5 min) hypoxia, (P(O(2)) 72.6+/-1 and 50.4+/-0.4 Torr). Ventilation was significantly greater in hypoxic acclimatized fish as was the ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia (Delta ventilation/Delta P(O(2))). The increase in ventilation and hypoxic sensitivity was due to increases in opercular pressure amplitude, gill ventilation frequency did not change. Heart rate was greater in hypoxic acclimatized fish but decreased in both acclimatization groups in response to acute hypoxia. Heart rate sensitivity to hypoxia (Delta heart rate/Delta P(O(2))) was not affected by hypoxic acclimatization. The ventilatory effects of hypoxic acclimatization can be explained by increased sensitivity to oxygen but the effects on heart rate cannot.

  17. Thidiazuron uptake, distribution and metabolism in bluegills and channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Knowles, C O; Benezet, H J; Mayer, F L

    1980-01-01

    Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 0.1 ppm of thidiazuron-14C cotton defoliant for 28 days under continuous flow conditions accumulated relatively low levels of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 5.4 ppm in fillet tissue after 1 day. During a 14 day depuration period, radioactivity declined to 1.0 ppm or less. Fractionation of offal and fillet tissues from bluegills collected at 28 days indicated that most of the radioactive material was water soluble, although appreciable amounts of organosoluble radioactive material also were present. When bluegills were injected intraperitoneally with thidiazuron-14C, metabolism and elimination were relatively rapid. Organosoluble radioactive material isolated from fish tissue included thidiazuron, its 2-hydroxyphenyl derivative, phenylurea, and several unknowns. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed under static conditions to a system containing 0.15 ppm of thidiazuron-14C incorporated into soil also accumulated only low concentrations of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 2.5 ppb in offal tissue at 7 days. In fillet tissue, radioactivity did not exceed 0.5 ppb. There was no evidence from these studies to indicate that thidiazuron would pose a hazard to the aquatic ecosystem.

  18. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  19. A standardized sampling protocol for channel catfish in prairie streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Three alternative gears—an AC electrofishing raft, bankpoles, and a 15-hoop-net set—were used in a standardized manner to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in three prairie streams of varying size in three seasons. We compared these gears as to time required per sample, size selectivity, mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) among months, mean CPUE within months, effect of fluctuating stream stage, and sensitivity to population size. According to these comparisons, the 15-hoop-net set used during stable water levels in October had the most desirable characteristics. Using our catch data, we estimated the precision of CPUE and size structure by varying sample sizes for the 15-hoop-net set. We recommend that 11–15 repetitions of the 15-hoop-net set be used for most management activities. This standardized basic unit of effort will increase the precision of estimates and allow better comparisons among samples as well as increased confidence in management decisions.

  20. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  1. Whole genome comparative analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with four model fish species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to study evolution of genomes. It allows transfer of genome information from the well-studied model species to non-model species. Catfish is an economically important aquaculture species in United States. A large amount of genome resources have been developed from catfish including genetic linkage maps, physical maps, BAC end sequences (BES), integrated linkage and physical maps using BES-derived markers, physical map contig-specific sequences, and draft genome sequences. Application of such genome resources should allow comparative analysis at the genome scale with several other model fish species. Results In this study, we conducted whole genome comparative analysis between channel catfish and four model fish species with fully sequenced genomes, zebrafish, medaka, stickleback and Tetraodon. A total of 517 Mb draft genome sequences of catfish were anchored to its genetic linkage map, which accounted for 62% of the total draft genome sequences. Based on the location of homologous genes, homologous chromosomes were determined among catfish and the four model fish species. A large number of conserved syntenic blocks were identified. Analysis of the syntenic relationships between catfish and the four model fishes supported that the catfish genome is most similar to the genome of zebrafish. Conclusion The organization of the catfish genome is similar to that of the four teleost species, zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon such that homologous chromosomes can be identified. Within each chromosome, extended syntenic blocks were evident, but the conserved syntenies at the chromosome level involve extensive inter-chromosomal and intra-chromosomal rearrangements. This whole genome comparative map should facilitate the whole genome assembly and annotation in catfish, and will be useful for genomic studies of various other fish species. PMID:24215161

  2. Summary of channel catfish and rainbow trout production at the Gallatin Waste Heat Aquaculture Facility, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Schweinforth, R.L.; Burton, G.L.

    1984-02-01

    These studies have indicated that channel catfish and rainbow trout can be intensively cultured in concrete raceways using waste heat effluent water from the Gallatin Steam Plant. Optimum production was attained, especially with channel catfish, when desirable water temperatures and proper environmental conditions occurred. High density culture is possible during the winter and early spring months.

  3. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Oxygen Consumption and Development of Channel Catfish Eggs and Fry: Implications for Hatchery Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns were incubated under controlled conditions to determine the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on development and survival. Routine metabolic rate and limiting oxygen concentration were determined on eggs, sac fry and swim-up fry. Eight channel catfish spawns were s...

  4. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  5. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  6. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: Transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with A. hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in E. coli expression syst...

  7. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  8. The “See-Saw”: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the ...

  9. DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  10. Efficacy of metomidate and tricaine methanesulfonate to modulate the short-term cortisol stress response in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the anesthetics metomidate and tricaine methanesulfonate to mitigate the cortisol stress response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated during a 10 min confinement stress. Channel catfish (11.9 ± 0.5 g; mean ± SE) were transferred from holding tanks to confinement buck...

  11. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M.; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G.; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V.; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L.; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  12. Comparative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by liver microsomes of channel catfish and brown bullhead

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.X.; Kumar, S.; Sikka, H.C.

    1997-04-01

    The authors investigated the metabolism of the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by liver microsomes of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. The catfish liver microsomes metabolized BaP at a considerably lower rate than did the brown bullhead liver microsomes. Although the BaP metabolites produced by the liver microsomes of the two species were qualitatively similar, there were considerable differences in the relative proportions of individual metabolites formed. The catfish liver microsomes produced a considerably lower proportion of benzo-ring diols of BaP including BaP-7,8-diol (the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP) than did the bullhead liver microsomes. Compared to the bullhead liver microsomes, the catfish microsomes converted a higher proportion of BaP to phenolic metabolites.

  13. Seasonal migration and homing of channel catfish in the lower Wisconsin River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellett, Thomas D.; Van Dyck, Gene J.; Adams, Jean V.

    1998-01-01

    A multiyear tag and recapture study was conducted to determine whether channel catfishIctalurus punctatus were migratory and if they had strong homing tendencies. Over 10,000 channel catfish were tagged from the lower Wisconsin River and adjacent waters of the upper Mississippi River during the 3-year sampling period. Data on movements were obtained from study recaptures and through tag returns and harvest information provided by sport anglers and commercial fishers. Channel catfish occupied relatively small home ranges during summer, migrated downstream to the upper Mississippi River in autumn, then migrated back up the Wisconsin River in spring to spawn and to occupy the same summer home sites they had used in previous summers. Fish size was a factor in the degree of fidelity to summer home sites, with larger fish showing greater fidelity.

  14. Efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival of channel catfish infected with saprolegniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schleis, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival associated with external saprolegniasis on fingerlings of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in four laboratory trials. Fungal epizootics were initiated according to procedures developed in a fungal-disease model. Fish were abraded with a dremel tool and then placed in an aerated static infection tank containing fungal-infected hemp seeds held in teaballs that were suspended in 100 L of water for 24 h (trials 1-3) or 6 h (trial 4). In the formalin trials, treatment regimens of 0, 82, and 166 mg/L (trial 1) or 0 and 83 mg/L (trial 2) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments (trial 1) or once daily for a total of seven treatments (trial 2). In the hydrogen peroxide trials, treatment regimens of 0, 75, and 102 mg/L (trial 3) or 0 and 75 mg/L (trial 4) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, with 10 fish per replicate. Formalin exposures of 83 (seven treatments; 33% survival) and 166 mg/L (three treatments; 63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with controls (of which 3% and 13%, respectively, survived). In trial 4, hydrogen peroxide exposure of 75 mg/L (63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with the untreated controls (13% survival). Formalin and hydrogen peroxide treatments were effective in increasing survival in channel catfish infected with fungus.

  15. Effects of cortisol and stress on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility and lysozyme activity following exposure to Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Small, Brian C; Bilodeau, A Lelania

    2005-05-15

    Periods of stress are often associated with disease outbreaks in cultured fish, and stress is often characterized by the secretion of cortisol. Although stress and cortisol secretion are highly correlated in fish, the role of cortisol in affecting channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility is unclear. The effects of short-term stress and exogenous cortisol administration on channel catfish susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri, the etiologic agent of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), were investigated. Channel catfish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri following a standardized 30-min low-water stress or administration of dietary cortisol (100 mg/kg feed) and compared to a pathogen-challenged control group of catfish. Pathogen susceptibility increased in stressed catfish (43.3% mortality) when compared to cortisol-fed catfish (26.7%) and controls (26.7%). A greater (P<0.05) percentage of stressed catfish (25.9%) tested positive for E. ictaluri relative to cortisol-fed catfish (13.0%) over the course of the study, however, average levels of circulating bacteria were not different (P>0.05) among the treatments. Catfish challenged by the low-water stress event had elevated (P<0.05) circulating levels of cortisol 1-day post-pathogen exposure and elevated (P<0.05) lysozyme activity 4 and 14 days post-pathogen exposure when compared to cortisol-fed and control-challenged catfish. Cortisol concentrations were not correlated (P>0.05) to either lysozyme activity or bacterial levels; however, lysozyme activity was positively correlated (P=0.0197) to blood bacterial concentrations. These results implicate other stress factors or pathways, separate from or possibly in conjunction with cortisol, in the stress-associated immunosuppression of channel catfish as it relates to ESC susceptibility.

  16. Some enzymatic properties of brain Acetylcholinesterase from bluegill and channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, James W.; Knowles, Charles O.

    1968-01-01

    Using a manometric technique an acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7, acetylcholine acetyl-hydrolase) was demonstrated in brain tissue from the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Walbaum). The activities were 19 and 37 μmoles acetylcholine hydrolyzed/milligram protein per hour for the bluegill and channel catfish enzymes, respectively. The optimum substrate concentration for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine was 10 mMfor the enzymes from both species. Generally, the catfish acetylcholinesterase was somewhat more susceptible than the bluegill to the inhibitors tested; however, the bluegill enzyme was more susceptible to inhibition by malathion and malaoxon.

  17. Taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Li, Qi; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-03-01

    Taste sensation plays a pivotal role in nutrient identification and acquisition. This is particularly true for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) that live in turbid waters with limited visibility. This biological process is mainly mediated by taste receptors expressed in taste buds that are distributed in several organs and tissues, including the barbels and skin. In the present study, we identified a complete repertoire of taste receptor and gustatory associated G protein genes in the channel catfish genome. A total of eight taste receptor genes were identified, including five type I and three type II taste receptor genes. Their genomic locations, phylogenetic relations, orthologies and expression were determined. Phylogenetic and collinear analyses provided understanding of the evolution dynamics of this gene family. Furthermore, the motif and dN/dS analyses indicated that selection pressures of different degrees were imposed on these receptors. Additionally, four genes of gustatory associated G proteins were also identified. It was indicated that expression patterns of catfish taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins across organs mirror the distribution of taste buds across organs. Finally, the expression comparison between catfish and zebrafish organs provided evidence of potential roles of catfish skin and gill involved in taste sensation.

  18. The effects of a sublethal dose of botulinum serotype E on the swimming performance of channel catfish fingerlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) is a disease of cultured Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the Mississippi Delta region and surrounding states. The etiology of VTC is associated with botulinum serotype E (BoNT/E), which causes blockage of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction,...

  19. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  20. A leukocyte immune-type receptor (LITR) subset is a marker of antiviral cytotoxic cells in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type-receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. Here we demonstrate the utility of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish an...

  1. Feeding Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp. Does Not Improve Growth or Survival of Channel Catfish Experimentally Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the channel catfish industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Feeding probiotics may prove beneficial in improving disease resistance. The first study examined the effects of a Lactobacillus probiotic (Flor...

  2. Hormone-injected gravid channel catfish held in individual mesh bag reduces handling stress and improves reproductive performance in hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared holding hormone-injected female channel catfish in soft-mesh bags to communally held hormone-injected female catfish in a tank as a stress reduction strategy to improve reproductive performance. Fish held in tanks were crowded, handled multiple times to record weight prior to ho...

  3. Antigens provide immunity against Ich in channel catfish trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine effects of 1) types of Ich antigens and routes of immunization, 2) methods of inactivated trophonts, and 3) antigen doses on fish immune protection against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich). All catfish immunized with live theronts by immersion, live the...

  4. Rhamnose binding lectins influence Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecol...

  5. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  6. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using quantitative PCR technique, the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes [NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin D, hepcidin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 ...

  7. Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen one-acre ponds (5 ponds per treatment) were managed as High Oxygen (minimum DO concentrations aver...

  8. Variants of Microcystin in Southeastern USA Channel Catfish (Ictalurus puntctatus ralfinesque) Production Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synoptic survey of 486 channel catfish production ponds was made from the southern states (AL, AR, LA, MS) that produce over 90% of commercially grown fish. The survey assessed distribution of microcystin toxins in these ponds. A total of 12 variants of microcystin were detected. The threshold ...

  9. Global gene expression in channel catfish after vaccination with an attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the global gene expression in channel catfish after immersion vaccination with an attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri (AquaVac ESCTM), microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2, a t...

  10. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  11. Channel catfish CD8a and CD8ß co-receptors characterization expression and polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we report the identification and characterization of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus CD8a and CD8ß genes. Both genes encode predicted proteins containing a leader, a immunoglobulin superfamily V domain, a stalk/hinge region, a transmembrane region and a positively charged cytoplas...

  12. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  13. Effects of dietary copper supplements on the resistance of channel catfish to columnaris disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper is an essential dietary component in animal feeds. Copper sulfate has also been shown to be therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for several indications including columnaris disease. Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish commercial...

  14. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5’-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for ...

  15. Pre-treating channel catfish with copper sulfate affects susceptibility to columnaris disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. This disease can greatly diminish the profitability of aquaculture operations by large-scale mortality events, particularly in the fingerling production phase. ...

  16. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) CD156a mRNA sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CD156a, also known as A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase domain 8 (ADAM8), is a member of ADAM family. We cloned, and sequenced the channel catfish CD156a transcript. The full-length of the CD156a cDNA consisted of 3035 nucleotides, including a 5’-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame ...

  17. Development of a value-added product using channel catfish belly flap meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shank fillet of channel catfish is a primary product form produced during processing and is formed by trimming the belly flap or nugget section from a boneless fillet. Belly flap meat comprises around 20 percent of the fillet weight. Belly flap meat has a fat content of about 15 percent compared...

  18. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  19. Experimental evaluation of the effect of winter feeding on channel catfish growout pond plankton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten, 0.25 acre ponds at the UAPB Aquaculture Station were sampled weekly from Dec. 7-Feb. 22 (n=90) for phytoplankton and zooplankton. Five of the ponds were randomly assigned to each of two treatments: no feeding and feeding based on recommended rates. Channel catfish sizes and numbers approximated...

  20. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  1. DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) toxicity to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus sac fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of open facilities, moisture, and warm weather during channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus spawning season causes mosquito-infestation problems. A common solution to mosquito problems in hatcheries is to use mosquito repellents applied to exposed skin and clothing. DEET (N,N-diethyl-...

  2. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  3. The Case Against Using Organic Fertilizers in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the assumed advantages and disadvantages of organic fertilizers and presents the case that the risks outweigh the benefits for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery pond fertilization. Under certain conditions, organic fertilizers may be beneficial to provide forage for z...

  4. Low temperature exposure to post-vitellogenic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus extend reporductive readiness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.spawn annually during the spring and early summer (24 -30 °C). Environmental temperature is the main factor that controls the seasonal maturation of gonads and the timing of spawning. Temperature fluctuations can adversely affect spawning and broodfish conditio...

  5. Apparent digestibility of alternative plant-protein feedstuffs for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted with channel catfish, Ictalurus puntatus to determine apparent digestibility/availability coefficients of protein, amino acids, lipid and energy for alternative plant-protein feedstuffs: corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, and canola meal, c...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Edwardsiella tarda (isolate FL95-01)recovered from channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe isolated from fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including humans. This is a report of the complete and annotated genome of E. tarda isolate FL95-01, recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)....

  7. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  8. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  9. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  10. Ameliorating the effects of the digenetic trematode, Bolbophorus damnificus on the channel catfish industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the middle to late 1990s, an emerging digenetic trematode problem was recognized in the channel catfish industry. Morphologic and molecular analysis identified the culprit as Bolbophorus damnificus. The American Ehite Pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos serves as the definitive host, while the ma...

  11. A standardized microsatellite marker panel for parentage and kinship analyses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was designed to produce a standardized set of microsatellite loci for parentage and kinship analyses in channel catfish, the leading species in U.S. aquaculture. Three panels of 5 to 6 markers each were developed that contained a total of 2 dinucleotide, 8 trinucleotide, and 7 tetranuc...

  12. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed Central

    Waldbieser, G C; Bosworth, B G; Nonneman, D J; Wolters, W R

    2001-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified in channel catfish gene sequences or random clones from a small insert genomic DNA library. Outbred populations of channel catfish contained an average of eight alleles per locus and an average heterozygosity of 0.70. A genetic linkage map of the channel catfish genome (N = 29) was constructed from two reference families. A total of 293 microsatellite loci were polymorphic in one or both families, with an average of 171 informative meioses per locus. Nineteen type I loci, 243 type II loci, and one EST were placed in 32 multipoint linkage groups covering 1958 cM. Nine more type II loci were contained in three two-point linkage groups covering 24.5 cM. Twenty-two type II loci remained unlinked. Multipoint linkage groups ranged in size from 11.9 to 110.5 cM with an average intermarker distance of 8.7 cM. Seven microsatellite loci were closely linked with the sex-determining locus. The microsatellite loci and genetic linkage map will increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for channel catfish. PMID:11404336

  13. Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copp...

  14. Winter performance of an outdoor biofloc production system for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the tropics, outdoor biofloc technology production systems are operated year-round. While channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc production system, these studies were conducted only during the growing season and production tanks were idled for the...

  15. Identification and characterization of TCRgamma and TCRdelta chains in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, T cell receptors (TCR) gamma and delta were identified by mining of expressed sequence tag databases and full length sequences were obtained by 5'-RACE and RT-PCR protocols. cDNAs for each of these TCR chains encode typical variable (V), (diversity; D), joining ...

  16. Effects of hatching conditions on triple tail deformity in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) occasionally will be found with abnormal caudal fin structures. These deformities vary in size and appearance but generally occur as an extra fin protruding from the lateral surface of the caudal peduncle. The phrase “triple-tail” is often used to describe fis...

  17. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  18. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  19. Expression of immune genes in skin of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited information on innate and adaptive immune gene expression in the skin of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus immunized with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich). The objective of this study was to evaluate differential expression of innate and adaptive immune genes, including immunog...

  20. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  1. Determination of the median lethal dose of botulinum serotype E in channel catfish fingerlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The median lethal dose of botulinum serotype E in 5.3-g channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings was determined. Five tanks (five fish/tank) were assigned to each of the following treatment groups: 70, 50, 35, 25, or 15 pg of purified botulinum serotype E. Fish were injected intracoelomically...

  2. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  3. Function of a recombinant Chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  4. Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yun; Song, Lin; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-11-01

    Complement system is one of the most important defense systems of innate immunity, which plays a crucial role in disease defense responses in channel catfish. However, inappropriate and excessive complement activation could lead to potential damage to the host cells. Therefore the complement system is controlled by a set of complement regulatory proteins to allow normal defensive functions, but prevent hazardous complement activation to host tissues. In this study, we identified nine complement regulatory protein genes from the channel catfish genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their orthology relationships, supporting their correct annotation and potential functional inferences. The expression profiles of the complement regulatory protein genes were determined in channel catfish healthy tissues and after infection with the two main bacterial pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare. The vast majority of complement regulatory protein genes were significantly regulated after bacterial infections, but interestingly were generally up-regulated after E. ictaluri infection while mostly down-regulated after F. columnare infection, suggesting a pathogen-specific pattern of regulation. Collectively, these findings suggested that complement regulatory protein genes may play complex roles in the host immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish.

  5. Peracetic acid is effective for controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a relatively new compound suggested for use to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs. The study consisted...

  6. Sublethal copper stress and susceptibility of channel catfish to experimental infections with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, M.S.; Ewing, S.A.; Zimmer, M.A.

    1982-06-01

    The study describes a technique for evaluating the change in susceptibility of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to infection by the protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following exposure to sublethal concentrations of dissolved copper. This ubiquitous parasite infects a wide variety of freshwater fishes and causes severe disease problems in catfish. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants may amplify stress significantly for fish exposed to such disease agents. Therefore, techniques are needed to judge the effect of contaminant stress upon the course of disease, rather than simply death from disease, in fishes. Results show that pathologic changes attendent upon exposure to the parasite and those upon exposure to copper are complementary in effect. (JMT)

  7. Quantitative trait loci map for growth and morphometric traits using a channel catfish x blue catfish interspecific hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Hutson, A M; Liu, Z; Kucuktas, H; Umali-Maceina, G; Su, B; Dunham, R A

    2014-05-01

    Head length, head depth, head width, body depth, body width, caudal depth, and caudal width and total length and BW were measured for 71 backcross full sibs between the interspecific backcross F1 (female channel catfish [Ictalurus punctatus] × male blue catfish [Ictalurus furcatus]) female × blue catfish male. Body measurements were corrected for both size and the relationship between relative body shape and size, which is critical but usually ignored in fish research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was used for construction of a QTL map with 44 linkage groups. Eleven of 44 linkage groups had at least 1 significant QTL (P ≤ 0.05) and 11 of 44 at P = 0.10. Linkage group 19 was unique as it had multiple QTL for every trait measured, except for caudal width for which no QTL was identified on any linkage group. Approximately half of the markers measured were associated with positive effects (increase in size) on the traits and half had negative effects (decrease in size). Linkage groups 5, 9, 18, 20, 39, and 40 were significant for multiple traits and always had a trait negative effect. Total length is represented on the map by the most linkage groups and the most markers. The linkage relationships found among BW, total length, and the 7 morphometric traits indicated that multiple trait marker-assisted selection to simultaneously increase BW body depth, body width, and caudal depth while decreasing the head traits with the goal to increase body weight and carcass yield would be very difficult. Multiple genetic enhancement approaches would likely be needed to simultaneously improve BW and body conformation.

  8. Role of organic acids during processing to improve quality of channel catfish fillets.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C F; Flick, G J; Cohen, J; Thomas, T B

    1998-04-01

    A microbial preparation derived from aquacultured channel catfish fillets (Ictalurus punctatus) was acidified with 0, 1, 2 and 4% (vol/vol) weak organic and held in an ice bath at 0 degree C to simulate the chilling process. Additionally, catfish fillets were sprayed under varying pressures at 15 degrees C with organic acids to evaluate the efficacy of concentrations of organic acids and spray pressures to ameliorate the microbiological quality. To determine plate counts, the dilution fluid was neutralized to pH 7.2 with 1.0 M NaOH. The aerobic plates counts of microorganisms in the chilling water were monitored over a 20-min interval. Aerobic plate counts were found on the channel catfish fillets before and after spray washing with organic acids. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h. The addition of organic acids tot he microbial preparation used in simulating the chilling process significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the number of bacterial surviving. The number of surviving bacteria in the chilled water decreased with increasing concentration and time of exposure to organic acids. Propionic acid had the most detrimental effect on organisms present in the microfloral preparation followed by acetic and lactic acids. Spray washing of catfish fillets with water did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect the microbial quality of fillets. However, catfish fillets sprayed with organic (lactic and propionic) acids significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the microbial counts by 10-fold. Lactic and propionic acids were not significantly (P > 0.05) different in influencing the aerobic counts of the catfish fillets.

  9. Identification of two IgD+ B cell populations in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Bengtén, Eva; Stafford, James L; Sahoo, Manoranjan; Taylor, Erin B; Miller, Norman W; Wilson, Melanie

    2010-10-01

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus express two Ig isotypes: IgM and IgD. Although catfish IgM has been extensively studied at the functional and structural levels, much less is known about IgD. In this study, IgM(+)/IgD(+) and IgM(-)/IgD(+) catfish B cell populations were identified through the use of anti-IgM and anti-IgD mAbs. Catfish IgM(+)/IgD(+) B cells are small and agranular. In contrast, IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cells are larger and exhibit a plasmablast morphology. The use of cell sorting, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR demonstrated that IgD(+) B cell expression varies among individuals. For example, some catfish have <5% IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cells in their PBLs, whereas in others the IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cell population can represent as much as 72%. Furthermore, IgD expressed by IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cells preferentially associates with IgL σ. Comparatively, IgM(+)/IgD(+) B cells can express any of the four catfish IgL isotypes. Also, transfection studies show that IgD functions as a typical BCR, because Igδ-chains associate with CD79a and CD79b molecules, and all membrane IgD transcripts from sorted IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cells contain viable VDJ rearrangements, with no bias in family member usage. Interestingly, all secreted IgD transcripts from IgM(+)/IgD(+) and IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cells were V-less and began with a leader spliced to Cδ1. Importantly, transfection of catfish clonal B cells demonstrated that this leader mediated IgD secretion. Together, these findings imply that catfish IgM(-)/IgD(+) B cells likely expand in response to certain pathogens and that the catfish IgD Fc-region, as has been suggested for human IgD, may function as a pattern recognition molecule.

  10. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  11. Liquid chromatographic determination of acriflavine and proflavine residues in channel catfish muscle.

    PubMed

    Plakas, S M; el Said, K R; Jester, E L; Bencsath, F A; Hayton, W L

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determination of acriflavine (ACR) and proflavine (PRO) residues in channel catfish muscle. Residues were extracted with acidified methanol solution, and extracts were cleaned up with C18 solid-phase extraction columns. Residue concentrations were determined on an LC cyano column, with spectrophotometric detection at 454 nm. Catfish muscle was individually fortified with ACR (purified from commercial product) and PRO at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 ppb (5 replicates per level). Mean recoveries from fortified muscle at each level ranged from 86 to 95%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.5 to 5.7%. The method was applied to incurred residues of ACR and PRO in muscle after waterborne exposure of channel catfish to commercial acriflavine (10 ppm total dye for 4 h). RSDs for incurred residues of ACR and PRO were in the same range as those for fortified muscle. Low residue concentrations (< 1% of exposure water concentration) suggested poor absorption of ACR and PRO in catfish.

  12. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (CC-Lys-g) produced in Escherichia coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme-g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Recombinant CC-Lys-g produced in E. coli expression system exhibited significant (P < 0.05) lytic activity against Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Gram-negative A. hydrophila. When pcDNA3.2-vectored recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (pcDNA-Lys-g) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-g offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B cells against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with pcDNA-Lys-g along with an adjuvant QCDCR, the transcriptional level of Lys-g was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. When pcDNA-Lys-g injected fish was challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain AL-09-71, pcDNA-Lys-g offered 100% protection to channel catfish at two days post DNA injection. Macrophages of fish injected with pcDNA-Lys-g produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish injected with pcDNA vector alone at two days post DNA injection. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-g could be used as a novel immunostimulant to offer immediate protection to channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  13. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  14. Catch of channel catfish with tandem-set hoop nets and gill nets in lentic systems of Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richters, Lindsey K.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six Nebraska water bodies representing two ecosystem types (small standing waters and large standing waters) were surveyed during 2008 and 2009 with tandem-set hoop nets and experimental gill nets to determine if similar trends existed in catch rates and size structures of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus captured with these gears. Gear efficiency was assessed as the number of sets (nets) that would be required to capture 100 channel catfish given observed catch per unit effort (CPUE). Efficiency of gill nets was not correlated with efficiency of hoop nets for capturing channel catfish. Small sample sizes prohibited estimation of proportional size distributions in most surveys; in the four surveys for which sample size was sufficient to quantify length-frequency distributions of captured channel catfish, distributions differed between gears. The CPUE of channel catfish did not differ between small and large water bodies for either gear. While catch rates of hoop nets were lower than rates recorded in previous studies, this gear was more efficient than gill nets at capturing channel catfish. However, comparisons of size structure between gears may be problematic.

  15. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased walleye survival in comparison with controls. In the channel catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for all OTC-HCl treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Putative roles for a rhamnose binding lectin in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Beck, Benjamin H; Farmer, Bradley D; Straus, David L; Li, Chao; Peatman, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecologic and economic impacts, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of the host immune response to this pathogen remain unclear. While F. columnare can induce marked pathologic changes in numerous ectopic tissues, the adhesion of F. columnare to the gill in particular is strongly associated with pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Recently, in this regard, using RNA-seq expression profiling we found that a rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) was dramatically upregulated in the gill of fish infected with F. columnare (as compared to naïve fish). Thus, in the present study we sought to further characterize and understand the RBL response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We first identified two distinct catfish families with differential susceptibilities to columnaris disease; one family was found to be completely resistant while the other was susceptible (0% mortality versus 18.3% respectively, P < 0.001). Exclusively, in the susceptible family, we observed an acute and robust upregulation in catfish RBL that persisted for at least 24 h (P < 0.05). To elucidate whether RBL play a more direct role in columnaris pathogenesis, we exposed channel catfish to different doses of the putative RBL ligands l-rhamnose and d-galactose, and found that these sugars, protected channel catfish against columnaris disease, likely through competition with F. columnare binding of host RBL. Finally, we examined the role of nutritional status on RBL regulation and found that RBL expression was upregulated (>120-fold; P < 0.05) in fish fasted for 7 d (as compared to fish fed to satiation daily), yet expression levels returned to those of satiated fish within 4 h after re

  18. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  19. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  20. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control saprolegniasis on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Valentine, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Crawford, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs was evaluated at the Lost Valley State Fish Hatchery (Warsaw, MO). Two efficacy trials were conducted. In Trial 1, channel catfish eggs in their natural gelatinous matrix were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0, 500, and 750 mg l(-1). Channel catfish eggs in Trial 2 had the gelatinous matrix removed before treatment with hydrogen peroxide at 0 and 500 mg l(-1). Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate and each egg jar contained similar to 17,400 eggs. Hydrogen peroxide was administered as a 15-min flow-through treatment applied once daily for a total of six applications. Control jars were similarly treated with culture water. Samples of exposure water were collected during each treatment and analyzed to verify actual treatment concentrations. Hydrogen peroxide treatment efficacy was assessed by comparing the percent egg hatch in the treatment group to the untreated control group in each trial. Mean percent hatch in Trial I was 44% (control), 54% (500 mg l(-1)), and 69% (750 mg l(-1)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment at either 500 or 750 mg l(-1) significantly (P<0.01) increased the percent hatch compared to the untreated control group. In Trial 2, hydrogen peroxide treatment at 500 mg l(-1) significantly (P<0.01) increased the percent egg hatch (67%) relative to the untreated controls (57%). Hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced egg mortality and increased the percent hatch of channel catfish eggs regardless of whether eggs were incubated in the gelatinous matrix or without the matrix in comparison to the untreated control. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Precision of channel catfish catch estimates using hoop nets in larger Oklahoma reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoop nets are rapidly becoming the preferred gear type used to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and many managers have reported that hoop nets effectively sample channel catfish in small impoundments (<200 ha). However, the utility and precision of this approach in larger impoundments have not been tested. We sought to determine how the number of tandem hoop net series affected the catch of channel catfish and the time involved in using 16 tandem hoop net series in larger impoundments (>200 ha). Hoop net series were fished once, set for 3 d; then we used Monte Carlo bootstrapping techniques that allowed us to estimate the number of net series required to achieve two levels of precision (relative standard errors [RSEs] of 15 and 25) at two levels of confidence (80% and 95%). Sixteen hoop net series were effective at obtaining an RSE of 25 with 80% and 95% confidence in all but one reservoir. Achieving an RSE of 15 was often less effective and required 18-96 hoop net series given the desired level of confidence. We estimated that an hour was needed, on average, to deploy and retrieve three hoop net series, which meant that 16 hoop net series per reservoir could be "set" and "retrieved" within a day, respectively. The estimated number of net series to achieve an RSE of 25 or 15 was positively associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample but not with reservoir surface area or relative abundance. Our results suggest that hoop nets are capable of providing reasonably precise estimates of channel catfish relative abundance and that the relationship with the CV of the sample reported herein can be used to determine the sampling effort for a desired level of precision.

  2. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  3. Induction and characterization of hepatic metallothionein in the channel catfish following exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenk, D.; Zhang, Y.S.

    1994-12-31

    The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is a commercially important fish found throughout the United States. Thus, understanding how this organism responds to environmental contaminants is of critical concern. The stress protein, metallothionein allows organisms to cope with excessive exposures of heavy metals, such as cadmium. Following a 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride, two metal binding proteins of approximately 8 kilodaltons and two MRNA bands of approximately 400 base pairs were induced in liver homogenates of juvenile channel catfish. Spectrophotometric examination of the purified proteins indicated that each protein was an isoform of metallothionein. Static aqueous exposures of 7 day duration to varied doses of cadmium chloride increased expression of metallothionein mRNA in a dose dependent manner. Significant (p {<=} 0.5) expression of MRNA was observed following exposures to cadmium chloride of 50/{mu}g/L or higher, but expression was unaltered by exposure to 10 {mu}g/L. Future studies will examine the time course of hepatic metallothionein expression in channel catfish following cadmium chloride exposure.

  4. Physostomous channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, modify swimming mode and buoyancy based on flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Makoto A; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Katsufumi

    2017-02-15

    The employment of gliding in aquatic animals as a means of conserving energy has been theoretically predicted and discussed for decades. Several studies have shown that some species glide, whereas others do not. Freshwater fish species that widely inhabit both lentic and lotic environments are thought to be able to adapt to fluctuating flow conditions in terms of locomotion. In adapting to the different functional demands of lentic and lotic environments on fish energetics, physostomous (open swim bladder) fish may optimise their locomotion and activity by controlling their net buoyancy; however, few buoyancy studies have been conducted on physostomous fish in the wild. We deployed accelerometers on free-ranging channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in both lentic and lotic environments to quantify their swimming activity, and to determine their buoyancy condition preferences and whether gliding conserves energy. Individual comparisons of swimming efforts between ascent and descent phases revealed that all fish in the lentic environment had negative buoyancy. However, all individuals showed many descents without gliding phases, which was contrary to the behaviour predicted to minimise the cost of transport. The fact that significantly fewer gliding phases were observed in the lotic environment, together with the existence of neutrally buoyant fish, indicated that channel catfish seem to optimise their locomotion through buoyancy control based on flow conditions. The buoyancy optimisation of channel catfish relative to the flow conditions that they inhabit not only reflects differences in swimming behaviour but also provides new insights into the adaptation of physostome fish species to various freshwater environments.

  5. Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of five protein arginine methyltransferase genes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2012-08-01

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 like. Each PRMT nucleic acid sequence has an open reading frame (ORF) and 3'-untranslated regions. Each ORF appears to encode 361, 587 and 458 amino acid residues for PRMT1, PRMT4 and variant, respectively. The partial ORF of PRMT3 and PRMT5 encode 292 and 563 amino acids, respectively. By comparison with the human counterparts, each channel catfish PRMT also has conserved domains. For expression profile, the channel catfish PRMT1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in spleens, anterior kidneys, livers, intestines, skin and gills of fish examined. Except in liver, the PRMT3 transcript was detected in all catfish tissues examined. However, the PRMT4 cDNA was detected in livers from all three catfish and gills from two fish, but not other tissues. This information will enable us to further elucidate PRMT functions in channel catfish.

  6. Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor α gene in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Wu, Chunfa; Maule, Alec G.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2000-01-01

    Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ERα cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ERα variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ERα (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ERα (36 residues longer) and Short-ERα (389 residues shorter). The 5′-end of Long-ERα cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ERα but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ERα binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ERα but lower than reported for catfish ERβ. Short-ERα cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ERα RNAs that include the size range of the ERα cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ERα cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ERα antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ERα antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ERα mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may

  7. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, ghrelin receptors.

    PubMed

    Small, Brian C; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration on target tissue mRNA expression. Analysis of sequence similarities indicated two genes putatively encoding GHS-R1 and GHS-R2, respectively, which have been known to be present in zebrafish. Organization and tissue expression of the GHS-R1 gene was similar to that reported for other species, and likewise yielded two detectable mRNA products as a result of alternative splicing. Expression of both full-length, GHS-R1a, and splice variant, GHS-R1b, mRNA was highest in the pituitary. Gene organization of GHS-R2 was similar to GHS-R1, but no splice variant was identified. Expression of GHS-R2a mRNA was highest in the Brockmann bodies. GHS-R1a mRNA was detected in unfertilized eggs and throughout embryogenesis, whereas GHR-R2a mRNA was not expressed in unfertilized eggs or early developing embryos and was the highest at the time of hatching. Catfish intraperitoneally injected with catfish ghrelin-Gly had greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in pituitaries at 2 h and Brockmann bodies at 4 h, and of GHS-R2a in Brockmann bodies at 6 h post injection. Amidated catfish ghrelin (ghrelin-amide) had no observable effect on expression of either pituitary receptor; however, GHS-R1a and GHS-R2a mRNA expression levels were increased 4 h post injection of ghrelin-amide in Brockmann bodies. This is the first characterization of GHS-R2a and suggests regulatory and functional differences between the two catfish receptors.

  8. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    PubMed Central

    Lennard, Mara L; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Ross, David A; Kruiswijk, Corine P; Wilson, Melanie R; Miller, Norman W; Warr, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    Background The enhancer (Eμ3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding μE5 site. An orthologue to the Oct2 transcription factor has previously been cloned in catfish and is a functionally active transcription factor. This study was undertaken to clone and characterize the Oct1 transcription factor, which has also been shown to be important in driving immunoglobulin gene transcription in mammals. Results An orthologue of Oct1, a POU family transcription factor, was cloned from a catfish macrophage cDNA library. The inferred amino acid sequence of the catfish Oct1, when aligned with other vertebrate Oct1 sequences, revealed clear conservation of structure, with the POU specific subdomain of catfish Oct1 showing 96% identity to that of mouse Oct1. Expression of Oct1 was observed in clonal T and B cell lines and in all tissues examined. Catfish Oct1, when transfected into both mammalian (mouse) and catfish B cell lines, unexpectedly failed to drive transcription from three different octamer-containing reporter constructs. These contained a trimer of octamer motifs, a fish VH promoter, and the core region of the catfish Eμ3' IGH enhancer, respectively. This failure of catfish Oct1 to drive transcription was not rescued by human BOB.1, a co-activator of Oct transcription factors that stimulates transcription driven by catfish Oct2. When co-transfected with catfish Oct2, Oct1 reduced Oct2 driven transcriptional activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that catfish Oct1 (native or expressed in vitro) bound both consensus and variant octamer motifs. Putative N- and C-terminal activation domains of Oct1, when fused to a Gal4 DNA binding domain and co-transfected with Gal4-dependent reporter constructs were transcriptionally inactive, which may be due in

  9. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  10. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  11. Performance of alternative diets containing solvent-extracted distillers dried grains with solubles compared to traditional diets for pond-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and hybrid catfish I. punctatus x I. furcat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regional pond study was initiated in April 2011 to evaluate feeds containing solvent-extracted distillers dried grains with solubles (SE-DDGS) in both 28%- and 32% protein catfish feeds. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were stocked in multiple-batch production ponds at the University of Ark...

  12. Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Controlling Mortality Associated with External Columnaris on Walleye and Channel Catfish Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schleis, S.M.; Gaikowski, M.; Johnson, Aaron H.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with external columnaris infections on walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings was evaluated in two on-site trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapes before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria indicative of columnaris disease. In separate trials, walleyes (12 g) and channel catfish (2.3 g) were exposed to a total of three every-other-day hydrogen peroxide treatments of 0, 50, 75, or 100 mg/L for 60 min. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained 13 walleyes or 26 channel catfish. Hydrogen peroxide exposures of 50 mg/L for 60 min significantly increased walleye survival relative to that at other treatment concentrations, including the controls. Exposures of 50, 75, or 100 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide for 60 min significantly increased channel catfish survival in comparison with that of controls. These trials indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatments effectively reduce mortality in walleyes and channel catfish infected with external columnaris.

  13. Missing the target: DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  14. The effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog regime and stage of oocyte maturity for induced ovulation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effective LHRHa (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog) dose based on the gonadal maturity of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus to optimize channel x blue hybrid catfish production was evaluated in 4 trials (twice in early part of the season and twice in the peak spawning season) in a ...

  15. L-Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Characterization and expression profiling in mucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Thongda, Wilawan; Li, Chao; Luo, Yupeng; Beck, Benjamin H; Peatman, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) have recently emerged as important molecules in the context of innate immunity in teleost fishes. Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regulation of a RBL in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gill following a challenge with the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Furthermore, the magnitude of RBL up-regulation positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Moving forward from these findings, we wished to more broadly understand RBL function, diversity, and expression kinetics in channel catfish. Therefore, in the present study we characterized the RBL gene family present in select channel catfish tissues and profiled family member expression after challenge with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, six RBLs were identified from channel catfish and were designated IpRBL1a, IpRBL1b, IpRBL1c, IpRBL3a, IpRBL3b, and IpRBL5a. These RBLs contained carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ranging from one to three domains and each CRD contained the conserved motifs of -YGR- and -DPC-. Despite a level of structural conservation, the catfish RBLs showed low full-length identity with RBLs from outside the order Siluriformes. IpRBL expression after bacterial infection varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting that IpRBLs may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogens.

  16. Induction of phenol-type sulfotransferase and glucuronosyltransferase in channel catfish and mummichog.

    PubMed

    Gaworecki, Kristen M; Rice, Charles D; Van Den Hurk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Conjugation of phenolic xenobiotics and metabolites through sulfation and glucuronidation is an important biotransformation pathway. Sulfotransferases (SULT) are generally considered non-inducible, while some UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes are co-induced with cytochrome P450-1A by Ah-receptor ligands. To test these assumptions for two fish species, we measured sulfation and glucuronidation of 9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) treated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) from the creosote contaminated Atlantic Wood site in the Elizabeth River, VA. The results show a significant induction of both UGT and SULT activity in 3-MC treated catfish, linked to the expected induction of EROD activity. In mummichog, significant induction of UGT was measured at the contaminated site over the reference site (King's Creek, VA), as well as extremely low SULT activities at both sites. Western blots, using a polyclonal antibody for catfish phenol-type SULT, confirmed the absence of phenol-type SULT in mummichog. Residual, though slightly inducible, SULT activity may be attributed to other SULT isoforms.

  17. Renal excretion in channel catfish following injection of quinaldine sulphate or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Hunn, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, injected intraperitoneally with 2-methyl-quinoline sulphate (QdSO4) or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) eliminate most of the dose of these compounds by extra-renal routes. Patterns of renal excretion of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (pEq kg-1 h-1) appeared to be associated with the 'stress' of the urine collection technique rather than with the elimination of either compound. Concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (mEq/1) were determined in urine, plasma and gall bladder bile.

  18. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  19. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  20. Uptake, tissue distribution, and metabolism of malachite green in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plakas, S.M.; El Said, K. R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Allen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of malachite green was determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular dosing (0.8 mg . Kg-1) or waterborne exposure (0.8 mg . L-1 for 1 h). After intravascular dosing, mean plasma concentrations of the parent compound exhibited a triphasic decline with a terminal elimination half-life of 6.2 h. Malachite green was rapidly absorbed and concentrated in the tissues during waterborne exposure. The rate of accumulation was directly related to pH of the exposure water. After waterborne exposure, elimination of the parent compound from plasma also was triphasic with a terminal half-life of 4.7 h. In muscle, the half-life of the parent compound was approximately 67 h. Malachite green and its metabolites were widely distributed in all tissues. In fish exposed to C-14-labeled malachite green, total drug equivalent concentrations were highest in abdominal fat and lowest in plasma. Malachite green was rapidly and extensively metabolized to its reduced form, leucomalachite green, which was slowly eliminated from the tissues. Leucomalachite green is an appropriate target analyte for monitoring exposure of channel catfish to this drug.

  1. Evaluation of free radical-generating compounds for toxicity towards the cyanobacterium Planktothrix perornata which causes musty off-flavor in pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyanobacterium Planktothrix perornata grows in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds in the southeastern United States and produces the musty-odor compound 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). MIB can rapidly accumulate in the flesh of the catfish, thereby rendering the fish unpalatable a...

  2. Influence of strain of sire on channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish embryo production and fingerling performance under commercial farm conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is presently the desired aquaculture species in US farm-raised catfish industry. Even though production and performance has improved over the last two decades, several production and performance parameters needs to be improved to maximize the genetic potential of this ...

  3. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial agent AquaFrin(TM) as a bactericide and selective algicide for use in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of pond-raised channel catfish in the southeastern United States can experience huge economic losses due to the bacterial diseases enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris and to the presence of the certain odor-producing cyanobacteria in production ponds that result in “off-flav...

  4. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  5. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus important bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus infected with Edwardsiella ictaluri results in $40 - 50 million annual losses in profits to catfish producers. Early detection of this pathogen is necessary for disease control and reduction of economic loss. In this communication, the loop-mediated isothermal a...

  6. The effects of essential oils BIOMIN PEP MGE on weight gain feed conversion ratio and survival of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Biomin® P.E.P. MGE) on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and survival of channel catfish. Five hundred catfish (32.4 ± 1.7 g/fish) were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicate tanks/tre...

  7. Is there a genetic correlation between the resistance of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, and how do we get there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major problems in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture industry have been high disease losses to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri and columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Methods to control and prevent these diseases includ...

  8. Rhamnose-binding lectins and their ligands: Putative roles in Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its eco...

  9. NRAMP, TNF, TLR5, and Hepcidin Expression in Resistant and Susceptible Families of Channel Catfish Following Challenge With E. ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression of Nramp, TNF, TLR5, and Hepcidin, in spleen and liver tissue from two families of channel catfish, one resistant and one susceptible to ESC, following challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri. There were no significant differences in relative copy numbe...

  10. Development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-10-19

    Three attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were IP injected with 4×105 colony-forming unit (CFU) of the mutants, no fish died. However, when the same age and size matched channel catfish were IP injected with similar amount of their virulent parents, 80-100% fish died. Similarly, when Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were IP injected with 2×108 CFU of the mutants, no fish died. However, when Nile tilapia were IP injected with similar amount of the mutants, all fish died. Vaccination of channel catfish with the mutants at dose of 4×105 CFU/fish offered 86-100% protection against their virulent parents at 14 days post vaccination (dpv). Vaccination of Nile tilapia with the mutants at dose of 2×108 CFU/fish offered 100% protection against their virulent parents at 14, 28, and 56 dpv. Agglutination assay results suggested that protection elicited by the mutants was partially due to antibody-mediated immunity. Taken together, our results suggest that the three attenuated vaccines might be used to protect channel catfish and Nile tilapia against the highly virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila.

  11. Interaction between dietary levels of victamin C and E on growth and immune responses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of vitamins C and E on growth performance, liver contents of vitamins C and E, hematology and immune response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. A basal practical diet containing 32% protein and 2,900 kcal DE kg-1 was supplemen...

  12. Effects of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) parasitism on survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri was studied. Fish were exposed to E. ictaluri one day prior to Ich in the following treatments: 1)- infected by...

  13. Effects of essential oil on performance characteristics, survival, processing characteristics, and fillet proximate composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on performance, survival, processing characteristics, and fillet proximate composition of channel catfish. Fifteen one-acre ponds at the Delta-Western Research Center, Indianola, MS were stocked with approximatel...

  14. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (float...

  15. Binding and Phagocytosis by Opsonized and Nonopsonized Channel Catfish Macrophages of Viable DsRed-fluorescent-labeled Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phagocyte-mediated killing of bacterial pathogens is one of the major defensive mechanisms in fish. The binding, uptake and destruction of recombinant fluorescent protein DsRed transformed Edwardsiella ictaluri by opsonized and nonopsonized channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) macrophages was chara...

  16. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  17. The effects of harvesting and hauling on the blood physiology and fillet quality of market-size channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially produced adult channel catfish harvested using routine procedures had significant elevations in plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate compared to pre-harvest fish captured from open ponds. Blood samples were taken from ten fish in each of the two treatments (liquid oxygen and paddlewhee...

  18. The Effects of Harvesting and Hauling on the Blood Physiology and Fillet Quality of Adult Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially produced adult channel catfish harvested using routine procedures had significant elevations in plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate compared to pre-harvest fish captured from open ponds. Blood samples were taken from ten fish in each of the two treatments (liquid oxygen and paddlewhee...

  19. L-rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Characterization and expression profiling in mucosal tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhamnose binding-lectins (RBLs) have recently emerged as important molecules in the context of innate immunity in teleost fishes. Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regulation of a RBL in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gill following a challenge with the bacterial pat...

  20. The Effects of Harvesting and Hauling on the Blood Physiology and Fillet Quality of Food-Size Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially produced food-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus that were harvested using routine procedures had significant elevations in plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate compared to preharvest fish captured from open ponds. Blood samples were taken from 10 fish in each of the two treatmen...

  1. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  2. Characterization of a BAC Library from Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus: Indications of High Rates of Evolution Among Teleost Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CHORI-212 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed by cloning EcoRI/EcoRI partially digested DNA into the pTARBAC2.1 vector. The library has an average insert size of 161 kb, and provides 10.6-fold coverage of the channel catfish haploid genome. Screening of 32 genes using o...

  3. Evaluation of various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs to replace soybean meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate the use of combinations of two or three alternative protein sources to replace soybean meal in diets for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Six 28% protein diets containing various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs including cottonse...

  4. Identification and characterization of matrix metalloproteinase-13 sequence structure and expression during embryogenesis and infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), referred to as collagenase-3, is a proteolytic enzyme that plays a key role in degradation and remodelling of host extracellularmatrix proteins. The objective of this study was to characterize the MMP-13 gene in channel catfish, and to determine its pattern of e...

  5. Development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were IP injected with 4×105 colony-forming units (CFU) of the mutants, no fish die...

  6. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  7. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  8. Reduction of the pectoral spine and girdle in domesticated Channel catfish is likely caused by changes in selection pressure.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michael L; Lahiri, Shweta; Sullivan, Amanda D H; Mayo, Mark; Newton, Scott H; Sismour, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Locked pectoral spines of the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus more than double the fish's width and complicate ingestion by gape-limited predators. The spine mates with the pectoral girdle, a robust structure that anchors the spine. This study demonstrates that both spine and girdle exhibit negative allometric growth and that pectoral spines and girdles are lighter in domesticated than in wild Channel Catfish. This finding could be explained by changes in selection pressure for spine growth during domestication or by an epigenetic effect in which exposure to predators in wild fish stimulates pectoral growth. We tested the epigenetic hypothesis by exposing domesticated Channel Catfish fingerlings to Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides predators for 13 weeks. Spines and girdles grow isometrically in the fingerlings, and regression analysis indicates no difference in proportional pectoral growth between control and predator-exposed fish. Therefore a change in selection pressure likely accounts for smaller pectoral growth in domesticated Channel Catfish. Decreasing spine growth in older fish suggests anti-predator functions are most important in smaller fish. Additionally, growth of the appendicular and axial skeleton is controlled differentially, and mechanical properties of the spine and not just its length are an important component of this defensive adaptation.

  9. Molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of five protein arginine methyltransferase genes of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT), has recently emerged as an important modification in the regulation of gene expression. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish orthologs to human PRMT 1, 3, 4 and 5, and PRMT4 ...

  10. Complete genome sequence of Edwardsiella piscicida isolate S11-285 recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in Mississippi, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella piscicida is a recently described Gram-negative facultative anaerobe and an important pathogen to many wild and cultured fish species worldwide. Here we report the complete and annotated genome of E. piscicida isolate S11-285 recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) consisti...

  11. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality caused by Flavobacterium columnare infection in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of florfenicol against infection by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare was studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings held in 80-L aquaria. Nonabraded fish were challenged by immersion on day 0. Thirty 80-L tanks were randomly assigned in equal numbers to two treatme...

  12. Efficacy of Florfenicol for Control of Mortality Caused by Flavobacterium columnare Infection in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of florfenicol against Flavobacterium columnare infection was studied in channel catfish (Ictalurus puntatus) fingerlings in 80L aquaria. Non-abraded fish were challenged by immersion on Day 0. Thirty 80 liter tanks were randomly assigned in equal number to two treatment groups, eithe...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Edwardsiella piscicida Isolate S11-285 Recovered from Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in Mississippi, USA

    PubMed Central

    Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Tekedar, Hasan C.; Lawrence, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella piscicida is a recently described Gram-negative facultative anaerobe and an important pathogen to many wild and cultured fish species worldwide. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome of E. piscicida isolate S11-285 recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), consisting of a chromosome of 3,923,603 bp and 1 plasmid. PMID:27881536

  14. Effects of exogenous cortisol on the GH/IGF-I/IGFBP network in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian C; Small, Brian C

    2005-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to hinder somatic growth in a number of vertebrate species. In order to better understand the mechanisms through which they may act in channel catfish, we examined the effects of feeding cortisol on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) network. Fish (30.6+/-3.0 g) were fed once daily for 4 weeks and treatments included: (1) High-cortisol (dietary cortisol provided at 400 mg/kg feed), (2) Low-cortisol (dietary cortisol provided at 200 mg/kg feed), and (3) Control (commercial catfish feed). Fish fed diets with cortisol weighed approximately 50% less than Controls. Feed intake was reduced by approximately 30% in both treatments of cortisol fed fish compared to Controls. A approximately 20-kDa IGFBP was observed in plasma from High- and Low-treated fish while it was not detected in Control fish plasma. High-cortisol treatment increased pituitary GH mRNA expression approximately 10-fold while liver IGF-I mRNA expression was not different between cortisol-treated fish and Controls. Cortisol treatments decreased plasma levels of IGF-I. These data indicate that feeding cortisol for 4 weeks reduces weight gain, feed intake, and plasma levels of IGF-I and induces a approximately 20-kDa IGFBP. One mechanism through which cortisol may impede growth of catfish is through an increase in a low molecular weight IGFBP which may lead to inhibitory effects on the action of IGF-I.

  15. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  16. Uptake, elimination, and relative distribution of perchlorate in various tissues of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.-W.; Bradford, C.M.; Rinchard, J.; Liu, F.; Wages, M.; Waters, A.; Kendall, R.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Theodorakis, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of uptake and elimination of perchlorate in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Perchlorate - an oxidizer used in solid fuel rockets, fireworks, and illuminating munitions - has been shown to effect thyroid function, causing hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. For the uptake study, catfish were exposed to 100 mg/L sodium perchlorate for 12 h to 5 d in the laboratory. Perchlorate in tissues was analyzed using ion chromatography. The highest perchlorate concentrations were found in the head and fillet, indicating that these tissues are the most important tissues to analyze when determining perchlorate uptake into large fish. To calculate uptake and elimination rate constants for fillet, gills, G-I tract, liver, and head, fish were exposed to 100 ppm sodium perchlorate for 5 days, and allowed to depurate in clean water for up to 20 days. The animals rapidly eliminated the perchlorate accumulated showing the highest elimination in fillet (Ke = 1.67 day -1) and lowest elimination in liver (Ke = 0.79 day -1). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  17. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and metabolism of acriflavine and proflavine in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Plakas, S M; el Said, K R; Bencsath, F A; Musser, S M; Hayton, W L

    1998-06-01

    1. The disposition of proflavine (PRO) and acriflavine (ACR) were examined in channel catfish after intravascular (i.v.) dosing (1 mg/kg) or waterborne exposure (10 mg/l for 4 h). 2. After i.v. dosing, plasma concentration-time profiles of parent PRO and ACR were best described by two- and three-compartment pharmacokinetic models respectively. Terminal elimination half-lives of PRO and ACR in plasma were 8.7 and 11.4 h respectively. 3. In animals dosed with 14C-PRO or 14C-ACR, total drug equivalent concentrations were highest in the excretory organs and lowest in muscle, fat and plasma. In PRO-dosed animals, residues in the liver and trunk kidney were composed primarily of glucuronosyl and acetyl conjugates of PRO; residues in muscle were composed mostly (> 95%) of the parent drug. In ACR-dosed animals, the parent compound comprised > 90% of the total residues in all tissues examined. 4. PRO and ACR were poorly absorbed in catfish during waterborne exposure. At the end of a 4-h exposure, parent PRO and ACR concentrations in muscle were 0.064 and 0.020 microgram/g respectively. Levels in muscle declined below the limit of determination (0.005 microgram/g) within 1-2 weeks.

  18. Effects of GH on immune and endocrine responses of channel catfish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian C; Small, Brian C; Bilodeau, Lanie

    2007-01-01

    The effects of GH on immune and endocrine responses to channel catfish challenged with the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri were examined. Catfish (11.7+/-1.0 g) treated with recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) and challenged with E. ictaluri experienced similar mortality as control-exposed fish. Plasma activity of lysozyme was higher (P<0.01) in rbGH-exposed fish. Compared to day 0 controls (non-exposed fish), IGF-I levels decreased (P<0.05) in challenged fish while levels were similar (P>0.10) between treatments. Abundance of GH receptor (GHR) mRNA tended to decrease (P=0.055) in liver of challenged fish while toll like receptor 5 (TLR5) mRNA increased (P<0.05) in liver compared to d 0 controls. An increase in lysozyme may suggest GH enhances a nonspecific immune response. A decrease in GHR mRNA and plasma IGF-I suggests a downregulation of the somatotropic axis in response to disease. The increase in TLR5 mRNA suggests that TLR5 may play a role in host response to bacterial challenge. While exogenous rbGH may play a stimulatory role to increase lysozyme levels, there was no apparent effect of rbGH on mortality to E. ictaluri.

  19. Hepatic monooxygenase induction and promutagen activation in channel catfish from a contaminated river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.W.; Shane, B.S.; Henry, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    To better understand the etiology of cancer in fish from polluted waters, the impact of environmental contaminants on xenobiotic metabolism of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from a highly polluted water body, Devil's Swamp in southeastern Louisiana, has been investigated. Fish from Devil's Swamp bioaccumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (CHI), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fat tissue, the latter exceeding 7000 ppb. Reference catfish from the University farm, Ben Hur, were virtually devoid of PAH, CHI, and PCB. Liver microsomal enzymes (MFO) from Devil's Swamp fish were markedly induced. The specific content of cytochromes P450 and b5 and the specific activities of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase were two to three times higher than those of Ben Hur fish. Consistent with this induction, a 9000g supernatant from Devil's Swamp but not Ben Hur fish activated 2-aminofluorene and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mutagens in the Ames test. BP metabolism by Devil's Swamp fish liver microsomes was inhibited to a greater extent by alpha-naphthoflavone than was BP metabolism by Ben Hur fish microsomes. This finding indicates that the induced activity in the Devil's Swamp fish liver was the result of P450 isozymes characteristic of PAH/PCB induction. Thus, exposure of fish to environmental pollutants can alter MFO leading to enhanced metabolic activation of promutagens to mutagens.

  20. Hybrid catfish offers performance advantages for US catfish farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the only hybrid among 28 interspecific hybrid crosses and backcrosses evaluated within the family Ictaluridae to exhibit dominant traits desirable for intensive aquaculture. In a 2004 pond trial, hybrid catfish outperformed channel catfish in all the production trai...

  1. Evaluation of an in vitro cell assay to select attenuated bacterial mutants of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda to channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both Aeromonas hydrophila (causative agent of motile aeromonas septicemia) and Edwardsiella tarda (causative agent of enteric septicemia) are Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in aquatic environments, affecting many fish species worldwide, including channel catfish and tilapia. To control ba...

  2. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  3. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  4. Plasma corticosteroid dynamics in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), during and after oxygen depletion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso J.R., Davis; Parker, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma corticosteroid concentrations in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, (normally 1.0 ± 0.3 μg/100 ml) increased significantly (to 5.9 ± 1.2μg/100 ml) in response to acute oxygen depletion and then returned to control levels within 30 min after the dissolved oxygen concentration was increased; however, a secondary increase in plasma corticosteroid levels was observed 6 h after exposure. Corticosteroid levels also increased in fish exposed to dissolved oxygen concentration of <0.2 mg/1 for three days. Methylene blue was not effective in preventing interrenal response to low dissolved oxygen. No diurnal plasma corticosteroid rhythm was observed in fish exposed to diurnal chemical rhythms of culture ponds.

  5. Liquid-chromatographic determination of sarafloxacin residues in channel catfish muscle-tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gingerich, W.H.; Cheng, B.; Tubergen, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of sarafloxacin hydrochloride residues i n channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Sarafloxacin was extracted from fillet tissue with acetonitrile=water (1 + 1). The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was partitioned with hexane. The aqueous fraction was filtered through a 0.45 Mum filter and evaporated to dryness. The sample was redissolved with 20% acetonitrile-methanol (3 + 2) and 80% trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%), Centrifuged, and filtered to remove proteins. Samples were analyzed by chromatography with gradient elution on a c18 column and with fluorescence detection (excitation at 280 nm and emission above 389 nm). Mean recoveries ranged from 85.4 To 104%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 1.06 To 5.58% In samples spiked at concentrations of 10.0-863.8 Ng/g. The method detection limit for sarafloxacin was 1.4 Ng/g.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Intravascularly Administered (65)Zinc in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, Mace G.; Schultz, Irvin R. ); Newman, Michael E.

    1999-12-01

    We compared the pharmacokinetics of the radioisotope 65Zinc (65Zn) in blood, plasma, and whole body of adult channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following intravascular (iv) administration. A two compartment model described the pharmacokinetics of 65Zn in plasma and blood during the first 40 days following iv administration, but was unable to describe the long-term disposition of 65Zn. Whole body counting revealed that approximately half of the 65Zn dose was sequestered in a slowly exchangeable pool with a half-life of 1.5 years. Greater than 99% of the circulating 65Zn was bound to plasma proteins, whereas there was less than 1% binding to red blood cells. Synthesis of the results for channel catfish and existing data in other species indicates three phases in the pharmacokinetics of zinc. The first phase consists of initial distribution outside the vascular system to kidney, liver, and other organs (alpha phase in blood and plasma; t1/2 of 4 to 5 hours). The second phase involves distribution from organs to a slowly exchangeable zinc pool, likely consisting of bone (beta phase in blood and plasma; alpha phase in whole body; t1/2 of 4 to 20 days). The third phase appears to involve a slow turnover of sequestered zinc (t1/2 greater than 1 year). Blood sampling or short-term whole body measurements will underestimate the persistence of zinc in fish, thus prolonged sampling and measurement of whole body concentrations are necessary to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zinc.

  7. Bioconcentration and endocrine disruption effects of diazepam in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Overturf, C L; Overturf, M D; Huggett, D B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the detection of pharmaceuticals in surface waters has increased worldwide. Pharmaceuticals are typically found in the environment at concentrations well below therapeutic levels in humans; however, their mechanisms of action may be largely unknown in non-target organisms, such as teleost species. Thus, chronic exposure to these types of compounds warrants further investigation. The goal of this study was to examine the potential for diazepam, a model benzodiazepine drug, to bioconcentrate in tissues of channel catfish and to examine its ability to interact with the endocrine system through modulation of steroid hormones and/or steroidogenic genes. To investigate the bioconcentration potential of diazepam, channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days, followed by clean water for another seven days, using an abbreviated OECD 305 Fish Bioconcentration Test study design. This concentration of diazepam is well below environmentally relevant concentrations of diazepam (ng/L). To evaluate steroidogenic effects, fish were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days only. Steroid hormone concentrations were analyzed for various tissues, as well as expression of selected steroidogenic genes. Calculated bioconcentration factors for diazepam were well below regulatory threshold values in all tissues analyzed. No changes in steroid hormone concentration were detected in any tissue analyzed; however, the steroidogenic gene cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) was significantly down-regulated at day 5 and 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was significantly down-regulated at day 7 in the gonad. These results indicate that although diazepam does not significantly bioconcentrate, low-level chronic exposure to diazepam may have the potential to interact with endocrine function by altering gene expression.

  8. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Peterson, B C; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P < 0.01). Expression of UCP2b mRNA tended to be lower (P < 0.10) in fast growing fish in the middle of the study although levels were similar at the beginning and the end of the study. In the fed vs fasted study, expression of UCP2b mRNA in muscle was increased (P < 0.05) in fish assigned to 30 d of fasting. Our results suggest that, based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities and tissue mRNA distribution, catfish UCP2b may be the analog to UCP3. Moreover, our results suggest selection toward growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms.

  9. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  10. Safety of Aquaflor (Florfenicol, 50% Type A Medicated Article), Administered in Feed to Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Endris, R.G.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  11. The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and its association with piscine specific SINE elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Karsi, A; Dunham, R A; Liu, Z

    2000-07-11

    The alpha-actin gene of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was cloned and sequenced. The gene has a similar organization and exhibited a high level of sequence similarity to those from other vertebrate animals. The upstream region of the alpha-actin gene included a TATA box, a CAAT box, three E-boxes, and a CArG box. Nested deletion segments containing these transcriptional motifs were fused to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Transfection of the clones into C2C12 cells indicated that all these motifs are required for transcriptional activities. The channel catfish alpha-actin gene is associated with two distinct short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs). The first SINE element showed high levels of sequence similarity to the zebrafish Mermaid element, while the second SINE element is not similar to the Mermaid element except for an 8bp sequence CCCCGTGC suggesting their evolutionary linkage. However, the second SINE element appeared to co-exist with the Mermaid element in most cases and therefore was designated as the Merman element. Approximately 9000 copies and 1200 copies of the Mermaid and Merman elements exist per haploid channel catfish genome, respectively. BLAST searches indicated that both the Mermaid and the Merman elements were frequently associated with gene sequences, mostly those of aquatic animals, suggesting their evolutionary origin in association with aquatic organisms and their function in shaping the evolution of genomes in aquatic animals.

  12. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  13. Characterization of edible film fabricated with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gelatin extract using selected pretreatment methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Wang, Y; Herring, J L; Oh, J-H

    2007-11-01

    Farm-raised catfish are important to the economy of the southeastern states in the United States, and catfish processing produces about 55% of by-products for inexpensive sale. Therefore, the utilization of catfish by-products is of great interest to the catfish industry. The objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pretreatment method to extract catfish gelatin for edible film application, and to characterize physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of edible films fabricated with catfish skin gelatin. Catfish skins obtained from a local plant were treated with 6 selected pretreatment methods. The main extraction was performed with deionized water at 50 degrees C after pretreatment. The gelatin yield was calculated and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize molecular weight (MW) profile. Color, tensile strength (TS), elongation, and water barrier property were determined to characterize the fabricated catfish gelatin films. From the results of gelatin yield, color, SDS-PAGE, as well as mechanical and barrier properties of the film, the pretreatment method with 0.25 M NaOH and 0.09 M acetic acid, followed by extraction at 50 degrees C for 3 h, was determined as the optimum extraction method. The catfish gelatin exhibited higher MW fractions than commercial mammalian gelatin. The catfish gelatin extracts possessed film-forming properties determined by TS, elongation, and water vapor permeability (WVP) comparable to those of commercial mammalian gelatin. The selected formula for catfish gelatin film was determined as 1% gelatin and 20% glycerol, resulting in greatest TS and lowest WVP.

  14. Reducing size variation in hybrid catfish culture through graded partial harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid Catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) have quickly become a major contributor to ictalurid catfish aquaculture in the United States. Hybrid Catfish have unique production characteristics compared with Channel Catfish, and rapid farmer adoption of the hyb...

  15. Statistical approaches to optimize detection of MIB off-flavor in aquaculture raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The catfish industry prides itself on preventing inadvertent sale of off-flavor fish. Typically, several fish are taste tested over several weeks before pond harvest to confirm good fish flavor quality. We collected several data sets of analytically measured off-flavor concentrations in catfish to...

  16. Textural and Compositional Comparison of Channel and Hybrid Catfish from Pond and Raceway Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ince the peak of the US catfish industry in 2003, the amount of catfish sold to processors has decreased by more than half, from 662 million pounds to 300 million pounds in 2012. This has increased the importance of producing a product with consistently high quality in an efficient manner, which ha...

  17. Effects of Bio-Mos on Growth and Survival of Channel Catfish Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the catfish farming industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri (E. ictaluri). Methods to control this disease include antibiotic therapy, vaccinations, and management strategies such as taking the fish...

  18. Experimental induction of motile Aeromonas septicemia in channel catfish by waterborne challenge with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely unknown. The objective of thi...

  19. Identification and characterization of a FcR homolog in an ectothermic vertebrate, the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Stafford, James L; Wilson, Melanie; Nayak, Deepak; Quiniou, Sylvie M; Clem, L W; Miller, Norman W; Bengtén, Eva

    2006-08-15

    An FcR homolog (IpFcRI), representing the first such receptor from an ectothermic vertebrate, has been identified in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Mining of the catfish expressed sequence tag databases using mammalian FcR sequences for CD16, CD32, and CD64 resulted in the identification of a teleost Ig-binding receptor. IpFcRI is encoded by a single-copy gene containing three Ig C2-like domains, but lacking a transmembrane segment and cytoplasmic tail. The encoded Ig domains of IpFcRI are phylogenetically and structurally related to mammalian FcR and the presence of a putative Fc-binding region appears to be conserved. IpFcRI-related genomic sequences are also present in both pufferfish and rainbow trout, indicating the likely presence of a soluble FcR in other fish species. Northern blot and qualitative PCR analyses demonstrated that IpFcRI is primarily expressed in IgM-negative leukocytes derived from the lymphoid kidney tissues and PBL. Significantly lower levels of IpFcRI expression were detected in catfish clonal leukocyte cell lines. Using the native leader, IpFcRI was secreted when transfected into insect cells and importantly the native IpFcRI glycoprotein was detected in catfish plasma using a polyclonal Ab. Recombinant IpFcRI binds catfish IgM as assessed by both coimmunoprecipation and cell transfection studies and it is presumed that it functions as a secreted FcR akin to the soluble FcR found in mammals. The identification of an FcR homolog in an ectothermic vertebrate is an important first step toward understanding the evolutionary history and functional importance of vertebrate Ig-binding receptors.

  20. The chemokinome superfamily: II. The 64 CC chemokines in channel catfish and their involvement in disease and hypoxia responses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Yang, Yujia; Li, Chao; Zeng, Qifan; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Liu, Yang; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Shikai; Li, Daoji; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-03-18

    Chemokines are a superfamily of structurally related chemotactic cytokines exerting significant roles in regulating cell migration and activation. Based on the arrangement of the first four cysteine residues, they are classified into CC, CXC, C and CX3C subfamilies. In this study, a complete set of 64 CC chemokine ligand (CCL) genes was systematically identified, annotated, and characterized from the channel catfish genome. Extensive phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses supported their annotations, allowing establishment of their orthologies, revealing fish-specific CC chemokines and the expansion of CC chemokines in the teleost genomes through lineage-specific tandem duplications. With 64 genes, the channel catfish genome harbors the largest numbers of CC chemokines among all the genomes characterized to date, however, they fall into 11 distinct CC chemokine groups. Analysis of gene expression after bacterial infections indicated that the CC chemokines were regulated in a gene-specific and time-dependent manner. While only one member of CCL19 (CCL19a.1) was significantly up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection, all CCL19 members (CCL19a.1, CCL19a.2 and CCL19b) were significantly induced after Flavobacterium columnare infection. In addition, CCL19a.1, CCL19a.2 and CCL19b were also drastically up-regulated in ESC-susceptible fish, but not in resistant fish, suggesting potential significant roles of CCL19 in catfish immune responses. High expression levels of certain CC appeared to be correlated with susceptibility to diseases and intolerance to hypoxia.

  1. Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Shikai; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Jiaren; Jiang, Yanliang; Li, Chao; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Li, Jiale; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-03-01

    Hemoglobins transport oxygen from gill to inner organs in fish, and this process is affected by temperature, one of the major environmental factors for fish. The hemoglobin gene clusters have been well studied in humans and several model fish species, but remain largely unknown in catfish. Here, eight α- and six β-hemoglobin genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Genomic synteny analysis showed that these hemoglobin genes were separated into two unlinked clusters, the MN cluster containing six α- and six β-hemoglobin genes, and the LA cluster consisting of two α-hemoglobin genes. Channel catfish hemoglobin genes were ubiquitously expressed in all the 10 tested tissues from healthy fish, but exhibited higher expression level in spleen, head kidney, and trunk kidney. In response to heat stress, hemoglobin genes, especially MN Hbα4, MN Hbα5, MN Hbα6, MN Hbβ4, MN Hbβ5, MN Hbβ6, LA Hbα1, and LA Hbα2, presumably the embryonic hemoglobin genes, were drastically up-regulated in the gill and head kidney of heat-tolerant fishes, but not in these tissues of the heat-intolerant fish, suggesting the importance of the embryonic hemoglobin genes in coping with the low oxygen conditions under heat stress.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of nitrofurantoin in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Plakas, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the drug nitrofurantoin were examined in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular or oral dosing. Mean plasma concentrations of nitrofurantoin after intravascular administration at 1 and 10 mg/kg of body weight were best fit to two- and three-compartment pharmacokinetic models, respectively. Nitrofurantoin was rapidly eliminated from the plasma after intravascular dosing; at 1 and 10 mg/kg, the terminal half-lives were 23 and 46 min, respectively. After oral dosing at 1 mg/kg, peak plasma concentrations (0.06 mu g/ml) occurred at 2 h; the bioavailability was 17%. Residues of nitrofurantoin and its metabolites in the tissues were initially eliminated rapidly but persisted at the later sampling times. Residue concentrations were highest in the plasma and excretory tissues. Approximately 21% and 4% of the oral dose were eliminated in the urine and bile, respectively. Parent nitrofurantoin was the major radiolabelled compound found in the urine; however, the percentage of total residues composed of metabolites increased with time. Biliary residues consisted mostly of nitrofurantoin metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of at least five metabolites in the urine and bile.

  3. The expressed TCRβ CDR3 repertoire is dominated by conserved DNA sequences in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Findly, R Craig; Niagro, Frank D; Dickerson, Harry W

    2017-03-01

    We analyzed by high-throughput sequencing T cell receptor beta CDR3 repertoires expressed by αβ T cells in outbred channel catfish before and after an immunizing infection with the parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. We compared CDR3 repertoires in caudal fin before infection and at three weeks after infection, and in skin, PBL, spleen and head kidney at seven and twenty-one weeks after infection. Public clonotypes with the same CDR3 amino acid sequence were expressed by αβ T cells that underwent clonal expansion following development of immunity. These clonally expanded αβ T cells were primarily located in spleen and skin, which is a site of infection. Although multiple DNA sequences were expected to code for each public clonotype, each public clonotype was predominately coded by an identical CDR3 DNA sequence in combination with the same J gene in all fish. The processes underlying this shared use of CDR3 DNA sequences are not clear.

  4. Copper accumulation in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to water borne copper sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.; Griffin, B.; Schlenk, D.; Kadlubar, F.; Brand, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Liver and axial muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was analyzed for residual copper after exposure to water borne copper sulfate. Copper sulfate was continuously introduced into well water in three fiber glass tanks to achieve 1.7 mg/L, 2.7 mg/L and 3.6 mg/L copper sulfate concentrations in exposure waters. Milli-Q quality water was metered into a fourth tank at the same rate for unexposed fish. Actual levels of copper in exposure waters were determined by daily sampling and analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAA). Tissue samples were taken from six fish from each of the exposed and unexposed tanks at two-week intervals, Samples were collected until tissue analysis indicated an equilibrium had been established between the uptake and elimination in both the muscle and liver tissue. Elimination was followed until a clear rate of deputation could be established. Samples were digested in nitric acid in a micro wave digestor and analyzed by GFAA. Results of tissue analysis will be presented to demonstrate bioaccumulation and the effect of copper concentration, length of copper exposure, and gender on copper uptake, establishment of tissue:environmental copper equilibrium, and rate of copper elimination following exposure.

  5. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Fernanda D; Rossi, Priscila A; Figueiredo, Juliana S L; Venturini, Francine P; Cortella, Lucas R X; Moraes, Gilberto

    2016-05-31

    Metabolic adjustments were studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phe nol (10% LC50) for four days and recovered for seven days. Lower triacylglycerol (TGA) stores and increased muscle fat free acids (FFA) suggest fat catabolism in muscle. Remarkable liver FFA decrease (-31%) suggests liver fat catabolism as well. Increased muscular ammonia levels and ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase) and decreased plasma aminoacids suggest higher muscular amino acid uptake. Constant levels of glucose and increased liver glycogen stores, associated with lower amino acids in plasma, indicate gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This is supported by higher hepatic ALAT and ASAT. Higher hepatic LDH followed by lower plasma lactate may indicate that plasma lactate was also used as gluconeogenic substrate. Biochemical alterations were exacerbated during the post-exposure recovery period. Reduction in muscle and plasma protein content indicate proteolysis. A higher rate of liver fat catabolism was resulted from a remarkable decrease in hepatic TGA (-58%). Catabolic preference for lipids was observed in order to supply such elevated energy demand. This study is the first insight about the metabolic profile of I. punctatus to cope with phenol plus its ability to recover, bringing attention to the biological consequences of environmental contamination.

  6. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  7. Multiple across-strain and within-strain QTLs suggest highly complex genetic architecture for hypoxia tolerance in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Shikai; Jiang, Chen; Geng, Xin; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Bao, Lisui; Li, Yun; Yao, Jun; Yang, Yujia; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Jin, Yulin; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-02-01

    The ability to survive hypoxic conditions is important for various organisms, especially for aquatic animals. Teleost fish, representing more than 50 % of vertebrate species, are extremely efficient in utilizing low levels of dissolved oxygen in water. However, huge variations exist among various taxa of fish in their ability to tolerate hypoxia. In aquaculture, hypoxia tolerance is among the most important traits because hypoxia can cause major economic losses. Genetic enhancement for hypoxia tolerance in catfish is of great interest, but little was done with analysis of the genetic architecture of hypoxia tolerance. The objective of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study to identify QTLs for hypoxia tolerance using the catfish 250K SNP array with channel catfish families from six strains. Multiple significant and suggestive QTLs were identified across and within strains. One significant QTL and four suggestive QTLs were identified across strains. Six significant QTLs and many suggestive QTLs were identified within strains. There were rare overlaps among the QTLs identified within the six strains, suggesting a complex genetic architecture of hypoxia tolerance. Overall, within-strain QTLs explained larger proportion of phenotypic variation than across-strain QTLs. Many of genes within these identified QTLs have known functions for regulation of oxygen metabolism and involvement in hypoxia responses. Pathway analysis indicated that most of these genes were involved in MAPK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways that were known to be important for hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis and survival.

  8. Physical Map of the Channel Catfish Virus Genome: Location of Sites for Restriction Endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII, HpaI, and XbaI

    PubMed Central

    Chousterman, Suzanne; Lacasa, Michel; Sheldrick, Peter

    1979-01-01

    The overall arrangement of nucleotide sequences in the DNA of channel catfish virus has been studied by cleavage with four restriction endonucleases. Physical maps have been developed for the location of sites for EcoRI, HindIII, HpaI, and XbaI. The sum of the molecular weights of fragments generated by each restriction enzyme indicates a molecular weight of approximately 86 × 106 for the channel catfish virus genome. Fragments corresponding to the molecular ends of channel catfish virus DNA have been identified by their sensitivity to exonuclease treatment. The distribution of restriction sites in the genome shows that sequences included in a 12 × 106-molecular weight region at one end are repeated with direct polarity at the other end, and that the overall genomic sequence order is nonpermuted. Images PMID:16789182

  9. Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60??min at 20??mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80??mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20????C) and channel catfish (27????C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14??days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80??mg/L relative to exposure at 0??mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80??mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20??mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80??mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.

  10. Effects of environmental pH and calcium on ammonia toxicity in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso, J.R.; Goudie, C.A.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The twenty-four-hour median lethal concentrations (24-hour LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N) to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) at pH 7, 8, and 9 (total hardness, 40 mg/liter; temperature, 21–25 C) were 263.6 ± 11.3 (SE), 38.8 ± 1.8, and 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/liter, respectively. The 24-hour LC50 of un-ionized ammonia nitrogen (UIA-N) concentration at pH 8 was significantly higher (1.82 ± 0.06 mg/liter) than at pH 7 or 9 (1.39 ± 0.06 and 1.49 ± 0.12 mg/liter). Enrichment of the water to 440 mg/liter total hardness at pH 7 significantly increased the 24-hour LC50 of TA-N and UIA-N (356.3 ± 16.4 and 1.79 ± 0.07). Fish exposed to 25 mg/liter TA-N for 12 hours at pH 7 and 8 showed no differences from control fish in hematocrit, percent total plasma protein, or plasma and muscle chloride. Plasma sodium showed no difference between control and experimental groups at pH 7; however, a significant decrease occurred in fish exposed to 25 mg/liter TA-N at pH 8. No differences in blood pH were found between the control groups and fish exposed to 100 and 200 mg/liter TA-N at pH 7, and to 10 and 25 mg/liter TA-N at pH 8. Plasma sodium depletion is suggested as a contributing mechanism of ammonia toxicity.

  11. Cloning, in Vitro expression, and novel phylogenetic classification of a channel catfish estrogen receptor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Z.; Patino, R.; Gale, W.L.; Maule, A.G.; Densmore, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    We obtained two channel catfish estrogen receptor (ccER) cDNA from liver of female fish using RT–PCR. The two fragments were identical in sequence except that the smaller one had an out-of-frame deletion in the E domain, suggesting the existence of ccER splice variants. The larger fragment was used to screen a cDNA library from liver of a prepubescent female. A cDNA was obtained that encoded a 581-amino-acid ER with a deduced molecular weight of 63.8 kDa. Extracts of COS-7 cells transfected with ccER cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 4.7 nM) and specificity. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of ccER on the basis of 18 full-length ER sequences. The tree suggested the existence of two major ER branches. One branch contained two clearly divergent clades which included all piscine ER (except Japanese eel ER) and all tetrapod ERα, respectively. The second major branch contained the eel ER and the mammalian ERβ. The high degree of divergence between the eel ER and mammalian ERβ suggested that they also represent distinct piscine and tetrapod ER. These data suggest that ERα and ERβ are present throughout vertebrates and that these two major ER types evolved by duplication of an ancestral ER gene. Sequence alignments with other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily indicated the presence of 8 amino acids in the E domain that align exclusively among ER. Four of these amino acids have not received prior research attention and their function is unknown. The novel finding of putative ER splice variants in a nonmammalian vertebrate and the novel phylogenetic classification of ER offer new perspectives in understanding the diversification and function of ER.

  12. Peracetic acid is effective for controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs.

    PubMed

    Straus, D L; Meinelt, T; Farmer, B D; Mitchell, A J

    2012-07-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a relatively new compound suggested for use to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), eggs. The study consisted of five PAA concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20mgL(-1) ) and an untreated control in a flow-through system. A single spawn was used for each replication (N =4). Eggs were treated twice daily until the embryos developed eyes. When hatching was complete for all viable eggs, fry were counted to determine the percent survival in each treatment. Fungal growth was severe in the untreated controls resulting in 11% survival. Treatments of 2.5, 5 and 10mgL(-1) PAA were significantly different from the controls (P<0.05). The highest percent survival of hatched fry was with 5mgL(-1) PAA administered twice daily; the 2.5mgL(-1) PAA treatment had slightly less survival, but gives a higher margin of safety in case of treatment error. Very little fungus was present in treatments receiving 2.5mgL(-1) PAA or higher, and concentrations of 15 and 20mgL(-1) PAA were toxic to the eggs. The mean survivals in the 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20mgL(-1) PAA treatments were 11%, 60%, 63%, 62%, 32% and 0%, respectively. Therefore, PAA may be a compound that merits further investigations regarding its use in U.S. aquaculture.

  13. Redescription of Corallobothrium solidum (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) and erection of a new genus, Essexiella, for tapeworms from channel catfishes (Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain; Mariaux, Jean; Kuchta, Roman

    2011-12-01

    The proteocephalidean tapeworm, Corallobothrium solidum, type species of the genus, is redescribed on the basis of the examination of its type specimens and extensive material recently collected from Malapterurus electricus (type host). Some morphological characteristics of taxonomic importance are reported for the first time, such as the presence of semispherical (U-shaped) sphincters on the external (outer) margin of the suckers, a vaginal sphincter, a well-developed seminal receptacle, and a unique morphology of the eggs. Corallobothrium solidum differs from the 2 remaining species of the genus, both parasitic in channel catfishes (Ictaluridae), in its scolex shape, morphology of its suckers, presence of longitudinal and transverse grooves on the body surface, dense network of excretory canals in the apical part of the scolex, morphology of the eggs, and uterine development. The non-monophyletic nature of Corallobothrium is further supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene) because C. solidum and the 2 remaining species from ictalurids do not form a monophyletic assemblage. Therefore, Essexiella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate Essexiella fimbriatum new comb. (type and only species; syn. Corallobothrium fimbriatum) from channel catfish. Essexiella n. gen. differs from Corallobothrium, Megathylacoides, and Megathylacus by the absence of a sphincter in the suckers, from Corallotaenia by the shape of the scolex and the number and shape of proglottids, and from Paraproteocephalus by the structure of the uterus. The diagnosis of Corallobothrium, which becomes monotypic and restricted to electric catfishes in Africa, is emended. The remaining species of Corallobothrium, Corallobothrium parafimbriatum, is tentatively transferred to Corallotaenia as Corallotaenia parafimbriata n. comb., based on molecular data, small size of the strobila, and shape of the scolex.

  14. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P < 0.05) in the two study impoundments (lakes Lone Chimney and Greenleaf, Oklahoma). For fish stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  15. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  16. Effects of free and combined chlorine and exposure duration on rainbow trout, channel catfish, and emerald shiners

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.S.; Bartos, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    Laboratory bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ion to emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri were conducted. Four exposure regimes typical of chlorination schedules at operating steam electric power plants were used. Fish were exposed for single 15-minute, 30-minute, 120-minute, and 4 x 30-minute periods. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50s), the nominal solution of hypochlorous acid was the most toxic, followed closely by the solution dominated by dichloramine; nominal monochloramine and hypochlorite ion solutions had a third to a quarter the toxicity of the other two. On the average, emerald shiners were 1.8 times more sensitive than channel catfish and 3.3 times more sensitive than rainbow trout to the four forms of chlorine. The fish were most tolerant of chlorine during short-duration exposures and least tolerant during the continuous 120-minute exposures. The differences in toxicity noted among the chlorine forms suggest that, when chlorination regimes and regulations are established, careful attention should be paid not only to total residual chlorine but to both the chlorine forms and fish species present and the duration of exposure. 24 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Persistence of gentian violet and leucogentian violet in channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) muscle after water-borne exposure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H C; Rushing, L G; Gehring, T; Lochmann, R

    1999-02-19

    Gentian violet is a triphenylmethane dye that is an antifungal/antiparastic agent. GV is similar to malachite green that has been used in the aquaculture industry for treatment or prevention of external fungal and parasitic infections in fish and fish eggs although it (MG) is not approved for this use. For these reasons, GV's potential for misuse by the aquaculture industry is high. The uptake and depletion of gentian violet (GV) were determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after water-borne exposure (100 ng ml(-1), 1 h) under simulated aquaculture farming conditions. Leucogentian violet (LGV) was rapidly formed, concentrated in the muscle tissue, and very slowly eliminated from muscle tissue. An isocratic (60% acetonitrile-40% water; 0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.5) HPLC system consisting of a 5 microm LC-CN 250x4.6 mm I.D. column, a 20x2.0 mm I.D. PbO2 oxidative post-column, and a UV-VIS detector set at 588 nm were used to determine uptake and depletion of tissue residues of GV and LGV with time. GV was rapidly depleted and converted to its major metabolite, LGV, which was detected out to 79 days. Therefore, LGV is the appropriate target analyte for monitoring exposure of channel catfish to GV.

  18. Evaluation of a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog of cGnRH II as a spawning aid for channel catfish versus analogs of mGnRH I and sGnRH III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of three different analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce spawning in female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was evaluated head to head in a blind study. Two of those analogs are currently used under Investigative New Animal Drug by the catfish industry, m...

  19. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  20. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitate have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  1. Development of Type I Markers in Channel Catfish Through Intron Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type I markers are useful for comparative gene mapping, but they have not been widely available in catfish. Here we took the approach of sequencing the intron sequences of genes with the assumption that the introns are more prone to mutations and may have higher chances of containing microsatellite...

  2. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  3. Tolerance of Channel Catfish Fry to Abrupt pH Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fry survival in the catfish industry is variable and failure to survive cannot be completely attributable to diseases, fertilization practices, or lack of zooplankton abundance. The variability in fry survival may be related to current handling and stocking methods. When stocked, fry are transferr...

  4. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (< 1 g) makes it difficult to measure cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  5. A Vertical-Lift Incubator (The "Seesaw") Designed for Channel Catfish Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish spawns have been incubated the same way for nearly a century. Spawns are placed in baskets and agitated with rotating paddles. While this system is widely used, it has been recently determined that dissolved oxygen in the center of a spawn may be as much as 5 ppm less than air-saturated wate...

  6. Overcoming inconsistencies in mortality rates during winter experimental challenges of channel catfish with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the goals of the ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit is to incorporate disease resistance to ESC, caused by the bacterium, Edwardsiella ictaluri, into our selective breeding program. Through repeated experiments we have determined an optimal challenge dose of E. ictaluri that produces 50-70% ...

  7. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  8. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  9. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  10. TLR5, NRAMP, TNF, AND Hepcidin Response to Challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri in Channel Catfish Families with High and Low Susceptibility to Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp), and hepcidin to experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri in two families of channel catfish were measured in order to understand the mechanisms through which E. i...

  11. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern United States, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Howe...

  12. Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller's dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the increased availability and potential price advantage of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), there is considerable interest in utilizing this product in aquaculture diets. The response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to practical diets containing 20% and 30% DDGS with and...

  13. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  14. Production and associated economics of fingerling to stocker to growout modular phases for farming channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in commercial size ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate fingerling to stocker (phase 2) and stocker to growout (phase 3) of three phases of a modular production system for channel catfish in commercial-scale ponds. Fingerlings (mean = 14.3 kg/1000, 11.9 cm) were stocked into each of six earthen ponds (1.62 ha) at ...

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of a purified nucleotide mixture on growth, immune function, and disease and stress resistance in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish (14.4 g average initial weight) were fed diets supplemented with a purified nucleotide mixture for 8 weeks. The mixture consisted of five nucleotides supplied on an equal basis as disodium salts at combined concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, or 2.7% of diet. At th...

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of a purified nucleotide mixture on immune function and disease and stress resistance in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish (14.4 g average initial weight) were fed diets supplemented with a purified nucleotide mixture for 8 weeks. The mixture consisted of five nucleotides supplied on an equal basis as disodium salts at combined concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, or 2.7% of diet. At th...

  17. Identification of two uncoupling protein 2 mRNA in channel catfish: their tissue distribution and changes in their expression after prolonged fasting and refeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle growth in fish is regulated by complex interactions of neural and endocrine factors that regulate food intake and factors that regulate muscle nutrient metabolism. Our previous studies showed that channel catfish selected for increased growth consumed more food than those with slower growth....

  18. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  19. Genome sequence of Edwardsiella ictaluri 93-146 a strain associated with a natural channel catfish outbreak of enteric septicemia of catifsh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is the cause of extensive mortalities and economic losses to the channel catfish industry of the southeast United States. Here we report the complete genome of Edwardsiella ictaluri 93-146. Whole-genome sequence analysis of E. ictaluri provides a tool for understanding the geno...

  20. Effect of stocking large channel catfish in a biofloc technology production system on production and incidence of common microbial off-flavor compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density-dependent production and incidence of common microbial off-flavors caused by geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were investigated in an outdoor biofloc technology production system stocked with stocker-size (217 g/fish) channel catfish at 1.4, 2.1, or 2.8 kg/m3. Individual weight at harvest rang...

  1. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used to culture channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  2. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used for the culture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  3. COMPARISON OF POND AND RACEWAY PRODUCTION METHODS ON TEXTURE OF CHANNEL CATFISH (Ictalurus punctatus) FILLETS, SHOWING A DEPENDENCY ON SIZE AND FILLET POSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the production environment (pond vs in-pond raceway) on the chemical composition, color, and textural properties of channel catfish fillets. Compositional analysis consisted of percent moisture, lipid, protein, and ash content. Additional sa...

  4. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods: We identifiedCYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish.Phylogenetic ...

  5. Expression of leptin-like mRNA in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is induced by exposure to Edwardsiella ictaluri but is independent of energy status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptin is a key pleiotropic cytokine involved in regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. In channel catfish, the presence of a messenger RNA that encodes a leptin-like peptide (LLP) has been described. The objectives of our studies were to characterize tissue expression of LLP...

  6. Distribution and elimination of [14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride from tissues of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gofus, J.E.; Delaney, L.J.; Bunnell, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and loss of radioactivity from tissues were determined in 60 juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following oral dosing with the candidate fish therapeutant Sarafin® ([14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride) at 10 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. Twelve groups of 5 fish each were sampled at selected times ranging from 3 to 240 h after the last dose was administered, The concentration and content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in liver, gallbladder, kidney, skin, and skinless fillet by sample oxidation and liquid scintillation counting; content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in stomach and anterior and posterior intestines, Skinless fillet tissues were also analyzed for sarafloxacin and for potential metabolites by gradient-elution high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with in-line radiometric and fluorescence detection, Loss of radioactivity from the whole body conformed to a bimodal elimination pattern with a rapid initial phase (t1/2=11 h) and a slower secondary phase (t1/2=222 h). Tissue and contents of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach and anterior and posterior intestines) were a principal depot of activity during the first four sample times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h); the combined head, skeleton, and fins (i.e. residual carcass) were the principal depot of activity in samples taken after 24 h. Of those tissues sampled 3 h after the last dose, relative sarafloxacin concentration was greatest in the liver (4.06 μg equivalents/g) and least in the residual carcass (1.13 μg equivalents/g), Intermediate concentrations were found in the kidney (2.04 μg equivalents/g), skinless fillet (1.71 μg equivalents/ g), and the skin (1.51 μg equivalents/g). Concentrations of sarafloxacin-equivalent residues in edible skinless fillet were consistently among the lowest of all tissues examined. The highest mean concentration of parent-equivalent material in the fillet tissue was found 12 h after

  7. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  8. Rates of cortisol increase and decrease in channel catfish and sunshine bass exposed to an acute confinement stressor.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth B; Small, Brian C

    2006-05-01

    Channel catfish and sunshine bass were exposed to a low-water stress event and allowed to recover in fresh water or a solution of metomidate (dl-1-(1-phenylethyl)-5-(metoxycarbonyl) imidazole hydrochloride), which inhibits the synthesis of cortisol. Change in time of plasma cortisol was used as an index of cortisol secretion and clearance. Plasma cortisol and glucose increased during the exposure to low-water stress in both fish, but the changes of both plasma components were more dramatic in sunshine bass. Exposure to metomidate during recovery resulted in a short-term increase in plasma glucose but differences between controls and metomidate-exposed fish were relatively minor thereafter. Cortisol began to decrease in catfish immediately after the removal of the stress but continued to increase for 15 min in sunshine bass recovering in fresh water and for 5 min in bass recovering in metomidate. Catfish recovering in fresh water had a cortisol elimination rate of -1.28 ng/mL/min compared with -2.45 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05) while sunshine bass recovering in fresh water had an elimination rate of -6.96 ng/mL/min compared with -4.50 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05). These data indicate that the rapid decrease of plasma cortisol after removal of the stressor is due to an almost immediate decrease of secretion, tissue uptake and a rapid renal loss due to the absence of a plasma binding protein.

  9. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    PubMed

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  10. Naturally infected catfish concurrently transmit Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Edwardsiella ictaluri to naive catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri and parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) are two common pathogens of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) which cause major losses to catfish aquaculture. There is limited information available whether fish naturally coinfected with Ich and E. ictaluri can con...

  11. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  12. Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Kevin K.

    2010-01-01

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L). PMID:22069655

  13. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  14. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish. PMID:26602918

  15. Permeation of internal and external monovalent cations through the catfish cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The permeation of monovalent cations through the cGMP-gated channel of catfish cone outer segments was examined by measuring permeability and conductance ratios under biionic conditions. For monovalent cations presented on the cytoplasmic side of the channel, the permeability ratios with respect to extracellular Na followed the sequence NH4 > K > Li > Rb = Na > Cs while the conductance ratios at +50 mV followed the sequence Na approximately NH4 > K > Rb > Li = Cs. These patterns are broadly similar to the amphibian rod channel. The symmetry of the channel was tested by presenting the test ion on the extracellular side and using Na as the common reference ion on the cytoplasmic side. Under these biionic conditions, the permeability ratios with respect to Na at the intracellular side followed the sequence NH4 > Li > K > Na > Rb > Cs while the conductance ratios at +50 mV followed the sequence NH4 > K approximately Na > Rb > Li > Cs. Thus, the channel is asymmetric with respect to external and internal cations. Under symmetrical 120 mM ionic conditions, the single-channel conductance at +50 mV ranged from 58 pS in NH4 to 15 pS for Cs and was in the order NH4 > Na > K > Rb > Cs. Unexpectedly, the single-channel current-voltage relation showed sufficient outward rectification to account for the rectification observed in multichannel patches without invoking voltage dependence in gating. The concentration dependence of the reversal potential for K showed that chloride was impermeant. Anomalous mole fraction behavior was not observed, nor, over a limited concentration range, were multiple dissociation constants. An Eyring rate theory model with a single binding site was sufficient to explain these observations. PMID:8786344

  16. Reducing size variation in hybrid catfish culture through graded partial harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish (' channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) are becoming a major contributor to catfish aquaculture in the United States. Because of unique production characteristics of hybrid catfish, rapid farmer adoption of hybrids has outpaced appropriate management resea...

  17. Ontogenetic Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota of Channel Catfish through 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Reveals Insights on Temporal Shifts and the Influence of Environmental Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Jacob W.; Peterson, Brian C.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Small, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture recently overtook capture fisheries as the largest producer of food fish, but to continue increasing fish production the industry is in search of better methods of improving fish health and growth. Pre- and probiotic supplementation has gained attention as a means of solving these issues, however, for such approaches to be successful, we must first gain a more holistic understanding of the factors influencing the microbial communities present in the intestines of fish. In this study, we characterize the bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of a highly valuable U.S. aquaculture species, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, over the first 193 days of life to evaluate temporal changes that may occur throughout ontogenetic development of the host. Intestinal microbiota were surveyed with high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA V4 gene amplicons derived from fish at 3, 65, 125, and 193 days post hatch (dph), while also characterizing the environmental microbes derived from the water supply and the administered diets. Microbial communities inhabiting the intestines of catfish early in life were dynamic, with significant shifts occurring up to 125 dph when the microbiota somewhat stabilized, as shifts were less apparent between 125 to 193 dph. Bacterial phyla present in the gut of catfish throughout ontogeny include Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria; with the species Cetobacterium somerae and Plesiomonas shigelloides showing the highest abundance in the catfish microbiota after 3 dph. Comparisons of the gut microbiota to the environmental microbes reveals that the fish gut is maintained as a niche habitat, separate from the overall microbial communities present in diets and water-supply. Although, there is also evidence that the environmental microbiota serves as an inoculum to the fish gut. Our results have implications for future research related to channel catfish biology and culture, and increase our

  18. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative pray fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vigg, Steven; Poe, Thomas P.; Prendergast , Linda A.; Hansel, Hal C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983–1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish (0.7 and 0.5 prey/predator) occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes (0.2 prey/predator) and smallmouth bass (0.04) occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn (0600–1200 hours) and near midnight (2000–2400). Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length (> 13.2 mg/g predator), for walleyes 201–250 mm (42.5 mg/g), for smallmouth bass 176–200 mm (30.4 mg/g), and for channel catfish 401–450 mm (17.1 mg/g). Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April–August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass (28.7 mg/ g) was about twice that of channel catfish (12.6), northern squawfish (14.1), and walleyes (14.2). However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  19. Genetic sequence data identifies the cercaria of Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), a parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), with notes on its pathology in juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Khoo, Lester H; Quiniou, Sylvie M; O'Hear, Mary M; Pote, Linda M; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J

    2012-10-01

    An unidentified xiphidio-type cercaria, previously thought inconsequential to catfish health, was found to be released from marsh rams-horn snails (Planorbella trivolvis) inhabiting ponds on a commercial catfish operation in the Mississippi Delta. A preliminary challenge of cohabiting channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ) with snails actively shedding the unidentified cercariae resulted in death of some fish. A second cohabitation trial yielded similar results, as did a third challenge of 250 cercariae/fish. Histopathology revealed developing metacercariae concentrated in the cranial region, especially within the branchial chamber, with several metacercariae at the base of the branchial arches within, or adjacent to, blood vessels, possibly the proximate cause of death. Genetic sequence analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssDNA), 28S large subunit rDNA (lsDNA), and cytochrome oxidase (Cox1) genes all matched the cercariae to Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), a parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), a piscivorous bird endemic on most catfish farms. This is the first commentary regarding pathology of D. spathans in juvenile channel catfish as well as the first report of the marsh rams-horn snail as an intermediate host in the D. spathans life cycle. The data presented here suggest this parasite could have limiting effects on catfish production, further supporting the need for adequate snail control programs to reduce trematode prevalence on commercial catfish operations.

  20. Roles for mannose binding lectin and rhamnose binding lectin in channel catfish fed essential oils and challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the catfish farming industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Methods to control this disease include vaccination, antibiotic therapy, and restricted feeding. Another method that has been examined i...

  1. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A recent epidemic outbreak of motile Aeromonas septicemia of catfish caused by highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila is a major threat to the catfish industry in the southeastern United States. The lack of a complete genome sequence for this newly emerged A. hydrophila genotype hampers ef...

  2. Accumulation of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    The extensively used military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely released to the environment during production, usage, and disposal operations. Toxic effects of RDX have been reported in terrestrial and aquatic receptors, but investigations regarding the bioaccumulation potential of RDX in aquatic systems are scarce. The objective of the present study was to describe the toxicokinetics of RDX during aqueous exposure for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) and to compare the amount of RDX accumulation in juvenile catfish following aqueous exposure only, dietary exposure only, and a combination of dietary and aqueous exposure. The toxicokinetics measurements included bioconcentration factors (BCFs), uptake rates, elimination rates, and biological half-lives. First-order, single-compartment models described the toxicokinetics for both species. Uptake of RDX into oligochaetes was relatively rapid (uptake clearance constant [k(u)] of 5.17 ml/g/h) compared to that in catfish (k(u) = 1.28 ml/g/h). However, elimination also was more rapid in oligochaetes, with biological half-lives of 0.28 and 1.09 h for oligochaetes and catfish, respectively. Thus, both species had very similar estimated BCFs of 2.1 ml/g for oligochaetes and 2.0 ml/g for catfish. Accumulation of RDX in fish that were fed oligochaetes exposed to an exceedingly high water concentration of RDX was minimal. The present investigation indicates that RDX uptake via the aqueous route is the expected dominant uptake pathway, with dietary uptake contributing minimally to the overall body burden in fish inhabiting RDX-contaminated sites. Because of the exceedingly low bioaccumulative potential and low reported toxicity of RDX, the presence of this explosive in aquatic systems is unlikely to pose unacceptable risks to invertebrates and fish.

  3. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus important bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

    2005-10-01

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus infected with Edwardsiella ictaluri results in 40--50 million dollars annual losses in profits to catfish producers. Early detection of this pathogen is necessary for disease control and reduction of economic loss. In this communication, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) that amplifies DNA with high specificity and rapidity at an isothermal condition was evaluated for rapid detection of E. ictaluri. A set of four primers, two outer and two inner, was designed specifically to recognize the eip 18 gene of this pathogen. The LAMP reaction mix was optimized. Reaction temperature and time of the LAMP assay for the eip 18 gene were also optimized at 65 degrees C for 60 min, respectively. Our results show that the ladder-like pattern of bands sizes from 234 bp specifically to the E. ictaluri gene was amplified. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was about 20 colony forming units. In addition, this optimized LAMP assay was used to detect the E. ictaluri eip 18 gene in brains of experimentally challenged channel catfish. Thus, we concluded that the LAMP assay can potentially be used for rapid diagnosis in hatcheries and ponds.

  4. Identification and Analysis of Genome-Wide SNPs Provide Insight into Signatures of Selection and Domestication in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luyang; Liu, Shikai; Wang, Ruijia; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jiaren; Bao, Lisui; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Dunham, Rex; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Domestication and selection for important performance traits can impact the genome, which is most often reflected by reduced heterozygosity in and surrounding genes related to traits affected by selection. In this study, analysis of the genomic impact caused by domestication and artificial selection was conducted by investigating the signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). A total of 8.4 million candidate SNPs were identified by using next generation sequencing. On average, the channel catfish genome harbors one SNP per 116 bp. Approximately 6.6 million, 5.3 million, 4.9 million, 7.1 million and 6.7 million SNPs were detected in the Marion, Thompson, USDA103, Hatchery strain, and wild population, respectively. The allele frequencies of 407,861 SNPs differed significantly between the domestic and wild populations. With these SNPs, 23 genomic regions with putative selective sweeps were identified that included 11 genes. Although the function for the majority of the genes remain unknown in catfish, several genes with known function related to aquaculture performance traits were included in the regions with selective sweeps. These included hypoxia-inducible factor 1β· HIFιβ ¨ and the transporter gene ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5). HIF1β· is important for response to hypoxia and tolerance to low oxygen levels is a critical aquaculture trait. The large numbers of SNPs identified from this study are valuable for the development of high-density SNP arrays for genetic and genomic studies of performance traits in catfish. PMID:25313648

  5. The effect of Ochratoxin A on antimicrobial polypeptide expression and resistance to water mold infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Zahran, Eman; Manning, Bruce; Seo, Jung-Kil; Noga, Edward J

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural commodities poses a serious risk to animal health, including aquaculture species. Ochratoxin A (OA) is the most immunotoxic ochratoxin, yet little is known about its effect on immune function in fish. Antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPPs) are one of the most potent, innate, host defense factors, yet very little is known about what types of chronic stressors affect their expression. Among the most prevalent and potent AMPPs in fish are histone-like proteins (HLPs). In this study, fish were fed 2, 4, or 8 mg OA/kg diet. Skin antibacterial activity and HLP-1 levels were measured on Days 0, 28 and 56. Feeding 2, 4 or 8 mg OA/kg diet resulted in significant growth depression, but higher levels (4 or 8 mg OA/kg diet) resulted in lowering feed intake (FI) and impaired feed conversion ratio. In addition, feeding 8 mg OA/kg diet increased susceptibility to experimental water mold (Saprolegnia) challenge, suggesting that OA toxicity might contribute to some saprolegnosis outbreaks. However, there were no changes in AMPP expression in any treatment group. Our data suggests that the increased disease susceptibility of channel catfish due to OA is probably due to mechanisms other than a direct effect on antimicrobial polypeptide expression.

  6. HPLC determination and MS confirmation of malachite green, gentian violet, and their leuco metabolite residues in channel catfish muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoying; Miao, Shui

    2010-06-23

    Residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), and their leuco metabolites in channel catfish muscle were individually determined by HPLC using diode array and fluorescence detectors and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. This detection scheme obviates a PbO(2) reactor that converts leuco forms to chromatic forms for absorbance detection, therefore eliminating uncertainties in oxidant depletion and data integrity. Extraction was performed once in pH 3 McIlvaine buffer and acetonitrile, followed by cleanup using a polymeric strong cation-exchange column. Liquid-liquid extraction was excluded to provide an environmentally responsible and relatively rapid protocol. Spectrometric limits of detection (LOD; S/N = 3) for MG (lambda = 620 nm) and GV (lambda = 588 nm) were 0.38 and 0.26 ng/g with 44.5-49.2% and 92.2-101.4% recoveries (1-10 ng/g, n = 6), respectively. Fluorometric LOD (S/N = 3) for LMG and LGV (lambda(ex) = 266 nm, lambda(em) = 360 nm) were 0.10 and 0.09 ng/g with 74.3-84.5% and 80.6-86.5% recoveries (1-10 ng/g, n = 6), respectively. This simplified protocol saves costs and meets the sensitivity requirements set by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Union.

  7. Passive immunization of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by use of murine monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T L; Clark, T G; Dickerson, H

    1996-01-01

    Fish acquire immunity against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following sublethal infection. The immune response includes the elaboration of humoral antibodies against a class of abundant surface membrane proteins referred to as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). Antibodies against these proteins immobilize the parasite in vitro, suggesting a potential role for the i-antigens in protective immunity. To test this hypothesis, passive immunization experiments were carried out with naive channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, using immobilizing murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Fish were completely protected against lethal challenge following intraperitoneal injection of 20 to 200 micrograms of MAb. Although fish succumbed to infection at lower doses, palliative effects were observed with as little as 2 micrograms of antibody. In experiments in which animals were challenged at various times following inoculation, an inverse relationship between parasite load and serum immobilizing activity was seen. Of seven MAbs which conferred protection, all were immunoglobulin G class antibodies. The only immobilizing MAb that failed to protect was an immunoglobulin M antibody that was absent from surface mucosa as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The implications of these findings for the development of a vaccine against I. multifiliis and immunity against surface pathogens of fish are discussed. PMID:8926073

  8. Determinations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers in channel catfish, crayfish, hen eggs and fish feeds from China by isotopic dilution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaozhong; Hu, Decong; Song, Qi; Li, Jing; Wang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    HBCD is widely used brominated flame retardant, which is increasingly reported in the environment. A new isotopic dilution LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine three HBCD isomers, α-, β- and γ-HBCD in channel catfish, crayfish, hen eggs and fish feeds in this study, and especially for the first time HBCD isomers composition in crayfish, hen eggs and fish feeds. Soxhlet extractor and GPC cleanup were used, some important steps and crucial parameters were modified and intensified compared with other literatures, and LC and MS/MS conditions were optimized. The limits of quantitation values of 0.01, 0.005 and 0.005ngg(-1) wet weight in channel catfish and crayfish were calculated for three HBCD isomers, respectively; so did 0.1, 0.05 and 0.05ngg(-1) wet weight in eggs and 0.2, 0.1, 0.1ngg(-1) wet weight in fish feeds. Recoveries of α-HBCD, β-HBCD and γ-HBCD were ranged between 75% and 105% for these productions at medium and high-level spiked samples, and between 60% and 85% at low-level spiked samples. The established methods were therefore suitable for the determinations of three HBCD isomers in these productions at trace contamination levels. Moreover, thirty commercial channel catfish, crayfish, hen eggs and fish feeds samples collected from local markets, and thirty home-produced hen eggs from private owners in Hubei province of China, were analyzed to determine whether these productions were contaminated by HBCD. Using the established methods, HBCD emerged in 4 of 30 fish feeds and 3 of 30 home-produced eggs, and in low-ngg(-1) wet weight.

  9. Uptake, metabolism and macromolecular binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolites in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.; McElroy, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as BaP, are contaminants with demonstrated carcinogenicity, yet little is known about the fate of PAH metabolites in aquatic organisms. Some invertebrates actively metabolize BaP to hydroxylated and conjugated forms, becoming BaP metabolite-rich prey items for fish. The authors examined the fate of BaP metabolites acquired by fish through diet. Channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus, were fed a single dose (2.5 umoles/kg fish) of either {sup 3}H-parent BaP or individual {sup 3}H-BaP metabolites: 3-hydroxy, 9-hydroxy, 9-sulfate or 9-glucuronidated BaP. After 24 hrs fish were killed, and samples of intestinal mucosa, bile, liver and muscle immediately frozen at {minus}80 C. Mean (n = 3--5) percent of dose retained was lowest for conjugated BaP (3.7%), 2--4 times higher for hydroxylated BaP (8.9%), and 5 times higher for parent BaP (18.9%). Differences were also observed between the distributions of individual metabolites in tissues. Radioactivity derived from parent and hydroxylated BaP was several fold higher in intestinal mucosa and bile than in liver or muscle. In contrast, radioactivity derived from conjugated BaP metabolites was more evenly distributed between all four tissues. These data demonstrate that in fish (1) dietary BaP metabolites are absorbed by the intestine, and they or their metabolites are transported to and absorbed by major tissue reservoirs (liver, muscle), (2) conjugated metabolites are less readily absorbed and/or retained than parent or hydroxylated BaP, and (3) some differences in metabolic fate exist between metabolites from the same class. DNA, RNA and protein adducts, as well as metabolite profiles, are being determined in liver and intestine.

  10. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  11. Effects of transgenic sterilization constructs and their repressor compounds on hatch, developmental rate and early survival of electroporated channel catfish embryos and fry.

    PubMed

    Su, Baofeng; Shang, Mei; Li, Chao; Perera, Dayan A; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Peatman, Eric; Grewe, Peter; Patil, Jawahar G; Dunham, Rex A

    2015-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) embryos were electroporated with sterilization constructs targeting primordial germ cell proteins or with buffer. Some embryos then were treated with repressor compounds, cadmium chloride, copper sulfate, sodium chloride or doxycycline, to prevent expression of the transgene constructs. Promoters included channel catfish nanos and vasa, salmon transferrin (TF), modified yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae copper transport protein (MCTR) and zebrafish racemase (RM). Knock-down systems were the Tet-off (nanos and vasa constructs), MCTR, RM and TF systems. Knock-down genes included shRNAi targeting 5' nanos (N1), 3' nanos (N2) or dead end (DND), or double-stranded nanos RNA (dsRNA) for overexpression of nanos mRNA. These constructs previously were demonstrated to knock down nanos, vasa and dead end, with the repressors having variable success. Exogenous DNA affected percentage hatch (% hatch), as all 14 constructs, except for the TF dsRNA, TF N1 (T), RM DND (C), vasa DND (C), vasa N1 (C) and vasa N2 (C), had lower % hatch than the control electroporated with buffer. The MCTR and RM DND (T) constructs resulted in delayed hatch, and the vasa and nanos constructs had minimal effects on time of hatch (P < 0.05). Cadmium chloride appeared to counteract the slow development caused by the TF constructs in two TF treatments (P < 0.05). The 4 ppt sodium chloride treatment for the RM system decreased % hatch (P < 0.05) and slowed development. In the case of nanos constructs, doxycycline greatly delayed hatch (P < 0.05). Adverse effects of the transgenes and repressors continued for several treatments for the first 6 days after hatch, but only in a few treatments during the next 10 days. Repressors and gene expression impacted the yield of putative transgenic channel catfish fry, and need to be considered and accounted for in the hatchery phase of producing transgenically sterilized catfish fry and their fertile counterparts. This fry output

  12. Effects of Season, Strain and Body Weight on Testes Development and Quality in Three Strains of Blue Catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) female x blue catfish (I. furcatus) male hybrids has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the last 10 years. Hybrid fry production requires fertilization of channel catfish eggs with blue catfish sperm obtained by surgical removal ...

  13. Comparison of the uptake of dioxin-like compounds by caged channel catfish and semipermeable membrane devices in the Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Peterman, Paul H.; Williams, Lisa L.; Morse, Douglas; Schwartz, Ted R.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of planar, halogenated hydrocarbons have been linked to reproductive problems in a variety of fish-eating birds and mammals in the Great Lakes and in particular Saginaw Bay. Currently, there are no accurate procedures to assess bioavailability of these contaminants. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and mono- and non-ortho-chloro-substituted biphenyls in water at the femtogram to picogram per liter range were passively concentrated in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and these data were compared to the bioconcentration in co-exposed (caged) channel catfish. Sediment-derived water concentration estimates, calculated from a steady-state partitioning model, did not correlate well to those derived from either fish or SPMDs. The use of SPMDs demonstrated the utility of in-situ passive sampling over inference of water concentrations from accumulation in biota or partitioning with sediment. Residues ac cumulated by SPMDs have been shown to be proportional to analyte water concentration, whereas this does not appear to be the case for fish tissues. The greater amounts of 3,3‘,4,4‘-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran accumulated in SPMDs than in exposed channel catfish indicated those non-passive aspects of bioconcentration in organisms, such as biotransformation and elimination, introduced 50−500% error in the assumed degree of exposure.

  14. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquifer used for hybrid catfish hatcheries is less than 10 mg/L of calcium hardness and 1- 25 mg/L of magnesium hardness. Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioti...

  15. An in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using catfish gill cells G1B and four chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate, and D-mannose), the feasibility of using an in vitro screening method to identify potential effective chemotherapeutants was evaluated in this study. In vitro screening results revealed that,...

  16. Effect of short-term feeding duration of diets containing commercial whole-cell yeast or yeast subcomponents on immune function and disease resistance in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish (14.4 g average initial weight) were fed diets supplemented with a purified nucleotide mixture for 8 weeks. The mixture consisted of five nucleotides supplied on an equal basis as disodium salts at combined concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, or 2.7% of diet. At th...

  17. Effect of microbial transglutaminase and non-meat proteins on functional properties of low NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was focused on developing value-added low sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-free restructured patties using minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, 0.7%) and non-meat proteins (isolated soy protein, ISP and whey prote...

  18. Effect of microbial transglutaminase and non-meat proteins on functional properties of low NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at developing value-added low sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-free restructured patties using minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, 0.7%) and non-meat proteins (isolated soy protein, ISP and whey protein...

  19. Use of microbial transglutaminase and non-meat proteins to improve functional properties of low NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at developing a value-added low sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-free patty using minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and non-meat proteins (isolated soy protein, ISP and whey protein concentrate, WPC) ...

  20. Small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence links the myxospore stage of Henneguya mississippiensis n. sp. from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to an actinospore released by the benthic oligochaete Dero digitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are more than 200 species of Henneguya described from fish. Of these, only three life cycles have been determined, identifying the actinospore and myxospore stages from their respective hosts. Two of these life cycles involve the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the freshwater oligo...

  1. The management of undesirable cyanobacteria blooms in channel catfish ponds using a constructed wetland: Contribution to the control of off-flavor occurrences.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei; Gao, Yunni; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Yongyuan; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Enrong; He, Feng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2011-12-01

    An exploratory study on the management of undesirable cyanobacteria blooms with respect to off-flavor problems using an integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (CW) was performed at a small commercial-scale channel catfish farm from 2004 to 2007. The results of the three-year experiment indicated that water treatment by the CW could reduce the possibility of dominance by undesirable cyanobacteria species that often cause off-flavor problems. A detailed investigation in 2007, showed that the concentrations of geosmin, MIB (2-methylisoborneol), and β-cyclocitral in the water of the recirculating pond (4.3ngL(-1), U.D. (undetected) and 0.2ngL(-1), respectively) treated by the CW were significantly lower than those in the control pond (152.6ngL(-1), 63.3ngL(-1) and 254.8ngL(-1), respectively). In addition, the relationships among the cyanobacteria species, the off-flavor compounds and ten environmental variables were explored by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results showed that Oscillatoria sp., Oscillatoria kawamurae and Microcystis aeruginosa were the main sources of off-flavor compounds in the catfish ponds. The successful manipulation of undesirable cyanobacteria species potentially resulted in lower concentrations of odorous compounds in the water of the recirculating pond. An investigation of the concentrations of geosmin and MIB in catfish fillets showed that the levels of odorous compounds were below the OTC (odor threshold concentration) values in the recirculating pond but were above the OTC values from July to October in the control pond. Water recycling by the CW could potentially be one of the best management practices to control off-flavor occurrences in aquaculture.

  2. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes are differentially expressed between males and females during the critical period of male sex differentiation in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Tian, Changxu; Tan, Suxu; Bao, Lisui; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Shikai; Yang, Yujia; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-03-01

    DExD/H-box RNA helicases are motor proteins participating in nearly all aspects of cellular processes, especially in RNA metabolism. In this study, a total of 54 DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes including 37 DDX (DEAD-box) and 17 DHX (DEAH-box) genes were characterized in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and annotated through phylogenetic and syntenic analyses. All the catfish RNA helicases contained conserved helicase signature motifs, demonstrating that the RNA helicase gene family was highly conserved. Analysis of the relative rates of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitutions revealed that the RNA helicase genes were subjected to strong negative (purifying) selection. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine expression of the RNA helicase genes during the critical period (90-110days post-fertilization, dpf) of male gonad differentiation. At 90dpf, 24 RNA helicase genes were highly differentially expressed in the gonad tissues between the males and females; similarly, 24 and 18 RNA helicase genes were found highly differentially expressed in the gonad tissues between the males and females at 100 and 110dpf, respectively (p<0.01). In general, the vast majority of the RNA helicase genes (31) were expressed at higher levels in females than in males. In the male gonad, a set of 8 RNA helicases were expressed at a significantly higher level at 110dpf than at 90dpf. These findings suggested that RNA helicases may play important roles in sex development and differentiation in teleosts.

  4. Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors α and β and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of physiological functions. Although environmental contaminants (xenoestrogens) which interfere with estrogen signaling are of increasing concern, there is only limited information about their ability to interact with estrogen-binding proteins (SHBG) or receptors (ER). Recombinant ER?? and ?? were obtained after transient transfection of COS-7 cells with channel catfish ER cDNA. Plasma from adult female channel catfish was the source of SHBG. Tritiated estradiol ( 3H-E2) was used in standard radioligand-binding assays to characterize the binding properties of channel catfish SHBG (ccfSHBG) and to estimate the inhibition constants for various estrogenic compounds. Binding of 3H-E2 to ccfSHBG was saturable and of high affinity with a Kd (??SE) of 1.9??0.14nM and a Bmax of 14.3??2.4pmol/mg protein (n=3 assays). Additionally, ccfSHBG displayed binding specificity for androgens and estrogens. Endosulfan, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-octylphenol displaced 3H-E2 binding to ccfSHBG albeit only at very high concentrations, whereas dieldrin and atrazine showed little displacement activity even at the highest concentrations used. The synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol had higher affinity than E2 for ccfSHBG. This finding differs from results with human and rainbow trout SHBG. The alkylphenolic compounds (4-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) displayed some ability to displace 3H-E2 binding from ER?? and ?? at high concentrations, but dieldrin and atrazine had little binding activity for both ER subtypes and endosulfan for ER??. The xenobiotics tested generally showed equivalent or greater affinity for ER?? than ER??, whereas natural estrogens had much greater affinity for ER?? than ER??. These observations suggest that results of studies using fish tissue ER extracts must be interpreted with caution, since both ER subtypes may be present, and that the binding of xenoestrogens to SHBG must be taken into account for proper assessment of endocrine

  5. Efficacy of Florfenicol for Control of Mortality Associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri in Three Species of Catfish.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Patricia S; Chatakondi, Nagaraj; Gao, Dana; Endris, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Edwardsiella icatluri was studied in fingerlings of Channel Catfish Ictalurus puntatus (Delta strain), Blue Catfish I. furcatus (D&B strain), and a hybrid catfish (Delta strain Channel Catfish × D&B strain Blue Catfish). On day 0, fish were immersion challenged in 65-L aquaria. For each of the three species of catfish, 10 aquaria were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, either treated with florfenicol at 0 mg/kg of body weight (unmedicated feed) or at 10 mg/kg (medicated feed). Fish were treated for 10 consecutive days, monitored for mortality during this treatment period, and observed for 14 d afterwards. Post observation, all survivors were humanely euthanized in tricaine methanesulfonate, cultured for E. ictaluri, and examined for gross pathology. The mean cumulative percent mortality from enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) challenge among the three genotypes of catfish did not differ between Blue Catfish, hybrid, and Channel Catfish in treated or control groups. However, the florfenicol-treated fish had a significantly lower mean cumulative mortality (6%) than the controls (78%). All genotypes of catfish tested were responsive to treatment with florfenicol-medicated feed for control of mortality associated with ESC. There were no significant differences in mortality associated with hybrid catfish, blue catfish, and Channel Catfish (Delta strain).

  6. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  7. Maturity stage and plasma testosterone levels are related to sperm production in blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the channel catfish, Ictalurus puntatus' X blue catfish, I.furcatus ' F1 hybrid has demonstrated good potential for commercial production compared to the commonly raised channel catfish. Efforts by researchers and commercial producers in the last 40 years have improved hybrid fry product...

  8. Morphological, Histological, and Molecular Description of Unicauda fimbrethilae n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) from the Intestinal Tract of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Alberson, Neely R; Baumgartner, Wes A; Mauel, Michael J; Pote, Linda M; Griffin, Matt J

    2016-02-01

    The channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a known host for 10 species of Henneguya, but few other myxozoan genera are described from this species. Unicauda is a genus of myxozoan parasites within the family Myxobolidae that consists of 10 valid species from freshwater fish. Herein, we describe a novel species of Unicauda from the intestinal tract of farm-raised channel catfish in Mississippi. Myxospores were consistent with the genus Unicauda but exhibited a unique branching at the terminal end of the caudal process that has not previously been reported. Myxospores measured 90.39 ± 14.97 μm (mean ± SD; range = 70.88-126.02 μm) in total length. The spherical spore body measured 7.31 ± 0.26 μm (6.75-7.84 μm) in length and 7.01 ± 0.63 μm (6.1-8.01 μm) in width. The 2 polar capsules measured 3.45 ± 0.33 μm (3.02-4.03 μm) in length and 2.65 ± 0.32 μm (2.18-3.11 μm) in width. The single caudal process measured 82.98 ± 14.97 μm (63.39-118.63 μm) in length from the base of the spore body to the end of the most terminal projection. Terminal projections measured 26.83 ± 8.8 μm (12.34-42.29 μm) in length and 0.95 ± 0.23 μm (0.52-1.6 μm) in width. The 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained did not match any published sequences. Given the uniqueness of the myxospore morphology, histological presentation, and gene sequence data, we describe this as an unreported species, Unicauda fimbrethilae n. sp.

  9. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance, susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brian C; Peatman, E; Ourth, D D; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE; containing the essential oils carvacrol, thymol, anethol, and limonene) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (floating diet) and EO (floating diet supplemented with essential oils). The fish were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, all fish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri by bath immersion (1.9 × 10(7) cfu/mL; final concentration). Plasma and tissue samples were taken to quantify protein and mRNA expression levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL). Weight gain and food conversion ratio were similar between treatments. After exposing fish to virulent E. ictaluri and monitoring mortality for 21 days, survival was 43% higher (69.5 vs 48.4%) in fish fed EO compared to fish not treated with EO (P < 0.05). One day after challenge, plasma MBL levels were down-regulated in the non-treated fish compared to non-challenged fish. In the EO fish, MBL levels were similar to non-challenged fish but significantly higher than non-treated fed fish (P < 0.001). By d 7, plasma MBL levels increased in non-treated fed fish to levels observed in the EO and non-challenged fish. On d 14, MBL mRNA levels were upregulated 15-fold in fish fed EO compared to non-treated fed fish and non-challenged fish (P < 0.001). The results demonstrate that essential oils improved survival of channel catfish challenged with E. ictaluri. Mechanisms through which essential oils improve survival may involve MBL.

  10. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P < 0.05). Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P < 0.05). Increased intensity of less favorable flavor attributes commonly associated with catfish resulted in the differences in acceptability among treatments. As fish progressed through the harvest event, cook loss decreased, tenderness increased, and pH increased, indicating that stress induced textural changes. The data suggest that although environmental stress results in slight changes in flavor attributes, its effects on acceptability are minor with fillets from all treatments still liked (>6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically.

  11. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; Ictalurus punctatus; Oncorhynchus spp

    SciTech Connect

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  12. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-09-22

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients.

  13. Production of monoclonal antibodies to Listeria monocytogenes and their application to determine the virulence of isolates from channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Erdenlig, S; Ainsworth, A J; Austin, F W

    1999-07-01

    We produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the extracellular proteins of Listeria monocytogenes EGD grown in Chelex-treated improved minimal medium. Ten of the positive hybridomas generated were chosen for further characterization. Seven of the MAbs reacted with a protein having a molecular mass of 60 kDa. These MAbs inhibited listeriolysin (LLO)-mediated hemolysis, and two of them were specific for LLO and none of the other thiol-activated toxins tested. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis, five of the anti-LLO MAbs reacted with ivanolysin from Listeria ivanovii. Three of the 10 MAbs reacted with a 29-kDa protein on Western blots and neutralized the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity of L. monocytogenes. These three anti-PC-PLC MAbs did not react with phospholipases from five different gram-positive bacteria. However, the anti-PC-PLC MAbs recognized a 27-kDa extracellular protein from L. ivanovii and neutralized sphingomyelinase activity in a hemolysis test that demonstrates the antigenic relatedness of listerial phospholipases. These data indicate that listerial thiol-activated toxins possess species-specific epitopes and share group-specific epitopes. This is the first description of MAbs that neutralize listerial PC-PLC, and the data suggest that there is antigenic similarity between L. monocytogenes PC-PLC and L. ivanovii sphingomyelinase. The reactions of the MAbs with catfish isolates of L. monocytogenes suggested that some of the isolates examined lack the LLO and/or PC-PLC required for pathogenicity. The MAbs described here differentiated some catfish isolates from previously described type strain-pathogenic isolates and could be useful for detecting and determining the virulence of L. monocytogenes in food and clinical samples and for detecting L. ivanovii in veterinary clinical samples.

  14. Expression profiling analysis of immune-related genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin mucus following Flavobacterium columnare challenge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yichao; Zhao, Honggang; Su, Baofeng; Peatman, Eric; Li, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Fish are covered by a watery gel-mucus, mainly secreted by the goblet cells, serving as the physical and biochemical barrier between the external environment and the interior milieu, playing more important roles in fish that without scale. Despite the important roles of mucus in fish immunity, the knowledge of detailed molecular events happened during infection process is still limited. While most studies were focused on characterizing the protein and enzyme activities in the mucus following challenge, no studies have examined the gene expression profiles in fish mucus. In this regard, herein we carried out the first gene profiling analysis in catfish mucus using real-time PCR. Ten important immune-related genes were selected according to our previous studies. Their expression levels were examined in the early timepoints (namely, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h) following Flavobacterium columnare challenge. Notably, expression levels of most of the selected genes were rapidly altered by the challenge. Seven genes were down-regulated, while only three genes were up-regulated. In addition, the gene expression patterns in mucus were very different from the mucosal surfaces (skin, gill and intestine) and the classical immune organs (liver, spleen and kidney). The unique expression patterns obtained here may be resulted from the great advantage of the large amount of attached bacteria in the mucus than the internal tissues, and resulted from the bacteria virulent actors to suppress the host immune response. Taken together, our results can expand our knowledge of fish mucosal immunity, and the un-lethal mucus sampling can provide early insight for developing the strategies for selection of disease resistant families and strains in catfish as well as other fish species.

  15. Postponed feeding does not substantially reduce production expense during pond rearing of hybrid catfish fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production variables of hybrid catfish (ChannelCatfish Ictalurus punctatus×BlueCatfish I. furcatus) reared in nursery ponds and then stocked were compared between fish fed immediately after stocking (standard industry practice) and fish forwhich feedingwas postponed after stocking. Ponds (0.04 ha) w...

  16. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish are exclusively produced by strip spawning of channel catfish females, fertilizing stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm, and hatching the fertilized eggs. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on ...

  17. SNP discovery in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing and subsequent SNP validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue catfish, Ictalurusfurcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally blue catfish x channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodsto...

  18. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  19. Utilization of microarray technology for functional genomics in ictalurid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and the closely related blue catfish, I. furcatus, are important species in aquaculture and serve as biological models for immunology, neurobiology, and environmental monitoring. Directed and high-throughput sequencing technologies have produced 44,767 chan...

  20. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  1. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial channel proteins that regulate the flow of hydrogen ions and ATP generation. The relationship between UCP2 and nutrient metabolism has been well-defined in humans but unclear in fish. We hypothesized that increased muscle growth in channel catf...

  2. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad J; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sun, Dawei; Capps, Nancy K; Hemstreet, William B; Carlisle, Kristen; Griffin, Matt J; Khoo, Lester; Goodwin, Andrew E; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven; Hayden, Karl; Newton, Joseph C; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  3. Implication of Lateral Genetic Transfer in the Emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila Isolates of Epidemic Outbreaks in Channel Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sun, Dawei; Capps, Nancy K.; Hemstreet, William B.; Carlisle, Kristen; Griffin, Matt J.; Khoo, Lester; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven; Hayden, Karl; Newton, Joseph C.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains. PMID:24278351

  4. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  5. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  6. Managing summertime off-flavors in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summertime phytoplankton blooms in channel catfish ponds often contain blue-green algae that produce musty or earthy odors. The odorous compounds are absorbed by fish across their gills and deposited in fatty tissues, giving fish undesirable “off-flavors.” When fish are declared off-flavored by proc...

  7. In vitro and in vivo interaction of macrophages from vaccinated and non-vaccinated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophages from modified live vaccinated and non-vaccinated catfish were used in in vitro and in vivo studies with red fluorescent Edwardsiella ictaluri to assess phagocytic ability, reactive oxygen and nitric oxide production and bactericidal activity. In the in vitro experiment, macrophages were...

  8. Effect of Increased Egg Stocking Density in Existing and Experimental Catfish Incubators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in stationary wire mesh baskets suspended across metal troughs with flow-through water that is agitated and circulated between the baskets and around the eggs with rotating paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish e...

  9. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  10. Glucuronidation and sulfonation, in vitro, of the major endocrine-active metabolites of methoxychlor in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and induction following treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Stuchal, Leah D.; Nyagode, Beatrice A.

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), is metabolized in animals to phenolic mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites (OH-MXC and HPTE respectively) that interact with estrogen receptors and may be endocrine disruptors. The phase II detoxication of these compounds will influence the duration of action of the estrogenic metabolites, but has not been investigated extensively. In this study, the glucuronidation and sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE were investigated in subcellular fractions of liver and intestine from untreated, MXC-treated and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-treated channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. MXC-treated fish were given i.p. injections of 2 mg MXC/kg daily for 6 days and sacrificed 24 hr after the last dose. The 3-MC treatment was a single 10 mg/kg i.p. dose 5 days prior to sacrifice. In hepatic microsomes from control fish, the Vmax value (mean ± S.D., n=4) for glucuronidation of OH-MXC was 270 ± 50 pmol/min/mg protein, higher than found for HPTE (110 ± 20 pmol/min/mg protein). For each substrate, the Vmax values observed in intestinal microsomes were approximately twice those found in the liver. The Km values for OH-MXC and HPTE glucuronidation in control liver were not significantly different and were 0.32 ± 0.04 mM for OH-MXC and 0.26 ± 0.06 mM for HPTE. The Km for the co-substrate, UDPGA, was higher in liver (0.28 ± 0.09 mM) than intestine (0.04 ± 0.02 mM). Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased the Vmax for glucuronidation in liver and intestine. Glucuronidation was a more efficient pathway than sulfonation for both substrates, in both tissues. The Vmax values for sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE respectively in liver cytosol were 7 ± 3 and 17 ± 4 pmol/min/mg protein and in intestinal cytosol were 13 ± 3 and 30 ± 5 pmol/min/mg protein. Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased rates of sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE and the model substrate, 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene in both intestine and liver. Comparison of the kinetics

  11. Evaluation of a GnRh-II analog as a spawning aid in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of three different analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce spawning in female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was evaluated head to head in a blind study. Two of those analogs are currently used under INAD by the catfish industry, mGnRH Ia (D-Ala6, Pro9-NHe...

  12. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  13. The use of copper sulfate in catfish hatcheries: safety and effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is cheap, safe to the applicator and effective for controlling fungus on catfish eggs. Several studies were designed to determine the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit of an FDA approval. In an effectiveness study for the FDA, we found that ...

  14. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ≤1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  15. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May, 2011) from a channel catfish production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. Only two myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish (Ictalurus puncta...

  16. A non-lethal means to identify spermiating D&B strain of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US farm-raised catfish production was 334 million pounds in 2013, the first annual increase documented in a decade. This positive development is due to the increased adoption of channel x blue hybrid catfish in the industry. Research and development efforts to improve the genetics of channel catfi...

  17. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05). A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  18. Structural organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the channel catfish: the IgH locus represents a composite of two gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Holman, Tereza; Lobb, Craig J

    2002-01-01

    Two structurally-related genomic clusters of catfish immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments are known. The first gene cluster contains DH and JH segments, as well as the C region exons encoding the functional Cmu. The second gene cluster contains multiple VH gene segments representing different VH families, a germline-joined VDJ, a single JH segment, and at least two pseudogene Cmu exons. It was not known whether these gene clusters were linked, nor was the organization or the location of VH segments associated within the first gene cluster known. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis studies have been used to determine the structural organization of these gene clusters. Restriction mapping studies show that the two gene clusters are closely linked; the second gene cluster is located upstream from the first with the Cmu regions within the clusters separated by about 725kb. The clusters are in the same relative transcriptional orientation, and the results indicate that the complete IgH locus spans no more than 1000kb and may be as small as 750-800kb. VH gene segments are located both upstream and downstream of the pseudo-Cmu exons; however, no VH gene segments that hybridized with the VH specific probes were detected downstream of the functional Cmu. These studies coupled with earlier sequence analyses indicate that the catfish IgH locus arose from a massive internal duplication event. Subsequent gene rearrangement within the duplicated cluster likely resulted in the presence of the germline VDJ and the deletion of intervening V, D and J segments. Transposition by a member of the Tc1/mariner family of transposable elements appears to have led to the disruption of the duplicated Cmu.

  19. The safety and effectiveness of CuSO4 to control fungus on egg masses in catfish hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies for the proposed indication ‘to control egg mortality associated with Saprolegniasis inf...

  20. Can We Improve Catfish Growth and FCR Through Oxygen Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of channel catfish. Control ponds in each study were maintained with a minimum D...

  1. The pathology associated with visceral toxicosis of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) syndrome was recognized in the late 1990s and recently has been associated with exposure to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin. Tentative diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and ross findings, and is confirmed by bioassay. In April 2009, channel cat...

  2. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.

  3. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E.

    PubMed

    Chatla, Kamalakar; Gaunt, Patricia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Ford, Lorelei; Hanson, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these signs and mortality after sera from affected fish is administered to sentinel catfish. The diagnosis is confirmed if the toxicity is neutralized with BoNT/E antitoxin. Because small catfish are often unavailable, the utility of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) was evaluated in BoNT/E and VTC bioassays. Channel catfish and zebrafish susceptibilities were compared using trypsin-activated BoNT/E in a 96-hr trial by intracoelomically administering 0, 1.87, 3.7, 7.5, 15, or 30 pg of toxin per gram of body weight (g-bw) of fish. All of the zebrafish died at the 7.5 pg/g-bw and higher, while the catfish died at the 15 pg/g-bw dose and higher. To test the bioassay, sera from VTC-affected fish or control sera were intracoelomically injected at a dose of 10 µl per zebrafish and 20 µl/g-bw for channel catfish. At 96 hr post-injection, 78% of the zebrafish and 50% of the catfish receiving VTC sera died, while no control fish died. When the VTC sera were preincubated with BoNT/E antitoxin, they became nontoxic to zebrafish. Histology of zebrafish injected with either VTC serum or BoNT/E demonstrated renal necrosis. Normal catfish serum was toxic to larval zebrafish in immersion exposures, abrogating their utility in VTC bioassays. The results demonstrate bioassays using adult zebrafish for detecting BoNT/E and VTC are sensitive and practical.

  4. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  5. Growth characteristics and otolith analysis on age-0 American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this reoprt), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large number of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitive estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.


    Analysis of the age-0 American shad growth trajectory or individual growth records may show evidence of differential growth rates over

  6. Antioxidant activities of purple rice bran extract and its effect on the quality of low-NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Chen, M-H; Green, B W

    2009-04-01

    Purple rice bran contains high amounts of natural antioxidants that consist of water- and lipid-soluble compounds. Hexane-insoluble and hexane-soluble fractions were separated from 100% methanolic extract from purple rice bran (RBE-HI and RBE-HS, respectively). Total anthocyanin, tannin, flavonoid, and phenolics contents were determined in those fractions, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capability, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and iron chelating capability (ICC). RBE-HI and RBE-HS were also added to restructured patties made from minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. Lipid oxidation, color, and/or textural properties were determined for raw and cooked patties during a 12-d storage at 4 degrees C. All antioxidant indices, except for ICC, of RBE-HI were significantly higher than those of RBE-HS due probably to its higher anthocyanin content (P < 0.05). RBE-HS showed higher ICC (P < 0.05). However, both fractions showed similar antioxidant activity in raw and cooked patties during storage, resulting from the complexity of antioxidant action in food systems. Textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness) in cooked patties with RBE-HS and RBE-HI were well maintained during storage, but changed significantly in the control (P < 0.05). Only RBE-HS limited microbial growth in raw patties during storage (P < 0.05), but its inhibitory effect was marginal because of low-dose and physical interactions with the matrix. L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of raw and cooked patties decreased significantly by both fractions, whereas b* (yellowness) was significantly decreased by RBE-HI and increased by RBE-HS (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that purple rice bran extract is applicable to meat products as a natural preservative, but color change in the products may limit its application.

  7. Competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish–bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish–bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  8. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  9. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  10. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    SciTech Connect

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  11. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish.

  12. Inflammatory Effects of Edwardsiella ictaluri Lipopolysaccharide Modifications in Catfish Gut

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Park, Jie-Yeun; Martin, Taylor; Loh, Amanda; Diaz, Ignacia; Rojas, Robert; Segovia, Cristopher; DeNardo, Dale; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are structural components of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and also are potent inducers of inflammation in mammals. Higher vertebrates are extremely sensitive to LPS, but lower vertebrates, like fish, are resistant to their systemic toxic effects. However, the effects of LPS on the fish intestinal mucosa remain unknown. Edwardsiella ictaluri is a primitive member of the Enterobacteriaceae family that causes enteric septicemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). E. ictaluri infects and colonizes deep lymphoid tissues upon oral or immersion infection. Both gut and olfactory organs are the primary sites of invasion. At the systemic level, E. ictaluri pathogenesis is relatively well characterized, but our knowledge about E. ictaluri intestinal interaction is limited. Recently, we observed that E. ictaluri oligo-polysaccharide (O-PS) LPS mutants have differential effects on the intestinal epithelia of orally inoculated catfish. Here we evaluate the effects of E. ictaluri O-PS LPS mutants by using a novel catfish intestinal loop model and compare it to the rabbit ileal loop model inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LPS. We found evident differences in rabbit ileal loop and catfish ileal loop responses to E. ictaluri and S. Typhimurium LPS. We determined that catfish respond to E. ictaluri LPS but not to S. Typhimurium LPS. We also determined that E. ictaluri inhibits cytokine production and induces disruption of the intestinal fish epithelia in an O-PS-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri wild type and ΔwibT LPS mutant caused intestinal tissue damage and inhibited proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, in contrast to E. ictaluri Δgne and Δugd LPS mutants. We concluded that the E. ictaluri O-PS subunits play a major role during pathogenesis, since they influence the recognition of the LPS by the intestinal mucosal immune system of the catfish. The LPS structure of E. ictaluri mutants is needed to

  13. Genetic sequence data identifies the cercaria of drepanocephalus spathans Digenea echinostomatidea a parasite of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus with notes on its pathology in juvenile channel catfish Ictal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2010, a catfish producer in the Mississippi Delta contacted the Fish Health Laboratory of the National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, MS regarding several ponds suspected of having trematode infections because of poor feeding activity. Fish and snail populations were ev...

  14. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly similar genomes. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that U.S. catfish isolates emerged from A. hydrophila populations of Asian origin. Furthermore, we identified an A. hydrophila strain isolated in 2004 from a diseased catfish in Mississippi, prior to the onset of the major epidemic outbreaks in Alabama starting in 2009, with genomic characteristics that are intermediate between those of the Asian and Alabama fish isolates. Investigation of A. hydrophila strain virulence demonstrated that the isolate from the U.S. catfish epidemic is significantly more virulent to both channel catfish and grass carp than is the Chinese carp isolate. This study implicates the importation of fish or fishery products into the United States as the source of highly virulent A. hydrophila that has caused severe epidemic outbreaks in United States-farmed catfish and further demonstrates the potential for invasive animal species to disseminate bacterial pathogens worldwide. PMID:24895303

  15. A genome-wide association study of heat stress-associated SNPs in catfish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Zhou, T; Geng, X; Liu, S; Chen, A; Yao, J; Jiang, C; Tan, S; Su, B; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    Heat tolerance is a complex and economically important trait for catfish genetic breeding programs. With global climate change, it is becoming an increasingly important trait. To better understand the molecular basis of heat stress, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out using the 250 K catfish SNP array with interspecific backcross progenies, which derived from crossing female channel catfish with male F1 hybrid catfish (female channel catfish × male blue catfish). Three significant associated SNPs were detected by performing an EMMAX approach for GWAS. The SNP located on linkage group 14 explained 12.1% of phenotypical variation. The other two SNPs, located on linkage group 16, explained 11.3 and 11.5% of phenotypical variation respectively. A total of 14 genes with heat stress related functions were detected within the significant associated regions. Among them, five genes-TRAF2, FBXW5, ANAPC2, UBR1 and KLHL29- have known functions in the protein degradation process through the ubiquitination pathway. Other genes related to heat stress include genes involved in protein biosynthesis (PRPF4 and SYNCRIP), protein folding (DNAJC25), molecule and iron transport (SLC25A46 and CLIC5), cytoskeletal reorganization (COL12A1) and energy metabolism (COX7A2, PLCB1 and PLCB4) processes. The results provide fundamental information about genes and pathways that is useful for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of heat stress. The associated SNPs could be promising candidates for selecting heat-tolerant catfish lines after validating their effects on larger and various catfish populations.

  16. Microbial quality of catfish nuggets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbiological quality of catfish nuggets is not known. Nuggets, purchased from local retailers in the northeast United States (NJ, NY, PA, and DE), were tested for aerobic plate count (APC) at 22 and 37 deg C, Enterobacteriacea, and Escherichia coli/coliform using Petrifilms**™. The BAX**™ ...

  17. Use of vaccination against enteric septicemia of catfish and columnaris disease by the US catfish industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is an effective strategy used for the protection of food animals against infectious diseases. The USDA APHIS 2010 NAHMS Catfish Questionnaire included questions related to US catfish industry use of two commercial vaccines that provide protection against enteric septicemia of catfish (E...

  18. Cyanobacteria and earthy/musty compounds found in commercial catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds in the Mississippi Delta and Mississippi--Alabama Blackland Prairie.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Dennis, Margaret E

    2005-08-01

    The compounds responsible for earthy and musty "off-flavors" in farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern United States of America are geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively. These compounds are produced by certain species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that grow in the aquaculture ponds. Previous research has focused on the species of cyanobacteria found in catfish ponds in west Mississippi (the leading region of catfish production in the USA), while the species responsible for earthy/musty off-flavors in catfish produced in the Mississippi-Alabama Blackland Prairie (MABP) region (second greatest region of catfish production) have not been described. We examined water samples from commercial catfish ponds in both regions to contrast the different types of cyanobacteria and assess the prevalence of geosmin and MIB. Results established that filamentous cyanobacteria are more common in west Mississippi compared to the MABP region. Also, the MIB-producing cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata is present in catfish ponds in both geographic locations, and geosmin is more prevalent in catfish ponds in the MABP region than in west Mississippi.

  19. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. Behaviors of southwestern native fishes in response to introduced catfish predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Figiel, Chester R.

    2013-01-01

    Native fishes reared in hatcheries typically suffer high predation mortality when stocked into natural environments. We evaluated the behavior of juvenile bonytail Gila elegans, roundtail chub Gila robusta, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and Sonora sucker Catostomus insignis in response to introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris. Our laboratory tests indicate these species did not inherently recognize catfish as a threat, but they can quickly (within 12 h) change their behavior in response to a novel predator paired with the sight and scent of a dead conspecific. Chubs appear to avoid predation by swimming away from the threat, whereas suckers reduced movement. Effects of antipredator conditioning on survival of fish reared in hatcheries is unknown; however, our results suggest some native fish can be conditioned to recognize introduced predators, which could increase poststocking survival.

  1. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen, is an occasional post-process contaminant on retail catfish. In this study, bacteriophages were evaluated for the ability to inactivate a cocktail of L. monocytogenes inoculated (4-5 log cfu/cm2) onto raw catfish. Spray application of bac...

  2. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  3. Characterization and value-added utilization of proteins extracted from the by-products from catfish fillet processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish farming is the most important warm water aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. The by-products, including heads, skin, bone frame and viscera, account for 55-65% of the whole fish mass after fillet processing. The by-products contain 35% of protein on a dry basis, and may be...

  4. Degree-day accumulation influences annual variability in growth of age-0 walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uphoff, Christopher S.; Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Hoback, W. Wyatt; Koupal, Keith D.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of age-0 fishes influences survival, especially in temperate regions where size-dependent over-winter mortality can be substantial. Additional benefits of earlier maturation and greater fecundity may exist for faster growing individuals. This study correlated prey densities, growing-degree days, water-surface elevation, turbidity, and chlorophyll a with age-0 walleye Sander vitreus growth in a south-central Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Growth of age-0 walleye was variable between 2003 and 2011, with mean lengths ranging from 128 to 231 mm by fall (September 30th–October 15th). A set of a priori candidate models were used to assess the relative support of explanatory variables using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). A temperature model using the growing degree-days metric was the best supported model, describing 65% of the variability in annual mean lengths of age-0 walleye. The second and third best supported models included the variables chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.49) and larval freshwater drum density (r2 = 0.45), respectively. There have been mixed results concerning the importance of temperature effects on growth of age-0 walleye. This study supports the hypothesis that temperature is the most important predictor of age-0 walleye growth near the southwestern limits of its natural range.

  5. Practical use of copper sulfate in catfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate has been used in aquaculture for many years to control weeds, algae, snails (which carry catfish trematode), and ecto-parasitic organisms in catfish production. Our research has also shown it to be safe and effective to treat fungus on various fish eggs (catfish, hybrid striped bass,...

  6. Rapid loss of lampricide from catfish and rainbow trout following routine treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Schreier, T.M.; Boogaard, M.A.; Spanjers, N.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and Bayluscide (niclosamide) during a sea lamprey control treatment of the Ford River, located in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Caged fish were exposed to a nominal concentration of 0.02 mg/L of niclosamide for a period of approximately 12 h. Samples of fillet tissue were collected from each fish species before treatment and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h following the arrival of the block of chemical at the exposure site. The fish were dissected, homogenized, extracted, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major residues found in the fillet tissues were TFM and niclosamide. Niclosamide concentrations were highest 12 h after arrival of the chemical block for rainbow trout (0.0395 ?? 0.0251 ??g/g) and 18 h after arrival of the chemical block for channel catfish (0.0465 ?? 0.0212 ??g/g). Residues decreased rapidly after the block of lampricide had passed and were below the detection limits in fillets of rainbow trout within 24 h and channel catfish within 96 h after the arrival of the lampricide.

  7. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi delta.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Greenway, Terrence E; Khoo, Lester H; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May 2011) from a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. At present, only 2 myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish, linking the actinospore stage from an aquatic oligochaete (D. digitata ) and the myxospore stage from the catfish. In this study D. digitata (n = 2,592) were isolated from oligochaetes collected from the bottom sediment of a channel catfish production pond. After 1 wk of daily observation, a total of 6 genetically different actinospore types were observed. The collective groups were classified as 2 aurantiactinomyxons, 2 helioactinomyxons, 1 raabeia, and 1 triactinomyxon. Overall prevalence of myxozoan infections in the isolated oligochaetes was 4.4%. Actinospores were photographed and measured for morphological characterization. Four previously undescribed actinospore types were identified and characterized molecularly and morphologically. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the raabeia and one of the helioactinomyxon (type 1) actinospores were closely related to the group of myxozoans known to parasitize ictalurids in North America. To date, no myxospores have been linked to the newly sequenced actinospores reported in this survey. The morphological and molecular data generated from this study will assist in the identification of myxospore counterparts for these actinospore stages and aid in the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles in closed production systems.

  8. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers,; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  9. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  10. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  11. Evaluation of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate as a potential catfish egg disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Small, Brian C

    2009-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) in improving the hatching success of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus when used as a prophylactic chemotherapeutant during egg incubation. In the first experiment, the efficacy of SCP was evaluated in 379-L aluminum incubation troughs similar to those used in commercial hatcheries. Egg masses treated daily with 254 mg of SCP/L of water had significantly higher mean hatching success than untreated controls, and a pathogen-inhibiting effect was also evident (i.e., no gross infection was observed on the treated egg masses). In the second experiment, the hatching success of egg masses treated daily with 254 mg/L was compared with that of egg masses treated daily with hydrogen peroxide (70 mg/L). The effects of both treatments on the pH, dissolved oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the trough were also examined. Both SCP and hydrogen peroxide significantly improved hatching success. Unlike in the treatment with hydrogen peroxide, water pH increased during the treatment with SCP; however, no negative effects on hatching success were observed. The results of this research suggest that SCP acts similarly to hydrogen peroxide in improving channel catfish hatching success and warrants further research to determine whether it could be a practical and effective alternative for managing catfish egg infections in commercial hatcheries.

  12. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  13. Recent improvements in catfish hatcheries not only changed the type of catfish to be raised but also how they are raised

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease, low survival, and increased feed costs coupled with an influx of cheap foreign catfish declined the US farm-raised catfish production by over 50% in the last decade. Farm efficiency can be improved by development and use of catfish with enhanced performance characteristics. Hybrid catfish ...

  14. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  15. Optimum temperature for growth and preferred temperatures of age-0 lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Cleland, Joshua

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the thermal preferences and optimum temperature for growth of age-0 lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to help predict the thermal habitat they select when they leave the spawning grounds and to assess the risk posed to them in the Great Lakes by piscivorus, nonnative fishes whose thermal habitat preferences are known. The test fish were hatched in the laboratory from eggs taken from wild fish, acclimated to 5, 10, 15, and 18°C, and fed to excess with commercial trout food for 47 d. The test fish grew at all of the temperatures, and the specific growth rate was highest at about 12.5°C (3.8% wet body weight/d). Fish used in the growth study were also tested in a vertical thermal gradient tank and had a final thermal preferendum between 10.1°C and 10.2°C. These results, which generally agreed with those of an earlier laboratory study of the temperature preference of age-1 lake trout and the limited information on thermal habitat use by age-0 lake trout in the Great Lakes, indicated age-0 lake trout would tend to seek temperatures near 10°C, or as high as 12.5°C, during summer if food was abundant. Published information on thermal habitat use of age-1 and adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax indicated they would be expected to co-occur with age-0 lake trout during much of the time when the lake trout were small enough to be eaten by these two introduced piscivores.

  16. Control of reproduction in aquacultured species has benefited worldwide; can this strategy benefit U.S. farm-raised catfish too

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural pond spawning of channel catfish is unreliable, unpredictable, and is dependent on environmental conditions. Male and female broodfish are typically held in the same pond for 2 or 3 years. Approximately 30-50% of the females and 10 percent of the males present in the pond participate in the...

  17. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  18. A real time polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in catfish pond water and genetic homogeneity of diagnostic case isolates from Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus pond water using modifications to a published E. ictaluri–specific qPCR assay and previously established protocols for the molecula...

  19. Do predators influence the distribution of age-0 kokanee in a Colorado Reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, J.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reservoir conditions such as productivity, light, and temperature create spatiotemporal variation in habitat that may segregate or aggregate predators and prey, producing implications for the distribution, growth, and survival of fishes. We used hydroacoustics to document the diel vertical distribution of age-0 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka relative to environmental gradients at Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado, during May-August of 2002. Temperature, light, and zooplankton density profiles were examined relative to foraging conditions for kokanee and their primary predator, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Age-0 kokanee displayed large diel vertical migrations in May despite the lack of an energetic advantage before reservoir stratification. Age-0 kokanee minimized near-surface foraging at this time, perhaps to avoid predation by visual predators, such as lake trout, in the well-lit surface waters. Strong reservoir stratification in midsummer appeared to provide a thermal refuge from lake trout that the kokanee exploited. By August vertical migrations were shallow and most kokanee remained in the epilimnion throughout the day. Although the energetic implications of the late-summer strategy are unclear, it appears that kokanee were responding to changes in their predator environment. A robust model for kokanee diel vertical migration across a range of systems should include a predator avoidance component.

  20. Pond-level risk factors associated with columnaris disease on Mississippi commercial catfish farms.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Fred L; Jack, S W; Hardin, David; Wills, Robert W

    2012-09-01

    A large commercial catfish enterprise encompassing over 500 food fish ponds from five farms covering multiple counties in the Mississippi Delta was included in this analysis of columnaris risk factors. A gram-negative bacterium, Flavobacterium columnare, is the cause of columnaris disease and is considered the second-most prevalent bacterial disease in farm-raised catfish. The objective of this study was to determine if pond-level risk factors reported by farm personnel were associated with columnaris disease mortalities. To identify risk factors affecting susceptibility of farm-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to columnaris disease, a Catfish Management database was developed. Logistic regression was used to model the relationships between probability of columnaris in ponds and risk factors examined. Generalized linear mixed models incorporating hierarchically structured random effects of ponds and one or more fixed-effects risk factors were fitted. In the screening process, each risk factor was evaluated in the basic model as a single fixed-effects factor, and if associated with the outcome (P ≤ 0.20), was retained for development of multivariable models. Two multivariable logistic regression models were constructed from data collected at the pond level by producers. The first was constructed from data in which water quality was not considered. Pond depth and reduced feed consumption for a 14-d period prior to disease outbreaks measured on a per hectare basis were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with columnaris disease. The second, in which water quality variables were also considered, pond depth, reduced feed consumption, shorter intervals from stocking to disease outbreaks, and total ammonia nitrogen were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with columnaris occurrence. This study showed some commonly recorded production variables were associated with columnaris disease outbreaks and, if monitored, could help identify "at risk" ponds before

  1. Backwaters in the upper reaches of reservoirs produce high densities of age-0 crappies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagel, Jonah D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir backwaters are aquatic habitats in floodplains of reservoir tributaries that are permanently or periodically flooded by the reservoir. Like many reservoir arms, backwaters are commonly shallow, littoral habitats, but they differ from arms in various respects, including their support of primarily wetland plant assemblages that are tolerant to flooding. Elsewhere, the reservoir floods mainly upland plants that are less tolerant to flooding, producing a band of barren shoreline along the fluctuation zone. We investigated differences in relative abundance of age-0 crappies Pomoxis spp. in backwaters and arms of widely fluctuating flood control reservoirs, examined the effect of water level, and estimated the likelihood and timing with which these habitats are flooded annually. Higher catch rates of age-0 crappies were obtained in backwater habitats than in arm habitats. When inundated during the crappie spawning season, backwaters provided vegetated habitat at lower water levels than arms. Backwaters flooded earlier than arms and remained flooded longer to provide prolonged nursery habitat. Whereas vegetated habitat was inundated almost yearly in backwaters and arms, inundation that was timed to the onset of spawning occurred less regularly. Because of differences in water elevation, vegetated habitats were flooded in time for crappie spawning about every other year in backwaters but only every third year in arms. Recruitment of age-0 crappies was inversely correlated with high water levels during the months preceding the spawning period, perhaps because early flooding degraded the vegetation. Our results suggest that water levels may be managed during late winter and spring to regularly flood wetland vegetation communities in backwaters; however, water levels should be maintained at or below normal pool and should only irregularly flood upland vegetation in reservoir arms to promote the preservation of such vegetation. Furthermore, management efforts to

  2. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in children aged 0- 5 years with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anejo-Okopi, Joseph Aje; Okojokwu, Julius Ocheme; Ebonyi, Augustine Odo; Ejeliogu, Emeka Uba; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Audu, Onyemocho; Akpakpan, Edoama Edet; Nwachukwu, Esther Ebere; Ifokwe, Christabel Kelechi; Ali, Murna; Lar, Patricia; Oguche, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immune-compromised individuals. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of subtype families that are thought to be more commonly associated with diarrhea. We aimed to isolate and characterize Cryptosporidium spp among children with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria. Methods Stool samples were collected from165 children aged 0-5 years with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined by wet mount preparation, using formalin ether and a modified acid fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive samples using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit and PCR-RFLP assay was carried out after quantification. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were done to determine the subtype families and their relatedness. Results From the 165 children studied, 8 (4.8%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. PCR-RFLP assay and genotype characterization found the following Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis 6 (75%) and C. parvum 2 (25.0%), with family subtypes Id-5, Ie-1 and IIa-1, IId-1 respectively.The most common species was C. hominis and the frequent subtype was C. hominis-Id 5 (62.5%). Conclusion Cryptosporidium is not an uncommon cause of diarrhea in children, with C. hominis being the dominant species. Also C. hominis Id is the commonest sub-family subtype. Put together, zoonotic species may be an important cause of diarrhea in children aged 0-5 years in Jos, Nigeria. PMID:28293369

  3. Production Practices of Commercial Catfish Producers in Northeast Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letlow, Richard M.; Verma, Satish

    A study determined the yields obtained and the production practices followed by Louisiana commercial catfish farmers in Catahoula, Concordia, and Franklin Parishes. This information was used by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (LCES) faculty to develop a catfish education program. The study: (1) determined use of selected recommended…

  4. Treating catfish diseases: walking the line between excess and moderation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost savings by using a cheaper disease treatment will increase profitability of any catfish farm. This invited producer presentation will discuss costs savings using copper sulfate in catfish production and a summation of our research, specifically in the hatchery. Copper sulfate is not approved ...

  5. Composition of Age-0 Fish Assemblages in the Apalachicola River, River Styx, and Battle Bend, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Buttermore, Elissa N.; Burgess, O. Towns; Pine, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Light traps were used to sample the age-0 year class of fish communities in the Apalachicola River and associated floodplain water bodies of River Styx and Battle Bend, Florida, in 2006-2007. A total of 629 light traps were deployed during the spring and early summer months (341 between March 15 and June 6, 2006; 288 between March 9 and July 3, 2007). For combined years, 13.8 percent of traps were empty and a total of 20,813 age-0 fish were captured representing at least 40 taxa of 29 genera and 16 families. Trap catches were dominated by relatively few species, with the most abundant groups represented by cyprinids, centrarchids, percids, and catostomids. Six taxa accounted for about 80 percent of all fish collected: Micropterus spp. (28.9 percent), Notropis texanus (28.9 percent), Lepomis macrochirus (7.9 percent), Carpiodes cyprinus (6.2 percent), Cyprinidae sp. (4.6 percent), and Minytrema melanops (4.2 percent). Based on chronological appearance in light traps and catch-per-unit effort, including data from previous years of sampling, peak spawning periods for most species occurred between early March and mid-June. A complementary telemetry study of pre-reproductive adults of select target species (Micropterus spp., Lepomis spp., and M. melanops) revealed distinct patterns of habitat use, with some individual fish exclusively utilizing mainstem river habitat or floodplain habitat during spawning and post-spawning periods, and other individuals migrating between habitats. A comparison of light-trap catches between a pre-enhancement, high-water year (2003) and post-enhancement, low-water year (2007) for the oxbow at Battle Bend revealed some difference in community composition, with slightly greater values of diversity and evenness indices in 2007. Two dominant species, Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides, were substantially greater in relative abundance among all age-0 fish collected in 2007 in comparison to 2003. Excavation of sediments at the mouth

  6. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). Sea catfish and Gafftopsail catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.; Wingo, W.M.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Sea catfish and gafftopsail catfish are not preferred sport nor commercial fish; however, their high abundance inshore along the northern Gulf of Mexico causes them to rank 2nd or 3rd and no lower than 13th of all saltwater finfish in angler surveys. Sea catfish comprised less than 2% in industrial bottom trawl fisheries although surveys in depths to 20 m revealed they comprised 2 to 36%, by weight, of the bottom fishes. Sea catfish attain sexual maturity before 2 years of age, and spawn from May to August in shallow bays. Adult males do not feed for 60 to 80 days while carrying fertilized eggs and sac-fry in their mouths. Juveniles remain in low-salinity estuaries until decreasing water temperatures above 25/sup 0/C but remain inshore at temperatures above 10/sup 0/C. Sea catfish and gafftopsail catfish have been collected from waters with salinities ranging from 0 to 30 ppt, but prefer water salinities above 10 ppt. Water depth preferences of sea catfish and gafftopsail catfish appear related to water temperature, salinity, and bottom substrate. As juveniles, both species are opportunistic feeders utilizing microcrustaceans, and as adults, they feed upon detritus, microcrustaceans, and larger invertebrates. Blue crabs and shrimp are considered major food items. 70 references, 2 figures.

  7. Diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and origins of venomous catfishes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The study of venomous fishes is in a state of relative infancy when compared to that of other groups of venomous organisms. Catfishes (Order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of bony fishes that have long been known to include venomous taxa, but the extent and phylogenetic distribution of this venomous species diversity has never been documented, while the nature of the venoms themselves also remains poorly understood. In this study, I used histological preparations from over 100 catfish genera, basic biochemical and toxicological analyses of fin spine extracts from several species, and previous systematic studies of catfishes to examine the distribution of venom glands in this group. These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. Results Histological examinations of 158 catfish species indicate that approximately 1250-1625+ catfish species should be presumed to be venomous, when viewed in conjunction with several hypotheses of siluriform phylogeny. Maximum parsimony character optimization analyses indicate two to three independent derivations of venom glands within the Siluriformes. A number of putative toxic peptides were identified in the venoms of catfish species from many of the families determined to contain venomous representatives. These peptides elicit a wide array of physiological effects in other fishes, though any one species examined produced no more than three distinct putative toxins in its venom. The molecular weights and effects produced by these putative toxic peptides show strong similarities to previously characterized toxins found in catfish epidermal secretions. Conclusion Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes (Order Siluriformes), and venomous catfishes may outnumber the combined diversity of all other venomous vertebrates. The toxic peptides found in catfish venoms may be derived from epidermal secretions that have been demonstrated to accelerate the

  8. Isolation of yellow catfish β-actin promoter and generation of transgenic yellow catfish expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiachun; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Xu, Zhiqiang; Song, Wei; Bao, Jie; Liang, Dong; Li, Junbo; Li, Kui; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Muzi; Cai, Yongxiang; Yang, Jiaxin; Pan, Jianlin; Zhao, Qingshun

    2012-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its commercial value. Because genetic engineering has been a powerful tool to develop and improve fish traits for aquaculture, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish in order to increase its size and growth rate. Performing PCR with degenerate primers, we cloned a genomic fragment comprising 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the initiation codon of β-actin gene in yellow catfish. The sequence is 1,017 bp long, containing the core sequence of proximal promoter including CAAT box, CArG motif and TATA box. Microinjecting the transgene construct Tg(beta-actin:eYFP) of the proximal promoter fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene into zebrafish and yellow catfish embryos, we found the promoter could drive the reporter to express transiently in both embryos at early development. Screening the offspring of five transgenic zebrafish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry) or 19 yellow catfish founders developed from the embryos microinjected with Tg(beta-actin:eYFP), we obtained three lines of transgenic zebrafish and one transgenic yellow catfish, respectively. Analyzing the expression patterns of the reporter genes in transgenic zebrafish (Tg(ycbeta-actin:mCherry)nju8/+) and transgenic yellow catfish (Tg(beta-actin:eYFP)nju11/+), we found the reporters were broadly expressed in both animals. In summary, we have established a platform to make transgenic yellow catfish using the proximal promoter of its own β-actin gene. The results will help us to create transgenic yellow catfish using "all yellow catfish" transgene constructs.

  9. Chemotaxis of Flavobacterium columnare: To Channel Catfish Mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiological agent of columnaris disease in fresh water fish. The disease is characterized by chronic skin lesions and severe mortality. The skin mucus constitutes a large portion of body and many infectious organisms including F. columnare, is believed to invade throu...

  10. Solids management in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofloc technology (BFT) production systems are being used more commonly to produce high yields of fish or shrimp because very high feed rates are possible. In an outdoor BFT production system, a complex of living organisms is closely associated with particulate organic matter and is maintained in s...

  11. Length variation in age-0 westslope cutthroat trout at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcgrath, K.E.; Scott, J.M.; Rieman, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity provides ecological and evolutionary functions, stabilizing populations in variable environments. Although benefits of larger body size in juvenile fishes are well documented, size variation may have value as well. We explored the distribution of length and length variation in age-0 westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi at three spatial scales: area (102 km2), stream (101 km2), and site (100 km2). In addition, we examined relationships between length variables (mean length and interquartile range of length) and instream (temperature and conductivity) and landscape (aspect, elevation, headwater distance, and valley width) variables that were expected to be associated with fish size. Conductivity was included as a surrogate for productivity. Most variation in mean length and interquartile range of fish length was found among areas (62.2% and 62.6%, respectively). Mean length also varied among streams and sites (21.9% and 15.8%, respectively). Similarly, interquartile range of fish length varied among streams and sites (19.1% and 18.3%, respectively). Both length variables were associated with temperature and elevation. Mean fish length was also associated with conductivity, but the association between interquartile length range and conductivity was weak. We conclude that the conservation of variation in phenotypic attributes, such as length, in westslope cutthroat trout may require conservation of viable populations across broad areas and across environmental gradients that are associated with growth. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  13. Effects of ration and temperature on growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, J.L.; Arnold, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to gain insight into the optimum temperature and ration for growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in culture. We conducted two trials, each for 8 weeks. Trial 1 started with 60-g fish, trial 2 started with 0 3-g fish. Water temperatures of 15, 17, and 19??C were used separately in each trial. Rations (dry food, wet weight of fish) for 60-g fish were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of biomass per day, for 0.3-g fish, rations were 3, 5, and 7% of biomass per day. We set up three tank replicates, of equal fish biomass, at each combination of temperature and ration. The highest growth rate in trial 1 (for 60-g fish) was 0.014/d at 15??C and the 1.5% ration, although this growth rate was not significantly different from the growth rate at 17??C and 1.5% ration or at 17??C and 1.0% ration. The highest growth rate in trial 2 (for 0.3-g fish) was 0.067/d at 19??C and the 7.0% ration. Instantaneous growth at these conditions was significantly different from all other combinations of temperature and ration. Although these results may not completely define the temperature and ration under which fish could achieve maximum growth rate, they provide a solid starting point for further development of Atlantic sturgeon culture.

  14. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. PMID:23995043

  15. Evaluation of a modified Ph-shift process to reduce 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in spiked catfish and produce a consumer acceptable fried catfish nugget-like product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm-raised catfish weighing about 1 kg were selected and placed into 3 tanks each containing 1000 L of water. Treatment of tanks was blocked by week. In week 1, catfish in tanks were allowed to depurate 24 h, and then were held an additional 24 h. In weeks 2 and 3, catfish were treated as in wee...

  16. Catfish Point Control Structure: Foundation Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-01-01

    Averaf£e 63-88 75 20-27 23 43-62 51 SamJ1le Depth Elev !!!?.:.. Ft ~ Borins 1 - Gr.El. i 2.8 7 6.8- 7.8 -4.5 10 10.0-10.9 -7.6 13 13.1-13.9...I LEGEND @ ’ UNDISTURBED SAMPLE BORIN (; • GENERAL SAMPLE BORING .· A- 2 • - Grand Lake WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT SiAT’ON CATFISH POINT CONTROL

  17. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  18. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  19. Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-02-01

    Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation.

  20. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  1. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  2. 58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 50. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; He, Chongbo; Liu, Xueguang; Su, Hao; Gao, Xianggang; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish. PMID:23203058

  5. Trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an atlantic river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Jessica R.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris is a large piscivore that is native to the Mississippi and Rio Grande river drainages but that has been widely introduced across the United States. River ecologists and fisheries managers are concerned about introduced flathead catfish populations because of the negative impacts on native fish communities or imperiled species associated with direct predation and indirect competition from this apex predator. We studied the trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an Atlantic river to further understand the effects on native fish communities. Crayfish (Astacidea) occurred most frequently in the flathead catfish diet, while sunfish Lepomis spp. comprised the greatest percentage by weight. Neither of two sympatric imperiled fish species (the federally endangered Cape Fear shiner Notropis mekistocholas and the Carolina redhorse Moxostoma sp., a federal species of concern) was found in any diet sample. An ontogenetic shift in diet was evident when flathead catfish reached about 300 mm, and length significantly explained the variation in the percent composition by weight of sunfish and darters Etheostoma and Percina spp. Flathead catfish showed positive prey selectivity for taxa that occupied similar benthic microhabitat, highlighting the importance of opportunistic feeding and prey encounter rates. Flathead catfish displayed a highly variable diel feeding chronology during July, when they had a mean stomach fullness of 0.32%, but then showed a single midday feeding peak during August (mean fullness = 0.52%). The gastric evacuation rate increased between July (0.40/h) and August (0.59/h), as did daily ration, which more than doubled between the 2 months (3.06% versus 7.37%). Our findings increase the understanding of introduced flathead catfish trophic relations and the degree of vulnerability among prey taxa, which resource managers may consider in fisheries management and conservation of native fish populations and

  6. Catfish stings and the venom apparatus of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), and stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794).

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Kuciel, Michal; Gawlikowski, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The ability of catfish to inflict extremely painful wounds with their pectoral and dorsal stings has been well known for many decades. The venom apparatus of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), and stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) is constituted by a single, sharp and stout sting immediately in front of the soft-rayed portion of the pectoral fins. The sting has well developed articulations, making it possible for it to become erect and locked. The toxicological centres in Poland have recorded 17 cases of envenomations caused by stinging catfish and African catfish; the injury was accompanied by intense pain, numbness of the site, dizziness, local oedema and erythema. In addition, systemic symptoms such as tachycardia, weakness and arterial hypotension were observed. The treatment of these injuries should include cleansing of the wound and surrounding area. Immersion of the wounded extremity in hot water (45 degrees C) was used for the pain control. An attempt to remove any spinal sheath or remnant must be undertaken. Antibiotic management depends on several factors: the age and immune status of the victim, the interval between injury and presentation, or the presence of a foreign body. The most serious long-term complications of sting envenomation involve infections.

  7. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  8. Simulation modeling of high-throughput cryopreservation of aquatic germplasm: a case study of blue catfish sperm processing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging commercial-level technology for aquatic sperm cryopreservation has not been modeled by computer simulation. Commercially available software (ARENA, Rockwell Automation, Inc. Milwaukee, WI) was applied to simulate high-throughput sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) based on existing processing capabilities. The goal was to develop a simulation model suitable for production planning and decision making. The objectives were to: 1) predict the maximum output for 8-hr workday; 2) analyze the bottlenecks within the process, and 3) estimate operational costs when run for daily maximum output. High-throughput cryopreservation was divided into six major steps modeled with time, resources and logic structures. The modeled production processed 18 fish and produced 1164 ± 33 (mean ± SD) 0.5-ml straws containing one billion cryopreserved sperm. Two such production lines could support all hybrid catfish production in the US and 15 such lines could support the entire channel catfish industry if it were to adopt artificial spawning techniques. Evaluations were made to improve efficiency, such as increasing scale, optimizing resources, and eliminating underutilized equipment. This model can serve as a template for other aquatic species and assist decision making in industrial application of aquatic germplasm in aquaculture, stock enhancement, conservation, and biomedical model fishes. PMID:25580079

  9. Fur-Regulated Iron Uptake System of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Influence on Pathogenesis and Immunogenicity in the Catfish Host

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry. PMID:22615248

  10. DNA Barcoding of Catfish: Species Authentication and Phylogenetic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Lian; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Kucuktas, Huseyin; He, Shunping; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Na-nakorn, Uthairat; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from individuals of 9 species (and an Ictalurid hybrid) of domestic and imported catfish in accordance with standard DNA barcoding protocols. These included domestic Ictalurid catfish, and representative imported species from the families of Clariidae and Pangasiidae. Alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (98% similarity on average). These alignments allowed the development and analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species and comparison with limited sequences in public databases (GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems). Validation tests carried out in blinded studies and with commercially purchased catfish samples (both frozen and fresh) revealed the reliability of DNA barcoding for differentiating between these catfish species. The developed protocols and consensus barcodes are valuable resources as increasing market and governmental scrutiny is placed on catfish and other fisheries and aquaculture products labeling in the United States. PMID:21423623

  11. GWAS analysis of QTL for enteric septicemia of catfish and their involved genes suggest evolutionary conservation of a molecular mechanism of disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Liu, Shikai; Geng, Xin; Jin, Yulin; Jiang, Chen; Bao, Lisui; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jiaren; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Xiaozhu; Li, Ning; Tan, Suxu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-02-01

    Disease problems cause major economic losses for the aquaculture industries. In catfish, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the leading disease problem, causing tens of millions of dollars of annual economic losses. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against ESC using an interspecific hybrid system. Five hundred fish were used in the analysis and 192 phenotypic extremes were used for genotyping with the catfish 250K SNP arrays. A genomic region on linkage group (LG) 1 was found significantly associated with ESC disease resistance. In addition, two suggestively associated QTL for ESC resistance were identified on LG 12 and LG 16. The nlrc3 duplicates were identified within all the three QTL, suggesting their importance in association with the QTL. Within the significant QTL on LG 1, 16 genes with known functions in immunity were identified. Of particular interest is the nck1 gene nearby the most significantly associated SNP. Nck1 was known to function as an adaptor to facilitating the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in humans. E. ictaluri and EPEC pathogens belong to the same bacterial family and share many common characteristics. The fact that nck1 is mapped in the QTL and that it was significantly upregulated in channel catfish intestine after ESC challenge suggested its candidacy of being involved in resistance/susceptibility of ESC.

  12. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  14. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. Catfish production using intensive, pond-based culture systems in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. is catfish farming. Many catfish farmers feel that intensifying production will reduce production costs by improving efficiency and profitability. Catfish farmers in Mississippi have been able to increase production by increasing aeration rates (~5 to 15 h...

  18. Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in Pangasius catfish imported from West Bengal into the Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A C N; Reichley, S R; Ware, C; Griffin, M J

    2016-09-05

    In response to a mortality event, seven Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) were submitted to the University of the West Indies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad and Tobago, for diagnostic evaluation. These fish were part of a consignment that arrived from Kolkata two weeks earlier. Fish presented with perianal haemorrhage and blister-like swellings on the skin which ruptured to leave ulcers. Edwardsiella ictaluri was consistently recovered from the brain and skin. Repetitive sequence-mediated PCR analysis revealed genetic fingerprints consistent with E. ictaluri isolates from farm-raised channel catfish in Mississippi, USA. Plasmid analysis of the case isolates identified two unique plasmids that differ slightly in conformation and content from the pEI1 and pEI2 plasmids described for E. ictaluri from other fish hosts. The case isolates were also PCR negative for several E. ictaluri virulence factors. The biological implications of these genetic differences are unclear and warrant further study. This is the first report and documentation of E. ictaluri infection in Trinidad and Tobago, suggesting the pathogen may have been introduced concurrently with the importation of fish. This report emphasizes the importance of adequate health screenings of imported lots to minimize the threat of introducing E. ictaluri to non-endemic areas.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Ke, F; Zhang, H B; Wang, Y; Hou, L F; Dong, H J; Wang, Z F; Pan, G W; Cao, X Y

    2016-09-01

    This study represents the first report of a C-type lectin (ctl) in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. The complete sequence of ctl complementary (c)DNA consisted of 685 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of c.y 20.204 kDa. The deduced amino-acid sequence contained a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate recognition domain with four cysteine residues and GlnProAsp (QPD) and TrpAsnAsp (WND) motifs. Ctl showed the highest identity (56.0%) to the predicted lactose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Quantitative real-time (qrt)-PCR analysis showed that ctl messenger (m)RNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish, with high expression in trunk kidney and head kidney, which was increased following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in a duration-dependent manner. Purified recombinant Ctl (rCtl) from Escherichia coli BL21 was able to bind and agglutinate Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner. These results suggested that Ctl might be a C-type lectin of T. fulvidraco involved in innate immune responses as receptors (PRR).

  20. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  1. Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

    1995-01-01

    We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7–11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

  2. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  3. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Peatman, Eric; Lange, Miles; Zhao, Honggang; Beck, Benjamin H

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catfish depend more heavily on mucosal barriers than their terrestrial counterparts as they are continuously interacting with the aquatic microbiota. Our understanding of these barriers, while growing, is still limited relative to that of mammalian model systems. Nevertheless, a combination of molecular and cellular studies in catfish over the last few decades, and particularly within the last few years, has helped to elucidate many of the primary actors and pathways critical to their mucosal health. Here we describe aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses in the primary mucosal tissues (skin, gill, and intestine) of catfish, focusing on mucus-driven responses, pathogen recognition, soluble mediators, and immunoglobulin and T-cell derived immunity. Modulation of mucosal barriers will be critical moving forward for crafting better diets, improving vaccine delivery, enhancing water quality, and ensuring sustainable production practices in catfish. PMID:26716071

  4. Comparisons of chemical and physical properties of catfish oils prepared from different extracting processes.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, S; Yin, H; Prinyawiwatkul, W; King, J M

    2009-03-01

    Four different catfish oil extraction processes were used to extract oil from catfish viscera: process CF1 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, no heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF2 involved ground catfish viscera (no added water), heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF3 involved a mixture of ground catfish viscera and water, heat treatment, and centrifugation; process CF4 involved ground catfish viscera, enzymatic hydrolysis, and centrifugation. Chemical and physical properties of the resulting of catfish oils were evaluated. The CF4 process recovered significantly higher amounts of crude oil from catfish viscera than the other 3 extraction methods. The CF4 oil contained a higher percent of free fatty acid and peroxide values than CF1, CF2, and CF3 oils. Oleic acid in catfish oil was the predominant fatty acid accounting for about 50% of total fatty acids. Weight loss of oils increased with increasing temperatures between 250 and 500 degrees C. All the catfish oil samples melted around -32 degrees C regardless of the extraction methods. The flow behavior index of all the oil samples was less than 1, which indicated that the catfish oils exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior. The apparent viscosity at -5 and 0 degrees C was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. The average magnitude of activation energy for apparent viscosity of the oil was higher for CF2 than CF1, CF3, and CF4.

  5. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  6. A stochastic analysis of tractor overturn costs on catfish farms.

    PubMed

    Ibendahl, G A; Stephens, W B; Myers, M L

    2012-10-01

    An area of health and safety risk in agriculture that can be especially dangerous is catfish farming. One of the potential sources of injuries on catfish farms is tractor overturns that often result in crushing injuries. There is likely a higher probability of tractor overturns on a catfish farm than on a traditional crop farm due to the conditions that prevail on catfish farms. A catfish farm requires tractor movement near pond levees and water, and these levees have steep banks. Many of the activities on a catfish farm, such as mowing, feeding, and pond maintenance, require operating a tractor near a pond levee. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) on tractors can help to minimize the injuries caused by tractor overturns. ROPS do not lessen the probability of overturns, but ROPS mitigate the expected injury severity and lower the associated costs of an overturn. Despite the benefits of ROPS, not every tractor is so equipped. Some earlier work indicated that the cost to retrofit older tractors might outweigh the expected benefits. This article uses stochastic (i.e., randomly determined) analysis to determine if risk-averse farmers are more likely than risk-neutral farmers to retrofit tractors with ROPS. For this analysis, a distribution function of injury costs should an overturn occur was developed for both ROPS and non-ROPS tractors, and a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. Results indicate that many risk-averse producers would be willing to retrofit older tractors with ROPS. However producers who are risk-neutral probably will not retrofit. These results might explain why not all tractors have been retrofitted despite the long-term availability of retrofit kits.

  7. In vitro adenine nucleotide catabolism in African catfish spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Słomińska, Ewa; Rurangwa, Eugene; Ollevier, Frans; Swierczyński, Julian; Skorkowski, Edward F

    2004-08-01

    It has been shown recently that African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) spermatozoa possess relatively low ATP content and low adenylate energy charge (AEC). One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the spermatozoa actively catabolize adenine nucleotides. A relatively high rate of such catabolism could then contribute to the low ATP concentration and low adenylate energy charge observed in the spermatozoa in vitro. To check this hypothesis, we investigated ATP content and adenine nucleotide catabolism in African catfish spermatozoa stored at 4 degrees C in the presence of glycine as an energetic substrate. Our results indicate that the storage of African catfish sperm at 4 degrees C in the presence of glycine causes time-dependent ATP depletion. In contrast to ATP, the AMP content increases significantly during the same period of sperm storage, while the ADP increases only slightly. Moreover, a significant increase of inosine and hypoxanthine content was also found. Hypoxanthine was accumulated in the storage medium, but xanthine was found neither in spermatozoa nor in the storage medium. It indicates that hypoxanthine is not converted to xanthine, probably due to lack of xanthine oxidase activity in catfish spermatozoa. Present results suggest that adenine nucleotides may be converted to hypoxanthine according to the following pathway: ATP-->ADP-->AMP (adenosine/IMP)-->inosine-->hypoxanthine. Moreover, hypoxanthine seems to be the end product of adenine nucleotide catabolism in African catfish spermatozoa. In conclusion, our results suggest that a relatively high rate of adenine nucleotide catabolism contributes to the low ATP concentration and low adenylate energy charge observed in African catfish spermatozoa in vitro.

  8. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years--United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Strikas, Raymond A

    2015-02-06

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2014, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2015, which include several changes from the 2014 immunization schedules. For 2015, the figures, footnotes, and tables are being published on the CDC immunization schedule website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2015 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years also are available at the website in several formats, including portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions. Ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules also are available at the immunization schedule website.

  9. Catfish antibodies to blood group substances

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    An antiserum prepared in the freshwater catfish Tandanus tandanus by the injection of O secretor seminal plasma was fractionated into anti-H reagents showing different specificities by absorption with A1B erythrocytes and by absorption and elution from A1B cells. Although purified human and hog H blood group substances inhibited the haemagglutination of O erythrocytes by both the eluate from A1B cells and the serum remaining after absorption with A1B cells, all of the simple sugars tested, except 2′-fucosyl-lactose, failed to inhibit either sample. The H-substances inhibited the A1B-eluate at dilutions which were significantly higher than those required to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum. Inconsistent with this result was the finding that 2′-fucosyl-lactose, a trisaccharide with a structure similar to the terminal H-active groupings on the type 2 chains of the ABH macromolecules, was a more active inhibitor of the absorbed than of the eluted serum. Seventeen different samples of O secretor saliva either failed to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum, or produced inhibition at very low dilution. These same saliva samples inhibited the A1B-eluate in high dilution. PMID:5032492

  10. Use of vaccination against enteric septicemia of catfish and columnaris disease by the U.S. catfish industry.

    PubMed

    Bebak, Julie; Wagner, Bruce

    2012-03-01

    Vaccination is an effective strategy used for the protection of food animals against infectious diseases. A 2010 U.S. Department of Agriculture questionnaire examined U.S. catfish industry use (in 2009) of two commercial vaccines that provide protection against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris disease, catfish producers' opinions regarding the percentage of vaccinated fish they expect to be protected, and producers' general expectations regarding survival of vaccinated fish compared with unvaccinated fish. During 2009, 9.7% of the total fingerling operations used one or both vaccines; 12.3% of the total industry fry production was vaccinated against ESC, and 17.0% was vaccinated against columnaris disease. Of the producers who grew food-sized catfish to harvest, 6.7% used vaccinated catfish. The farms that did not use vaccinated fish for grow out had a mean size of 63.4 water surface hectares (156.6 water surface acres). The operations that used vaccinated fish were larger (mean size = 206.6 water surface hectares, or 510.6 water surface acres). The producers that stocked ESC-vaccinated fish for grow out represented 19.0% of the total water surface area of food fish production; producers that stocked columnaris-vaccinated fish represented 16.6% of the total area. Of the producers that stocked ESC-vaccinated catfish, 41.9% thought that survival was better in vaccinated fish than in unvaccinated fish; of the producers that stocked columnaris-vaccinated catfish, 46.2% thought that vaccinated fish displayed better survival. However, 37.5% of producers that used the ESC vaccine and 39.7% of producers that used the columnaris vaccine did not know whether vaccination improved survival rates. When all producers were asked about their expectations regarding the percentage of vaccinated fish that would be protected from disease, 52.4% responded that they expected 100% of their fish to be protected. More producer information about reasonable expectations

  11. Costs and risks of catfish split-pond systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Split ponds are a recently developed, pond-based aquaculture system that allows intensification of catfish aquaculture. Successful industry-wide adoption of newly developing technologies like split-pond systems will depend upon their productivity and cost efficiencies. Costs and production performan...

  12. Prevalence and enumeration of microorganisms on catfish nuggets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish nuggets, either fresh or pre-packed frozen, were purchased from local retailers in the northeast United States (NJ, NY, PA, DE, and MD) and tested for microbiological quality. The microbiological background including total aerobic plate counts (APC) at 22 and 37 deg C, Enterbacteriacea, Esc...

  13. Diet and habitat use by age-0 deepwater sculpins in northern Lake Huron, Michigan and the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) are an important link in deepwater benthic foodwebs of the Great Lakes. Little information exists about deepwater sculpin spawning habits and early life history ecology due to difficulty in sampling deep offshore habitats. Larval and age-0 deepwater sculpins collected in northern Lake Huron and the Detroit River during 2007 were used to improve our understanding of their habitat use, diet, age, and growth. Peak larval density reached 8.4/1000 m3 in the Detroit River during April and was higher than that in Lake Huron. Offshore bottom trawls at DeTour and Hammond Bay first collected benthic age-0 deepwater sculpins in early September when fish were ≥ 25 mm TL. Otolith analysis revealed that hatch dates for pelagic larvae occurred during late March and larvae remained pelagic for 40 to 60 days. Diet of pelagic larvae (10–21 mm TL) was dominated by calanoid copepods at all sample locations. Diets of benthic age-0 fish varied by location and depth: Mysis and chironomids were prevalent in fish from Hammond Bay and the 91 m site at DeTour, but only chironomids were found in fish from the 37 m DeTour site. This work showed that nearshore epilimnetic sites were important for pelagic larvae and an ontogenetic shift from pelagic planktivore to benthivore occurred at about 25 mm TL in late summer. Age analysis showed that larvae remained pelagic long enough to be transported through the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Lake Erie, and the Niagara River, potentially contributing to populations in Lake Ontario.

  14. Application Of A Dynamic Model to Assess Geomorphic and Hydrologic Controls on Age-0 Colorado Pikeminnow Distribution in the Green River, Colorado And Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of field data and development and application of a dynamic model indicate that water releases from Flaming Gorge Dam have a large potential effect on larval drift and distribution of age-0 Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the middle Green River. The model predicts that high releases at the time of drift greatly increase the proportion of the population transported beyond the study area to unfavorable river environments. The model also predicts that channel simplification caused by flow regulation results in a more even longitudinal distribution of larval fish habitat. Colorado pikeminnow are a federally endangered species endemic to the Colorado River basin that utilize backwaters during their larval stage. The present agency-mandated field-sampling program for backwater habitats is probably inadequate, because it takes place at a time when the model predicts that most larval fish have drifted beyond the study area. Development of the model shows that the role of the geomorphic and hydraulic attributes that control larval drift and transport into backwaters, and that were parameterized in the model, are not well known.

  15. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish.

  16. Intraspecific diversity of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from diseased freshwater catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage), cultured in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bartie, K L; Austin, F W; Diab, A; Dickson, C; Dung, T T; Giacomini, M; Crumlish, M

    2012-09-01

    A molecular epidemiology study was conducted on 90 Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates recovered from diseased farmed freshwater catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, cultured in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Thirteen isolates of E. ictaluri derived from diseased channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, cultured in the USA were included for comparison. All the E.ictaluri isolates tested were found to be biochemically indistinguishable. A repetitive (rep)-PCR using the single (GTG)(5) primer was shown to possess limited discriminatory power, yielding two similar DNA profiles categorized as (GTG)(5) -PCR group 1 or 2 among the Vietnam isolates and (GTG)(5) -PCR group 1 within the USA isolates. Macrorestriction analysis identified 14 and 22 unique pulsotypes by XbaI and SpeI, respectively, among a subset of 59 E. ictaluri isolates. Numerical analysis of the combined macrorestriction profiles revealed three main groups: a distinct cluster formed exclusively of the USA isolates, and a major and minor cluster with outliers contained the Vietnam isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiling supported the existence of the three groups. The results indicate that macrorestriction analysis may be regarded as a suitable typing method among the E. ictaluri species of limited intraspecific diversity. Furthermore, the findings suggest that E. ictaluri originating from Vietnam may constitute a distinct genetic group.

  17. Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis from ammonia and glutamine in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kharbuli, Zaiba Y; Biswas, Kuheli; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2007-12-01

    The possible synthesis of citrulline, a rate limiting step for urea synthesis via the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in teleosts was tested both in the presence of ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen-donating substrates by the isolated liver mitochondria of ureogenic air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus. Both ammonia and glutamine could be used as nitrogen-donating substrates for the synthesis of citrulline by the isolated liver mitochondria, since the rate of citrulline synthesis was almost equal in presence of both the substrates. The citrulline synthesis by the isolated liver mitochondria requires succinate at a concentration of 0.1 mM as an energy source, and also requires the involvement of intramitochondrial carbonic anhydrase activity for supplying HCO3 as another substrate for citrulline synthesis. The rate of citrulline synthesis was further stimulated significantly by the isolated liver mitochondria of the fish after pre-exposure to 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Due to possessing this biochemical adaptational strategy leading to the amelioration of ammonia toxicity mainly by channeling ammonia directly and/or via the formation of glutamine to the OUC, this air-breathing catfish could succeed in surviving in high external ammonia, which it faces in its natural habitat in certain seasons of the year.

  18. Characterization of MMP-9 gene from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Yun; Hong, Jun; Xu, Chen; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Shuai-Bang

    2015-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), one of members of the MMP family, is important for the cleaving of structural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and involved in inflammatory processes. In this study, MMP-9 cDNA was isolated and characterized from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (designated as YcMMP-9). The complete sequence of YcMMP-9 cDNA consisted of 2561 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 685 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 77.182 kDa. Amino acid sequence of YcMMP-9 have typical characteristics of MMP-9 family and showed highest identity (85.3%) to channel catfish MMP-9. The YcMMP-9 genomic DNA contains 13 exons and 12 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that YcMMP-9 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish with high expression in head kidney, trunk kidney, blood, and spleen. However, expression of YcMMP-9 mRNA was induced by Aeromonas hydrophila stimulation, especially in these four tissues mentioned above. It indicated that YcMMP-9 was involved in innate immune responses against bacterial infection.

  19. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  20. Mutating three residues in the bovine rod cyclic nucleotide-activated channel can switch a nucleotide from inactive to active.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, S P; Cummings, J; Joe, J C; Tanaka, J C

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, which were initially studied in retina and olfactory neurons, are activated by cytoplasmic cGMP or cAMP. Detailed comparisons of nucleotide-activated currents using nucleotide analogs and mutagenesis revealed channel-specific residues in the nucleotide-binding domain that regulate the binding and channel-activation properties. Of particular interest are N(1)-oxide cAMP, which does not activate bovine rod channels, and Rp-cGMPS, which activates bovine rod, but not catfish, olfactory channels. Previously, we showed that four residues coordinate the purine interactions in the binding domain and that three of these residues vary in the alpha subunits of the bovine rod, catfish, and rat olfactory channels. Here we show that both N(1)-oxide cAMP and Rp-cGMPS activate rat olfactory channels. A mutant of the bovine rod alpha subunit, substituted with residues from the rat olfactory channel at the three variable positions, was weakly activated by N(1)-oxide cAMP, and a catfish olfactory-like bovine rod mutant lost activation by Rp-cGMPS. These experiments underscore the functional importance of purine contacts with three residues in the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. Molecular models of nucleotide analogs in the binding domains, constructed with AMMP, showed differences in the purine contacts among the channels that might account for activation differences. PMID:10777730

  1. PCDD and PCDF contamination in catfish feed from Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Rappe, C; Bergek, S; Fiedler, H; Cooper, K R

    1998-06-01

    One combined catfish feed sample from Arkansas, USA, and its eight ingredients were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. One of the ingredients, soybean meal, was highly contaminated by PCDDs, especially the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, e.g., 7.3 pg/g dry weight or 370 pg/g lipid for the 2,3,7,8-tetra CDD. The I-TEQ value for the soybean meal was 11.4 pg/g dry weight or 576 pg/g fat. The corresponding values for the combined catfish feed concentrations were approximately 3 times lower. The congener pattern, the congener profile and the ratio sigma PCDDs/sigma PCDFs for the soybean meal were quite unique. We are not aware of any environmental sample or technical product with similar characteristics. As a result, natural formation of the PCDDs found in the soybean meal cannot be ruled out.

  2. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  3. Description and Treatment of a Pseudomonas Infection in White Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, F. P.; Collar, J. D.

    1964-01-01

    A virulent organism of the genus Pseudomonas was isolated from the white catfish, Ictalurus catus. The bacterium was pathogenic to all species of fish tested. Symptoms of the disease, physiological characteristics of the pathogen, and treatment methods are presented. Kanamycin injected intraperitoneally or oxytetracycline used as a feed additive was effective in controlling the disease. The growth and biochemical characteristics do not fit any description in Bergey's Manual, but the organism appears to be closely related to P. fluorescens. PMID:14170955

  4. Description and scaling of pectoral muscles in ictalurid catfishes.

    PubMed

    Miano, Joseph Paul; Loesser-Casey, Kathryn E; Fine, Michael L

    2013-04-01

    The pectoral spine of catfishes is an antipredator adaptation that can be bound, locked, and rubbed against the cleithrum to produce stridulation sounds. We describe muscle morphology of the pectoral spines and rays in six species in four genera of North American ictalurid catfishes. Since homologies of catfish pectoral muscles have not been universally accepted, we designate them functionally as the spine abductor and adductor and the arrector dorsalis and ventralis. The four muscles of the remaining pectoral rays are the superficial and deep (profundal) abductors and adductors. The large spine abductor and spine adductor are responsible for large amplitude movements, and the smaller arrector dorsalis and arrector ventralis have more specialized functions, that is, spine elevation and depression, respectively, although they also contribute to spine abduction. Three of the four spine muscles were pennate (the abductor and two arrectors), the spine adductor can be pennate or parallel, and ray muscles have parallel fibers. Insertions of pectoral muscles are similar across species, but there is a shift of origins in some muscles, particularly of the superficial abductor of the pectoral rays, which assumes a midline position in Ictalurus and increasingly more lateral placement in Ameiurus (one quarter way out from the midline), and Pylodictis and Noturus (half way out). Coincident with this lateral shift, the attachments of the hypaxial muscle to the ventral girdle become more robust. Comparison with its sister group supports the midline position as basal and lateral migration as derived. The muscles of the pectoral spine are heavier than muscles of the remaining rays in all species but the flathead, supporting the importance of specialized spine functions above typical movement. Further, spine muscles were larger than ray muscles in all species but the flathead catfish, which lives in water with the fastest currents.

  5. Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morning-evening in Japanese infants and students aged 0-15 yrs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hirotani, Masaaki; Maeda, Mari; Nomura, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitomi

    2007-03-01

    Tryptophan can be metabolized via 5-hydroxytryptamine=serotonin to melatonin by a series of 4 enzymes in pineal body. Lack of serotonin in body fluid in the brain during daytime can lead to several psychiatric disorders, while shortage of plasma-melatonin at night can be related to sleep disorders. The Morning-Evening (M-E) questionnaire and the original questionnaire including questions on sleep habits, mental symptoms, and contents of meals were administered to 1055 infants aged 0-6 yrs, 751 students attending an elementary school, and 473 students attending junior high school in Kochi City (33 degrees N). The index of tryptophan taken at breakfast (Trp-Index) was calculated as tryptophan amount per one meal based on the tryptophan included in each 100 g of the foods and a standard amount of food per one meal. A significant positive-correlation between M-E scores and Trp-Index was not shown by relatively older students, aged 9-15 yrs (Pearson's test, r=0.044-0.123, p=0.071-0.505), whereas a significant positive correlation was shown by infants and young elementary school students aged 0-8 yrs (r=0.180, 0.258, p<0.001). The more frequently the infants had difficulty falling asleep at bedtime and waking up in the morning, the less the Trp-Indices taken at breakfast were (Kruskall-Wallis-test, p=0.027 for difficulty falling asleep; p=0.008 for difficulty waking up). The more frequently infants became angry even by a little trigger, or depressed, the lower (more evening-typed) the M-E scores were (Kruskal-Wallis test: p

  6. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  7. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  8. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  9. A survey of catfish pond water chemistry parameters for copper toxicity modelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water samples were collected from 20 catfish ponds in 2015 to obtain data useful in predicting copper toxicity and chemical behavior. Ponds were located in major catfish producing areas of west Alabama, east Arkansas, and Mississippi. Pond types included traditional levee ponds, split-ponds, water...

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  11. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  12. A trap panel for in-pond raceways to capture escaped catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first commercial-scale in-pond raceway system (IPRS) used to produce catfish in west Alabama was constructed from funds by a joint effort involving the Alabama Catfish Producers Association, Dean Wilson Farms, and Auburn University. The goal of this project was to improve profitability of catfis...

  13. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  14. Relative persistence and dispersal of age-0 and age-1 largemouth bass stocked into two Ohio River embayments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    In October of 1998 the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources stocked age-0 [mean total length (MTL) = 178 mm] and age-1 (MTL = 273 mm) hatchery-reared largemouth bass into two embayments of the Ohio River. Stocked fish were fitted with both an anchor tag and a visible implant elastomer mark. A multifaceted sampling approach was undertaken to (1) evaluate the persistence of stocked largemouth bass, (2) estimate fidelity of stocked largemouth bass to release sites, and (3) compare return rates of the two age classes. Although stocked largemouth bass comprised the majority (81%) of all bass captured in electrofishing surveys of the stocked embayments during fall 1998, catches declined rapidly during winter 1998, and by spring and summer 1999 stocked largemouth bass were virtually absent from electrofishing surveys. Creel surveys indicated no catch of stocked largemouth bass in the release sites after winter 1998. Electrofishing surveys, creel surveys, and angler call-ins all suggested stocked fish did not persist and either moved out of the stocked embayments or died. The results suggest that stocking advanced-size largemouth bass into these embayments only provided a limited and short-term enhancement of the fishery in those areas.

  15. Modeling turbidity type and intensity effects on the growth and starvation mortality of age-0 yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Nathan M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Mayer, Christine M.; Bunnell, David B.; Tyson, Jeff T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Jackson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to quantify the possible population-level influence of sediment plumes and algal blooms on yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a visual predator found in systems with dynamic water clarity. We used an individual-based model (IBM), which allowed us to include variance in water clarity and the distribution of individual sizes. Our IBM was built with laboratory data showing that larval yellow perch feeding rates increased slightly as sediment turbidity level increased, but that both larval and juvenile yellow perch feeding rates decreased as phytoplankton level increased. Our IBM explained a majority of the variance in yellow perch length in data from the western and central basins of Lake Erie and Oneida Lake, with R2 values ranging from 0.611 to 0.742. Starvation mortality was size dependent, as the greatest daily mortality rates in each simulation occurred within days of each other. Our model showed that turbidity-dependent consumption rates and temperature are key components in determining growth and starvation mortality of age-0 yellow perch, linking fish production to land-based processes that influence water clarity. These results suggest the timing and persistence of sediment plumes and algal blooms can drastically alter the growth potential and starvation mortality of a yellow perch cohort.

  16. Growth and mortality of age-0 northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, rearing in shoreline habitats of the Columbia River Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barfoot, C.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Wertheimer, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated growth and mortality of age-0 northern squawfish during early rearing in shallow shoreline habitats. Larvae and juveniles (n=22914) were collected by weekly seining at three sample sites in the upper John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, during June through early September 1994–1996. Using a length-based ageing method, it was estimated that the exponential growth rate (G) for a common growth stanza (10–28 mm standard length SL) was significantly higher in 1994 (G=0.047) than in 1996 (G=0.037). Growth rate in 1995 could not be estimated, but was probably intermediate between 1994 and 1996 based on mean standard lengths of fish collected at the end of each sampling season (46.3, 40.0, and 32.0 mm SL in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively). For many fish species, variations in early growth can influence survival through size-selective mortality processes. Consistent with this possibility, our estimates of instantaneous mortality rates (Z) demonstrated that larvae and juveniles had significantly higher mortality in 1996 than in 1994 (Z=0.103 in 1994, versus Z=0.138 in 1996). Enhanced growth and lower mortality in 1994 were associated with a number of interrelated environmental conditions – comparatively low flows and turbidities, abundant instream vegetative cover, and high near-shore water temperatures.

  17. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  18. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  19. Survival, growth, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Rabe, Craig; Nelson, Doug D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent a population of migratory juvenile fish with PIT tags becomes difficult when the minimum tagging size is larger than the average size at which fish begin to move downstream. Tags that are smaller (e.g., 8 and 9 mm) than the commonly used 12-mm PIT tags are currently available, but their effects on survival, growth, and tag retention in small salmonid juveniles have received little study. We evaluated growth, survival, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of three size-groups: 40–49-mm fish were implanted with 8- and 9-mm tags, and 50– 59-mm and 60–69-mm fish were implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm tags. Survival 28 d after tagging ranged from 97.8% to 100% across all trials, providing no strong evidence for a fish-size-related tagging effect or a tag size effect. No biologically significant effects of tagging on growth in FL (mm/d) or weight (g/d) were observed. Although FL growth in tagged fish was significantly reduced for the 40–49-mm and 50–59-mm groups over the first 7 d, growth rates were not different thereafter, and all fish were similar in size by the end of the trials (day 28). Tag retention across all tests ranged from 93% to 99%. We acknowledge that actual implantation of 8- or 9-mm tags into small fish in the field will pose additional challenges (e.g., capture and handling stress) beyond those observed in our laboratory. However, we conclude that experimental use of the smaller tags for small fish in the field is supported by our findings.

  20. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725