Science.gov

Sample records for age-0 channel catfish

  1. Validation of daily ring deposition in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We developed and validated methods for estimating the daily age of age-0 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Two clutches of channel catfish eggs were hatched in the laboratory; subsequently, one was stocked in a 186-m2 earthen nursery pond and the other in a 757-L outdoor circular tank. Before stocking, subsamples of fish were collected at swim-up and 3 d after swim-up to evaluate early ring formation. Fish were sampled from the pond and tank on eight occasions ranging from 30 to 119 d posthatch. Distinct differences in early ring formation were found between yolk sac and free-swimming larval stages. Mean ring count and known age were closely related for tank- and pond-raised fish, indicating that daily ring deposition occurred in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish up to 119 d posthatch. The accuracy of daily age estimation was similar between tank and pond samples, and daily ring counts were considerably accurate up to 60 d posthatch. Pond-raised fish were more difficult to age than tank-raised fish, which we attributed to ring compression resulting from slower growth among pond-raised fish after 30 d. The total length of tank- and pond-raised fish was positively related to otolith size; however, the slopes of the relationships between fish length and otolith radius were different between treatments. Therefore, we could not confirm that the relationship between fish length and otolith size was directly proportional for age-0 channel catfish. We encourage researchers to use this aging technique to determine how abiotic and biotic factors influence early life history characteristics and ultimately the population dynamics of catfishes (Ictaluridae). ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  2. Production and Processing Traits of Blue Catfish, Blue Catfish X Channel Catfish Hybrids, and Two Strains of Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is the primary species used in commercial catfish farming. However, increased incidence of disease and associated economic losses have led to speculation that other catfish species or hybrids also have potential. In this study production and processing traits of blue catfish, blue x ...

  3. Flavobacterium columnare chemotaxis to channel catfish mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative pathogen of many species of wild and cultured fish, especially channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). This motile microbe is responsible for severe economic losses to the catfish industry. Flavobacterium columnare isolates from diseased channel catfish b...

  4. Evaluation of immune responses against the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is a dominant aquaculture species in the USA and has been cultured for several decades. Recently, an increasing number of producers are showing an interest in the culture of hybrid catfish (channel catfish × blue catfish) instead of channel catfish due to its performance traits. The ...

  5. Pyridoxine requirements of channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J W; Murai, T

    1979-04-01

    In 20 and 12 week feeding trials, channel catfish fingerlings were fed purified diets containing five levels (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and six levels (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) of supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride. Fish fed unsupplemented diets (pyridoxine content of 1.2 mg/kg) were characterized by anoxeria, nervous disorders, tetany, greenish-blue body coloration, and eventual mortality. Anemia, which has been reported in pyridoxine deficient salmonids, was not observed in pyridoxine deficient catfish. However, a microcytic, normochromic anemia was observed in groups fed high dietary levels of pyridoxine (20 mg/kg or greater). The dietary pyridoxine level required for maximal growth was approximately 3 mg/kg of diet. All other deficiency signs were prevented by 2.2 mg/kg of diet. PMID:430257

  6. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  7. DEET toxicity to channel catfish sac fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of open facilities, moisture, and warm weather during channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus spawning season causes mosquito-infestation problems. A common solution to mosquito problems in hatcheries is to use mosquito repellents applied to exposed skin and clothing. DEET (N,N-diethyl-...

  8. Potency of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus (individual vs pooled) sperm to fertilize stripped channel catfish, I. punctatus eggs on the production and performance of progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel x blue hybrid catfish is the desired genotype for US farm-raised catfish industry. Induced spawning of gravid channel catfish, followed by fertilization of stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm is the only reliable means to produce hybrid catfish embryos in hatcheries. Hybrid catfish fry p...

  9. Effects of nutrient enrichment on channel catfish growth and consumption in Mount Storm Lake, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanc, T.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the objective of augmenting fish production in Mount Storm Lake, Virginia Electric and Power Company initiated a programme of phosphorus addition to increase primary production, and ultimately, channel catfish (Ictaturus punctatus) growth in the 486 ha cooling reservoir. We simulated channel catfish growth dynamics using two bioenergetics modelling scenarios: (i) effects of average reservoir temperature on growth, conversion efficiency and consumption; and (ii) effects of reservoir enrichment on growth, which is simulated by increasing feeding rates. During 1991-1993, fish were sampled monthly, but sampling was increased to every 2 weeks during the peak growing season (June-September). Most of the channel catfish collected were aged 0 year and aged 1 year with rapid annual growth rates ranging from 9.0 to 13.7 J/g. We found many age 1 250-300 mm catfish, but few beyond this size. Conversion efficiency (joules gained/joules consumed) was low at approximately 18-19%. High algae consumption (40%) was evident, but consumption of zooplankton and Asiatic clam (Corbicula sp.) increased over the study. Simulated increased feeding rates showed that channel catfish were food limited in summer and fall (July-December). Weight gains with 5 and 10% feeding increases were 6-13% and 18-38%, respectively, from the baseline. Catfish of all sizes should benefit from phosphorus additions.

  10. Effects of DO cencentration on growth of juvenile channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration has a major impact on feed consumption of channel catfish when raised in ponds; as DO concentration falls below 3.0 mg/L at night, feed consumption is negatively impacted. Channel catfish fry may experience a wide range of oxygen conditions in the hatchery depend...

  11. Low-Intensity channel catfish culture re-visited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farmers can use a variety of management strategies to produce the larger-sized fish that processing plants increasingly seek. A low-intensity production strategy based on low stocking and aeration rates can be used to produce larger channel catfish. Stocker catf...

  12. Low-intensity, stocker-based channel catfish culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-intensity Channel Catfish production is characterized by low stocking rates, low installed aeration capacity, and no automated dissolved oxygen monitoring. Two studies conducted in nine 0.25-acre ponds quantified production characteristics of stocker Channel Catfish stocked for low-intensity foo...

  13. The longevity of Bolbophorus damnificus in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mortality, lower feed consumption, and slower or reduced growth occur in commercially grown channel catfish infected with the prodiplostomula of Bolbophorus damnificus. In this study, we determined the length of time that B. damnificus prodiplostomula remain in muscle tissue of the channel catfish....

  14. Method for inducing saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Rach, J.J.; Olson, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to uniformly and systematically induce saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Three different methods for inducing saprolegniasis were evaluated in waters containing known zoospore concentrations of Saprolegnia parasitica (1) low-temperature shock to induce immunosuppression: (2) physical abrasion stress; and (3) a combination of both low temperature shock and abrasion stress. Low-temperature shock or abrasion stress alone were not effective for inducing saprolegniasis. Only 10% of fish stressed by low-temperature shock alone became infected. No fish receiving abrasion stress treatments alone became infected even though these fish were subject to significant abrasion and dewatering stress. A combination of low-temperature and abrasion stress, however, was sufficient to induce saprolegniasis in 100% of fish tested and resulted in 90% mortality. No fish became infected in the positive control group (exposed to zoospores of S. Parasitica without stress) or in the negative control group. The combined-stress method should enable researchers to induce saprolegniasis in channel catfish at will to study its pathogenesis or to test the efficacy of candidate antifungal treatments. In conducting efficacy studies, therapeutic treatments must begin immediately when the first signs of saprolegniasis are observed because the disease progresses quickly and is deadly.

  15. Essential oils enhance fillet composition of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival of pond raised channel catfish. Fifteen 0.4 ha ponds were stocked with 14,820 catfish (126 g/fish) per ha. Fish in control ponds were fed a 3...

  16. Spermatogonial stem cells specific marker identification in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish, I. furcatus.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mei; Su, Baofeng; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Perera, Dayan A; Li, Chao; Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Dunn, David A; Cek, Sehriban; Peatman, Eric; Dunham, Rex A

    2015-12-01

    Testicular germ cells of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and blue catfish, I. furcatus were separated into four layers with Percoll density gradient centrifugation, containing different cell types (40% in the first layer were spermatogonial stem cells, SSCs). Expression of seventeen genes was analyzed for cells from different layers by real-time quantitative PCR. Pfkfb4, Urod, Plzf, Integrin6, IntegrinV, Thy1 and Cdh1 genes showed the same expression change pattern in both channel and blue catfish as these genes were down-regulated in the spermatocytes and even more so in spermatids. Plzf and Integrin6 had especially high expression in SSCs and can be used as SSCs specific markers. Sox2 gene was up-regulated in spermatocytes and even more highly up-regulated in spermatids, which indicated it could be a spermatid marker. In contrast to channel catfish, Id4, Smad5 and Prdm14 gene expressions were strongly down-regulated in spermatocyte cells, but up-regulated in spermatid cells in blue catfish. Smad5 gene was down-regulated in spermatocytes, but up-regulated in both spermatogonia and spermatids, allowing identification as a marker for spermatocytes in blue catfish. Oct4, Id4, Gfrα2, Pum2 and Prdm14 genes showed different expression patterns in the testicular germ cells of channel and blue catfish. This may be a partial explanation to the differing responses of channel catfish and blue catfish to induced spawning technologies. The SSCs specific markers can be used for further SSCs labeling, which can increase the SSCs sorting efficiency and be applied in various studies involving SSCs and other germ cells. PMID:26251285

  17. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  18. Impact of minimum daily dissolved oxygen concentration on production performance of hybrid female channel catfish x male blue catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid Catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X male Blue Catfish I. furcatus) were reared during two years as single-batch crops under two different dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes each year; a high-DO (control) treatment in which the minimum daily DO was maintained above 3.8 ppm during ...

  19. Nitrite-induced anemia in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, C.S. ); Francis-Floyd, R.; Beleau, M.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Since 1983 numerous cases of anemia have been reported in populations of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque cultured in the southeastern United States. Environmental nitrite-nitrogen concentrations of 4 mg/L or more occur sporadically in channel catfish culture ponds, and the frequency of occurrence is greatest in the fall and spring. The authors have observed that some cases of anemia in populations of pond-raised channel catfish follow prolonged exposure to high concentrations of environmental nitrite. However, there was no evidence that exposure of channel catfish to environmental nitrite was the cause of the observed anemia. Hemolytic anemia following nitrite exposure has been described for sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, but not for channel catfish. In the present study the authors show that a variable, but generally mild, anemia develops in channel catfish exposed to nitrite. They also offer a management procedure for preventing the development of anemia during periods of elevated environmental nitrite concentrations.

  20. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  1. Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated factors that predisposed catfish to motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). Our results revealed that wounding on fish body surface was a prerequisite for vAh infection and disease development. A reproducible waterborne challeng...

  2. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  3. Rearing channel catfish in a bioflac production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of channel catfish in an intensively managed mixed suspended-growth, or biofloc, production system was investigated in two studies. Management of unassimilated feed nitrogen is important as feeding rate is increased in intensified production systems. In a mixed suspended-growth production...

  4. Age, growth, sexual maturity, and food of channel catfish in central Lake Oahe, 1968-69

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starostka, Victor J.; Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were collected with gill nets, trawl, and trap nets at three localities in Lake Oahe for the study of year-class strength, growth in length and weight, age composition, sexual maturity, and food. Fish were recruited to all the collection gears at age II. Relatively strong year classes were produced in 1962, 1965, and 1966. Youngest fish were captured in the upper end of the Moreau River embayment, which apparently serves as a nursery area. Growth of age 0 fish was poor probably because the growing season was short; optimum spawning temperature were not reached until mid-summer. Growth of age II and older fish reached a peak in 1963 and declined rather steadily in 1964-68. Males began to mature at age VIII, and all fish of both sexes were mature at age XI. The diet changed from zooplankton to fish as channel catfish increased in length; aquatic insects (primarily chironomid larvae and pupae) were important foods for fish of all sizes. Fish less than 300 mm long selected large zooplankters -- Leptodora kindtii and Daphnia spp -- over smaller copepods. Larger channel catfish ate principally yellow perch, Perca flavescens.

  5. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  6. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  7. Detection and quantification of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish tissues following waterborne challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to understand the pathogenesis of motile aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent A. hydrophila (vAh) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Adipose fin clipped catfish were challenged with vAh using waterborne challenge method and the distribution of vAh in catfish tissue...

  8. Catfishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfishes are esteemed and popular foodfish throughout much of the world. Important commercial and subsistence fisheries exist in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America. The popularity of catfishes as food stimulated rapid development of catfish aquaculture in the past quarter century. Ap...

  9. Disposition of 1-naphthol in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Plakas, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of 1-naphthol were examined in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus ). After oral dosing, peak plasma concentrations of 1-naphthol occurred at 1 hr; parent compound made up less than 15% of the total radioactivity, and the bioavailability was 32%. Plasma protein binding was 92% and was independent of concentration. 1-Naphthol and metabolites were rapidly eliminated from the tissues after oral dosing.

  10. Development and evaluation of an acoustic device to estimate size distribution of channel catfish in commercial ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As one step in the continued effort to utilize acoustic methods and techniques to the betterment of catfish aquaculture, an acoustic “catfish sizer” was designed to determine the size distribution of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus in commercial ponds. The catfish sizer employed a custom-built 4...

  11. Seasonal Differences in Steroids and Maturation-related Genes in Channel Catfish Under Normal and Accelerated Thermoperiods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is hampered by a long generation time. Female channel catfish typically spawn when they are 3-years-old; however, a low percentage of spawning may be observed at two years of age. Mature female channel catfish can spawn once annually. Their...

  12. Biofloc production technology promising in temperate zones – Channel catfish perform during winter months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility to grow Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in an outdoor biofloc system during winter in a temperate zone. High biomasses of market-size channel catfish were successfully maintained through the winter with high survival and in good condition in both...

  13. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  14. Plasma polar lipid profiles of channel catfish with different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased growth in channel catfish is an economically important trait and has been used as a criterion for the selection and development of brood fish. Selection of channel catfish toward increased growth usually results in the accumulation of large amounts of fats in their abdomen rather than incr...

  15. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish <400 mm. Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally <40%. Tag returns indicated that angler exploitation was low, varying from 0 to 43% among lakes. This research provides insight on factors regulating channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  16. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  17. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  18. Performance of a temperate-zone channel catfish biofloc technology production system during winter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc technology production system. Outdoor biofloc production systems in the tropics are operated year-round, whereas the channel catfish studies were conducted only during the growing season and biofloc production t...

  19. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  20. Effect of type and concentration of water hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue F1 hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consistent and improved performance of channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish fingerlings in production ponds in the US farm raised catfish industry has prompted an increase in demand of hybrid catfish fingerlings even at higher prices compared to commonly raised channel catfish. Hybrid catfish fry are e...

  1. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  2. "No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer."

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  3. Sublethal effects of malathion on channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    SciTech Connect

    Areechon, N.; Plumb, J.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Malathion (O,O-dimethyl-S-1, 2-di-(ethoxycarbamyl)ethyl phosphorodithioate) is an organophosphate which is a widely used pesticide in the United States. This pesticide seems to be more toxic to insects and fish than to mammals due to the lack of hydrolytic enzymes in insects and fish. Malathion clearly affects the hematology of fish. The study reported here was designed to determine the effects of a commercially available malathion solution on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Objectives were to measure hematological changes and histopathological effects of a sublethal concentration of malathion on the fish.

  4. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  5. Genomic Organization of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, matrix metalloproteinase-9-gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned and sequenced MMP-9 genomic DNA by using a Unversal GenomeWalker kit. The co...

  6. Effects of Bio-Mos on growth and survival of channel catfish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research examined the effects of Bio-Mos on growth and disease resistance in channel catfish. Catfish were fed either a Con-Sink (36% crude protein (CP) diet) or Bio-Mos-Sink (36% CP diet with Bio-Mos supplemented at 2 g/kg) sinking pellet for 6 wks. followed by an E. ictaluri challenge. Growth pe...

  7. Improved survival in channel catfish fed mannanoligosaccharides in an extruded diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research examined the effects of extrusion temperature on the efficacy of mannanoligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) in channel catfish grown for 9 wks and then challenged with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri. Seven hundred and fifty catfish (10.3 ± 0.3 g) were randomly assigned to six treatments with five rep...

  8. Variation in response of channel catfish to Henneguya sp. infections (Protozoa: Myxosporidea).

    PubMed

    McCraren, J P; Landolt, M L; Hoffman, G L; Meyer, F P

    1975-01-01

    Infections in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque) induced by the sporozoan Henneguya (Protozoa: Myxosporidea) result in seven known and diverse disease manifestations. Most outstanding is an interlamellar branchial form responsible for significant losses among immature catfish, and a unique papillomatous form. The question of whether or not the species of Henneguya involved in these cases is H. exilis remains to be resolved. PMID:803577

  9. Infection and disease progress of motile Aeromonas septicemia caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS), caused by virulent clonal isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is emerging as a major disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. Predisposing conditions leading to vAh infection in catfish were however largely...

  10. Characterization of anti-channel catfish MHC class II monoclonal antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) developed against the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II beta chain of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Immunoprecipitations using catfish clonal B cells revealed that each of these mAbs immunoselected proteins of appro...

  11. Comparative susceptibility of channel catfish, blue catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfis...

  12. Comparative susceptibility of channel catfish, blue catfish and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfis...

  13. High-density interspecific genetic linkage mapping provides insights into genomic incompatibility between channel catfish and blue catfish.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Li, Y; Qin, Z; Geng, X; Bao, L; Kaltenboeck, L; Kucuktas, H; Dunham, R; Liu, Z

    2016-02-01

    Catfish is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. The interspecific hybrid catfish produced by mating female channel catfish with male blue catfish outperform both of their parent species in a number of traits. However, mass production of the hybrids has been difficult because of reproductive isolation. Investigations of genome structure and organization of the hybrids provide insights into the genetic basis for maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow, thereby helping develop strategies for introgression and efficient production of the hybrids for aquaculture. In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using the hybrid catfish system with the catfish 250K SNP array. A total of 26,238 SNPs were mapped to 29 linkage groups, with 12,776 unique marker positions. The linkage map spans approximately 3240 cM with an average intermarker distance of 0.25 cM. A fraction of markers (986 of 12,776) exhibited significant deviation from the expected Mendelian ratio of segregation, and they were clustered in major genomic blocks across 15 LGs, most notably LG9 and LG15. The distorted markers exhibited significant bias for maternal alleles among the backcross progenies, suggesting strong selection against the blue catfish alleles. The clustering of distorted markers within genomic blocks should lend insights into speciation as marked by incompatibilities between the two species. Such findings should also have profound implications for understanding the genomic evolution of closely related species as well as the introgression of hybrid production programs in aquaculture. PMID:26537786

  14. High-density interspecific genetic linkage mapping provides insights into genomic incompatibility between channel catfish and blue catfish.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Li, Y; Qin, Z; Geng, X; Bao, L; Kaltenboeck, L; Kucuktas, H; Dunham, R; Liu, Z

    2016-02-01

    Catfish is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. The interspecific hybrid catfish produced by mating female channel catfish with male blue catfish outperform both of their parent species in a number of traits. However, mass production of the hybrids has been difficult because of reproductive isolation. Investigations of genome structure and organization of the hybrids provide insights into the genetic basis for maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow, thereby helping develop strategies for introgression and efficient production of the hybrids for aquaculture. In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using the hybrid catfish system with the catfish 250K SNP array. A total of 26,238 SNPs were mapped to 29 linkage groups, with 12,776 unique marker positions. The linkage map spans approximately 3240 cM with an average intermarker distance of 0.25 cM. A fraction of markers (986 of 12,776) exhibited significant deviation from the expected Mendelian ratio of segregation, and they were clustered in major genomic blocks across 15 LGs, most notably LG9 and LG15. The distorted markers exhibited significant bias for maternal alleles among the backcross progenies, suggesting strong selection against the blue catfish alleles. The clustering of distorted markers within genomic blocks should lend insights into speciation as marked by incompatibilities between the two species. Such findings should also have profound implications for understanding the genomic evolution of closely related species as well as the introgression of hybrid production programs in aquaculture.

  15. In vivo and in vitro CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Willett, Kristine L; Ganesan, Shobana; Patel, Monali; Metzger, Christine; Quiniou, Sylvie; Waldbieser, Geoff; Scheffler, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Our goal was to study the induction of CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). CYP1B belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of genes, is involved in the oxidation of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and could potentially be a useful biomarker in fish for exposure to AhR ligands. The full-length catfish CYP1B cDNA is 2417 nt to the polyA tail and encodes a putative protein of 536 amino acids. It has 67% amino acid similarity to carp and zebrafish CYP1B and 68% similarity to carp CYP1B2. Male channel catfish were collected from three Mississippi Delta sites: Lake Roebuck, Itta Bena; Bee Lake, Thornton; and Sunflower River, Indianola. Total RNA was isolated from wild-caught catfish gill, blood, gonad and liver tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine relative induction of CYP1B in wild catfish compared to laboratory control and BaP-exposed catfish (20mg/kg i.p. after 4 days). BaP exposure significantly induced CYP1B message in blood, gonad, and liver of laboratory catfish. In these same tissues of wild catfish from sites with relatively low sediment contaminants, CYP1B message was not statistically increased relative to laboratory control catfish. CYP1B transcript abundance was higher in gills compared to other tissues in both laboratory and wild catfish. When primary cultured gill cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BaP, TCDD, and PCBs 77, 126 and 169, CYP1B mRNA was induced more than 10-fold while PCB153 and 4,4'DDT did not cause significant CYP1B induction. Our results suggest that catfish CYP1B is induced by the classic AhR ligands. PMID:16697458

  16. Apparent phosphorus availabilities of selected traditional and alternative feedstuffs for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A digestibility trial with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was conducted to determine apparent availability coefficients (AACs) of phosphorus for selected common feedstuffs: soybean meal, cottonseed meal, wheat middlings, corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DD...

  17. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  18. Chronic pathology and longevity of Drepanocephalus spathans infections in juvenile channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a common parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The cercariae of D. spathans have been shown infective to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The developing metacercariae concentrate in the cranial regio...

  19. Identification of potential genetic markers for improved growth rate in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of genetic polymorphism associated with muscle growth would improve selection efficiency of channel catfish broodstock. Because faster growth is typically associated with increased food intake, factors involved in food intake regulation may serve as potential gene markers for selecti...

  20. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  1. Effects of Feeding Diets With or Without Fish Meal on Production of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus, Stocked at Varying Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal protein, generally fish meal, has traditionally been used in the diet of channel catfish. However, our previous research indicates that animal protein is not needed for growing stocker size catfish to food fish when the fish are stocked at densities typical of those used in commercial catfish...

  2. Channel catfish polyculture with fathead minnows or threadfin shad effects on pond plankton communities and catfish fillet flavor, color, and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, or fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were co-cultured with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in earthen ponds to determine the effects of planktivory on plankton community dynamics and catfish fillet quality. Fathead minnows had no effect on the plankton c...

  3. SEASONAL FORAGING BY CHANNEL CATFISH ON TERRESTRIALLY BURROWING CRAYFISH IN A FLOODPLAIN-RIVER ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The seasonal use of terrestrially burrowing crayfish as a food item by channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was studied in channelized and non-channelized sections of the Yockanookany River (Mississippi, USA). During seasonal inundation of the floodplains, the crayfish occupied o...

  4. Influence of fertilizing water pH on the hatching success of stripped channel catfish eggs on channel x blue hybrid catfish embryo production in hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable egg quality is one of the most important constrains to the development of aquaculture. The quality of eggs that are manually stripped from channel catfish are affected by variation in parental genetics, maturity, type and dose of hormone, age and pre-spawning stress of female fish. Furthe...

  5. Effect of paternal blue catfish strain effects on hatchery fry production and performance of channel catfish X blue catfish F1 hybrid fry production and fingerling performance under commercial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four hundred four-year old mature Gold Kist strain channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with 10 mg common carp pituitary extract (CPE) /kg BW in 8 spawning trials. The stripped eggs were fertilized with sperm of either D&B or Rio Grande blue catfish, I.furcatus to produce D&B ...

  6. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  7. A standardized sampling protocol for channel catfish in prairie streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, Jason C.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Three alternative gears—an AC electrofishing raft, bankpoles, and a 15-hoop-net set—were used in a standardized manner to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in three prairie streams of varying size in three seasons. We compared these gears as to time required per sample, size selectivity, mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) among months, mean CPUE within months, effect of fluctuating stream stage, and sensitivity to population size. According to these comparisons, the 15-hoop-net set used during stable water levels in October had the most desirable characteristics. Using our catch data, we estimated the precision of CPUE and size structure by varying sample sizes for the 15-hoop-net set. We recommend that 11–15 repetitions of the 15-hoop-net set be used for most management activities. This standardized basic unit of effort will increase the precision of estimates and allow better comparisons among samples as well as increased confidence in management decisions.

  8. Thidiazuron uptake, distribution and metabolism in bluegills and channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Knowles, C O; Benezet, H J; Mayer, F L

    1980-01-01

    Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 0.1 ppm of thidiazuron-14C cotton defoliant for 28 days under continuous flow conditions accumulated relatively low levels of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 5.4 ppm in fillet tissue after 1 day. During a 14 day depuration period, radioactivity declined to 1.0 ppm or less. Fractionation of offal and fillet tissues from bluegills collected at 28 days indicated that most of the radioactive material was water soluble, although appreciable amounts of organosoluble radioactive material also were present. When bluegills were injected intraperitoneally with thidiazuron-14C, metabolism and elimination were relatively rapid. Organosoluble radioactive material isolated from fish tissue included thidiazuron, its 2-hydroxyphenyl derivative, phenylurea, and several unknowns. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed under static conditions to a system containing 0.15 ppm of thidiazuron-14C incorporated into soil also accumulated only low concentrations of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 2.5 ppb in offal tissue at 7 days. In fillet tissue, radioactivity did not exceed 0.5 ppb. There was no evidence from these studies to indicate that thidiazuron would pose a hazard to the aquatic ecosystem. PMID:7400538

  9. Thidiazuron uptake, distribution and metabolism in bluegills and channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Knowles, C O; Benezet, H J; Mayer, F L

    1980-01-01

    Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 0.1 ppm of thidiazuron-14C cotton defoliant for 28 days under continuous flow conditions accumulated relatively low levels of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 5.4 ppm in fillet tissue after 1 day. During a 14 day depuration period, radioactivity declined to 1.0 ppm or less. Fractionation of offal and fillet tissues from bluegills collected at 28 days indicated that most of the radioactive material was water soluble, although appreciable amounts of organosoluble radioactive material also were present. When bluegills were injected intraperitoneally with thidiazuron-14C, metabolism and elimination were relatively rapid. Organosoluble radioactive material isolated from fish tissue included thidiazuron, its 2-hydroxyphenyl derivative, phenylurea, and several unknowns. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed under static conditions to a system containing 0.15 ppm of thidiazuron-14C incorporated into soil also accumulated only low concentrations of radiocarbon. The maximum detected was 2.5 ppb in offal tissue at 7 days. In fillet tissue, radioactivity did not exceed 0.5 ppb. There was no evidence from these studies to indicate that thidiazuron would pose a hazard to the aquatic ecosystem.

  10. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  11. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M.; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G.; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V.; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L.; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  12. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  13. Comparative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by liver microsomes of channel catfish and brown bullhead

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.X.; Kumar, S.; Sikka, H.C.

    1997-04-01

    The authors investigated the metabolism of the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by liver microsomes of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. The catfish liver microsomes metabolized BaP at a considerably lower rate than did the brown bullhead liver microsomes. Although the BaP metabolites produced by the liver microsomes of the two species were qualitatively similar, there were considerable differences in the relative proportions of individual metabolites formed. The catfish liver microsomes produced a considerably lower proportion of benzo-ring diols of BaP including BaP-7,8-diol (the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP) than did the bullhead liver microsomes. Compared to the bullhead liver microsomes, the catfish microsomes converted a higher proportion of BaP to phenolic metabolites.

  14. DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  15. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: Transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with A. hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in E. coli expression syst...

  16. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  17. The “See-Saw”: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the ...

  18. Efficacy of metomidate and tricaine methanesulfonate to modulate the short-term cortisol stress response in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the anesthetics metomidate and tricaine methanesulfonate to mitigate the cortisol stress response of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated during a 10 min confinement stress. Channel catfish (11.9 ± 0.5 g; mean ± SE) were transferred from holding tanks to confinement buck...

  19. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  20. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  1. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  2. Summary of channel catfish and rainbow trout production at the Gallatin Waste Heat Aquaculture Facility, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Schweinforth, R.L.; Burton, G.L.

    1984-02-01

    These studies have indicated that channel catfish and rainbow trout can be intensively cultured in concrete raceways using waste heat effluent water from the Gallatin Steam Plant. Optimum production was attained, especially with channel catfish, when desirable water temperatures and proper environmental conditions occurred. High density culture is possible during the winter and early spring months.

  3. Early innate immune response of immune proteins in juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are raised for aquaculture in the Southeast U.S. and are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections acquired from their pond environment. Innate immune proteins mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and lysozyme were studied during two consecutive years in channel cat...

  4. Seasonal migration and homing of channel catfish in the lower Wisconsin River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellett, Thomas D.; Van Dyck, Gene J.; Adams, Jean V.

    1998-01-01

    A multiyear tag and recapture study was conducted to determine whether channel catfishIctalurus punctatus were migratory and if they had strong homing tendencies. Over 10,000 channel catfish were tagged from the lower Wisconsin River and adjacent waters of the upper Mississippi River during the 3-year sampling period. Data on movements were obtained from study recaptures and through tag returns and harvest information provided by sport anglers and commercial fishers. Channel catfish occupied relatively small home ranges during summer, migrated downstream to the upper Mississippi River in autumn, then migrated back up the Wisconsin River in spring to spawn and to occupy the same summer home sites they had used in previous summers. Fish size was a factor in the degree of fidelity to summer home sites, with larger fish showing greater fidelity.

  5. Efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival of channel catfish infected with saprolegniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schleis, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival associated with external saprolegniasis on fingerlings of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in four laboratory trials. Fungal epizootics were initiated according to procedures developed in a fungal-disease model. Fish were abraded with a dremel tool and then placed in an aerated static infection tank containing fungal-infected hemp seeds held in teaballs that were suspended in 100 L of water for 24 h (trials 1-3) or 6 h (trial 4). In the formalin trials, treatment regimens of 0, 82, and 166 mg/L (trial 1) or 0 and 83 mg/L (trial 2) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments (trial 1) or once daily for a total of seven treatments (trial 2). In the hydrogen peroxide trials, treatment regimens of 0, 75, and 102 mg/L (trial 3) or 0 and 75 mg/L (trial 4) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, with 10 fish per replicate. Formalin exposures of 83 (seven treatments; 33% survival) and 166 mg/L (three treatments; 63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with controls (of which 3% and 13%, respectively, survived). In trial 4, hydrogen peroxide exposure of 75 mg/L (63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with the untreated controls (13% survival). Formalin and hydrogen peroxide treatments were effective in increasing survival in channel catfish infected with fungus.

  6. Suspended spawning cans for channel catfish in a surface-mine lake. [Ictalurus punctatus

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, P.B.; Stickney, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    A technique was developed to enable channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to spawn in lakes where sufficient spawning habitat is not available. Forty-five-liter spawning cans were suspended from styrofoam floats at a depth of 1.25 m below the water surface, in water that was 2-5 m deep. Brood fish successfully utilized the containers for spawning, and the presence of eggs in sunken containers suggests that channel catfish will spawn successfully at depths of up to 5 m if satisfactory nesting sites are available.

  7. Some enzymatic properties of brain Acetylcholinesterase from bluegill and channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, James W.; Knowles, Charles O.

    1968-01-01

    Using a manometric technique an acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7, acetylcholine acetyl-hydrolase) was demonstrated in brain tissue from the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Walbaum). The activities were 19 and 37 μmoles acetylcholine hydrolyzed/milligram protein per hour for the bluegill and channel catfish enzymes, respectively. The optimum substrate concentration for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine was 10 mMfor the enzymes from both species. Generally, the catfish acetylcholinesterase was somewhat more susceptible than the bluegill to the inhibitors tested; however, the bluegill enzyme was more susceptible to inhibition by malathion and malaoxon.

  8. Two cases of lymphosarcoma in channel catfish exposed to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Chen, H H; Brittelli, M R; Muska, C F

    1985-04-01

    Of 158 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine [(MNNG) CAS:70-25-7] in water for 28 days, 2 developed disseminated lymphosarcoma. One fish was necropsied at 12 months and another at 18 months following exposure. Both fish had a massive neoplastic infiltration of the bilateral pairs of head and trunk kidneys from which the neoplastic cells appeared to originate. The neoplastic infiltration was also observed in the following: thymus, gills, oral mucosa, liver, skin, skeletal muscle of head-neck region, and to a lesser extent spleen and bone marrow. This is probably the first report of lymphosarcoma in channel catfish. Although the occurrence of lymphosarcoma in these 2 catfish appeared to be related to exposure to MNNG, the exact role MNNG played in the tumor formation was not determined. PMID:3857387

  9. Mucosal expression signatures of two Cathepsin L in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Song, Lin; Su, Baofeng; Zhao, Honggang; Zhang, Dongdong; Peatman, Eric; Li, Chao

    2015-11-01

    The mucosal surfaces of fish are the first line of host defense against various pathogens. The mucosal immune responses are the most critical events to prevent pathogen attachment and invasion. Cathepsins are a group of peptidases that involved in different levels of immune responses, but the knowledge of the roles of Cathepsin in mucosal immune responses against bacterial infection are still lacking. Therefore, in the present study we characterized the Cathepsin L gene family in channel catfish, and profiled their expression levels after challenging with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, two Cathepsin L genes were identified from channel catfish and were designated CTSL1a and CTSL.1. Comparing to other fish species, the catfish CTSL genes are highly conserved in their structural features. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to confirm the identification of CTSL genes. Expression analysis revealed that the CTSL genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues. Following infection, the CTSL genes were significantly induced at most timepoints in mucosal tissues. But the expression patterns varied depending on both pathogen and tissue types, suggesting that CTSL genes may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in mucosal immune responses. Our findings here, clearly revealed the key roles of CTSL in catfish mucosal immunity; however, further studies are needed to expand functional characterization and examine whether CTSL may also play additional physiological roles in catfish mucosal tissues. PMID:26434716

  10. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  11. Complete structure, genomic organization, and expression of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that the channel catfish (CC) matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expressed sequence tag (EST) was up-regulated after early Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, the CC MMP-9 gene was cloned, sequenced and ch...

  12. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  13. The effects of a sublethal dose of botulinum serotype E on the swimming performance of channel catfish fingerlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) is a disease of cultured Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the Mississippi Delta region and surrounding states. The etiology of VTC is associated with botulinum serotype E (BoNT/E), which causes blockage of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction,...

  14. A leukocyte immune-type receptor (LITR) subset is a marker of antiviral cytotoxic cells in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type-receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. Here we demonstrate the utility of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish an...

  15. Hormone-injected gravid channel catfish held in individual mesh bag reduces handling stress and improves reproductive performance in hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared holding hormone-injected female channel catfish in soft-mesh bags to communally held hormone-injected female catfish in a tank as a stress reduction strategy to improve reproductive performance. Fish held in tanks were crowded, handled multiple times to record weight prior to ho...

  16. Effect of channel catfish stocking rate on yield and water quality in an intensive production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of stocking rate on production of NWAC 103 strain channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and water quality was investigated using a completely randomized design in an intensively managed biofloc raceway system. Each of the 9 HDPE-lined raceways (4.6 m x 9.2 m with a 0.9-m water depth; 42.2...

  17. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using quantitative PCR technique, the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes [NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin D, hepcidin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 ...

  18. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) CD156a mRNA sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CD156a, also known as A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase domain 8 (ADAM8), is a member of ADAM family. We cloned, and sequenced the channel catfish CD156a transcript. The full-length of the CD156a cDNA consisted of 3035 nucleotides, including a 5’-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame ...

  19. Complete genome sequence of Edwardsiella tarda (isolate FL95-01)recovered from channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe isolated from fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including humans. This is a report of the complete and annotated genome of E. tarda isolate FL95-01, recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)....

  20. DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) toxicity to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus sac fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of open facilities, moisture, and warm weather during channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus spawning season causes mosquito-infestation problems. A common solution to mosquito problems in hatcheries is to use mosquito repellents applied to exposed skin and clothing. DEET (N,N-diethyl-...

  1. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  2. Effect of chronic, nightly hypoxia on growth and yield of channel x blue hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance traits and metabolic responses of the channel x blue hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus female, Jubilee strain x I. furcatus male, D&B strain) in response to chronic nightly hypoxia were evaluated in this 197-d study. Sixteen 0.25-acre earthen ponds were stocked with 6,141 hybrid catfis...

  3. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  4. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  5. Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copp...

  6. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, chemokine receptor CXCR4 cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript....

  7. The channel catfish genome sequenc provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), characteristic of its scaleless skin and prominent barbels, is an ideal species to study osteogenesis, development of appendages, olfactory sensing, and immunological adaptation. It is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. A high quality refere...

  8. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5’-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for ...

  9. Effects of dietary copper supplements on the resistance of channel catfish to columnaris disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper is an essential dietary component in animal feeds. Copper sulfate has also been shown to be therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for several indications including columnaris disease. Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish commercial...

  10. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  11. Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yun; Song, Lin; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-11-01

    Complement system is one of the most important defense systems of innate immunity, which plays a crucial role in disease defense responses in channel catfish. However, inappropriate and excessive complement activation could lead to potential damage to the host cells. Therefore the complement system is controlled by a set of complement regulatory proteins to allow normal defensive functions, but prevent hazardous complement activation to host tissues. In this study, we identified nine complement regulatory protein genes from the channel catfish genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their orthology relationships, supporting their correct annotation and potential functional inferences. The expression profiles of the complement regulatory protein genes were determined in channel catfish healthy tissues and after infection with the two main bacterial pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare. The vast majority of complement regulatory protein genes were significantly regulated after bacterial infections, but interestingly were generally up-regulated after E. ictaluri infection while mostly down-regulated after F. columnare infection, suggesting a pathogen-specific pattern of regulation. Collectively, these findings suggested that complement regulatory protein genes may play complex roles in the host immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish.

  12. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  13. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  14. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  15. Single intravenous and oral dose pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma distribution and elimination of florfenicol in channel catfish were investigated after a single dose (10mg/kg) of intravenous i.v.) or oral administration in freshwater at a mean water temperature of 25.4°C. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography...

  16. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  17. Determination of the median lethal dose of botulinum serotype E in channel catfish fingerlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The median lethal dose of botulinum serotype E in 5.3-g channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings was determined. Five tanks (five fish/tank) were assigned to each of the following treatment groups: 70, 50, 35, 25, or 15 pg of purified botulinum serotype E. Fish were injected intracoelomically...

  18. Winter performance of an outdoor biofloc production system for channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the tropics, outdoor biofloc technology production systems are operated year-round. While channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc production system, these studies were conducted only during the growing season and production tanks were idled for the...

  19. Sublethal copper stress and susceptibility of channel catfish to experimental infections with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, M.S.; Ewing, S.A.; Zimmer, M.A.

    1982-06-01

    The study describes a technique for evaluating the change in susceptibility of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to infection by the protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following exposure to sublethal concentrations of dissolved copper. This ubiquitous parasite infects a wide variety of freshwater fishes and causes severe disease problems in catfish. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants may amplify stress significantly for fish exposed to such disease agents. Therefore, techniques are needed to judge the effect of contaminant stress upon the course of disease, rather than simply death from disease, in fishes. Results show that pathologic changes attendent upon exposure to the parasite and those upon exposure to copper are complementary in effect. (JMT)

  20. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-09-01

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with A. hydrophila by bath immersion. Quantitative PCR revealed that the transcription levels of Lys-c in infected catfish were significantly (P < 0.05) induced in all five tissues tested as well as in blood cells. Recombinant CC-Lys-c produced in Escherichia coli expression system (R-CC-Lys-c) exhibited significant (P < 0.05) lytic activity to Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Gram-negative A. hydrophila. When pcDNA3.2-vectored recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-c (pcDNA-Lys-c) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-c offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with QCDCR adjuvant formulated pcDNA-Lys-c and challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain AL-09-71 at 1-, 2-, 14-, and 28-days post treatment, pcDNA-Lys-c offered 75%, 100%, 60%, and 77% protection to channel catfish, respectively. Macrophages of fish treated with pcDNA-Lys-c produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish treated with pcDNA vector alone. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-c could be used as a novel immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  1. Identification of SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin B; Nayak, Deepak K; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2015-07-01

    Src homology domain 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatases (SHIP) proteins have diverse roles in signal transduction. SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 homologs were identified in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, based on sequence homology to murine and human SHIP sequences. Full-length cDNAs for catfish SHIP-1 and SHIP-2 (IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2) were obtained using 5' and 3' RACE protocols. Catfish SHIP molecules share a high degree of sequence identity to their respective SHIP sequences from diverse taxa and both are encoded by single copy genes. IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2 transcripts were expressed in all catfish tissues analyzed except for skin, and IpSHIP-1 message was more abundant than IpSHIP-2 message in lymphoid tissues. Catfish clonal B, cytotoxic T, and macrophage cell lines also expressed message for both molecules. IpSHIP-1 and IpSHIP-2 SH2 domains were expressed as recombinant proteins and were both found to be bound by cross-reacting rabbit anti-mouse SHIP-1 pAb. The anti-mouse SHIP-1 pAb also reacted with cell lysates from the cytotoxic T cell lines, macrophages and stimulated PBL. SHIP-1 is also phosphorylated at a conserved tyrosine residue, as shown by immunoprecipitation studies.

  2. DNA damage and radiocesium in channel catfish from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Sugg, D.W.; Brooks, J.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Smith, M.H.; Chesser, R.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Lomakin, M.D.; Dallas, C.E.; Baker, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    The explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in some of the most radioactively contaminated habitats on earth. Despite evacuation of all human inhabitants from the most contaminated areas, animals and plants continue to thrive in these areas. This study examines the levels of contamination and genetic damage associated with cesium-137 in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from the cooling pond and a control site. In general, catfish from the cooling pond exhibit greater genetic damage, and the amount of damage is related to the concentration of radiocesium in individual fish. Genetic damage is primarily in the form of DNA strand breaks, with few micronuclei being observed in contaminated fish. The possible roles that acclimation and adaption play in the response to high levels of radiation exposure are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of a cohabitation challenge model in immunization trials for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcein marking and cohabitation challenge have not been investigated in fish parasite research. This study evaluated a cohabitation challenge method in immunization trials against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using calcein, a fluorescent dye, to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafi...

  4. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  5. G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish: Expression analysis and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the transcriptional profiles of G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish after infection with A. hydrophila compared to that in healthy catfish; 2) to determine whether over-expression of GPR18 in catfish gill cells will offer protec...

  6. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (CC-Lys-g) produced in Escherichia coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme-g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Recombinant CC-Lys-g produced in E. coli expression system exhibited significant (P < 0.05) lytic activity against Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Gram-negative A. hydrophila. When pcDNA3.2-vectored recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (pcDNA-Lys-g) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-g offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B cells against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with pcDNA-Lys-g along with an adjuvant QCDCR, the transcriptional level of Lys-g was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. When pcDNA-Lys-g injected fish was challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain AL-09-71, pcDNA-Lys-g offered 100% protection to channel catfish at two days post DNA injection. Macrophages of fish injected with pcDNA-Lys-g produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish injected with pcDNA vector alone at two days post DNA injection. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-g could be used as a novel immunostimulant to offer immediate protection to channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  7. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  8. Catch of channel catfish with tandem-set hoop nets and gill nets in lentic systems of Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richters, Lindsey K.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-six Nebraska water bodies representing two ecosystem types (small standing waters and large standing waters) were surveyed during 2008 and 2009 with tandem-set hoop nets and experimental gill nets to determine if similar trends existed in catch rates and size structures of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus captured with these gears. Gear efficiency was assessed as the number of sets (nets) that would be required to capture 100 channel catfish given observed catch per unit effort (CPUE). Efficiency of gill nets was not correlated with efficiency of hoop nets for capturing channel catfish. Small sample sizes prohibited estimation of proportional size distributions in most surveys; in the four surveys for which sample size was sufficient to quantify length-frequency distributions of captured channel catfish, distributions differed between gears. The CPUE of channel catfish did not differ between small and large water bodies for either gear. While catch rates of hoop nets were lower than rates recorded in previous studies, this gear was more efficient than gill nets at capturing channel catfish. However, comparisons of size structure between gears may be problematic.

  9. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased walleye survival in comparison with controls. In the channel catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for all OTC-HCl treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of Aeromonas species isolated from processed channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Silva, J L

    1999-01-01

    From August 1994 to May 1995, 238 channel catfish fillets collected from three processing plants in the Mississippi Delta at four time periods were tested for the presence of Aeromonas species. Identification of Aeromonas spp. was accomplished using an automated Vitek bioassay system with gram-negative and nonfermenter cards. Approximately 36.1% were positive for A. hydrophila, 35.7% for A. sobria, and 10.9% for A. caviae. All three Aeromonas spp. were found in all three processing plants, and the incidence of A. hydrophila contamination appeared to be higher in summer than other seasons. Eighty-six percent of the Aeromonas isolates were hemolytic on 5% sheep blood agar plates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin. Results suggest that Aeromonas spp. are prevalent in processed channel catfish, and most isolates are hemolytic and resistant to ampicillin and bacitracin. PMID:9921825

  11. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in Escherichia coli expression system possesses any antimicrobial activity against A. hydrophila; 3) evaulate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 plasmid DNA could be used as immunostimulant to protect fish against A. hydrophila infection. Quantitative PCR revealed that the transcription levels of ApoA1 in infected catfish were significantly (P < 0.05) more induced in the anterior kidney. Recombinant apoA1 produced in E. coli expression system exhibited lytic activity against Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Gram-negative A. hydrophila. When pcDNA3.2-vectored recombinant apoA1 was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-ApoA1 offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B cells against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with QCDCR adjuvant formulated pcDNA-ApoA1 and challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain AL-09-71 at two days post injection, pcDNA-ApoA1 injection offered 100% protection to channel catfish. Macrophages of fish injected with pcDNA-ApoA1 produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish injected with pcDNA vector alone. Our results suggest that pcDNA-ApoA1 could be used as a novel immunostimulant to offer immediate protection to catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  12. Identification and mucosal expression analysis of cathepsin B in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Song, Lin; Tan, Fenghua; Su, Baofeng; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Honggang; Peatman, Eric

    2015-12-01

    The mucosal surfaces of fish (skin, gill and intestine) constitute the primary line of defense against pathogen invasion. Although the importance of fish mucosal surfaces as the first barriers against pathogens cannot be overstated, the knowledge of teleost mucosal immunity are still limited. Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is involved in multiple levels of physiological and biological processes, and playing crucial roles for host immune defense against pathogen infection. In this regard, we identified the cathepsin B (ctsba) of channel catfish and investigated the expression patterns of the ctsba in mucosal tissues following Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare challenge. Here, catfish ctsba gene was widely expressed in all examined tissues with the lowest expression level in muscle, and the highest expression level in trunk kidney, followed by spleen, gill, head kidney, intestine, liver and skin. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis showed the catfish ctsba had the strongest relationship to zebrafish. Moreover, the ctsba showed a general trend of up-regulated in mucosal tissues following both Gram-negative bacterial challenge. Taken together, the increased expression of ctsba in mucosal surfaces indicated the protective function of ctsba against bacterial infection, and the requirement for effective clearance of invading bacteria. Further studies are needed, indeed, to expand functional characterization and examine whether ctsba may play additional physiological and biological roles in catfish mucosal tissues. PMID:26497091

  13. Influence of throat configuration and fish density on escapement of channel catfish from hoop nets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porath, Mark T.; Pape, Larry D.; Richters, Lindsey K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several state agencies have adopted the use of baited, tandemset hoop nets to assess lentic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations. Some level of escapement from the net is expected because an opening exists in each throat of the net, although factors influencing rates of escapement from hoop nets have not been quantified. We conducted experiments to quantify rates of escapement and to determine the influence of throat configuration and fish density within the net on escapement rates. An initial experiment to determine the rate of escapement from each net compartment utilized individually tagged channel catfish placed within the entrance (between the two throats) and cod (within the second throat) compartments of a single hoop net for overnight sets. From this experiment, the mean rate (±SE) of channel catfish escaping was 4.2% (±1.5) from the cod (cod throat was additionally restricted from the traditionally manufactured product), and 74% (±4.2) from the entrance compartments. In a subsequent experiment, channel catfish were placed only in the cod compartment with different throat configurations (restricted or unrestricted) and at two densities (low [6 fish per net] and high [60 fish per net]) for overnight sets to determine the influence of fish density and throat configuration on escapement rates. Escapement rates between throat configurations were doubled at low fish density (13.3 ± 5.4% restricted versus 26.7 ± 5.6% unrestricted) and tripled at high fish density (14.3 ± 4.9% restricted versus 51.9 ± 5.0% unrestricted). These results suggest that retention efficiency is high from cod compartments with restricted throat entrances. However, managers and researchers need to be aware that modification to the cod throats (restrictions) is needed for hoop nets ordered from manufacturers. Managers need to be consistent in their use and reporting of cod end throat configurations when using this gear.

  14. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control saprolegniasis on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Valentine, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Crawford, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs was evaluated at the Lost Valley State Fish Hatchery (Warsaw, MO). Two efficacy trials were conducted. In Trial 1, channel catfish eggs in their natural gelatinous matrix were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0, 500, and 750 mg l(-1). Channel catfish eggs in Trial 2 had the gelatinous matrix removed before treatment with hydrogen peroxide at 0 and 500 mg l(-1). Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate and each egg jar contained similar to 17,400 eggs. Hydrogen peroxide was administered as a 15-min flow-through treatment applied once daily for a total of six applications. Control jars were similarly treated with culture water. Samples of exposure water were collected during each treatment and analyzed to verify actual treatment concentrations. Hydrogen peroxide treatment efficacy was assessed by comparing the percent egg hatch in the treatment group to the untreated control group in each trial. Mean percent hatch in Trial I was 44% (control), 54% (500 mg l(-1)), and 69% (750 mg l(-1)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment at either 500 or 750 mg l(-1) significantly (P<0.01) increased the percent hatch compared to the untreated control group. In Trial 2, hydrogen peroxide treatment at 500 mg l(-1) significantly (P<0.01) increased the percent egg hatch (67%) relative to the untreated controls (57%). Hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced egg mortality and increased the percent hatch of channel catfish eggs regardless of whether eggs were incubated in the gelatinous matrix or without the matrix in comparison to the untreated control. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision of channel catfish catch estimates using hoop nets in larger Oklahoma reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoop nets are rapidly becoming the preferred gear type used to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and many managers have reported that hoop nets effectively sample channel catfish in small impoundments (<200 ha). However, the utility and precision of this approach in larger impoundments have not been tested. We sought to determine how the number of tandem hoop net series affected the catch of channel catfish and the time involved in using 16 tandem hoop net series in larger impoundments (>200 ha). Hoop net series were fished once, set for 3 d; then we used Monte Carlo bootstrapping techniques that allowed us to estimate the number of net series required to achieve two levels of precision (relative standard errors [RSEs] of 15 and 25) at two levels of confidence (80% and 95%). Sixteen hoop net series were effective at obtaining an RSE of 25 with 80% and 95% confidence in all but one reservoir. Achieving an RSE of 15 was often less effective and required 18-96 hoop net series given the desired level of confidence. We estimated that an hour was needed, on average, to deploy and retrieve three hoop net series, which meant that 16 hoop net series per reservoir could be "set" and "retrieved" within a day, respectively. The estimated number of net series to achieve an RSE of 25 or 15 was positively associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample but not with reservoir surface area or relative abundance. Our results suggest that hoop nets are capable of providing reasonably precise estimates of channel catfish relative abundance and that the relationship with the CV of the sample reported herein can be used to determine the sampling effort for a desired level of precision.

  16. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  17. Construction and characterization of a BAC library from a gynogenetic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Quiniou, Sylvie MA; Katagiri, Takayuki; Miller, Norman W; Wilson, Melanie; Wolters, William R; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2003-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed by cloning HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA from a gynogenetic channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, into the vector pBeloBAC11. Approximately 53 500 clones were arrayed in 384-well plates and stored at -80°C (CCBL1), while clones from a smaller insert size fraction were stored at -80°C without arraying (CCBL2). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 100 clones after NotI digestion revealed an average insert size of 165 kb for CCBL1 and 113 kb for CCBL2. Further characterization of CCBL1 demonstrated that 10% of the clones did not contain an insert. CCBL1 provides a 7.2-fold coverage of the channel catfish haploid genome. PCR-based screening demonstrated that 68 out of 74 unique loci were present in the library. This represents a 92% chance to find a unique sequence. These libraries will be useful for physical mapping of the channel catfish genome, and identification of genes controlling major traits in this economically important species. PMID:14604514

  18. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  19. Novel transcripts of the estrogen receptor α gene in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Wu, Chunfa; Maule, Alec G.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2000-01-01

    Complementary DNA libraries from liver and ovary of an immature female channel catfish were screened with a homologous ERα cDNA probe. The hepatic library yielded two new channel catfish ER cDNAs that encode N-terminal ERα variants of different sizes. Relative to the catfish ERα (medium size; 581 residues) previously reported, these new cDNAs encode Long-ERα (36 residues longer) and Short-ERα (389 residues shorter). The 5′-end of Long-ERα cDNA is identical to that of Medium-ERα but has an additional 503-bp segment with an upstream, in-frame translation-start codon. Recombinant Long-ERα binds estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 3.4 nM), similar to that previously reported for Medium-ERα but lower than reported for catfish ERβ. Short-ERα cDNA encodes a protein that lacks most of the receptor protein and does not bind estrogen. Northern hybridization confirmed the existence of multiple hepatic ERα RNAs that include the size range of the ERα cDNAs obtained from the libraries as well as additional sizes. Using primers for RT-PCR that target locations internal to the protein-coding sequence, we also established the presence of several ERα cDNA variants with in-frame insertions in the ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains and in-frame or out-of-frame deletions in the ligand-binding domain. These internal variants showed patterns of expression that differed between the ovary and liver. Further, the ovarian library yielded a full-length, ERα antisense cDNA containing a poly(A) signal and tail. A limited survey of histological preparations from juvenile catfish by in situ hybridization using directionally synthesized cRNA probes also suggested the expression of ERα antisense RNA in a tissue-specific manner. In conclusion, channel catfish seemingly have three broad classes of ERα mRNA variants: those encoding N-terminal truncated variants, those encoding internal variants (including C-terminal truncated variants), and antisense mRNA. The sense variants may

  20. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Chronic pathology and longevity of Drepanocephalus spathans infections in juvenile Channel Catfish.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Khoo, Lester H; Steadman, James M; Ware, Cynthia; Quiniou, Sylvie M; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J

    2014-12-01

    Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a common parasite of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus. The cercariae of D. spathans have been shown infective to juvenile Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. The developing metacercariae concentrate in the cranial regions, often occluding blood vessels at the base of the branchial arch, occasionally resulting in death. The purpose of this study was to determine how long metacercariae of D. spathans persist in experimentally challenged Channel Catfish. Two separate infectivity trials were conducted. In both trials, metacercariae persisted at least 49 d postinfection, although prevalence and intensity of infection decreased over time. In the first trial, juvenile catfish (1-3 g) were exposed over three consecutive days to 100, 100, and 80 cercariae/fish/d, respectively. Fish were sampled 7 d after the final exposure, and metacercariae were observed in 83.3% (five of six) of challenged fish. At 21 d postexposure, metacercariae were present in only 50% of exposed fish (three of six). No metacercaria were observed in fish sampled at 35 d, however, metacercariae were present in one of six (16.7%) fish sampled 49 and 70 d postexposure, respectively. A second challenge consisted of a 24-h pooled exposure of 500 cercariae per fish. Again, metacercariae were present in most (six of seven; 85.7%) fish at 7 d postexposure. At 21 d postexposure, metacercariae were only evident in one of seven (14.3%) sampled fish. No metacercariae were present in any fish at 35 d postchallenge, yet one of seven (14.3%) fish was positive at 49 d postchallenge. The second study was terminated at 63 d postchallenge, as all fish sampled (n = 14) were negative for metacercariae. These data suggest that cercariae of D. spathans are infective to juvenile Channel Catfish, although the infection appears short lived as metacercariae rarely persisted longer than 2 months. PMID:25250624

  2. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  3. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  4. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, J W; Mu, X; Klesius, P H

    2012-03-01

    Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes (NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin D, hepcidin and liver-expressed AMP 2) in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection were determined. None of the AMP genes tested was significantly upregulated at 2 h post-infection. Hepcidin was the only one that was significantly (P<0.05) upregulated at 4, 6 and 12 h post-infection. At 24 and 48 h post-infection, four AMPs (hepcidin, NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 3 and cathepsin D) were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated. Among all the AMPs that were significantly upregulated at different time points, hepcidin at 4, 6 and 12 h post-infection was upregulated the most. When catfish were injected with different doses of E. ictaluri, all lethal doses were able to induce significant (P <0.05) upregulation of hepcidin in the posterior kidney, whereas sublethal doses failed to induce any significant upregulation of hepcidin. In vitro growth studies revealed that the presence of synthetic hepcidin peptide at a concentration of 16 μm or higher significantly inhibited the cell proliferation of E. ictaluri. Taken together, our results suggest that hepcidin might play an important role in the channel catfish defence against E. ictaluri infection.

  5. Performance of alternative diets containing solvent-extracted distillers dried grains with solubles compared to traditional diets for pond-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and hybrid catfish I. punctatus x I. furcat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A regional pond study was initiated in April 2011 to evaluate feeds containing solvent-extracted distillers dried grains with solubles (SE-DDGS) in both 28%- and 32% protein catfish feeds. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were stocked in multiple-batch production ponds at the University of Ark...

  6. Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Controlling Mortality Associated with External Columnaris on Walleye and Channel Catfish Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schleis, S.M.; Gaikowski, M.; Johnson, Aaron H.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with external columnaris infections on walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings was evaluated in two on-site trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapes before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria indicative of columnaris disease. In separate trials, walleyes (12 g) and channel catfish (2.3 g) were exposed to a total of three every-other-day hydrogen peroxide treatments of 0, 50, 75, or 100 mg/L for 60 min. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained 13 walleyes or 26 channel catfish. Hydrogen peroxide exposures of 50 mg/L for 60 min significantly increased walleye survival relative to that at other treatment concentrations, including the controls. Exposures of 50, 75, or 100 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide for 60 min significantly increased channel catfish survival in comparison with that of controls. These trials indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatments effectively reduce mortality in walleyes and channel catfish infected with external columnaris.

  7. Missing the target: DNAk is a dominant epitope in the humoral immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination remains a viable alternative for bacterial disease protection in fish; however additional work is required to understand the mechanisms of adaptive immunity in the channel catfish. To assess the humoral immune response to Flavobacterium columnare; a group of channel catfish were first im...

  8. Galectins in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Characterization and expression profiling in mucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shun; Zhao, Honggang; Thongda, Wilawan; Zhang, Dongdong; Su, Baofeng; Yu, Dan; Peatman, Eric; Li, Chao

    2016-02-01

    Galectins, a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins with conserved CRDs, which can recognize the glycans on the surface of viruses, bacteria and protozoan parasites, are emerging as key players in many important pathological processes, including acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and apoptosis. Although galectins have attracted great interest in mammals, they are still poorly-characterized in teleost. Previously, several studies have reported their high expression levels in mucosal tissues before and post infection. Given the important roles for galectins in mucosal immunity, therefore, we characterized the galectin gene family and profiled family member expression after challenge with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, twelve galectins genes were captured in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and phylogenetic analysis showed the strongest relationship to zebrafish and salmon, which is consistent with their phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, the galectin genes were widely expressed in catfish tissues, while most of the galectin genes were strongly expressed in mucosal tissues (skin, gill and intestine). In addition, the expression profiles of galectins after bacterial infection varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting that galectins may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogens. Further studies are needed, however, to expand functional characterization and examine whether galectins may also play additional physiological roles in catfish immunity. PMID:26767746

  9. Phylogeny of immune recognition: antigen processing/presentation in channel catfish immune responses to hemocyanins.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, A N; Miller, N W; Jørgensen, T; Clem, L W

    1990-10-15

    Studies were conducted to address the role(s) of antigen (Ag) processing/presentation in channel catfish immune responses. Vigorous and specific secondary in vitro proliferative and antibody (Ab) responses were obtained to keyhole limpet and Limulus polyphemus hemocyanins with peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from catfish previously primed in vivo with Ag. In addition, such antigen-specific in vitro proliferative and Ab responses were efficiently elicited by antigen-pulsed and subsequently paraformaldehyde-fixed autologous PBL used as putative antigen-presenting cells (APC) but not by APC fixed prior to Ag pulsing. Treatment of these putative APC with lysosomotropic agents, protease inhibitors, or the ionophore monensin prior to or during pulsing with Ag significantly inhibited both in vitro responses. Furthermore, the use of radiolabeled protein indicated that both untreated and inhibitor-treated PBL but not erythrocytes take up Ag; however, only untreated PBL were able to degrade Ag. Immune restriction was indicated by the use of allogeneic PBL as APC in that only strong MLRs were generated with no detectable antibodies produced in vitro. Finally, the employment of isolated leukocyte subpopulations demonstrated that both catfish B (sIg+) lymphocytes and monocytes were efficient Ag presentors. PMID:2208303

  10. Estimating the oral bioavailability of methylmercury to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Schultz, I.R.; Newman, M.C.

    1998-08-01

    In classical pharmacology, oral bioavailability of a toxicant is defined as that fraction of an orally administered dose reaching the systemic circulation of the animal. The present study estimates the bioavailability of methylmercury in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) by comparing concentrations in the blood through time after oral and intra-arterial (IA) administration. Catfish were cannulated in the dorsal aorta and gavaged a pelleted feed that has been spiked with methylmercury. Each catfish was gavaged an increasing amount of spiked feed. Following oral dosing, serial blood samples were removed for more than 1,500 h. One month after removal of the last blood sample, the same fish were injected IA with methylmercury and serial blood samples were removed for more than 3,000 h. The area under the curve of the blood concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC{sub 0{r_arrow}x}) was calculated from fish dosed orally and IA using both noncompartmental (trapezoidal) and compartmental methods. Bioavailability was estimated as the ratio of the dose-corrected oral AUC{sub 0{r_arrow}x} to the IA AUC{sub 0{r_arrow}x}. Average bioavailability estimates from this approach were 33% using noncompartmental methods and were correlated with the amount of food gavaged to the fish. Bioavailability estimates using the present methods were much lower than estimates using more conventional methods suggesting that conventional methods may overestimate the true bioavailability of toxicants in fish.

  11. Effects of dietary arginine on endocrine growth factors of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Miller, Thomas; Small, Brian C; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid (TH) and growth (GH) hormones, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are anabolic regulators in fish and responsive to nutrient intake. A study was conducted to determine if previously reported growth effects of dietary arginine (ARG) in channel catfish were related to the activation of endocrine axes. In a first experiment, catfish were fed incremental levels of ARG (0.5 - 4% of diet) for 6 weeks and sampled at 2-week intervals. In a second experiment, fasted (48h) fish were fed a single ration of ARG (0.5 or 4% of diet) and sampled at various intervals (0 to 72h postprandial, PP). Experiment 1 did not reveal any influence of ARG on circulating TH, GH, or IGF-I despite the significantly increased growth of fish fed ARG-enriched diets. In experiment 2, feeding the 4% ARG diet significantly increased the amplitude of pulsatile plasma GH levels and also significantly increased IGF-I mRNA in liver and muscle, (at 2h PP) and plasma IGF-I levels (at 6h PP). Although relatively infrequent sampling failed to reveal alterations in TH or GH levels in response to ARG-induced growth activation, PP high frequency sampling unveiled high amplitude pulsatile GH secretions and may be important in activating IGF production in target tissues. Additionally, expressed and secreted IGF-I exhibited discernible patterns which closely correlate with ARG-induced growth effects in catfish.

  12. Development of a novobiocin-resistant Edwardsiella ictaluri as a novel vaccine in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of a novel attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine (B-50348) was determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) by bath immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection. The vaccine was developed from a virulent strain of E. ictaluri (AL93-58) through selection for novobiocin resistance. When channel catfish (average weight 10 g) were IP injected with 4.2 × 10⁶ colony-forming units (CFU) of the attenuated vaccine B-50348, no fish died. However, when the same age and size matched group of the catfish were IP injected with a lesser amount (2.4 × 10⁶ CFU/fish) of modified live RE-33 vaccine or the AL93-58 virulent strain (2.5 × 10⁶ CFU/fish) of E. ictaluri, 65% and 95% fish died, respectively. When channel catfish were challenged with AL93-58, relative percent survival values of vaccinated fish were all greater than 90% at 22, 32, and 63 days post B-50348 vaccination through intraperitoneal injection. By bath immersion, at 37 and 57 days post vaccination of B-50348, relative percent survival values were both 100% when fish were challenged by virulent E. ictaluri AL93-58. Our results suggest that B-50348 could be used as a novel safe and efficacious vaccine against ESC in channel catfish.

  13. Renal excretion in channel catfish following injection of quinaldine sulphate or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Hunn, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, injected intraperitoneally with 2-methyl-quinoline sulphate (QdSO4) or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) eliminate most of the dose of these compounds by extra-renal routes. Patterns of renal excretion of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (pEq kg-1 h-1) appeared to be associated with the 'stress' of the urine collection technique rather than with the elimination of either compound. Concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (mEq/1) were determined in urine, plasma and gall bladder bile.

  14. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  15. Differential cytochemical staining characteristics of channel catfish leukocytes identify cell populations in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Petrie-Hanson, L; Ainsworth, A J

    2000-02-25

    This is one of the first characterizations of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes by enzyme cytochemistry. Leukocytes demonstrated cytoplasmic staining patterns very similar to mammalian leukocytes when stained with acid phosphatase, alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase, beta-glucuronidase, alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase, Sudan Black B and anti-immunoglobulin specific immunohistochemistry. Lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and surface immunoglobulin positive (surface Ig+) cells were present in channel catfish renal hematopoietic tissue and spleen and demonstrated distinctive cytoplasmic foci staining patterns, cytoplasmic blushing or cell membrane staining. Monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and surface Ig+ cells were present in the thymus. Thymic and splenic cellular organization appeared very similar to these same mammalian tissues. In the thymus, acid phosphatase positive cells were distributed throughout the parenchyma, while alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase and beta-glucuronidase positive cells were concentrated in the cortex and the medulla, respectively. Surface immunoglobulin positive cells occurred in the cortex. In the spleen, acid phosphatase positive cells were scattered throughout the parenchyma, while alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells were scattered throughout the parenchyma and adjacent to splenic arterioles. Beta-glucuronidase and surface immunoglobulin positive cells were restricted to immediately adjacent to splenic arterioles. Sudan Black B positive cells were scattered throughout the parenchyma, while alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase positive cells occurred adjacent to peri-arteriole lymphoid sheaths and appear very similar to mammalian metallophils. PMID:10690929

  16. Uptake, tissue distribution, and metabolism of malachite green in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plakas, S.M.; El Said, K. R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Allen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of malachite green was determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular dosing (0.8 mg . Kg-1) or waterborne exposure (0.8 mg . L-1 for 1 h). After intravascular dosing, mean plasma concentrations of the parent compound exhibited a triphasic decline with a terminal elimination half-life of 6.2 h. Malachite green was rapidly absorbed and concentrated in the tissues during waterborne exposure. The rate of accumulation was directly related to pH of the exposure water. After waterborne exposure, elimination of the parent compound from plasma also was triphasic with a terminal half-life of 4.7 h. In muscle, the half-life of the parent compound was approximately 67 h. Malachite green and its metabolites were widely distributed in all tissues. In fish exposed to C-14-labeled malachite green, total drug equivalent concentrations were highest in abdominal fat and lowest in plasma. Malachite green was rapidly and extensively metabolized to its reduced form, leucomalachite green, which was slowly eliminated from the tissues. Leucomalachite green is an appropriate target analyte for monitoring exposure of channel catfish to this drug.

  17. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  18. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial agent AquaFrin(TM) as a bactericide and selective algicide for use in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of pond-raised channel catfish in the southeastern United States can experience huge economic losses due to the bacterial diseases enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris and to the presence of the certain odor-producing cyanobacteria in production ponds that result in “off-flav...

  19. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  20. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus important bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus infected with Edwardsiella ictaluri results in $40 - 50 million annual losses in profits to catfish producers. Early detection of this pathogen is necessary for disease control and reduction of economic loss. In this communication, the loop-mediated isothermal a...

  1. Comparing the efficacy of four immersion flush and static hydorgen peroxide and copper sulfate treatments on channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water mold infestations on channel catfish eggs lower the hatch rate (egg survival) and ultimately the number of catfish fry available for stocking in production ponds. This study compared the potential of two hydrogen peroxide (HP) and two copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) treatments to increase c...

  2. Interaction between dietary levels of victamin C and E on growth and immune responses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of vitamins C and E on growth performance, liver contents of vitamins C and E, hematology and immune response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. A basal practical diet containing 32% protein and 2,900 kcal DE kg-1 was supplemen...

  3. Effects of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) parasitism on survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri was studied. Fish were exposed to E. ictaluri one day prior to Ich in the following treatments: 1)- infected by...

  4. Reduction of the pectoral spine and girdle in domesticated Channel catfish is likely caused by changes in selection pressure.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michael L; Lahiri, Shweta; Sullivan, Amanda D H; Mayo, Mark; Newton, Scott H; Sismour, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Locked pectoral spines of the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus more than double the fish's width and complicate ingestion by gape-limited predators. The spine mates with the pectoral girdle, a robust structure that anchors the spine. This study demonstrates that both spine and girdle exhibit negative allometric growth and that pectoral spines and girdles are lighter in domesticated than in wild Channel Catfish. This finding could be explained by changes in selection pressure for spine growth during domestication or by an epigenetic effect in which exposure to predators in wild fish stimulates pectoral growth. We tested the epigenetic hypothesis by exposing domesticated Channel Catfish fingerlings to Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides predators for 13 weeks. Spines and girdles grow isometrically in the fingerlings, and regression analysis indicates no difference in proportional pectoral growth between control and predator-exposed fish. Therefore a change in selection pressure likely accounts for smaller pectoral growth in domesticated Channel Catfish. Decreasing spine growth in older fish suggests anti-predator functions are most important in smaller fish. Additionally, growth of the appendicular and axial skeleton is controlled differentially, and mechanical properties of the spine and not just its length are an important component of this defensive adaptation.

  5. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri and levels of mannose binding lectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance and disease susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Two hundred and fifty juvenile channel catfish (7.2 ± 0.1 g) were allotted into the following treatments: Control (float...

  6. Identification and characterization of matrix metalloproteinase-13 sequence structure and expression during embryogenesis and infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), referred to as collagenase-3, is a proteolytic enzyme that plays a key role in degradation and remodelling of host extracellularmatrix proteins. The objective of this study was to characterize the MMP-13 gene in channel catfish, and to determine its pattern of e...

  7. Reduction of the pectoral spine and girdle in domesticated Channel catfish is likely caused by changes in selection pressure.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michael L; Lahiri, Shweta; Sullivan, Amanda D H; Mayo, Mark; Newton, Scott H; Sismour, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Locked pectoral spines of the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus more than double the fish's width and complicate ingestion by gape-limited predators. The spine mates with the pectoral girdle, a robust structure that anchors the spine. This study demonstrates that both spine and girdle exhibit negative allometric growth and that pectoral spines and girdles are lighter in domesticated than in wild Channel Catfish. This finding could be explained by changes in selection pressure for spine growth during domestication or by an epigenetic effect in which exposure to predators in wild fish stimulates pectoral growth. We tested the epigenetic hypothesis by exposing domesticated Channel Catfish fingerlings to Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides predators for 13 weeks. Spines and girdles grow isometrically in the fingerlings, and regression analysis indicates no difference in proportional pectoral growth between control and predator-exposed fish. Therefore a change in selection pressure likely accounts for smaller pectoral growth in domesticated Channel Catfish. Decreasing spine growth in older fish suggests anti-predator functions are most important in smaller fish. Additionally, growth of the appendicular and axial skeleton is controlled differentially, and mechanical properties of the spine and not just its length are an important component of this defensive adaptation. PMID:24673385

  8. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  9. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Fish were cutaneously abraded and divided into five treatment...

  10. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  11. Identification and expresion profile of multiple genes in channel catfish fry ten minutes after modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 32 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from 96 clones of a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry subtractive library ten minutes post vaccination with a modified live Flavobacterum columnare vaccine. The transcription levels of ...

  12. Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased Southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) are virulent to channel catfish and Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to identify bacterial pathogens isolated from diseased Southern flounder and determine their virulence to channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Twenty five Gram-negative bacteria isolates were recovered from five tissues (skin lesions, brain, liver, intestine, and posterior kidn...

  13. Degradation of chitin and chitosan by a recombinant chitinase derived from a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chitinase was identified in extracellular products of a virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bioactive recombinant chitinase (rChi-Ah) was produced in Escherichia coli. Purified rChi-Ah had optimal activity at temperature of 42°C and pH 6.5. T...

  14. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (< 5 ppm) for taurine content. In add...

  15. Binding and Phagocytosis by Opsonized and Nonopsonized Channel Catfish Macrophages of Viable DsRed-fluorescent-labeled Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phagocyte-mediated killing of bacterial pathogens is one of the major defensive mechanisms in fish. The binding, uptake and destruction of recombinant fluorescent protein DsRed transformed Edwardsiella ictaluri by opsonized and nonopsonized channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) macrophages was chara...

  16. Development and efficacy of novobiocin and rifampicin-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila as novel vaccines in channel catfish and Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-10-19

    Three attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines were developed from the virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates through selection for resistance to both novobiocin and rifampicin. When channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were IP injected with 4×105 colony-forming unit (CFU) of the mutants, no fish died. However, when the same age and size matched channel catfish were IP injected with similar amount of their virulent parents, 80-100% fish died. Similarly, when Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were IP injected with 2×108 CFU of the mutants, no fish died. However, when Nile tilapia were IP injected with similar amount of the mutants, all fish died. Vaccination of channel catfish with the mutants at dose of 4×105 CFU/fish offered 86-100% protection against their virulent parents at 14 days post vaccination (dpv). Vaccination of Nile tilapia with the mutants at dose of 2×108 CFU/fish offered 100% protection against their virulent parents at 14, 28, and 56 dpv. Agglutination assay results suggested that protection elicited by the mutants was partially due to antibody-mediated immunity. Taken together, our results suggest that the three attenuated vaccines might be used to protect channel catfish and Nile tilapia against the highly virulent 2009 West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila.

  17. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  18. G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish: expression analysis and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the transcriptional profiles of G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in channel catfish after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila compared to that in healthy catfish; 2) to determine whether over-expression of GPR18 in catfish gill cells will offer protection against infection of A. hydrophila; 3) to determine whether recombinant pcDNA-GPR18 could be used as an immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection. Quantitative PCR revealed that the transcription levels of GPR18 in all tissues of infected catfish were significantly (P < 0.05) induced except in the intestine. When pcDNA3.2-vectored recombinant GPR18 was transfected in catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-GPR18 offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B cells against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with QCDCR adjuvant formulated pcDNA-GPR18 and challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain at 1-, 2-, 14-, and 28-days post treatment, pcDNA-GPR18 offered 50%, 100%, 57%, and 55% protection to channel catfish, respectively. Macrophages of fish treated with pcDNA-GPR18 produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish treated with pcDNA vector alone. In addition, serum lysozyme activity of catfish injected with pcDNA-GPR18 was significantly (P < 0.08) increased. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-GPR18 could be used as a novel immunostimulant to provide immediate protection to channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  19. Dieldrin in the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): uptake and effect on growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Argyle, Ray L.; Williams, George C.; Daniel, Clara B.

    1975-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were given diets containing 0, 0.4, 0.8, or 4.0 I?g dieldrin/g of food (dry weight) for 210 days, followed by a dieldrin-free diet for 56 days. Catfish receiving 4.0 I?g dieldrin/g food gained about 17% less weight than the control fish in 210 days and about 35% less weight during the last 126 days of the 210-day period. No growth differences were attributable to the ingestion of 0.4 or 0.8 I?g dieldrin/g of feed. Mortality during the experiment was random and not appreciable. Dieldrin accumulations were characterized by an immediate rapid rise of residue levels in the tissues, followed by a period during which concentrations were relatively stable. Residues in tissues decreased rapidly after dieldrin was withdrawn from the diet. Dieldrin half-life was 9.6 days (mean for the three groups). Theoretical residue concentrations calculated from the growth, feeding, and half-life data were similar to the empirical concentrations, although the theoretical values were consistently the higher. The recoverable concentration accounted for 25.7% (mean of the three treatments) of the theoretical concentration.

  20. Copper and zinc effects on hematologic system and immune responses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, M.S.A.; Thune, R.L.; Means, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Channel catfish were exposed to sublethal doses of copper, zinc or copper+ zinc in a computer-controlled, continuous flow dilutor system for 14 or 28 days. Tissue levels of metals were assessed in gill, liver and muscle by ICP/MS following digestion. Significant changes were observed in a number of hematological indices including total red, white and differential white blood cell counts after 28 d with all treatments, while effects were only observed with copper at 14 days. The production of antibodies to the infectious bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri measured by ELISA were significantly depressed in copper exposed fish while it was increased significantly in both zinc and copper+zinc exposed fish. Copper exposure enhanced the susceptibility of the catfish to an infectious challenge of E ictaluri, while zinc decreased susceptibility. The copper + zinc fish showed increased susceptibility relative to controls, however, the presence of zinc mitigated the effects of copper in these fish. Responses in laboratory exposures were compared to field exposures measured in fish at several aquaculture facilities.

  1. Hepatic monooxygenase induction and promutagen activation in channel catfish from a contaminated river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.W.; Shane, B.S.; Henry, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    To better understand the etiology of cancer in fish from polluted waters, the impact of environmental contaminants on xenobiotic metabolism of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from a highly polluted water body, Devil's Swamp in southeastern Louisiana, has been investigated. Fish from Devil's Swamp bioaccumulated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (CHI), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fat tissue, the latter exceeding 7000 ppb. Reference catfish from the University farm, Ben Hur, were virtually devoid of PAH, CHI, and PCB. Liver microsomal enzymes (MFO) from Devil's Swamp fish were markedly induced. The specific content of cytochromes P450 and b5 and the specific activities of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase were two to three times higher than those of Ben Hur fish. Consistent with this induction, a 9000g supernatant from Devil's Swamp but not Ben Hur fish activated 2-aminofluorene and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mutagens in the Ames test. BP metabolism by Devil's Swamp fish liver microsomes was inhibited to a greater extent by alpha-naphthoflavone than was BP metabolism by Ben Hur fish microsomes. This finding indicates that the induced activity in the Devil's Swamp fish liver was the result of P450 isozymes characteristic of PAH/PCB induction. Thus, exposure of fish to environmental pollutants can alter MFO leading to enhanced metabolic activation of promutagens to mutagens.

  2. Chemical treatments for reducing the yellow discoloration of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yilin; Liu, Shaoyang; Cline, David; Chen, Shengshun; Wang, Yifen; Bell, Leonard N

    2013-10-01

    The effect of chemical pretreatments on the color and carotenoid content of yellow discolored channel catfish fillets was studied. The color and carotenoid content of the fillets were analyzed by the L*a*b* color system and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Untreated fillets turned more yellow and darker after 12-d storage. Sodium bicarbonate had a beneficial effect on reducing the degree of yellowness, but the fillets still turned darker after storage. Sodium bisulfite gave the best results with fillets becoming less yellow and brighter after storage. Ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, citric acid, and sodium metabisulfite were not successful at reducing the discoloration. The sum of carotenoid contents of untreated fillets decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during storage as compared to the fresh fillets. However, the sum of the carotenoid contents of fillets treated by various chemicals was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the fresh or untreated fillets. The appearance of catfish fillets may be improved during storage by pretreating with sodium bisulfite. PMID:24025113

  3. Uptake, elimination, and relative distribution of perchlorate in various tissues of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.-W.; Bradford, C.M.; Rinchard, J.; Liu, F.; Wages, M.; Waters, A.; Kendall, R.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Theodorakis, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of uptake and elimination of perchlorate in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Perchlorate - an oxidizer used in solid fuel rockets, fireworks, and illuminating munitions - has been shown to effect thyroid function, causing hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. For the uptake study, catfish were exposed to 100 mg/L sodium perchlorate for 12 h to 5 d in the laboratory. Perchlorate in tissues was analyzed using ion chromatography. The highest perchlorate concentrations were found in the head and fillet, indicating that these tissues are the most important tissues to analyze when determining perchlorate uptake into large fish. To calculate uptake and elimination rate constants for fillet, gills, G-I tract, liver, and head, fish were exposed to 100 ppm sodium perchlorate for 5 days, and allowed to depurate in clean water for up to 20 days. The animals rapidly eliminated the perchlorate accumulated showing the highest elimination in fillet (Ke = 1.67 day -1) and lowest elimination in liver (Ke = 0.79 day -1). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  4. A Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptor Subset Is a Marker of Antiviral Cytotoxic Cells in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin B; Moulana, Mohadetheh; Stuge, Tor B; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Bengten, Eva; Wilson, Melanie

    2016-03-15

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes Ig superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. In this study, we demonstrate the use of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish and determine that CC41 binds to a subset of LITRs on the surface of catfish clonal CTLs. Homozygous gynogenetic catfish were immunized with channel catfish virus (CCV)-infected MHC-matched clonal T cells (G14D-CCV), and PBL were collected at various times after immunization for flow cytometric analyses. The percentage of CC41(+) cells was significantly increased 5 d after primary immunization with G14D-CCV and at 3 d after a booster immunization as compared with control fish only injected with G14D. Moreover, CC41(+) cells magnetically isolated from the PBL specifically killed CCV-infected targets as measured by (51)Cr release assays and expressed messages for CD3γδ, perforin, and at least one of the CD4-like receptors as analyzed by RNA flow cytometry. When MLC effector cells derived from a G14D-CCV-immunized fish were preincubated with CC41 mAb, killing of G14D-CCV targets was reduced by ∼40%, suggesting that at least some LITRs have a role in target cell recognition and/or cytotoxicity. The availability of a LITR-specific mAb has allowed, to our knowledge for the first time, functional characterization of LITRs in an autologous system. In addition, the identification of an LITR subset as a cytotoxic cell marker will allow for more effective monitoring of catfish immune responses to pathogens. PMID:26856701

  5. Plasma corticosteroid dynamics in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), during and after oxygen depletion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso J.R., Davis; Parker, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma corticosteroid concentrations in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, (normally 1.0 ± 0.3 μg/100 ml) increased significantly (to 5.9 ± 1.2μg/100 ml) in response to acute oxygen depletion and then returned to control levels within 30 min after the dissolved oxygen concentration was increased; however, a secondary increase in plasma corticosteroid levels was observed 6 h after exposure. Corticosteroid levels also increased in fish exposed to dissolved oxygen concentration of <0.2 mg/1 for three days. Methylene blue was not effective in preventing interrenal response to low dissolved oxygen. No diurnal plasma corticosteroid rhythm was observed in fish exposed to diurnal chemical rhythms of culture ponds.

  6. Metallothionein (MT) induction in channel catfish following treatment with therapeutic levels of copper sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenk, D.; Perkins, E.J.; Griffin, B.

    1995-12-31

    Copper sulfate is regularly used in the aquaculture industry for the treatment of various ectoparasitic infestations. Male and female Channel catfish (Ictlurus punctatus) were treated for 8 weeks with three therapeutic doses of copper sulfate (1.7, 2.7 and 3.6 mg/L). Liver, gill, spleen, and gonads were dissected from 6 fish sampled at two week intervals. Samples were frozen and will be analyzed for MT in each tissue. Total MT will be measured by ELISA using antibodies raised against the first 10 amino acid residues which are conserved in fish. MT mRNA will also be measured in each tissue by the Ribonuclease Protection Assay using winter flounder CDNA and compared to protein measurements during the exposure period. MT levels also will be compared to total copper accumulation levels in each fish.

  7. Liquid-chromatographic determination of sarafloxacin residues in channel catfish muscle-tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gingerich, W.H.; Cheng, B.; Tubergen, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of sarafloxacin hydrochloride residues i n channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Sarafloxacin was extracted from fillet tissue with acetonitrile=water (1 + 1). The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was partitioned with hexane. The aqueous fraction was filtered through a 0.45 Mum filter and evaporated to dryness. The sample was redissolved with 20% acetonitrile-methanol (3 + 2) and 80% trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%), Centrifuged, and filtered to remove proteins. Samples were analyzed by chromatography with gradient elution on a c18 column and with fluorescence detection (excitation at 280 nm and emission above 389 nm). Mean recoveries ranged from 85.4 To 104%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 1.06 To 5.58% In samples spiked at concentrations of 10.0-863.8 Ng/g. The method detection limit for sarafloxacin was 1.4 Ng/g.

  8. Using 1-D and 2-D J-resolved 1H-NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  9. Using 1-D 1H and 2-D 1H J-resolved NMR metabolomics to understand the effects of anemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anemia is a widespread hematological disorder in vertebrates. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), anemia is a persistent problem in culture environments, however, its causes and physiological impacts are not well understood. To better understand the symptoms and characterize associated biomark...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Intravascularly Administered (65)Zinc in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, Mace G.; Schultz, Irvin R. ); Newman, Michael E.

    1999-12-01

    We compared the pharmacokinetics of the radioisotope 65Zinc (65Zn) in blood, plasma, and whole body of adult channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following intravascular (iv) administration. A two compartment model described the pharmacokinetics of 65Zn in plasma and blood during the first 40 days following iv administration, but was unable to describe the long-term disposition of 65Zn. Whole body counting revealed that approximately half of the 65Zn dose was sequestered in a slowly exchangeable pool with a half-life of 1.5 years. Greater than 99% of the circulating 65Zn was bound to plasma proteins, whereas there was less than 1% binding to red blood cells. Synthesis of the results for channel catfish and existing data in other species indicates three phases in the pharmacokinetics of zinc. The first phase consists of initial distribution outside the vascular system to kidney, liver, and other organs (alpha phase in blood and plasma; t1/2 of 4 to 5 hours). The second phase involves distribution from organs to a slowly exchangeable zinc pool, likely consisting of bone (beta phase in blood and plasma; alpha phase in whole body; t1/2 of 4 to 20 days). The third phase appears to involve a slow turnover of sequestered zinc (t1/2 greater than 1 year). Blood sampling or short-term whole body measurements will underestimate the persistence of zinc in fish, thus prolonged sampling and measurement of whole body concentrations are necessary to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zinc.

  11. Bioconcentration and endocrine disruption effects of diazepam in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Overturf, C L; Overturf, M D; Huggett, D B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the detection of pharmaceuticals in surface waters has increased worldwide. Pharmaceuticals are typically found in the environment at concentrations well below therapeutic levels in humans; however, their mechanisms of action may be largely unknown in non-target organisms, such as teleost species. Thus, chronic exposure to these types of compounds warrants further investigation. The goal of this study was to examine the potential for diazepam, a model benzodiazepine drug, to bioconcentrate in tissues of channel catfish and to examine its ability to interact with the endocrine system through modulation of steroid hormones and/or steroidogenic genes. To investigate the bioconcentration potential of diazepam, channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days, followed by clean water for another seven days, using an abbreviated OECD 305 Fish Bioconcentration Test study design. This concentration of diazepam is well below environmentally relevant concentrations of diazepam (ng/L). To evaluate steroidogenic effects, fish were exposed to 1 ng/mL diazepam for seven days only. Steroid hormone concentrations were analyzed for various tissues, as well as expression of selected steroidogenic genes. Calculated bioconcentration factors for diazepam were well below regulatory threshold values in all tissues analyzed. No changes in steroid hormone concentration were detected in any tissue analyzed; however, the steroidogenic gene cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) was significantly down-regulated at day 5 and 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was significantly down-regulated at day 7 in the gonad. These results indicate that although diazepam does not significantly bioconcentrate, low-level chronic exposure to diazepam may have the potential to interact with endocrine function by altering gene expression. PMID:26875913

  12. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality caused by Flavobacterium columnare infection in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Patricia S; Gao, Dana; Sun, Fangshi; Endris, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings held in 80-L aquaria. Nonabraded fish were challenged by immersion on day 0. Thirty 80-L tanks were randomly assigned in equal numbers to two treatment groups, one in which fish were fed a commercial diet without florfenicol (unmedicated feed) and one in which they were fed a diet containing 10 mg of florfenicol/kg of body weight (medicated feed) for ten consecutive days. Mortality was monitored during the treatment period and a 14-d posttreatment observation period. At the end of the posttreatment period, all fish were euthanized, examined for gross lesions, and cultured for F. columnare. Significantly fewer fish fed the medicated diet died (8.0%) than fish fed the unmedicated diet (54.2%). Flavobacterium columnare was cultured from 15.0% of the medicated fish, compared with 68.9% of the unmedicated fish. The gross lesions in the fish were consistent with columnaris disease, and F. columnare was cultured from 99.5% of the dead fish. No differences were observed in weight gain and appetence between the medicated and unmedicated groups. For the F. columnare strain used in this study, the minimal inhibitory concentration of florfenicol ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL in the 30 bacterial cultures obtained from infected fish, and the mean disk diffusion zone of inhibition was 40 mm. There were no adverse effects among the medicated fish. Administration of florfenicol at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight for 10 d was efficacious and safe for the control of mortality from F. columnare infection in channel catfish.

  13. Global transcription analysis of vaccinated channel catfish following challenge with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

    2012-03-15

    To determine the identities of genes involved in either innate or adaptive immunity, microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed to compare gene expression in vaccinated channel catfish after challenge with a virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to that in sham-vaccinated fish without challenge. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2, a total of 167 functionally known unique transcripts were found to be up-regulated, whereas 40 were down-regulated. The 167 up-regulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following eight major categories: (1) immunity (30%); (2) metabolism and energy production (22%); (3) transcription or translation (12%); (4) protein degradation (11%); (5) signal transduction (6%); (6) traffic and transport (6%); (7) cell structure or cell cycle (8%); and (8) others (5%). The 40 down-regulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following six major categories: (1) metabolism (27.5%); (2) immunity (17.5%); (3) cell structure (17.5%); (4) cell motility (10%); (5) signal transduction (15%); and (6) others (12.5%). Microarray analysis revealed that lysozyme c was up-regulated the most (70-fold) in vaccinated fish at 48 h post challenge of virulent E. ictaluri whereas myotubularin related protein 1a and cytochrome P450 2J27 were down-regulated the most (8.1 fold). Differential regulation of eight randomly selected transcripts in vaccinated fish after challenge with virulent E. ictaluri was also validated by quantitative PCR. Our results suggest that these differentially regulated genes might play important roles in channel catfish immunity against E. ictaluri.

  14. Global gene expression in channel catfish after vaccination with an attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Shoemaker, Craig A; Mu, Xingjiang; Klesius, Phillip H

    2012-04-01

    To understand the global gene expression in channel catfish after immersion vaccination with an attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri (AquaVac-ESC™), microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts was performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2, a total of 52 unique transcripts were found to be upregulated in vaccinated fish at 48 h post vaccination, whereas a total of 129 were downregulated. The 52 upregulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following seven major categories: (1) hypothetical (25%); (2) novel (23%); (3) immune response (17%); (4) signal transduction (15%); (5) cell structure (8%); (6) metabolism (4%); and (7) others (8%). The 129 downregulated transcripts represent genes with putative functions in the following ten major categories: (1) novel (25%); (2) immune response (23%); (3) hypothetical (12%); (4) metabolism (10%); (5) signal transduction (7%); (6) protein synthesis (6.2%); (7) cell structure (5%); (8) apoptosis (3%); (9) transcription/translation (2%); and (10) others (6%). Microarray analysis revealed that apolipoprotein A-I was upregulated the most (8.5 fold, P = 0.011) at 48 h post vaccination whereas a novel protein (accession no. CV995854) was downregulated the most (342 fold, P = 0.001). Differential regulation of several randomly selected transcripts in vaccinated fish was also validated by quantitative PCR. Our results suggest that these differentially regulated genes elicited by the vaccination might play important roles in the protection of channel catfish against E. ictaluri.

  15. Molecular immune response of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Hai; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Shoemaker, Craig A; Zhang, Dunhua; Moreira, Gabriel S A

    2016-07-01

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. The fish surviving natural infections or immunized with live theronts develop strong specific and non-specific immune responses. Little is known about how these immune genes are induced or how they interact and lead to specific immunity against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. This study evaluated the differential expression of immune-related genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, complement factor and toll-like receptors in head kidney from channel catfish at different time points after immunization with live theronts of I. multifiliis. The immunized fish showed significantly higher anti-Ich antibody expressed as immobilization titer and ELISA titer than those of control fish. The vast majority of immunized fish (95%) survived theront challenge. Expression of IgM and IgD heavy chain genes exhibited a rapid increase from 4 hour (h4) to 2 days (d2) post immunization. Expression of immune cell receptor genes (CD4, CD8-α, MHC I, MHC II β, TcR-α, and TcR-β) showed up-regulation from h4 to d6 post immunization, indicating that different immune cells were actively involved in cellular immune response. Cytokine gene expression (IL-1βa, IL-1βb, IFN-γ and TNF-α) increased rapidly at h4 post immunization and were at an up-regulated level until d2 compared to the bovine serum albumin control. Expression of complement factor and toll-like receptor genes exhibited a rapid increase from h4 to d2 post immunization. Results of this study demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in the specific or non-specific immune response post immunization and that the vaccination against Ich resulted in protection against infection by I. multifiliis.

  16. Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Shikai; Feng, Jianbin; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Song, Lin; Chen, Ailu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-07-01

    Nitric oxide is well known for its roles in immune responses. As such, its synthesizing enzymes have been extensively studied from various species including some teleost fish species. However, the NOS genes have not been characterized in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). In this study, we identified and characterized three NOS genes including one NOS1 and two NOS2 genes in channel catfish. Comparing with the NOS genes from other fish species, the catfish NOS genes are highly conserved in their structural features. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses allowed determination of NOS1 and NOS2 genes of channel catfish and their orthology relationships. Syntenic analysis, as well as the phylogenetic analysis, indicated that the two NOS2 genes of catfish were lineage-specific duplication. The NOS genes were broadly expressed in most tested tissues, with NOS1 being expressed at the highest levels in the brain, NOS2b1 highly expressed in the skin and gill, and NOS2b2 lowly expressed in most of the tested tissues. The most striking findings of this study was that the expression of the NOS genes are highly regulated after bacterial infection, with time-dependent expression patterns that parallel the migration of macrophages. After Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge, dramatically different responses among the three NOS genes were observed. NOS1 was only significantly in the skin early after infection, while NOS2b1 was rapidly upregulated in gill, but more up-regulated in trunk kidney with the progression of the disease, suggesting such differences in gene expression may be reflective of the migration of macrophages among various tissues of the infected fish. In contrast to NOS1 and NOS2b1, NOS2b2 was normally expressed at very low levels, but it is induced in the brain and liver while significantly down-regulated in most other tissues.

  17. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Peterson, B C; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P < 0.01). Expression of UCP2b mRNA tended to be lower (P < 0.10) in fast growing fish in the middle of the study although levels were similar at the beginning and the end of the study. In the fed vs fasted study, expression of UCP2b mRNA in muscle was increased (P < 0.05) in fish assigned to 30 d of fasting. Our results suggest that, based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities and tissue mRNA distribution, catfish UCP2b may be the analog to UCP3. Moreover, our results suggest selection toward growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms.

  18. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-04-15

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The full-length nucleic acid sequence of channel catfish CXCR4 cDNA comprised of 1994 nucleotides, including an open reading frame, which appears to encode a putative peptide of 357 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 40.1kDa. By comparison with the human counterpart, the channel catfish CXCR4 peptide can be divided into domains, including seven transmembrane domains, four cytoplasmic domains, and four extracellular domains. The CXCR4 transcript was detected in spleen, anterior kidney, liver, intestine, skin and gill of all catfish examined in this study. Because four CXCL of channel catfish have been identified, the result provides valuable information for further exploring the channel catfish chemokine signalling pathways and their roles in immune responses to infection. PMID:19853928

  19. Neoplastic response in Japanese medaka and channel catfish exposed to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Pan, I J; Tu, W J; Lin, W H; Hong, C C; Brittelli, M R

    1996-01-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were investigated for carcinogenic response following a 28-day, 3 x/wk pulse exposure to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Five-wk-old medaka were exposed at concentrations of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L, and 5-mo-old catfish at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L. In medaka, a total of 19 tumors including 2 branchioblastomas, 6 thyroid follicular adenomas and 1 adenocarcinoma, and 11 subcutaneous fibrosarcomas were observed in 16 of 96 MNNG-exposed fish. In catfish, a total of 37 tumors including 4 squamous cell carcinomas and 16 papillomas, 3 lipomas, 1 fibroma, 1 osteosarcoma, 4 branchioblastomas, 6 thymic epithelial tumors, and 2 generalized lymphosarcomas were observed in 34 of 172 MNNG-exposed fish. The induction of neoplasms in medaka was primarily in the gill, thyroid, and subcutis of the cervical and trunk regions, whereas in catfish skin, thymus, oro-pharynx, and hemopoietic tissues were also commonly affected. In both species, the neoplastic response was considered to be related to direct exposure of the tissues to MNNG. Some of these tumors have not been reported in the literature in either natural or experimental fish. The results also suggest species-specific differences in carcinogenic response following MNNG exposure. PMID:8994296

  20. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  1. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  2. Safety of Aquaflor (Florfenicol, 50% Type A Medicated Article), Administered in Feed to Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Endris, R.G.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  3. Safety of aquaflor (florfenicol, 50% type a medicated article), administered in feed to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Endris, Richard G.; Gingerich, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Aquaflor, a feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (50% w/w), is being developed for use to control enteric septicemia (ESC) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus caused by the gram-negative enterobacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. The recommended dose of Aquaflor to control ESC is 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 10 days. The study objective was to determine the safety of Aquaflor administered in feed to channel catfish at doses of 0 (control), 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg BW/day for 20 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated included daily mortality, behavioral (appetite, distribution, flight/fright response), and water chemistry observations, initial and terminal weight measurements, and gross and microscopic pathology. Medicated feed consumption was 67-86% of target with group mean doses of 8.5 mg/kg BW/day, 24.6 mg/kg BW/day, and 34.9 mg/kg BW/day. There were no mortalities or clinically observable changes noted at any of the dose levels tested. Aquaflor-related changes were limited to the food consumption and histopathology data. Although Aquaflor-related decreased feed consumption was noted in the 30 and 50 mg/kg BW/day groups, there were no differences in fish growth among the treatment groups. Aquaflor-related histopathology findings were limited to a histomorphologically evident dose-dependent decrease in hematopoietic/lymphopoietic tissue in the anterior kidneys, posterior kidneys, and spleens of channel catfish.

  4. Effects of Bio-Mos on Growth and Survival of Channel Catfish Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the catfish farming industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri (E. ictaluri). Methods to control this disease include antibiotic therapy, vaccinations, and management strategies such as taking the fish...

  5. Statistical approaches to optimize detection of MIB off-flavor in aquaculture raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The catfish industry prides itself on preventing inadvertent sale of off-flavor fish. Typically, several fish are taste tested over several weeks before pond harvest to confirm good fish flavor quality. We collected several data sets of analytically measured off-flavor concentrations in catfish to...

  6. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of fresh channel catfish fillets by bacteriophage Listex P100.

    PubMed

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Hagens, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Bacteriophage Listex P100 (phage P100) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service for Listeria monocytogenes control on both raw and ready-to-eat food products. In this article, we present the proof of concept on the influence of phage dose, phage contact time, and storage temperature on the listericidal activity of phage P100 in reducing the L. monocytogenes loads on the surface of fresh channel catfish fillet. The fresh catfish fillet samples were surface inoculated with approximately 4.3 log(10) colony forming units (CFU)/g of a two serotype mix (1/2a and 4b) of L. monocytogenes cells and then surface treated with phage P100. L. monocytogenes reduction was influenced by phage contact time and phage dose regardless of higher or lower temperature regimes tested on catfish fillet. The reduction in L. monocytogenes loads (p < 0.05) with the phage P100 dose of 2 x 10(7) plaque forming units (PFU)/g (7.3 log(10) PFU/g) was 1.4-2.0 log(10) CFU/g at 4 degrees C, 1.7-2.1 log(10) CFU/g at 10 degrees C, and 1.6-2.3 log(10) CFU/g at room temperature (22 degrees C) on raw catfish fillet. The phage contact time of 30 min was adequate to yield greater than 1 log(10) CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes, whereas 15 min contact time with phage yielded less than 1 log(10) CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes loads on catfish fillet. Phage P100 titer was stable on catfish fillet samples, and overall reductions in L. monocytogenes counts were still maintained over a 10-day shelf life at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C by phage P100 treatment. These findings illustrate the effectiveness of an alternative generally recognized as safe antimicrobial such as bacteriophage Listex P100 in quantitatively reducing L. monocytogenes from fresh catfish fillet surfaces.

  7. Reducing size variation in hybrid catfish culture through graded partial harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid Catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) have quickly become a major contributor to ictalurid catfish aquaculture in the United States. Hybrid Catfish have unique production characteristics compared with Channel Catfish, and rapid farmer adoption of the hyb...

  8. Channel catfish hemoglobin genes: identification, phylogenetic and syntenic analysis, and specific induction in response to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Shikai; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Jiaren; Jiang, Yanliang; Li, Chao; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Li, Jiale; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-03-01

    Hemoglobins transport oxygen from gill to inner organs in fish, and this process is affected by temperature, one of the major environmental factors for fish. The hemoglobin gene clusters have been well studied in humans and several model fish species, but remain largely unknown in catfish. Here, eight α- and six β-hemoglobin genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Genomic synteny analysis showed that these hemoglobin genes were separated into two unlinked clusters, the MN cluster containing six α- and six β-hemoglobin genes, and the LA cluster consisting of two α-hemoglobin genes. Channel catfish hemoglobin genes were ubiquitously expressed in all the 10 tested tissues from healthy fish, but exhibited higher expression level in spleen, head kidney, and trunk kidney. In response to heat stress, hemoglobin genes, especially MN Hbα4, MN Hbα5, MN Hbα6, MN Hbβ4, MN Hbβ5, MN Hbβ6, LA Hbα1, and LA Hbα2, presumably the embryonic hemoglobin genes, were drastically up-regulated in the gill and head kidney of heat-tolerant fishes, but not in these tissues of the heat-intolerant fish, suggesting the importance of the embryonic hemoglobin genes in coping with the low oxygen conditions under heat stress.

  9. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft and hard water.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, J; Gatlin, D M

    1993-12-01

    1. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft (< 1 mg/l as CaCO3) and hard (> 100 mg/l as CaCO3) water were determined by feeding purified egg-white diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% calcium from CaCO3 for 8 weeks. 2. Catfish fry fed the basal diet (0.03% Ca) in hard and soft water had lower whole-body ash and whole-body calcium concentrations but higher weight gain and survival than those fed calcium-supplemented diets. 3. Fry in soft water generally had lower whole-body ash, whole-body calcium, and survival, as well as a higher incidence of spinal deformities than fry in hard water. 4. Feeding higher levels of calcium to fry reared in soft water did not increase whole-body calcium levels or decrease spinal deformities to the levels observed for fry reared in hard water and fed supplemental calcium. 5. These data indicate that calcium derived solely from dietary or environmental sources was not sufficient for optimum health of channel catfish fry.

  10. Arginine and glutamine supplementation to culture media improves the performance of various channel catfish immune cells.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Mwangi, Waithaka; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2012-05-01

    Specific components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems of channel catfish were evaluated after supplementation of culture media with arginine (ARG) and/or glutamine (GLN). Primary cell cultures of head-kidney macrophages (MØ) were used for phagocytic and bactericidal assays against Edwardsiella ictaluri. Additionally, proliferation assays were conducted with naïve peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to non-specific mitogens. To indirectly assess amino acid utilization of both MØ and PBL, amino acid levels, with emphasis on ARG and GLN, were evaluated in the basal medium before and after activation or mitogenic exposure. After bactericidal and proliferation assays, the sum of the media free amino acid pool significantly (P < 0.05) decreased 23% and 45%, respectively. Glutamine levels in medium decreased by 38% and ARG by 18% during the bactericidal assay. Also, decreases of 52 and 46% from initial values were found after the proliferation assay for GLN and ARG, respectively. Macrophage phagocytosis and killing ability was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by ARG supplementation to culture media regardless of GLN supplementation. Proliferation of naïve T- and B-lymphocytes upon mitogenic exposure was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by supplementing ARG and GLN to the media, but limited synergistic effects were observed. These results suggest that in vitro, ARG and GLN are important substrates and immunomodulators of both innate and adaptive responses in fish leukocytes, and further highlights the potential use of ARG and GLN as immunonutrients in aquafeeds.

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophages specific to the channel catfish pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri is a primary cause of mortality in channel catfish raised commercially in aquaculture farms. Additional treatment and diagnostic regimes are needed for this enteric pathogen, motivating the discovery and characterization of bacteriophages specific to E. ictaluri. Results The genomes of three Edwardsiella ictaluri-specific bacteriophages isolated from geographically distant aquaculture ponds, at different times, were sequenced and analyzed. The genomes for phages eiAU, eiDWF, and eiMSLS are 42.80 kbp, 42.12 kbp, and 42.69 kbp, respectively, and are greater than 95% identical to each other at the nucleotide level. Nucleotide differences were mostly observed in non-coding regions and in structural proteins, with significant variability in the sequences of putative tail fiber proteins. The genome organization of these phages exhibit a pattern shared by other Siphoviridae. Conclusions These E. ictaluri-specific phage genomes reveal considerable conservation of genomic architecture and sequence identity, even with considerable temporal and spatial divergence in their isolation. Their genomic homogeneity is similarly observed among E. ictaluri bacterial isolates. The genomic analysis of these phages supports the conclusion that these are virulent phages, lacking the capacity for lysogeny or expression of virulence genes. This study contributes to our knowledge of phage genomic diversity and facilitates studies on the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of these phages. PMID:21214923

  12. Copper accumulation in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to water borne copper sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.; Griffin, B.; Schlenk, D.; Kadlubar, F.; Brand, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Liver and axial muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was analyzed for residual copper after exposure to water borne copper sulfate. Copper sulfate was continuously introduced into well water in three fiber glass tanks to achieve 1.7 mg/L, 2.7 mg/L and 3.6 mg/L copper sulfate concentrations in exposure waters. Milli-Q quality water was metered into a fourth tank at the same rate for unexposed fish. Actual levels of copper in exposure waters were determined by daily sampling and analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAA). Tissue samples were taken from six fish from each of the exposed and unexposed tanks at two-week intervals, Samples were collected until tissue analysis indicated an equilibrium had been established between the uptake and elimination in both the muscle and liver tissue. Elimination was followed until a clear rate of deputation could be established. Samples were digested in nitric acid in a micro wave digestor and analyzed by GFAA. Results of tissue analysis will be presented to demonstrate bioaccumulation and the effect of copper concentration, length of copper exposure, and gender on copper uptake, establishment of tissue:environmental copper equilibrium, and rate of copper elimination following exposure.

  13. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of nitrofurantoin in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Plakas, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolism of the drug nitrofurantoin were examined in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular or oral dosing. Mean plasma concentrations of nitrofurantoin after intravascular administration at 1 and 10 mg/kg of body weight were best fit to two- and three-compartment pharmacokinetic models, respectively. Nitrofurantoin was rapidly eliminated from the plasma after intravascular dosing; at 1 and 10 mg/kg, the terminal half-lives were 23 and 46 min, respectively. After oral dosing at 1 mg/kg, peak plasma concentrations (0.06 mu g/ml) occurred at 2 h; the bioavailability was 17%. Residues of nitrofurantoin and its metabolites in the tissues were initially eliminated rapidly but persisted at the later sampling times. Residue concentrations were highest in the plasma and excretory tissues. Approximately 21% and 4% of the oral dose were eliminated in the urine and bile, respectively. Parent nitrofurantoin was the major radiolabelled compound found in the urine; however, the percentage of total residues composed of metabolites increased with time. Biliary residues consisted mostly of nitrofurantoin metabolites. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of at least five metabolites in the urine and bile.

  14. Metabolic responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to phenol and post-exposure recovery.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Fernanda D; Rossi, Priscila A; Figueiredo, Juliana S L; Venturini, Francine P; Cortella, Lucas R X; Moraes, Gilberto

    2016-05-31

    Metabolic adjustments were studied in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to 1.5 mg L-1 of phe nol (10% LC50) for four days and recovered for seven days. Lower triacylglycerol (TGA) stores and increased muscle fat free acids (FFA) suggest fat catabolism in muscle. Remarkable liver FFA decrease (-31%) suggests liver fat catabolism as well. Increased muscular ammonia levels and ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase) and decreased plasma aminoacids suggest higher muscular amino acid uptake. Constant levels of glucose and increased liver glycogen stores, associated with lower amino acids in plasma, indicate gluconeogenesis from amino acids. This is supported by higher hepatic ALAT and ASAT. Higher hepatic LDH followed by lower plasma lactate may indicate that plasma lactate was also used as gluconeogenic substrate. Biochemical alterations were exacerbated during the post-exposure recovery period. Reduction in muscle and plasma protein content indicate proteolysis. A higher rate of liver fat catabolism was resulted from a remarkable decrease in hepatic TGA (-58%). Catabolic preference for lipids was observed in order to supply such elevated energy demand. This study is the first insight about the metabolic profile of I. punctatus to cope with phenol plus its ability to recover, bringing attention to the biological consequences of environmental contamination. PMID:27254449

  15. Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?22–25 °C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7?±?1.9%, 59.8?±?1.9%, and 77.4?±?1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5?±?3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

  16. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  17. Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila to channel catfish Ictaluras punctatus fingerlings in the presence and absence of bacterial extracellular products.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-07-12

    We investigated the virulence of three 2009 west Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (AL09-71, AL09-72 and AL09-73) to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings (4.6 +/- 1.3 g) in the presence and absence of extracellular products (ECPs) from overnight bacterial culture using both bath immersion and intraperitoneal injection routes. At a concentration of 1.65 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) ml(-1), AL09-73 without its ECPs killed 100% of the catfish fingerlings within 2 h by bath immersion. However, at a similar concentration, AL09-73 in the presence of its ECPs killed only 23 +/- 6% catfish fingerlings. The absence of ECPs in the bath immersion experiment also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the virulence of AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL98-C1B, a 1998 Alabama strain of A. hydrophila, suggesting that the virulence of the 4 A. hydrophila isolates was mainly due to bacterial cells, not to their overnight ECPs. Filter-sterilized ECPs failed to kill any catfish by bath immersion or injection. The virulence order of the 4 A. hydrophila isolates, by both bath immersion and intraperitoneal injection, was: AL09-73 > or = AL09-71 > AL09-72 > or = AL98-C1B. At 2 h post bath immersion, all 4 isolates of A. hydrophila were found in all tissues studied (skin, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney, gill and brain), with the highest bacteria count being in the gill and kidney.

  18. Histopathology of repeated, intermittent exposure of chloramine-T to walleye (Sander vitreum) and (Ictalurus punctalus) channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Densmore, Christine L.; Blazer, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chloramine-T (Cl-T) has been used safely and effectively to control bacterial gill disease in salmonids at a maximum exposure regimen of up to four consecutive, once-daily exposures administered for 60??min at 20??mg/L. However, data to document safe treatment concentrations of Cl-T are lacking for freshwater-reared fish other than salmonids. We report the histopathology resultant from the administration of 12 consecutive, once-daily, 180-min static immersion baths of 0, 20, 50, or 80??mg Cl-T/L to walleye (20????C) and channel catfish (27????C). Twelve fish of each species were euthanized immediately before the first exposure (initial controls) and then after the twelfth exposure and 7 and 14??days after the twelfth exposure. Only initial controls and fish euthanized immediately after the twelfth exposure were processed for histological review because of the general lack of exposure-related lesions in exposed fish. The only exposure-related histological changes were in the spleen where significantly greater erythrocyte swelling and necrosis was observed in channel catfish exposed at 80??mg/L relative to exposure at 0??mg/L; similar histological changes were insignificant for walleye, though there appeared to be a shift in the general category of histological change with degenerative changes (necrosis, etc.) observed following exposure at 50 or 80??mg/L compared to the inflammatory and hemodynamic changes (congestion, leukocyte infiltrate, etc.) observed in walleye exposed at 0 or 20??mg/L. The only significant change in peripheral blood cytology was that walleye fingerlings exposed at 80??mg/L had significantly fewer mature red blood cells and significantly more immature red blood cells per oil-immersion field than controls. The histopathological changes observed following exposure to Cl-T under an exaggerated exposure regimen suggest that walleye or channel catfish therapeutically exposed to Cl-T will not have treatment-related histological changes.

  19. Methyl mercury toxicokinetics in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) after intravascular administration

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, I.R.; Newman, M.C.

    1997-05-01

    The authors compared the differences in the distribution and elimination of Ch{sub 3}Hg after intraarterial injection and serial blood removal in catfish and bass of similar body size under consistent water quality conditions. The blood and plasma concentration-time profiles of individual fish were analyzed using a three-compartment, clearance-volume model. The plasma protein binding of CH{sub 3}Hg was determined by ultrafiltration and the binding affinity ({rho}) of CH{sub 3}Hg for red blood cells (RBCs) was also calculated. Toxicokinetic analysis of the plasma concentration-time profiles provided the following values: apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V{sub ss}) = 30 {+-} 14 ml/g (catfish), 6.2 {+-} 2 ml/g (bass); total body clearance (Cl{sub b}) = 0.026 {+-} 0.011 ml/h/g (catfish), 0.0057 {+-} 0.001 ml/h/g (bass). The values of V{sub ss} and Cl{sub b} estimated from the blood concentration-time profiles in catfish and bass were fivefold lower. The elimination half-life from blood and plasma was between 814 and 1670 h and was not statistically different between species or reference fluid. The AUC{sub 0{yields}x} for blood was over three times higher than plasma, due to the binding of CH{sub 3}Hg to RBCs. The unbound fraction of CH{sub 3}Hg in bass plasma was 14-fold lower and the {rho} for RBCs was 20 times greater than catfish. The decreased binding to plasma and RBCs in catfish is consistent with the increased extravascular distribution and clearance capacity of CH{sub 3}Hg in catfish because a larger fraction of the CH{sub 3}Hg in blood is available to distribute outside the vascular system.

  20. Effects of environmental pH and calcium on ammonia toxicity in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso, J.R.; Goudie, C.A.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The twenty-four-hour median lethal concentrations (24-hour LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (TA-N) to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) at pH 7, 8, and 9 (total hardness, 40 mg/liter; temperature, 21–25 C) were 263.6 ± 11.3 (SE), 38.8 ± 1.8, and 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/liter, respectively. The 24-hour LC50 of un-ionized ammonia nitrogen (UIA-N) concentration at pH 8 was significantly higher (1.82 ± 0.06 mg/liter) than at pH 7 or 9 (1.39 ± 0.06 and 1.49 ± 0.12 mg/liter). Enrichment of the water to 440 mg/liter total hardness at pH 7 significantly increased the 24-hour LC50 of TA-N and UIA-N (356.3 ± 16.4 and 1.79 ± 0.07). Fish exposed to 25 mg/liter TA-N for 12 hours at pH 7 and 8 showed no differences from control fish in hematocrit, percent total plasma protein, or plasma and muscle chloride. Plasma sodium showed no difference between control and experimental groups at pH 7; however, a significant decrease occurred in fish exposed to 25 mg/liter TA-N at pH 8. No differences in blood pH were found between the control groups and fish exposed to 100 and 200 mg/liter TA-N at pH 7, and to 10 and 25 mg/liter TA-N at pH 8. Plasma sodium depletion is suggested as a contributing mechanism of ammonia toxicity.

  1. Sewage effluent biomonitoring. I. Survival, growth, and histopathological effects in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Mitz, S V; Giesy, J P

    1985-08-01

    A 17-day, in situ, biomonitoring study using caged, juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was conducted at five sites along a 9-km section of the Flint River at the Anthony Ragnone Wastewater Treatment Plant near Montrose, Michigan. Effects on survival, growth, and gill and liver histopathology were examined. No differences in growth, measured as wet weight gain, were observed between upstream control (UP) and experimental fish located 9 km downstream from the outfall (Down 4). Acute, 100% mortality occurred at study sites 300 and 500 m downstream from the outfall (Down 1 and Down 2, respectively). Mortality was probably due to excessive mean total residual chlorine concentration (0.24 and 0.30 mg/liter at Down 1 and Down 2, respectively). No mortality was observed at the remaining study sites. Forty percent of the fish at UP had slight hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium. All fish at Down 4 had two or more moderate to severe histopathological damages to the gills, including severe hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, clubbing and fusion of the secondary lamellae, moderate to severe edema in the secondary lamellae, and multiple, blood-filled aneurysms. Thirty-eight percent of livers from the UP fish were extremely vacuolated compared to 60% of the Down 4 fish livers. Both the vacuolated and less vacuolated (dense) liver sections stained negatively for lipids with oil red O. The vacuolated liver sections were qualitatively more intense than the dense sections when stained with Best's carmine. Vacuolated liver sections stained negatively with Best's carmine when pretreated with amylase, thereby indicating that the vacuolation represented glycogen storage. There was no correlation between the histopathological changes and any deleterious effects on growth or survival during the 17-day exposure. However, the gill histopathological changes would likely increase susceptibility to bacterial gill disease, and cause a reduction in the scope

  2. Sewage effluent biomonitoring. I. Survival, growth, and histopathological effects in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Mitz, S V; Giesy, J P

    1985-08-01

    A 17-day, in situ, biomonitoring study using caged, juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was conducted at five sites along a 9-km section of the Flint River at the Anthony Ragnone Wastewater Treatment Plant near Montrose, Michigan. Effects on survival, growth, and gill and liver histopathology were examined. No differences in growth, measured as wet weight gain, were observed between upstream control (UP) and experimental fish located 9 km downstream from the outfall (Down 4). Acute, 100% mortality occurred at study sites 300 and 500 m downstream from the outfall (Down 1 and Down 2, respectively). Mortality was probably due to excessive mean total residual chlorine concentration (0.24 and 0.30 mg/liter at Down 1 and Down 2, respectively). No mortality was observed at the remaining study sites. Forty percent of the fish at UP had slight hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium. All fish at Down 4 had two or more moderate to severe histopathological damages to the gills, including severe hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, clubbing and fusion of the secondary lamellae, moderate to severe edema in the secondary lamellae, and multiple, blood-filled aneurysms. Thirty-eight percent of livers from the UP fish were extremely vacuolated compared to 60% of the Down 4 fish livers. Both the vacuolated and less vacuolated (dense) liver sections stained negatively for lipids with oil red O. The vacuolated liver sections were qualitatively more intense than the dense sections when stained with Best's carmine. Vacuolated liver sections stained negatively with Best's carmine when pretreated with amylase, thereby indicating that the vacuolation represented glycogen storage. There was no correlation between the histopathological changes and any deleterious effects on growth or survival during the 17-day exposure. However, the gill histopathological changes would likely increase susceptibility to bacterial gill disease, and cause a reduction in the scope

  3. Cloning, in Vitro expression, and novel phylogenetic classification of a channel catfish estrogen receptor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Z.; Patino, R.; Gale, W.L.; Maule, A.G.; Densmore, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    We obtained two channel catfish estrogen receptor (ccER) cDNA from liver of female fish using RT–PCR. The two fragments were identical in sequence except that the smaller one had an out-of-frame deletion in the E domain, suggesting the existence of ccER splice variants. The larger fragment was used to screen a cDNA library from liver of a prepubescent female. A cDNA was obtained that encoded a 581-amino-acid ER with a deduced molecular weight of 63.8 kDa. Extracts of COS-7 cells transfected with ccER cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 4.7 nM) and specificity. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of ccER on the basis of 18 full-length ER sequences. The tree suggested the existence of two major ER branches. One branch contained two clearly divergent clades which included all piscine ER (except Japanese eel ER) and all tetrapod ERα, respectively. The second major branch contained the eel ER and the mammalian ERβ. The high degree of divergence between the eel ER and mammalian ERβ suggested that they also represent distinct piscine and tetrapod ER. These data suggest that ERα and ERβ are present throughout vertebrates and that these two major ER types evolved by duplication of an ancestral ER gene. Sequence alignments with other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily indicated the presence of 8 amino acids in the E domain that align exclusively among ER. Four of these amino acids have not received prior research attention and their function is unknown. The novel finding of putative ER splice variants in a nonmammalian vertebrate and the novel phylogenetic classification of ER offer new perspectives in understanding the diversification and function of ER.

  4. Claudin multigene family in channel catfish and their expression profiles in response to bacterial infection and hypoxia as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luyang; Liu, Shikai; Bao, Lisui; Li, Yun; Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-03-01

    Claudins are one of the major groups of transmembrane proteins that play crucial roles in tight junctions. In addition to their function in the regulation of paracellular permeability, claudins are also involved in a number of biological processes related to pathogen infection, embryonic development, organ development and hypoxia response. Despite its importance, analyses of claudin genes in channel catfish have not been systematically performed. In this study, a total of 52 claudin genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine their identities and identify a number of lineage-specific claudin gene duplications in channel catfish. Expression profiles of catfish claudin genes in response to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) disease and hypoxia stress were determined by analyzing existing RNA-Seq datasets. Claudin genes were significantly down-regulated in the intestine at 3h post-infection, indicating that pathogens may disrupt the mucosal barrier by suppressing the expression of claudin genes. A total of six claudin genes were significantly regulated in the gill after hypoxia stress. Among them, the expressions of cldn-11b and cldn-10d were dramatically altered when comparing hypoxia tolerant fish with intolerant fish, though their specific roles involved in response to hypoxia stress remained unknown.

  5. Editing of the Luteinizing Hormone Gene to Sterilize Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Using a Modified Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology with Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Su, Baofeng; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Zhi; Perera, Dayan A; Fobes, Michael; Shang, Mei; Dunham, Rex A

    2016-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most important freshwater aquaculture species in the USA. Genetically enhanced fish that are sterile could both profit the catfish industry and reduce potential environmental and ecological risks. As the first step to generate sterile channel catfish, three sets of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids targeting the luteinizing hormone (LH) gene were designed and electroporated into one-cell embryos, different concentrations were introduced, and the Cel-I assay was conducted to detect mutations. Channel catfish carrying the mutated LH gene were sterile, as confirmed by DNA sequencing and mating experiments. The overall mutation rate was 19.7 % for 66 channel catfish, and the best treatment was ZFN set 1 at the concentration 25 μg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of gene editing of fish via plasmid introduction instead of mRNA microinjection. The introduction of the ZFN plasmids may have reduced mosaicism, as mutated individuals were gene edited in every tissue evaluated. Apparently, the plasmids were eventually degraded without integration, as they were not detectable in mutated individuals using PCR. Carp pituitary extract failed to induce spawning and restoration of fertility, indicating the need for developing other hormone therapies to achieve reversal of sterility upon demand. This is the first sterilization achieved using ZFN technology in an aquaculture species and the first successful gene editing of channel catfish. Our results will help understand the roles of the LH gene, purposeful sterilization of teleost fishes, and is a step towards control of domestic, hybrid, exotic, invasive, and transgenic fishes. PMID:26846523

  6. Repeated handling compromises the immune suppression and improves the disease resistance in overwintering channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingyuan; Wang, Cuicui; Hu, Huihua; Tu, Yongqin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2015-11-01

    In winter, fish have suppressed immune functions and are susceptible to bacteria or virus which may lead to a high mortality. It is necessary to improve the immune response and disease resistance for overwintering fish. A recent study suggested that repeated handling increased the innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Senegalese sole. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that appropriate repeated handling could compromise the immune depression and increase the disease resistance in channel catfish over winter. The experiment was carried out in field cages from Nov. 2012 to April 2013. Before the experiment, 35 fish with an average weight of 188.4 g were randomly assigned to one of six cages (2 m × 2 m × 2 m). Three cages were designed as the control group and did not receive any interfere. Fish in the other three cages received a weekly repeated handling of an air exposure for 5 min. Fish were not fed over winter. At the end of the trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 5.6 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1). The results showed that final body weight was not changed between groups. The spleen somatic index increased while the head kidney somatic index decreased in the unhandled fish after bacterial challenge, but these indices were not significantly changed in the repeated handled fish. Plasma cortisol levels in the control fish were induced at 6 h post challenge and then declined to the normal levels. However, plasma cortisol levels in the repeated handled fish did not show any significant change after bacteria challenge. The reduced inducement of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression by repeated handling was observed in fish post bacterial challenge. After overwintering, repeated handled fish exhibited increased catalase (CAT) activities and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of channel catfish were enhanced by repeated

  7. Repeated handling compromises the immune suppression and improves the disease resistance in overwintering channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingyuan; Wang, Cuicui; Hu, Huihua; Tu, Yongqin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2015-11-01

    In winter, fish have suppressed immune functions and are susceptible to bacteria or virus which may lead to a high mortality. It is necessary to improve the immune response and disease resistance for overwintering fish. A recent study suggested that repeated handling increased the innate immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Senegalese sole. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that appropriate repeated handling could compromise the immune depression and increase the disease resistance in channel catfish over winter. The experiment was carried out in field cages from Nov. 2012 to April 2013. Before the experiment, 35 fish with an average weight of 188.4 g were randomly assigned to one of six cages (2 m × 2 m × 2 m). Three cages were designed as the control group and did not receive any interfere. Fish in the other three cages received a weekly repeated handling of an air exposure for 5 min. Fish were not fed over winter. At the end of the trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 5.6 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1). The results showed that final body weight was not changed between groups. The spleen somatic index increased while the head kidney somatic index decreased in the unhandled fish after bacterial challenge, but these indices were not significantly changed in the repeated handled fish. Plasma cortisol levels in the control fish were induced at 6 h post challenge and then declined to the normal levels. However, plasma cortisol levels in the repeated handled fish did not show any significant change after bacteria challenge. The reduced inducement of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression by repeated handling was observed in fish post bacterial challenge. After overwintering, repeated handled fish exhibited increased catalase (CAT) activities and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of channel catfish were enhanced by repeated

  8. Transcriptome Display During Testicular Differentiation of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) as Revealed by RNA-Seq Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zihao; Jiang, Chen; Chen, Ailu; Fu, Qiang; Su, Baofeng; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-07-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been recognized as a dominant freshwater aquaculture species in the United States. It is also a suitable model for studying the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation because of its sexual plasticity and exhibition of both genetic and environmental sex determination. The testicular differentiation in male channel catfish normally starts between 90 and 102 days postfertilization (dpf), while the ovarian differentiation starts early from 19 dpf. As such, efforts to better understand the postponed testicular development at the molecular level are needed. Toward that end, we conducted transcriptomic comparison of gene expression of male and female gonads at 90, 100, and 110 dpf using high-throughput RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic profiles of male gonads on 90 and 100 dpf exhibited high similarities except for a small number of significantly up-regulated genes that were involved in development of germ cell-supporting somatic cells, while drastic changes were observed during 100-110 dpf, with a group of highly up-regulated genes that were involved in germ cells development, including nanog and pou5f1 Transcriptomic comparison between testes and ovaries identified male-preferential genes, such as gsdf, cxcl12, as well as other cytokines mediated the development of the gonad into a testis. Co-expression analysis revealed highly correlated genes and potential pathways underlying germ cell differentiation and spermatogonia stem cell development. The candidate genes and pathways identified in this study set the foundation for further studies on sex determination and differentiation in catfish as well as other teleosts.

  9. Transcriptome Display During Testicular Differentiation of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) as Revealed by RNA-Seq Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zihao; Jiang, Chen; Chen, Ailu; Fu, Qiang; Su, Baofeng; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-07-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been recognized as a dominant freshwater aquaculture species in the United States. It is also a suitable model for studying the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation because of its sexual plasticity and exhibition of both genetic and environmental sex determination. The testicular differentiation in male channel catfish normally starts between 90 and 102 days postfertilization (dpf), while the ovarian differentiation starts early from 19 dpf. As such, efforts to better understand the postponed testicular development at the molecular level are needed. Toward that end, we conducted transcriptomic comparison of gene expression of male and female gonads at 90, 100, and 110 dpf using high-throughput RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic profiles of male gonads on 90 and 100 dpf exhibited high similarities except for a small number of significantly up-regulated genes that were involved in development of germ cell-supporting somatic cells, while drastic changes were observed during 100-110 dpf, with a group of highly up-regulated genes that were involved in germ cells development, including nanog and pou5f1 Transcriptomic comparison between testes and ovaries identified male-preferential genes, such as gsdf, cxcl12, as well as other cytokines mediated the development of the gonad into a testis. Co-expression analysis revealed highly correlated genes and potential pathways underlying germ cell differentiation and spermatogonia stem cell development. The candidate genes and pathways identified in this study set the foundation for further studies on sex determination and differentiation in catfish as well as other teleosts. PMID:27307075

  10. Synergies between vaccination and dietary arginine and glutamine supplementation improve the immune response of channel catfish against Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F; Mwangi, Waithaka; Smith, Roger; Gatlin, Delbert M

    2012-09-01

    Channel catfish was used to investigate the enhancement of vaccine efficacy following dietary supplementation with arginine (ARG, 4% of diet), glutamine (GLN, 2% of diet), or a combination of both. After vaccination against Edwardsiella ictaluri, humoral and cellular immune responses, along with lymphoid organ responses were evaluated. E. ictaluri-specific antibody titers in plasma were higher (P < 0.05) in fish fed the supplemented diets compared to those fed the basal diet as early as 7 d post-vaccination (dpv). B-cell proportion in head-kidney was higher (P < 0.05) at 14 dpv in vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet. The responsiveness of spleen and head-kidney lymphocytes against E. ictaluri was enhanced (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation of ARG or GLN at 14 dpv. Additionally, at 7 dpv, vaccinated fish fed the GLN diet had higher (P < 0.05) head kidney weights relative to the other dietary treatments, and vaccinated fish fed ARG-supplemented diets had higher (P < 0.05) protein content in this tissue. Results from this study suggest that dietary supplementation of ARG and GLN may improve specific cellular and humoral mechanisms, enhancing the acquired immunity in vaccinated channel catfish.

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  12. Growth and contribution of stocked channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818): the importance of measuring post-stocking performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was sought to quantify post-stocking growth, survival, and contribution of advanced size (178 mm total length [TL]) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings, something rarely done. Channel catfish populations were evaluated before (May 2010) and after (May to August 2011 and 2012) stocking. Relative abundance, stocking contribution, and growth were different (P < 0.05) in the two study impoundments (lakes Lone Chimney and Greenleaf, Oklahoma). For fish stocked in Lake Lone Chimney, stocking contribution was lower (3–35%), and average length and weight of stocked fish by age-2 reached 230 mm TL and 85 g, whereas the stocking contribution (84–98%) and growth in length (340 mm TL) and weight (280 g) were higher by age-2 in Lake Greenleaf. Given these unambiguous differences of post-stocking performance, benchmark metrics that represent population-level information such as relative abundance and average length and weight of the sample masked these significant differences, highlighting the importance of marking hatchery-fish and then following them through time to determine the effectiveness of stocking. These results suggest that stock enhancement programmes would benefit from studies that quantify post-stocking performance of hatchery fish.

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and the adjuvant effects of interleukin-8 of channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) against Streptococcus iniae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Jun; Long, Bo; Wang, Kaiyu; He, Yang; Yang, Qian; Chen, Defang; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) as an important cytokine involving in inflammatory and immune response, has been studied as effective adjuvants for vaccines in mammals. However, there are fewer reports about the characterization and adjuvant effects of IL-8 in fish. In this study, cloning and sequence analysis of IL-8 coding region of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were conducted, mature IL-8(rtIL-8) was expressed and evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the immunoprotection of subunit vaccine encoding α-enolase (rENO) of Streptococcus iniae from several aspects in channel catfish. The results showed co-vaccination of rENO with rtIL-8 enhanced immune responses including humoral and cellular immunity, with higher relative percent survival(RPS,71.4%) compared with the moderate RPS of rENO alone(50%) against S. iniae infection at 4 week post vaccination. While rtIL-8 failed to maintain long-lasting immune protection, only with RPS of 26.67% in rENO + rtIL-8-vaccinated fish compared with that of rENO alone(20%) at 8 week, signifying that IL-8 hold promise for use as potential immunopotentiator in vaccines against bacterial infections in fish, whereas it is insufficient to extend the immunoprotection for long time, and further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of IL-8 used as an adjuvant and seek for more effective way to strengthen the adjuvanticity of IL-8. PMID:27373470

  14. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  15. A Vertical-Lift Incubator (The "Seesaw") Designed for Channel Catfish Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish spawns have been incubated the same way for nearly a century. Spawns are placed in baskets and agitated with rotating paddles. While this system is widely used, it has been recently determined that dissolved oxygen in the center of a spawn may be as much as 5 ppm less than air-saturated wate...

  16. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  17. Effects of condtioning channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to acute low water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological stress and injury are the primary reasons for increased outbreak of diseases in catfish. Since stress cannot be eliminated from culture practices entirely, researchers are investigating ways to decrease the stress response in order to increase survival to diseases. Booth and Peterson (...

  18. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  19. Distribution and elimination of [14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride from tissues of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gofus, J.E.; Delaney, L.J.; Bunnell, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and loss of radioactivity from tissues were determined in 60 juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following oral dosing with the candidate fish therapeutant Sarafin® ([14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride) at 10 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. Twelve groups of 5 fish each were sampled at selected times ranging from 3 to 240 h after the last dose was administered, The concentration and content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in liver, gallbladder, kidney, skin, and skinless fillet by sample oxidation and liquid scintillation counting; content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in stomach and anterior and posterior intestines, Skinless fillet tissues were also analyzed for sarafloxacin and for potential metabolites by gradient-elution high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with in-line radiometric and fluorescence detection, Loss of radioactivity from the whole body conformed to a bimodal elimination pattern with a rapid initial phase (t1/2=11 h) and a slower secondary phase (t1/2=222 h). Tissue and contents of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach and anterior and posterior intestines) were a principal depot of activity during the first four sample times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h); the combined head, skeleton, and fins (i.e. residual carcass) were the principal depot of activity in samples taken after 24 h. Of those tissues sampled 3 h after the last dose, relative sarafloxacin concentration was greatest in the liver (4.06 μg equivalents/g) and least in the residual carcass (1.13 μg equivalents/g), Intermediate concentrations were found in the kidney (2.04 μg equivalents/g), skinless fillet (1.71 μg equivalents/ g), and the skin (1.51 μg equivalents/g). Concentrations of sarafloxacin-equivalent residues in edible skinless fillet were consistently among the lowest of all tissues examined. The highest mean concentration of parent-equivalent material in the fillet tissue was found 12 h after

  20. Growth Performance and Resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)Fed Diets Containing Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge. Five diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and ...

  1. Effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein mRNA concentrations in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in channel catfish were examined. Fed control fish (Fed) were compared to fish that had been fasted for 30 days followed by 15 days of additional feeding (Restricted). Sequence alignment and similarity to orthologous protei...

  2. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods: We identifiedCYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish.Phylogenetic ...

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of novel species of Henneguya found in the gills of farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites in the genus Henneguya. Four of these species have been molecularly characterized; however, the life cycles of only two have been experimentally and molecularly confirmed. Some of these species can...

  4. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern United States, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Howe...

  5. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C Motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The fu...

  6. Genome sequence of Edwardsiella ictaluri 93-146 a strain associated with a natural channel catfish outbreak of enteric septicemia of catifsh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is the cause of extensive mortalities and economic losses to the channel catfish industry of the southeast United States. Here we report the complete genome of Edwardsiella ictaluri 93-146. Whole-genome sequence analysis of E. ictaluri provides a tool for understanding the geno...

  7. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  8. Effect of stocking large channel catfish in a biofloc technology production system on production and incidence of common microbial off-flavor compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density-dependent production and incidence of common microbial off-flavors caused by geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were investigated in an outdoor biofloc technology production system stocked with stocker-size (217 g/fish) channel catfish at 1.4, 2.1, or 2.8 kg/m3. Individual weight at harvest rang...

  9. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used for the culture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  10. Development of phytoplankton communities and common off-flavors in a biofloc technology system used to culture channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Recent research demonstrated that outdoor biofloc systems can be used to produce high yields of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, studies have not yet been performed to deter...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Highly Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 Isolated from Diseased Channel Catfish in West Alabama.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Zhang, Dunhua; Zhang, Lee

    2014-05-22

    Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 was isolated from diseased channel catfish in west Alabama during a 2009 disease outbreak. The full genome of A. hydrophila AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes involved in pathogenesis or immunogens for the purpose of vaccine development.

  12. Effects of dietary fiber concentrations supplied by corn bran on feed intake growth and feed efficiency of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study examined the effects of dietary fiber and digestible energy on the feed intake, growth, and feed efficiency of juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Fish with an initial weight of 9.8 ± 0.1 g/fish (mean ± SD) were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquariums and fed for 9 weeks ...

  13. Identification of two uncoupling protein 2 mRNA in channel catfish: their tissue distribution and changes in their expression after prolonged fasting and refeeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle growth in fish is regulated by complex interactions of neural and endocrine factors that regulate food intake and factors that regulate muscle nutrient metabolism. Our previous studies showed that channel catfish selected for increased growth consumed more food than those with slower growth....

  14. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  15. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    PubMed

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  16. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    PubMed

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH. PMID:25984772

  17. Genome-wide identification of hsp40 genes in channel catfish and their regulated expression after bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Chao; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Chen; Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of a large group of chaperones whose expression is induced by high temperature, hypoxia, infection and a number of other stresses. Among all the HSPs, Hsp40 is the largest HSP family, which bind to Hsp70 ATPase domain in assisting protein folding. In this study, we identified 57 hsp40s in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) through in silico analysis using RNA-Seq and genome databases. These genes can be classified into three different types, Type I, II and III, based on their structural similarities. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses provided strong evidence in supporting the orthologies of these HSPs. Meta-analyses of RNA-Seq datasets were conducted to analyze expression profile of Hsp40s following bacterial infection. Twenty seven hsp40s were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated in the liver after infection with E. ictaluri; 19 hsp40s were found to be significantly regulated in the intestine after infection with E. ictaluri; and 19 hsp40s were found to be significantly regulated in the gill following infection with F. columnare. Altogether, a total of 42 Hsp40 genes were regulated under disease situations involving three tissues and two bacterial infections. The significant regulated expression of Hsp40 genes after bacterial infection suggested their involvement in disease defenses in catfish.

  18. Influence of dietary Coexposure to benzo(a)pyrene on the biotransformation and distribution of 14C-methoxychlor in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Nyagode, Beatrice A; James, Margaret O; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2009-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide whose mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), respectively, are estrogenic and antiandrogenic. Studies in vitro showed that treatment of channel catfish with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increased phase I and phase II metabolism of MXC. To determine the in vivo significance, groups of four channel catfish were treated by gavage for 6 days with 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC alone or 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC and 2 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). On day 7, blood and tissue samples were taken for analysis. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was 10-fold higher in the BaP-treated catfish, indicating CYP1A induction. More MXC-derived radioactivity remained in control (42.8 +/- 4.1%) than BaP-induced catfish (28.5 +/- 3.2%), mean percent total dose +/- SE. Bile, muscle and fat contained approximately 90% of the radioactivity remaining in control and induced catfish. Extraction and chromatographic analysis showed that liver contained MXC, OH-MXC, HPTE, and glucuronide but not sulfate conjugates of OH-MXC and HPTE. Liver mitochondria contained more MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE than other subcellular fractions. Bile contained glucuronides of OH-MXC and HPTE, and hydrolysis of bile gave HPTE and both enantiomers of OH-MXC. The muscle, visceral fat, brain and gonads contained MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE in varying proportions, but no conjugates. This study showed that catfish coexposed to BaP and MXC retained less MXC and metabolites in tissues than those exposed to MXC alone, suggesting that induction enhanced the elimination of MXC, and further showed that potentially toxic metabolites of MXC were present in the edible tissues.

  19. Influence of Dietary Coexposure to Benzo(a)pyrene on the Biotransformation and Distribution of 14C-Methoxychlor in the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Nyagode, Beatrice A.; James, Margaret O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide whose mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), respectively, are estrogenic and antiandrogenic. Studies in vitro showed that treatment of channel catfish with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increased phase I and phase II metabolism of MXC. To determine the in vivo significance, groups of four channel catfish were treated by gavage for 6 days with 2 mg/kg 14C-MXC alone or 2 mg/kg 14C-MXC and 2 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). On day 7, blood and tissue samples were taken for analysis. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was 10-fold higher in the BaP-treated catfish, indicating CYP1A induction. More MXC-derived radioactivity remained in control (42.8 ± 4.1%) than BaP-induced catfish (28.5 ± 3.2%), mean percent total dose ± SE. Bile, muscle and fat contained approximately 90% of the radioactivity remaining in control and induced catfish. Extraction and chromatographic analysis showed that liver contained MXC, OH-MXC, HPTE, and glucuronide but not sulfate conjugates of OH-MXC and HPTE. Liver mitochondria contained more MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE than other subcellular fractions. Bile contained glucuronides of OH-MXC and HPTE, and hydrolysis of bile gave HPTE and both enantiomers of OH-MXC. The muscle, visceral fat, brain and gonads contained MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE in varying proportions, but no conjugates. This study showed that catfish coexposed to BaP and MXC retained less MXC and metabolites in tissues than those exposed to MXC alone, suggesting that induction enhanced the elimination of MXC, and further showed that potentially toxic metabolites of MXC were present in the edible tissues. PMID:19181613

  20. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  1. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-11-25

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish.

  2. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish. PMID:26602918

  3. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish. PMID:26602918

  4. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  5. Central topography of anterior lateral line nerve projections in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    New, J G; Singh, S

    1994-01-01

    Electroreception evolved in the catfishes probably as a specialization of the mechanosensory lateral line system. Fibers of the anterior lateral line nerve in catfishes innervate electrosensory ampullary organs and mechanosensory neuromasts of the head lateral line system. The purpose of this study is to determine the projection patterns of the major principal branches of the ALLN and to investigate the topography within the various nuclei of the terminal fields of these different branches. Fibers of the superficial ophthalmic, buccal and hyomandibular branches of the anterior lateral line nerve terminate in a somatotopic fashion within medullary and cerebellar nuclei. These fibers project to, and terminate within, several discrete nuclei in the medulla and cerebellum, notably the electrosensory lateral line lobe, the medial and caudal octavolateralis nuclei, and portions of a nuclear complex in the cerebellum called the eminentia granularis. Furthermore, the dorsoventral somatotopy in the medullary electrosensory nucleus is a reversed or 'mirror' image of that in the mechanosensory nucleus. This reversed map is similar to that observed in other electrosensory systems and suggests that there may be a common mechanism for the copying and preservation of spatial information as new systems are evolved from primitive sensory pathways.

  6. Distribution, Abundance, and Population Dynamics of Northern Squawfish, Walleye, Smallmouth Bass, and Channel Catfish in John Day Reservoir, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.

    1987-04-01

    John Day Reservoir was sampled from 25 March to 1 September 1986 using gill nets, trap nets, boat electrofishers, hook and line, and an angler survey to collect 4945 northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, 602 walleye Stizostedion vitreum 2894 smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and 563 channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus. Distribution, abundance and population parameters of each species were examined. One year growth, mortality, and relative year class strength was described.

  7. Genetic sequence data identifies the cercaria of Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), a parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), with notes on its pathology in juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Khoo, Lester H; Quiniou, Sylvie M; O'Hear, Mary M; Pote, Linda M; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J

    2012-10-01

    An unidentified xiphidio-type cercaria, previously thought inconsequential to catfish health, was found to be released from marsh rams-horn snails (Planorbella trivolvis) inhabiting ponds on a commercial catfish operation in the Mississippi Delta. A preliminary challenge of cohabiting channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ) with snails actively shedding the unidentified cercariae resulted in death of some fish. A second cohabitation trial yielded similar results, as did a third challenge of 250 cercariae/fish. Histopathology revealed developing metacercariae concentrated in the cranial region, especially within the branchial chamber, with several metacercariae at the base of the branchial arches within, or adjacent to, blood vessels, possibly the proximate cause of death. Genetic sequence analysis of the 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssDNA), 28S large subunit rDNA (lsDNA), and cytochrome oxidase (Cox1) genes all matched the cercariae to Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), a parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), a piscivorous bird endemic on most catfish farms. This is the first commentary regarding pathology of D. spathans in juvenile channel catfish as well as the first report of the marsh rams-horn snail as an intermediate host in the D. spathans life cycle. The data presented here suggest this parasite could have limiting effects on catfish production, further supporting the need for adequate snail control programs to reduce trematode prevalence on commercial catfish operations. PMID:22519725

  8. Roles for mannose binding lectin and rhamnose binding lectin in channel catfish fed essential oils and challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major problem in the catfish farming industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Methods to control this disease include vaccination, antibiotic therapy, and restricted feeding. Another method that has been examined i...

  9. Mycobacteria, but not mercury, induces metallothionein (MT) protein in striped bass, Morone saxitilis, phagocytes, while both stimuli induce MT in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Regala, R P; Rice, C D

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular immunology indicate that the expression of inducible pro-inflammatory proteins is increased in vertebrates in response to both infectious disease agents and various xenobiotics. For example, iNOS, COX-2, and CYP1A are induced by both inflammation and AhR ligands. Moreover, the expression of these proteins in response to stimuli varies among individuals within populations. Little is known of the differences among fish in the inducibility of proinflammatory proteins in response to both infectious agents and xenobiotics. Through random screening of a striped bass, Morone saxitilis, peritoneal macrophage cDNA library, a full length metallothionein (MT) gene was cloned and sequenced. MT is a low-molecular weight (6-8 kDa), cysteine-rich metal binding protein. Metals are required by pathogenic bacteria for growth, and by the host defense system by serving as a catalyst for the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) by phagocytes. A recombinant striped bass MT (rMT) was expressed and purified, then used to generate a specific mAb (MT-16). MT protein expression was followed in freshly isolated striped bass and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, phagocytes after in vitro exposure to the naturally occurring intracellular pathogen Mycobacteria fortuitum or to 0.1 and 1 microM mercury (Hg), as HgCl(2). MT expression was increased by 24 h in both channel catfish and striped bass phagocytes as a result of exposure to M. fortuitum cells. On the other hand, MT was induced by Hg in channel catfish cells, but not those of striped bass. These results indicate that metal homeostasis in phagocytes is different between catfish and striped bass. In addition, these data suggest that care should be taken to distinguish between inflammation-induced vs. metal-induced MT when using MT expression as a biomarker of metal exposure.

  10. Expression profiles of toll-like receptors in anterior kidney of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), acutely infected by Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, J W; Russo, R; Shoemaker, C A; Klesius, P H

    2010-06-01

    Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), the relative transcriptional levels of five toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR5, TLR20a and TLR21) were studied in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), under uninfected and acutely infected conditions [1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, 12-, 24-, 36- and 48-h post-injection (hpi)]. Under uninfected conditions, the transcriptional levels of the five TLRs were significantly lower than that of 18S rRNA (P < 0.001). QPCR results also revealed that the transcriptional levels of TLR20a and TLR5 were higher than those of TLR2, TLR3 or TLR21. The transcriptional level of TLR3 was significantly lower than that of the other four TLRs (P < 0.001). However, when channel catfish were acutely infected by Edwardsiella ictaluri through intraperitoneal injection, the transcriptional levels of TLRs increased significantly (P < 0.005) at 6 hpi. Among the five TLRs studied, the transcriptional levels of TLR3, TLR5 and TLR21 were never significantly lower than under uninfected conditions (P = 0.16, 0.27 and 0.19, respectively), suggesting these three TLRs might play important roles in host defence against infection by E. ictaluri. The amount of E. ictaluri in the anterior kidney increased at 12 and 24 hpi but decreased at 36 and 48 hpi. Our results suggest that TLRs are important components in the immune system in the channel catfish, and their rapid transcriptional upregulation (within 6 hpi) in response to acute E. ictaluri infection might be important for survival from enteric septicaemia of catfish.

  11. Non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) excitatory response of the channel catfish intestine.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, C S; Holmes, E P; Jarboe, H H; Kleinow, K M

    1994-06-01

    1. Optimal parameters for electrical field stimulation (EFS) of catfish pyloric and middle intestinal segments were determined (15 Hz, 60 V) from a range of frequencies (5-45 Hz) and voltages (40-120 V) using a modified Magnus' method. Contractile responses were produced by EFS which were reproducible and showed no significant difference between the tissues. 2. The contractile cholinergic responses of the tissues to carbachol and acetylcholine (ACh) were blocked by atropine on an equimolar concentration, whereas, these responses were enhanced in the presence of neostigmine, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. 3. Adrenergic responses were examined with noradrenaline (NA). NA produced contraction of the segments only, at a concentration of 10(-4) M. Among the various adrenoceptors, beta-adrenoceptor stimulation produced a weak relaxation whereas, both alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation produced contractions, of which alpha 2-induced contraction was of greater magnitude. The beta, alpha 1 and alpha 2 responses were blocked by their respective blocking agents propranolol, prazosin and yohimbine. 4. The autonomic components of the response to EFS were determined by using selected cholinergic and adrenergic antagonists separately or collectively. Cholinergic blockade with atropine did not produce a significant blockade of the EFS-induced response. Similarly, blockade of beta-adrenoceptors with propranolol did not modulate the contractile response to EFS to any significant level. Blockade by prazosin or yohimbine did not significantly change the contractile response to EFS. After a complete blockade of the adrenergic and cholinergic divisions, the intestinal segments still showed a contractile response to EFS which was not significantly different from the control response. This indicated the presence of a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) response. 5. Tetrodotoxin, at 10(-6) M, significantly blocked the EFS-induced NANC response suggesting a neurogenic

  12. Accumulation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aquatic organisms: part 2--Bioconcentration in aquatic invertebrates and potential for trophic transfer to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Ownby, David R; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    The potential of TNT to accumulate in aquatic organisms was assessed by determining bioconcentration factors for TNT and TNT biotransformation products using two benthic invertebrates (Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus), and by determining the bioaccumulation factor of TNT and TNT biotransformation products due to TNT exposure via feeding for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). In all three species, TNT was rapidly biotransformed resulting in minimal accumulation. The bioconcentration factors for parent TNT ranged from 3 to 4 ml g(-1) for the invertebrates studied, while the TNT bioaccumulation factor for catfish via oral exposure of food pellets was 2.4x10(-5) g g(-1) based on the concentration of TNT in the food pellet. As indicated by this small bioaccumulation factor, TNT accumulation in channel catfish through trophic transfer would be negligible compared to aqueous exposure (previously reported BCF of 0.79 ml g(-1)). TNT extractable biotransformation products accumulated to a greater degree than parent TNT for all three species. In addition, a large fraction of the radioactivity within all three species resisted solvent extraction. The highest bioconcentration factors occurred in L. variegatus with extractable radioactivity measuring 76 ml g(-1) and total radioactivity measuring 216 ml g(-1). Because the bioaccumulation of TNT is very low compared to the bioaccumulation of its biotransformation products, further research including identifying and determining the relative toxicities of these biotransformation products is necessary to fully evaluate the environmental risk posed by exposure to TNT. PMID:15667837

  13. Passive immunization of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by use of murine monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T L; Clark, T G; Dickerson, H

    1996-01-01

    Fish acquire immunity against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following sublethal infection. The immune response includes the elaboration of humoral antibodies against a class of abundant surface membrane proteins referred to as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). Antibodies against these proteins immobilize the parasite in vitro, suggesting a potential role for the i-antigens in protective immunity. To test this hypothesis, passive immunization experiments were carried out with naive channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, using immobilizing murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Fish were completely protected against lethal challenge following intraperitoneal injection of 20 to 200 micrograms of MAb. Although fish succumbed to infection at lower doses, palliative effects were observed with as little as 2 micrograms of antibody. In experiments in which animals were challenged at various times following inoculation, an inverse relationship between parasite load and serum immobilizing activity was seen. Of seven MAbs which conferred protection, all were immunoglobulin G class antibodies. The only immobilizing MAb that failed to protect was an immunoglobulin M antibody that was absent from surface mucosa as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The implications of these findings for the development of a vaccine against I. multifiliis and immunity against surface pathogens of fish are discussed. PMID:8926073

  14. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of water and sediment samples from gypsum mining area in channel catfish ovary (CCO) cells.

    PubMed

    Ternjej, Ivančica; Gaurina Srček, Višnja; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2013-12-01

    Man-made activities such as mining generate certain amounts of metal contaminated wastes which can reach aquatic environment and cause the serious effects on different organisms and ecosystem. Chemical analysis of the environmental samples is the most direct approach to reveal their pollution status but it cannot always provide information on biological effects to different organisms, including fish. This study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of water and sediment samples from gypsum mining area using the channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line. Results obtained by the WST-1 assay and alkaline comet assay revealed that exposure of CCO cells to the same concentrations of contaminated water and sediment samples caused significant decrease in cell viability and increased DNA damages. Chemical analysis of water and sediment samples showed that increased concentrations of strontium, aluminum and iron were mainly responsible for the observed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in CCO cells. The study suggested that fish CCO cells could be useful biological test-system for water and sediment cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments.

  15. Identification and expression profile of multiple genes in channel catfish fry 10 min after modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-11-15

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 32 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from 96 clones of a channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry subtractive library 10min post-vaccination with a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine. The transcription levels of the 32 ESTs in response to F. columnare vaccination were then evaluated by quantitative PCR (QPCR). Of the 32 ESTs, 28 were upregulated in at least one vaccinated fish. Of the 28 upregulated ESTs, 12 were consistently induced at least 2-fold higher in vaccinated fish compared to unvaccinated control fish. Of the 12 upregulated genes, three (triglyceride lipase, PIKK family atypical protein kinase, and CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 1) were consistently upregulated greater than 3-fold. The 12 consistently upregulated genes also included CD59, polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide C, pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 1, mannose-P-dolichol utilization defect 1, nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunit alpha, hemoglobin-beta, fetuin-B, glyoxalase domain containing 4, and putative histone H3. The 28 upregulated ESTs represent genes with putative functions in the following five major categories: (1) immune response (46%); (2) signal transduction (21%); (3) transcriptional regulation (11%); (4) cell maintenance (11%); and (5) unknown (11%).

  16. Identification and characterization of a FasL-like protein and cDNAs encoding the channel catfish death-inducing signaling complex

    PubMed Central

    Long, Scott; Wilson, Melanie; Bengtén, Eva; William Clem, L.; Miller, Norman W.; Gregory Chinchar, V.

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate cytolytic mechanisms in the channel catfish, lysates from catfish lymphoid and fibroblast cell lines were screened by Western blot analysis using a panel of antibodies reactive with components of the mammalian apoptotic pathway. Strong reactivity with three proteins (approximate Mr 70,000, 37,000, and 15,000) was seen using an antibody targeted to mammalian Fas ligand (FasL). The sizes of the two smaller proteins are consistent with their tentative designation as membrane-bound (37,000 Mr) and soluble (15,000 Mr) FasL. Treatments known to induce FasL in mammalian systems (e.g., PMA/calcium ionophore, UV-irradiation) induced expression of the 37,000-Mr protein in catfish T-cell lines. Moreover, expression of the 37,000-Mr protein in clonal T cells was up-regulated by increasing cell density. At the nucleotide level, homologues of Fas receptor (FasR), FADD, and caspase 8 were identified and characterized. These gene products likely constitute the teleost equivalent of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). FADD was constitutively expressed in all (T, B, macrophage, and fibroblast) cell lines examined as well as in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), whereas FasR and caspase 8 were expressed in all cell lines except CCO, a FasL-positive fibroblast line. In contrast to FasL, expression of FasR and caspase 8 was inversely proportional to cell density. Collectively these studies identified four membrane-proximal proteins involved in the initiation of apoptosis in channel catfish and suggest that mechanisms of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in teleosts are similar to those used by mammals. PMID:15375637

  17. Identification and analysis of genome-wide SNPs provide insight into signatures of selection and domestication in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Luyang; Liu, Shikai; Wang, Ruijia; Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jiaren; Bao, Lisui; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Dunham, Rex; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Domestication and selection for important performance traits can impact the genome, which is most often reflected by reduced heterozygosity in and surrounding genes related to traits affected by selection. In this study, analysis of the genomic impact caused by domestication and artificial selection was conducted by investigating the signatures of selection using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). A total of 8.4 million candidate SNPs were identified by using next generation sequencing. On average, the channel catfish genome harbors one SNP per 116 bp. Approximately 6.6 million, 5.3 million, 4.9 million, 7.1 million and 6.7 million SNPs were detected in the Marion, Thompson, USDA103, Hatchery strain, and wild population, respectively. The allele frequencies of 407,861 SNPs differed significantly between the domestic and wild populations. With these SNPs, 23 genomic regions with putative selective sweeps were identified that included 11 genes. Although the function for the majority of the genes remain unknown in catfish, several genes with known function related to aquaculture performance traits were included in the regions with selective sweeps. These included hypoxia-inducible factor 1β. HIFιβ.. and the transporter gene ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5). HIF1β. is important for response to hypoxia and tolerance to low oxygen levels is a critical aquaculture trait. The large numbers of SNPs identified from this study are valuable for the development of high-density SNP arrays for genetic and genomic studies of performance traits in catfish. PMID:25313648

  18. Raceway production of large channel catfish fingerlings and winter round tank culture of rainbow trout using heated water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    This document contains two reports which summarize research done on using power plant effluent water to raise fish. Two species were studied, catfish and rainbow trout. Separate analytics were done for each report.

  19. A dietary dairy/yeast prebiotic and flaxseed oil enhance growth, hematological and immunological parameters in channel catfish at a suboptimal temperature (15°C).

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Lochmann, R; Phillips, H; Sink, T D

    2015-07-01

    Channel catfish raised in the southern United States require two growing seasons to reach market size. Growing seasons are separated by a cool period of about 3 months when feed intake and growth are greatly reduced. A cool-weather feeding strategy to improve feed intake, growth or health of catfish might improve survival and reduce the time needed to achieve market size. We conducted a feeding trial with channel catfish at a suboptimal temperature (15°C) to determine the effects of supplementing diets with either a dairy/yeast prebiotic or flaxseed oil (high in 18:3n-3) compared with a control with soybean oil (high in 18:2n-6). The trial was conducted in recirculating systems with 1140-l tanks containing 100 fish each (mean initial weight 61.4 g±0.43 s.e.m.). A 28%-protein basal diet was supplemented with 20 g/kg cellulose and 20 g/kg soybean oil (SBO, control), 20 g/kg cellulose and 20 g/kg flaxseed oil (FLAX) or 20 g/kg of a dairy/yeast prebiotic and 20 g/kg soybean oil (PREB). Fish were fed once daily to satiation and weighed every 3 weeks to track growth. Hematology, non-specific immune responses, proximate and fatty acid composition of muscle were determined to assess diet effects. Catfish-fed FLAX or PREB had higher weight gain, feed consumption and lysozyme activity than fish fed SBO. Total n-3 fatty acids in muscle were higher in fish fed SBO or FLAX than those fed PREB. Total n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated acids were higher in muscle of fish fed PREB than those fed SBO. Fatty acids in the PREB and SBO diets were similar, so the PREB appeared to increase elongation and desaturation of n-6 fatty acids in muscle. Flaxseed oil and the dairy/yeast prebiotic both have potential to increase catfish performance at a low temperature.

  20. Uptake, metabolism and macromolecular binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolites in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.; McElroy, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), such as BaP, are contaminants with demonstrated carcinogenicity, yet little is known about the fate of PAH metabolites in aquatic organisms. Some invertebrates actively metabolize BaP to hydroxylated and conjugated forms, becoming BaP metabolite-rich prey items for fish. The authors examined the fate of BaP metabolites acquired by fish through diet. Channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus, were fed a single dose (2.5 umoles/kg fish) of either {sup 3}H-parent BaP or individual {sup 3}H-BaP metabolites: 3-hydroxy, 9-hydroxy, 9-sulfate or 9-glucuronidated BaP. After 24 hrs fish were killed, and samples of intestinal mucosa, bile, liver and muscle immediately frozen at {minus}80 C. Mean (n = 3--5) percent of dose retained was lowest for conjugated BaP (3.7%), 2--4 times higher for hydroxylated BaP (8.9%), and 5 times higher for parent BaP (18.9%). Differences were also observed between the distributions of individual metabolites in tissues. Radioactivity derived from parent and hydroxylated BaP was several fold higher in intestinal mucosa and bile than in liver or muscle. In contrast, radioactivity derived from conjugated BaP metabolites was more evenly distributed between all four tissues. These data demonstrate that in fish (1) dietary BaP metabolites are absorbed by the intestine, and they or their metabolites are transported to and absorbed by major tissue reservoirs (liver, muscle), (2) conjugated metabolites are less readily absorbed and/or retained than parent or hydroxylated BaP, and (3) some differences in metabolic fate exist between metabolites from the same class. DNA, RNA and protein adducts, as well as metabolite profiles, are being determined in liver and intestine.

  1. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  2. Slow O-demethylation of methyl triclosan to triclosan, which is rapidly glucuronidated and sulfonated in channel catfish liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O; Marth, Christopher J; Rowland-Faux, Laura

    2012-11-15

    The antibacterial personal care product triclosan is discharged in municipal waste, and converted in part by bacteria in sewage sludge and soil to its more lipid-soluble methyl ether, methyl triclosan. Triclosan and methyl triclosan have been detected in water, sediment, fish and invertebrates near sewage treatment facilities. Understanding the biotransformation of methyl triclosan and triclosan in a model food fish, the channel catfish, will be of value in assessing the likelihood that these compounds will bioaccumulate in exposed fish, and therefore potentially pass up the food chain. We hypothesize that cytochrome P450 will catalyze the O-demethylation of methyl triclosan to yield triclosan, which is likely to undergo glucuronidation or sulfonation of the phenolic hydroxyl group. Conversion of methyl triclosan to triclosan was measured by LC/MS/MS following aerobic incubation of varying concentrations of methyl triclosan with NADPH and hepatic and intestinal microsomes from untreated, 3-methylcholanthrene-treated (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or PCB-126-treated (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) channel catfish (n=4 per treatment group). The K(m) values for methyl triclosan were similar for untreated, 3-methylcholanthrene-treated and PCB-126-treated catfish liver microsomes, ranging from 80 to 250 μM. V(max) values for O-demethylation ranged from 30 to 150 pmol/min/mg protein, with no significant differences between controls, PCB-126-treated or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated fish, suggesting that methyl triclosan O-demethylation was not a CYP1-catalyzed reaction. Methyl triclosan O-demethylation activities in intestinal microsomes were similar to or lower than those found with liver microsomes. The calculated rate of O-demethylation of methyl triclosan in catfish liver at 1 μM, a concentration reported in exposed fish, and 21°C, an early summer water temperature, is 0.10 pmol/min/mg protein. This slow rate of metabolism suggests that upon continued exposure, methyl triclosan may

  3. Fluctuating asymmetry and condition in golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) reared in sublethal concentrations of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Green, Chris C; Lochmann, Steve E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random differences between the left and right sides of a bilateral character) has been related to embryological stress during development. Some populations exhibit positive relations between FA and exposure to toxicants during development. The United States has agreed to demilitarize chemical warfare agents in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention Treaty. Isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), the main hydrolysis product of sarin, could be introduced accidentally into the environment during demilitarization. The present study examined the use of FA as a biomarker of developmental stress caused by sublethal exposures to IMPA. A suite of morphometric and meristic traits were measured in two fish species exposed to IMPA. Significant differences were found in composite FA among groups of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to sublethal concentrations of IMPA during development. No differences were found in composite FA among groups of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) exposed to IMPA. No relation was found between individual relative condition and FA in channel catfish or golden shiner.

  4. Molecular identification and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in west Alabama (USA) in 2009.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-05-01

    Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus during a disease outbreak in west Alabama, USA, in August 2009. Sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the 3 strains revealed that the 3 strains were closely related to each other, sharing 97 to 99% nucleotide sequence similarities. However, ISR sequences of the 3 isolates from 2009 shared only 64% nucleotide sequences with AL98-C1B, a 1998 isolate of A. hydrophila cultured from diseased fish in Alabama. Sequences of cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD from the 3 isolates from 2009 shared 91 to 95% homologies with AL98-C1B. Based on both LD50 and LD95 values of intraperitoneal injection assays, the virulences of the 3 isolates from 2009 were not significantly different from each other, but were at least 200-fold more virulent than AL98-C1B, indicating that the 3 west Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila from 2009 were highly virulent to channel catfish.

  5. An in vitro screening method to evaluate chemicals as potential chemotherapeutants to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using catfish gill cells G1B and four chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate, and D-mannose), the feasibility of using an in vitro screening method to identify potential effective chemotherapeutants was evaluated in this study. In vitro screening results revealed that,...

  6. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquifer used for hybrid catfish hatcheries is less than 10 mg/L of calcium hardness and 1- 25 mg/L of magnesium hardness. Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioti...

  7. Effect of microbial transglutaminase and non-meat proteins on functional properties of low NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at developing value-added low sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-free restructured patties using minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, 0.7%) and non-meat proteins (isolated soy protein, ISP and whey protein...

  8. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  9. Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors α and β and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of physiological functions. Although environmental contaminants (xenoestrogens) which interfere with estrogen signaling are of increasing concern, there is only limited information about their ability to interact with estrogen-binding proteins (SHBG) or receptors (ER). Recombinant ER?? and ?? were obtained after transient transfection of COS-7 cells with channel catfish ER cDNA. Plasma from adult female channel catfish was the source of SHBG. Tritiated estradiol ( 3H-E2) was used in standard radioligand-binding assays to characterize the binding properties of channel catfish SHBG (ccfSHBG) and to estimate the inhibition constants for various estrogenic compounds. Binding of 3H-E2 to ccfSHBG was saturable and of high affinity with a Kd (??SE) of 1.9??0.14nM and a Bmax of 14.3??2.4pmol/mg protein (n=3 assays). Additionally, ccfSHBG displayed binding specificity for androgens and estrogens. Endosulfan, 4-nonylphenol, and 4-octylphenol displaced 3H-E2 binding to ccfSHBG albeit only at very high concentrations, whereas dieldrin and atrazine showed little displacement activity even at the highest concentrations used. The synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol had higher affinity than E2 for ccfSHBG. This finding differs from results with human and rainbow trout SHBG. The alkylphenolic compounds (4-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) displayed some ability to displace 3H-E2 binding from ER?? and ?? at high concentrations, but dieldrin and atrazine had little binding activity for both ER subtypes and endosulfan for ER??. The xenobiotics tested generally showed equivalent or greater affinity for ER?? than ER??, whereas natural estrogens had much greater affinity for ER?? than ER??. These observations suggest that results of studies using fish tissue ER extracts must be interpreted with caution, since both ER subtypes may be present, and that the binding of xenoestrogens to SHBG must be taken into account for proper assessment of endocrine

  10. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  11. 18S rRNA gene sequencing identifies a novel species of Henneguya parasitizing the gills of the channel catfish (Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Khoo, Lester H; Pote, Linda M

    2014-12-01

    In the southeastern USA, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a host to at least eight different species of myxozoan parasites belonging to the genus Henneguya, four of which have been characterized molecularly using sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. However, only two of these have confirmed life cycles that involve the oligochaete Dero digitata as the definitive host. During a health screening of farm-raised channel catfish, several fish presented with deformed primary lamellae. Lamellae harbored large, nodular, white pseudocysts 1.25 mm in diameter, and upon rupturing, these pseudocysts released Henneguya myxospores, with a typical lanceolate-shaped spore body, measuring 17.1 ± 1.0 μm (mean ± SD; range = 15.0-19.3 μm) in length and 4.8 ± 0.4 μm (3.7-5.6 μm) in width. Pyriform-shaped polar capsules were 5.8 ± 0.3 μm in length (5.1-6.4 μm) and 1.7 ± 0.1 μm (1.4-1.9 μm) in width. The two caudal processes were 40.0 ± 5.1 μm in length (29.5-50.0 μm) with a spore length of 57.2 ± 4.7 (46.8-66.8 μm). The contiguous SSU rRNA gene sequence obtained from myxospores of five excised cysts did not match any Henneguya sp. in GenBank. The greatest sequence homology (91% over 1,900 bp) was with Henneguya pellis, associated with blister-like lesions on the skin of blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus. Based on the unique combination of pseudocyst and myxospore morphology, tissue location, host, and SSU rRNA gene sequence data, we report this isolate to be a previously unreported species, Henneguya bulbosus sp. nov.

  12. Efficacy of Florfenicol for Control of Mortality Associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri in Three Species of Catfish.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Patricia S; Chatakondi, Nagaraj; Gao, Dana; Endris, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Edwardsiella icatluri was studied in fingerlings of Channel Catfish Ictalurus puntatus (Delta strain), Blue Catfish I. furcatus (D&B strain), and a hybrid catfish (Delta strain Channel Catfish × D&B strain Blue Catfish). On day 0, fish were immersion challenged in 65-L aquaria. For each of the three species of catfish, 10 aquaria were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, either treated with florfenicol at 0 mg/kg of body weight (unmedicated feed) or at 10 mg/kg (medicated feed). Fish were treated for 10 consecutive days, monitored for mortality during this treatment period, and observed for 14 d afterwards. Post observation, all survivors were humanely euthanized in tricaine methanesulfonate, cultured for E. ictaluri, and examined for gross pathology. The mean cumulative percent mortality from enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) challenge among the three genotypes of catfish did not differ between Blue Catfish, hybrid, and Channel Catfish in treated or control groups. However, the florfenicol-treated fish had a significantly lower mean cumulative mortality (6%) than the controls (78%). All genotypes of catfish tested were responsive to treatment with florfenicol-medicated feed for control of mortality associated with ESC. There were no significant differences in mortality associated with hybrid catfish, blue catfish, and Channel Catfish (Delta strain). PMID:26306332

  13. Cross-sectional study of hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia following oxytetracycline treatment.

    PubMed

    Topic Popovic, N; Howell, T; Babish, J G; Bowser, P R

    2012-04-01

    Terramycin for Fish® (oxytetracycline, OTC) is one of three approved drugs for therapeutic treatment of fish in the United States. Nothing is known, however, of the effects of this therapeutic on drug metabolizing enzymes in fish post-treatment. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether the fish CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes would cross-react with antibodies to known mammalian cytochrome P-450 forms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A). Observational feeding studies of OTC effects were conducted in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Oxytetracycline was mixed into the feed to achieve a daily dose of 82.8 mg per kg body weight at a feeding rate of 1% body weight per day. Hepatic microsomes of each fish were prepared and Western blotting of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 and enzyme assays of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were performed prior to OTC treatment and on post-treatment days 1, 6, 11 and 21. Both goat anti-rat CYP1A1 and rabbit anti-human CYP3A4 showed good cross-reactivity with all three species in this study. All three species exhibited distinct perturbations in one or more of the variables examined on day 1 post-treatment. Immediately following the 10-day medication period, relative liver weight (RLW) of hybrid striped bass was increased 44% and remained elevated through post-treatment day 21. Increased CYP3A4 enzyme activity and protein abundance were noted in channel catfish and Nile tilapia, respectively. This observational approach demonstrated species differences both in control activities and in the timing and extent of hepatic responses to OTC. The unique perturbations of hepatic CYP450 enzymes in different fish species to OTC treatment observed in this study may have relevance for the use of additional antibiotics or other therapeutics used in aquaculture. PMID:21458012

  14. Morphological, Histological, and Molecular Description of Unicauda fimbrethilae n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) from the Intestinal Tract of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Alberson, Neely R; Baumgartner, Wes A; Mauel, Michael J; Pote, Linda M; Griffin, Matt J

    2016-02-01

    The channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a known host for 10 species of Henneguya, but few other myxozoan genera are described from this species. Unicauda is a genus of myxozoan parasites within the family Myxobolidae that consists of 10 valid species from freshwater fish. Herein, we describe a novel species of Unicauda from the intestinal tract of farm-raised channel catfish in Mississippi. Myxospores were consistent with the genus Unicauda but exhibited a unique branching at the terminal end of the caudal process that has not previously been reported. Myxospores measured 90.39 ± 14.97 μm (mean ± SD; range = 70.88-126.02 μm) in total length. The spherical spore body measured 7.31 ± 0.26 μm (6.75-7.84 μm) in length and 7.01 ± 0.63 μm (6.1-8.01 μm) in width. The 2 polar capsules measured 3.45 ± 0.33 μm (3.02-4.03 μm) in length and 2.65 ± 0.32 μm (2.18-3.11 μm) in width. The single caudal process measured 82.98 ± 14.97 μm (63.39-118.63 μm) in length from the base of the spore body to the end of the most terminal projection. Terminal projections measured 26.83 ± 8.8 μm (12.34-42.29 μm) in length and 0.95 ± 0.23 μm (0.52-1.6 μm) in width. The 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained did not match any published sequences. Given the uniqueness of the myxospore morphology, histological presentation, and gene sequence data, we describe this as an unreported species, Unicauda fimbrethilae n. sp.

  15. Cross-sectional study of hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia following oxytetracycline treatment.

    PubMed

    Topic Popovic, N; Howell, T; Babish, J G; Bowser, P R

    2012-04-01

    Terramycin for Fish® (oxytetracycline, OTC) is one of three approved drugs for therapeutic treatment of fish in the United States. Nothing is known, however, of the effects of this therapeutic on drug metabolizing enzymes in fish post-treatment. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether the fish CYP1A and CYP3A enzymes would cross-react with antibodies to known mammalian cytochrome P-450 forms (CYP1A1 and CYP3A). Observational feeding studies of OTC effects were conducted in hybrid striped bass, channel catfish and Nile tilapia. Oxytetracycline was mixed into the feed to achieve a daily dose of 82.8 mg per kg body weight at a feeding rate of 1% body weight per day. Hepatic microsomes of each fish were prepared and Western blotting of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 and enzyme assays of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were performed prior to OTC treatment and on post-treatment days 1, 6, 11 and 21. Both goat anti-rat CYP1A1 and rabbit anti-human CYP3A4 showed good cross-reactivity with all three species in this study. All three species exhibited distinct perturbations in one or more of the variables examined on day 1 post-treatment. Immediately following the 10-day medication period, relative liver weight (RLW) of hybrid striped bass was increased 44% and remained elevated through post-treatment day 21. Increased CYP3A4 enzyme activity and protein abundance were noted in channel catfish and Nile tilapia, respectively. This observational approach demonstrated species differences both in control activities and in the timing and extent of hepatic responses to OTC. The unique perturbations of hepatic CYP450 enzymes in different fish species to OTC treatment observed in this study may have relevance for the use of additional antibiotics or other therapeutics used in aquaculture.

  16. Morphological, Histological, and Molecular Description of Unicauda fimbrethilae n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) from the Intestinal Tract of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Alberson, Neely R; Baumgartner, Wes A; Mauel, Michael J; Pote, Linda M; Griffin, Matt J

    2016-02-01

    The channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is a known host for 10 species of Henneguya, but few other myxozoan genera are described from this species. Unicauda is a genus of myxozoan parasites within the family Myxobolidae that consists of 10 valid species from freshwater fish. Herein, we describe a novel species of Unicauda from the intestinal tract of farm-raised channel catfish in Mississippi. Myxospores were consistent with the genus Unicauda but exhibited a unique branching at the terminal end of the caudal process that has not previously been reported. Myxospores measured 90.39 ± 14.97 μm (mean ± SD; range = 70.88-126.02 μm) in total length. The spherical spore body measured 7.31 ± 0.26 μm (6.75-7.84 μm) in length and 7.01 ± 0.63 μm (6.1-8.01 μm) in width. The 2 polar capsules measured 3.45 ± 0.33 μm (3.02-4.03 μm) in length and 2.65 ± 0.32 μm (2.18-3.11 μm) in width. The single caudal process measured 82.98 ± 14.97 μm (63.39-118.63 μm) in length from the base of the spore body to the end of the most terminal projection. Terminal projections measured 26.83 ± 8.8 μm (12.34-42.29 μm) in length and 0.95 ± 0.23 μm (0.52-1.6 μm) in width. The 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained did not match any published sequences. Given the uniqueness of the myxospore morphology, histological presentation, and gene sequence data, we describe this as an unreported species, Unicauda fimbrethilae n. sp. PMID:26377372

  17. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P < 0.05). Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P < 0.05). Increased intensity of less favorable flavor attributes commonly associated with catfish resulted in the differences in acceptability among treatments. As fish progressed through the harvest event, cook loss decreased, tenderness increased, and pH increased, indicating that stress induced textural changes. The data suggest that although environmental stress results in slight changes in flavor attributes, its effects on acceptability are minor with fillets from all treatments still liked (>6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically. PMID:27333086

  18. Feeding ecology and energetic relationships with habitat of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, in the lower Mississippi River, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleton, M.A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined feeding of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, and flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, collected from floodplain lake, secondary (side) river channel, and main river channel habitats in the lower Mississippi River (LMR), U.S.A. We described the feeding ecology of two large river catfish species within the context of whether off-channel habitats in the LMR (i.e., floodplain lakes and secondary channels) potentially provided energetic benefits to these fishes as purported in contemporary theory on the ecology of large rivers. We used diet composition and associated caloric densities of prey consumed as indicators of energetic benefit to catfishes. Differences in diet among habitats were strong for blue catfish, but weak for flathead catfish; consumed foods generally differed among habitats in caloric (energy) content. Caloric densities of consumed foods were generally greatest in floodplain lakes, least in the main river channel, and intermediate in secondary river channels. Strong between-year variation in diet was observed, but only for blue catfish. Blue catfish fed disproportionately on lower-energy zebra mussels in the main river channel during 1997, and higher-energy chironomids and oligochaetes in floodplain lakes during 1998. Results suggested that although off-channel habitats potentially provided greater energetic return to catfishes in terms of foods consumed, patterns of feeding and subsequent energy intake may vary annually. Energetic benefits associated with off-channel habitats as purported under contemporary theory (e.g., the 'flood-pulse concept') may not be accrued by catfishes every year in the LMR.

  19. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River. [Ptychocheilus oregonensis; Stizostedion vitreum; Micropterus dolomieu; Ictalurus punctatus; Oncorhynchus spp

    SciTech Connect

    Vigg, S.; Poe, T.P.; Prendergast, L.A.; Hansel, H.C. )

    1991-07-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  20. Effects of water exchange on water quality in channel catfish ponds. Completion report 1 February 82-31 March 83

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, C.E.

    1983-03-31

    Nutrient and organic matter removal from catfish ponds by water exchange or biological extraction was investigated. Separate trials were conducted to determine losses of added phosphours, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand. Chloride was added to ponds as an inert tracer to estimate the efficiency of water exchange. In spring (March-April), average water temperature and plankton biomass were low (15.1C and 10 micrograms/1 chlorophyll a), and water exchange at 134 m3/hour per hectare for 72 hours removed concentrations faster than in situ biological processes. In summer average water temperature and plankton biomass were high, (29.5C and 101 micrograms/1 chlorophyll a), and biological extraction of nutrients and organic matter was equally as effective as water exchange in reducing concentrations.

  1. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-09-22

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients.

  2. Expression profiling analysis of immune-related genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin mucus following Flavobacterium columnare challenge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yichao; Zhao, Honggang; Su, Baofeng; Peatman, Eric; Li, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Fish are covered by a watery gel-mucus, mainly secreted by the goblet cells, serving as the physical and biochemical barrier between the external environment and the interior milieu, playing more important roles in fish that without scale. Despite the important roles of mucus in fish immunity, the knowledge of detailed molecular events happened during infection process is still limited. While most studies were focused on characterizing the protein and enzyme activities in the mucus following challenge, no studies have examined the gene expression profiles in fish mucus. In this regard, herein we carried out the first gene profiling analysis in catfish mucus using real-time PCR. Ten important immune-related genes were selected according to our previous studies. Their expression levels were examined in the early timepoints (namely, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h) following Flavobacterium columnare challenge. Notably, expression levels of most of the selected genes were rapidly altered by the challenge. Seven genes were down-regulated, while only three genes were up-regulated. In addition, the gene expression patterns in mucus were very different from the mucosal surfaces (skin, gill and intestine) and the classical immune organs (liver, spleen and kidney). The unique expression patterns obtained here may be resulted from the great advantage of the large amount of attached bacteria in the mucus than the internal tissues, and resulted from the bacteria virulent actors to suppress the host immune response. Taken together, our results can expand our knowledge of fish mucosal immunity, and the un-lethal mucus sampling can provide early insight for developing the strategies for selection of disease resistant families and strains in catfish as well as other fish species. PMID:26220643

  3. Optimizing soybean meal levels in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated decreasing soybean meal levels by the use of a combination of cottonseed meal and corn germ meal for pond-raised hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus × blue catfish I. furcatus). Five 28% protein diets containing 40, 30, 25, 20, 15% of soybean meal were formulated based o...

  4. Exploring the biology of disease resistance and susceptibility in catfish through proteomics and primary cell culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year more than 200 families of channel catfish are screened through experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of Enteric Septicemia of Catfish, a disease that annually causes widespread economic losses in the catfish industry. These experiential challenges are desig...

  5. SNP discovery in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing and subsequent SNP validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue catfish, Ictalurusfurcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally blue catfish x channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodsto...

  6. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  7. Identification and expression profile of multiple genes in the anterior kidney of channel catfish induced by modified live Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-04-15

    Using PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 57 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated from 240 clones of a modified live Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccinated vs. sham-vaccinated channel catfish anterior kidney subtractive library. The transcription levels of the 57 ESTs in response to E. ictaluri vaccination were then evaluated by quantitative PCR (QPCR). Of the 57 ESTs, 43 were induced at least 2-fold higher in all three vaccinated fish compared to unvaccinated control fish. Of the 43 upregulated genes, five were consistently upregulated greater than 10-fold, including two highly upregulated (>20-fold) glycosyltransferase and Toll-like receptor 5. The transcriptional levels of GTPase 1, coatomer protein complex zeta 1, and type II arginine deiminase were consistently induced greater than 10-fold. MHC class I alpha chain and transposase were upregulated greater than 10-fold in two of the three vaccinated fish. The 43 upregulated genes also included 19 moderately upregulated (3-10-fold) and 17 slightly upregulated (2-3-fold). Our results suggest that subtractive cDNA hybridization and QPCR are powerful cost-effective techniques to identify differentially expressed genes in response to modified live E. ictaluri vaccination.

  8. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial channel proteins that regulate the flow of hydrogen ions and ATP generation. The relationship between UCP2 and nutrient metabolism has been well-defined in humans but unclear in fish. We hypothesized that increased muscle growth in channel catf...

  9. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad J; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sun, Dawei; Capps, Nancy K; Hemstreet, William B; Carlisle, Kristen; Griffin, Matt J; Khoo, Lester; Goodwin, Andrew E; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven; Hayden, Karl; Newton, Joseph C; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  10. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  11. Demethylation of the pesticide methoxychlor in liver and intestine from untreated, methoxychlor-treated, and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus): evidence for roles of CYP1 and CYP3A family isozymes.

    PubMed

    Stuchal, Leah D; Kleinow, Kevin M; Stegeman, John J; James, Margaret O

    2006-06-01

    Exposure to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is associated with endocrine disruption in several species through biotransformation to mono-desmethyl-MXC (OH-MXC) and bis-desmethyl-MXC (HPTE), which interact with estrogen receptors. The biotransformation of [14C]methoxychlor was examined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), a freshwater species found in the southern United States. Hepatic microsomes formed OH-MXC and HPTE, assessed by comigration with authentic standards. The Km for OH-MXC formation by control liver microsomes was 3.8 +/- 1.3 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and Vmax was 131 +/- 53 pmol/min/mg protein. These values were similar to those of catfish pretreated with 2 mg/kg methoxychlor i.p. for 6 days (Km 3.3 +/- 0.8 microM and Vmax 99 +/- 17 pmol/min/mg) but less (p < 0.05) than the kinetic parameters for catfish treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), which had Km of 6.0 +/- 1.1 microM and Vmax of 246 +/- 6 pmol/min/mg protein. Liver microsomes from 3-MC-treated fish produced significantly more of the secondary metabolite and more potent estrogen, HPTE. Intestinal microsomes formed OH-MXC at lower rates than liver. Methoxychlor pretreatment significantly reduced intestinal metabolite formation from 32 +/- 4 to 15 +/- 6 pmol/min/mg (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), whereas 3-MC treatment significantly increased OH-MXC production to 72 +/- 22 pmol/min/mg. Ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and alpha-naphthoflavone all decreased the production of OH-MXC in liver microsomes, whereas alpha-naphthoflavone stimulated HPTE formation, suggesting that CYP1 and CYP3 family isozymes demethylated methoxychlor. The results suggest that the formation of estrogenic metabolites from methoxychlor would be more rapid in catfish coexposed to CYP1 inducers.

  12. Δ6-fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid elongase mRNA expression, phagocytic activity and weight-to-length relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed alternative diets with soy oil and a probiotic.

    PubMed

    Santerre, A; Téllez-Bañuelos, M C; Casas-Solís, J; Castro-Félix, P; Huízar-López, M R; Zaitseva, G P; Horta-Fernández, J L; Trujillo-García, E A; de la Mora-Sherer, D; Palafox-Luna, J A; Juárez-Carrillo, E

    2015-01-01

    A time-course feeding trial was conducted for 120 days on juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) to study the effects of diets differing in oil source (fish oil or soy oil) and supplementation with a commercial probiotic. Relative levels of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase (Δ6-FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) expression were assessed in brain and liver tissues. Both genes showed similar expression levels in all groups studied. Fish weight-to-length relationships were evaluated using polynomial regression analyses, which identified a burst in weight and length in the channel catfish on day 105 of treatment; this increase was related to an increase in gene expression. Mid-intestinal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) count was determined according to morphological and biochemical criteria using API strips. There was no indication that intestinal LAB count was affected by the modified diets. The Cunningham glass adherence method was applied to evaluate phagocytic cell activity in peripheral blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed through the respiratory burst activity of spleen macrophages by the NBT reduction test. Probiotic-supplemented diets provided a good substrate for innate immune system function; the phagocytic index was significantly enhanced in fish fed soy oil and the probiotic, and at the end of the experimental period, ROS production increased in fish fed soy oil. The substitution of fish oil by soy oil is recommended for food formulation and will contribute to promoting sustainable aquaculture. Probiotics are also recommended for channel catfish farming as they may act as immunonutrients. PMID:26400353

  13. Effect of arsenite, arsenate, and the herbicide monosodium methyl arsonate (MSMA) on hepatic metallothionein expression and lipid peroxidation in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, D; Wolford, L; Chelius, M; Steevens, J; Chan, K M

    1997-10-01

    Arsenic exerts its toxicity by the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates which caused lipid peroxidation and cellular damage. Metallothioneins (MTs) have been shown to be induced by oxidative stress and act as scavengers of reactive oxygen intermediates. Thus, hepatic MT was examined in channel catfish treated with the herbicide monosodium methyl arsonate (MSMA) and compared to equal doses of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L of each compound for 1 week by static renewal. Hepatic MT was measured by the cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) saturation assay, ELISA using antibodies raised against the first 10 amino acids of piscine MT, and Northern blot analysis using a cDNA encoding winter flounder hepatic MT. Cd/Hb and ELISA measurements of low molecular weight fractions from the hepatic cytosolic component of fish exposed to MSMA revealed a dose dependent increase in MT. MTs and MT mRNA of fish receiving the 1.0 mg/L dose were significantly induced vs control. Responses to arsenate exposure were more variable, but showed a trend toward a dose-dependent induction of MT and MT mRNA. MT mRNA and protein also showed a dose-dependent increase with arsenite exposure with no significant differences with untreated animals. Hepatic lipid peroxidation (as determined by TBARS) and glutathione was unaltered by any of the arsenical treatments. Thus, the lack of correlation between oxidative stress and MT expression suggest MT may not be a reliable indicator of oxidative stress. In addition, the induction of hepatic MT by various forms of As does not appear to be mediated through an oxidative stress mechanism in the liver.

  14. Validation, use, and disadvantages of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for detection of cortisol in channel catfish, largemouth bass, red pacu, and golden shiners.

    PubMed

    Sink, T D; Lochmann, R T; Fecteau, K A

    2008-03-01

    Measurement of cortisol response is an important tool to asses stress in fisheries research. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a common method for the measure of cortisol in fish. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to detect cortisol would eliminate health hazards, costs of handling radioisotopes, and the short stability time associated with RIA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays have been used for the determination of cortisol in several fish species. However, the ELISA method of cortisol determination in fish lacks proper validation testing. We conducted validation procedures for multiple commercial cortisol ELISA kits and compared the results to RIA. The assays were tested for four species: (1) channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, (2) largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, (3) red pacu Piaractus brachypomus, and (4) golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas. We evaluated the ELISA methods against RIA, and determined that at least one kit is suitable (accuracy: mean recovery of spiked samples, 102.8%; reproducibility: interassay coefficient of variation < 10.5% for all species; precision: intra-assay coefficient of variation < 16.8% for all species; linearity: R (2) > 0.96 for all species) for the measurement of cortisol response in fish and comparative determination of stress. All of the ELISA assay results varied by more than 10% from the cortisol concentrations detected by the RIA. The high variability of the kit results indicates that commercial ELISA kits could be utilized for qualitative determination of cortisol in fish, but should be fully validated in each laboratory for each species before being used for research. PMID:18649027

  15. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  16. Establishment of a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for measuring plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in fish: effect of fasting on plasma concentrations and tissue mRNA expression of IGF-I and growth hormone (GH) in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Small, Brian C; Peterson, Brian C

    2005-02-01

    A time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was established and validated that allows for the determination of plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in three domestically cultured fishes: channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysopsxM. saxatilis), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Sensitivity of the assay was 0.20 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were <7 and <12%, respectively. Serial dilutions of plasma from each species were parallel to the standard curve. Recovery of IGF-I from spiked plasma samples was >90% for all three species of fishes. The IGF-I TR-FIA was biologically validated via its use to determine the effect of fasting on circulating IGF-I levels in channel catfish. Fasting-induced changes in plasma growth hormone (GH), hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression, and pituitary GH mRNA expression were also determined. Fasted channel catfish lost 5.6 and 15.6% body mass after 2 and 4 weeks of fasting, respectively. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were depressed (P<0.05) relative to fed controls following 2 and 4 weeks of fasting. Plasma GH concentrations were not different (P>0.05) in fasted fish after 2 weeks, but significantly increased (P<0.05) by 4 weeks of fasting. Hepatic IGF-I mRNA expression after 2 and 4 weeks of fasting was reduced (P<0.05) relative to fed controls. Pituitary GH mRNA expression was similar (P>0.05) between 2-week-fasted catfish and fed controls, but was increased (P<0.05) in 4-week-fasted catfish. The IGF-I TR-FIA was sensitive, accurate, and precise for all three species of fishes, and provided a low-cost, and non-radioisotopic method for quantifying plasma IGF-I levels in fed and fasted channel catfish.

  17. Managing summertime off-flavors in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summertime phytoplankton blooms in channel catfish ponds often contain blue-green algae that produce musty or earthy odors. The odorous compounds are absorbed by fish across their gills and deposited in fatty tissues, giving fish undesirable “off-flavors.” When fish are declared off-flavored by proc...

  18. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xingjiang; Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the re-infection as tester. Of the 96 clones isolated from the SSH library, 28 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained, of which eight were confirmed to be slightly but significantly (P < 0.05) more up-regulated by the re-infection at 6 h post infection (hpi). Expression kinetics studies at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hpi revealed that the eight ESTs were significantly (P = 0.016) more up-regulated by the first infection, with a major peak at 3 hpi. A total of 96 genes reported in literature to be up-regulated by bacterial infections were selected and subjected to expression analysis at 3 hpi. Of the 96 selected genes, 19 were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) induced by A. hydrophila after the first infection and the re-infection. The 19 genes belonged to the following five main categories: 1) toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR3, TLR5, TLR21); 2) antimicrobial peptide (NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, cathepsin D, transferrin, hepcidin); 3) cytokine or chemokine (interleukin-1β, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor α, chemokine CXCL-10); 4) signaling proteins (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 1, very large inducible GTPase 1, arginine deiminase type 2, lymphokine-activated killer T-cell originated protein kinase); 5) lysozyme (lysozyme c). Overall, the total 27 genes (8 ESTs plus the 19 selected genes) were significantly (P < 0.001) more induced by the first infection. Peaked expression of lysozyme c and serum lysozyme activity after the first infection were seen at 24 hpi, whereas that after the re-infection were seen at 12 hpi, suggesting that both innate and adaptive immunity were involved in the defense against the re-infection of A

  19. Effect of Increased Egg Stocking Density in Existing and Experimental Catfish Incubators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in stationary wire mesh baskets suspended across metal troughs with flow-through water that is agitated and circulated between the baskets and around the eggs with rotating paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish e...

  20. Use of microbial transglutaminase and nonmeat proteins to improve functional properties of low NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Green, B W

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed at developing value-added low sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-free restructured patties using minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and nonmeat proteins (isolated soy protein, ISP, and whey protein concentrate, WPC; 1.7%, respectively) alone and in combination were evaluated to improve cooking yield and textural properties in patties with reduced NaCl and no phosphate. The concentration effect of MTGase (0.05% to 0.7%) was also studied. The addition of MTGase increased textural properties such as binding strength, hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness, but decreased cooking yield of the patties (P < 0.05). Isolated soy protein increased cooking yield (P < 0.05), but did not affect textural properties. Inclusion of WPC did not increase cooking yield or impact textural properties of patties. The combination of MTGase and ISP significantly increased both the cooking yield and textural properties of patties. As the concentration of MTGase increased at constant ISP, the textural properties of cooked patties significantly increased, but cooking yield decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the combination of 0.05% to 0.1% of MTGase with 1.7% ISP is optimal for development of a low NaCl, phosphate-free patty using minced catfish belly flap meat.

  1. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  2. Glucuronidation and sulfonation, in vitro, of the major endocrine-active metabolites of methoxychlor in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and induction following treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Stuchal, Leah D.; Nyagode, Beatrice A.

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), is metabolized in animals to phenolic mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites (OH-MXC and HPTE respectively) that interact with estrogen receptors and may be endocrine disruptors. The phase II detoxication of these compounds will influence the duration of action of the estrogenic metabolites, but has not been investigated extensively. In this study, the glucuronidation and sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE were investigated in subcellular fractions of liver and intestine from untreated, MXC-treated and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-treated channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. MXC-treated fish were given i.p. injections of 2 mg MXC/kg daily for 6 days and sacrificed 24 hr after the last dose. The 3-MC treatment was a single 10 mg/kg i.p. dose 5 days prior to sacrifice. In hepatic microsomes from control fish, the Vmax value (mean ± S.D., n=4) for glucuronidation of OH-MXC was 270 ± 50 pmol/min/mg protein, higher than found for HPTE (110 ± 20 pmol/min/mg protein). For each substrate, the Vmax values observed in intestinal microsomes were approximately twice those found in the liver. The Km values for OH-MXC and HPTE glucuronidation in control liver were not significantly different and were 0.32 ± 0.04 mM for OH-MXC and 0.26 ± 0.06 mM for HPTE. The Km for the co-substrate, UDPGA, was higher in liver (0.28 ± 0.09 mM) than intestine (0.04 ± 0.02 mM). Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased the Vmax for glucuronidation in liver and intestine. Glucuronidation was a more efficient pathway than sulfonation for both substrates, in both tissues. The Vmax values for sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE respectively in liver cytosol were 7 ± 3 and 17 ± 4 pmol/min/mg protein and in intestinal cytosol were 13 ± 3 and 30 ± 5 pmol/min/mg protein. Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased rates of sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE and the model substrate, 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene in both intestine and liver. Comparison of the kinetics

  3. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  4. The use of copper sulfate in catfish hatcheries: safety and effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is cheap, safe to the applicator and effective for controlling fungus on catfish eggs. Several studies were designed to determine the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit of an FDA approval. In an effectiveness study for the FDA, we found that ...

  5. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ≤1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  6. A non-lethal means to identify spermiating D&B strain of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US farm-raised catfish production was 334 million pounds in 2013, the first annual increase documented in a decade. This positive development is due to the increased adoption of channel x blue hybrid catfish in the industry. Research and development efforts to improve the genetics of channel catfi...

  7. 76 FR 10433 - Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing regulations requiring continuous inspection of catfish and catfish products. FSIS is proposing these regulations to implement provisions of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act (Farm Bill) of 2008. The proposed regulations are intended to ensure that catfish products distributed in commerce are wholesome, not adulterated, and......

  8. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  9. Suppression and restoration of primordial germ cell marker gene expression in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, using knockdown constructs regulated by copper transport protein gene promoters: Potential for reversible transgenic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Su, Baofeng; Shang, Mei; Grewe, Peter M; Patil, Jawahar G; Peatman, Eric; Perera, Dayan A; Cheng, Qi; Li, Chao; Weng, Chia-Chen; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhanjiang; Dunham, Rex A

    2015-12-01

    Complementary DNA overexpression and short hairpin RNA interference approaches were evaluated for decreasing expression of primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes and thereby sterilizing channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, by delivering knockdown constructs driven by a constitutive promoter from yeast and a copper transport protein gene into fish embryos by electroporation. Two PGC marker genes, nanos and dead end, were the target knockdown genes, and their expressions, along with that of an off-target gene, vasa, were evaluated temporally using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Copper sulfate was evaluated as a repressor compound. Some of the constructs knocked down PGC marker gene expression, and some of the constructs were partially repressed by application of 0.1-ppm copper sulfate. When the rate of sexual maturity was compared for three-year-old broodfish that had been exposed to the sterilizing constructs during embryologic development and controls that had not been exposed, several treatments had reduced sexual maturity for the exposed fish. Of two promoter systems evaluated, the one which had been designed to be less sensitive to copper generally was more effective at achieving sterilization and more responsive to repression. Knockdown constructs based on 3' nanos short hairpin RNA interference appeared to result in the best repression and restoration of normal sexual maturity. We conclude that these copper-based systems exhibited good potential for repressible transgenic sterilization. Optimization of this system could allow environmentally safe application of transgenic technology and might be applicable to other applications for aquatic organisms. PMID:26341409

  10. Catfish production using intensive aeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the last 3 years, researchers at UAPB and NWAC have been monitoring and verifying production yields in intensively aerated catfish ponds with aeration rates greater than 6 hp/acre. We now have three years of data on commercial catfish production in intensively aerated ponds. With stocking densi...

  11. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  12. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  13. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    SciTech Connect

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  14. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35% of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies. PMID:20096101

  15. A reservoir landscape for age-0 largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Jackson, J.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Landscape ecology is concerned with how ecological processes are affected by spatial patterns. Identification of heterogeneity in littoral zones has expanded the conceptual framework of aquatic landscapes. Long-term study of a reservoir largemouth bass population indicated that the amount and arrangement of habitat regulated the population processes. The distribution of age-0 largemouth bass was quantified in relation to littoral habitat and relations between landscape features and population parameters on scales from embayment to microhabitat were determined. At the embayment scale, shoreline slope and amount of gravel substratum predicted fivefold variability in abundance among four reservoir embayments. Within an embayment, these habitat features explained between 37 and 88 percent of variation in shoreline distribution of age-0 largemouth bass. At the microhabitat scale, age-0 largemouth bass exhibited patchy distributions in relation to gravel substratum at 40 percent of sites. These results indicate that the landscape scale domain for young largemouth bass is large; whereas, specific patterns explained processes across multiple scales. Distributions of age-0 largemouth bass in relation to habitat, however, were apparent on a fine scale (10 m) and these data, coupled with limited movement behavior of young largemouth bass, indicate that the ecological neighborhood of this life stage is small. Our data also suggested that some habitats may be source habitats because embayments with hypothesized higher source/sink ratios were more productive. Although patch arrangement critical to young largemouth bass ecology was not quantified, it was apparent that embayments with more complex habitats likely provided the extent of the landscape for age-0 largemouth bass in Jordan Lake. Identification of scale of patchiness (of fish distributions and habitats) for this life stage will assist in making inferences regarding complex ecological processes that can affect year

  16. Growth characteristics and otolith analysis on age-0 American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this reoprt), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large number of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitive estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.


    Analysis of the age-0 American shad growth trajectory or individual growth records may show evidence of differential growth rates over

  17. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  18. Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  19. Genetic sequence data identifies the cercaria of drepanocephalus spathans Digenea echinostomatidea a parasite of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus with notes on its pathology in juvenile channel catfish Ictal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2010, a catfish producer in the Mississippi Delta contacted the Fish Health Laboratory of the National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, MS regarding several ponds suspected of having trematode infections because of poor feeding activity. Fish and snail populations were ev...

  20. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly similar genomes. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that U.S. catfish isolates emerged from A. hydrophila populations of Asian origin. Furthermore, we identified an A. hydrophila strain isolated in 2004 from a diseased catfish in Mississippi, prior to the onset of the major epidemic outbreaks in Alabama starting in 2009, with genomic characteristics that are intermediate between those of the Asian and Alabama fish isolates. Investigation of A. hydrophila strain virulence demonstrated that the isolate from the U.S. catfish epidemic is significantly more virulent to both channel catfish and grass carp than is the Chinese carp isolate. This study implicates the importation of fish or fishery products into the United States as the source of highly virulent A. hydrophila that has caused severe epidemic outbreaks in United States-farmed catfish and further demonstrates the potential for invasive animal species to disseminate bacterial pathogens worldwide. PMID:24895303

  1. Nutritional impacts on gene expression in the surface mucosa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Peatman, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Short-term feed deprivation is a common occurrence in both wild and farmed fish species, due to reproductive processes, seasonal variations in temperature, or in response to a disease outbreak. Fasting can have dramatic physiological and biological consequences for fish, including impacts on mucosal immunity which can, in turn, change host susceptibility to pathogens. Culture and selection of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) has gained importance as the production of a channel catfish×blue catfish (Ictalurus punctatus×I. furcatus) hybrid has increased in the Southeast US. Following a recent examination of fasting-induced impacts on mucosal immunity in channel catfish, here we utilized Illumina-based RNA-seq expression profiling to compare changes in blue catfish gill and skin after a brief (7 day) period of fasting. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly of over 194 million 100 base-pair transcript reads was followed by differential expression analysis. Fasting altered a total of 530 genes in the surface mucosa, including genes regulating the immune response, energy metabolism, mucus production, cellular cytoskeletal structure, cell proliferation, and antioxidant responses. In particular, fasting perturbed arginine synthesis and metabolism pathways in a manner likely altering macrophage activation states and immune readiness. Our findings highlight key mediators of the critical interaction between nutrition and immunity at points of pathogen adherence and entry.

  2. Intensive production of hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic analysis by others shows clearly that under certain fish price-feed price combinations, intensively aerated ponds are not only an alternative, but are the profit-maximizing technology. We have raised hybrid catfish at stocking rates of 20,000/acre with aeration rates up to 10 hp/acre, produ...

  3. Efficacy of Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate as A Catfish Egg Disinfectant and Comparison to Hydrogen Peroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) for improving channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus hatching success when used as a prophylactic chemotherapeutant during egg incubation. In the first experiment, efficacy of SCP was evaluated in 379-L, al...

  4. A reconnaissance study of halogenated organic compounds in catfish from the lower Mississippi river and its major tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C.E.; Barnes, C.R.; Pereira, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Blue catfish, (Ictarurus furcatus), black bullhead catfish, (Ictalurus melas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and flathead catfish (Pylodictus olivaris), were collected along a 1200 mile river reach of the Mississippi River and its major tributaries. Tissue samples were extracted and analyzed by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the concentrations of hydrophobic organic halogenated contaminants that have bioconcentrated within the tissues. The compounds identified in the tissue include chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites along with several other chlorinated pesticides. The data indicates that the southern reach of the river system appears to be more contaminated than the middle and upper reaches of the study area.

  5. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  6. Behaviors of southwestern native fishes in response to introduced catfish predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Figiel, Chester R.

    2013-01-01

    Native fishes reared in hatcheries typically suffer high predation mortality when stocked into natural environments. We evaluated the behavior of juvenile bonytail Gila elegans, roundtail chub Gila robusta, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and Sonora sucker Catostomus insignis in response to introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris. Our laboratory tests indicate these species did not inherently recognize catfish as a threat, but they can quickly (within 12 h) change their behavior in response to a novel predator paired with the sight and scent of a dead conspecific. Chubs appear to avoid predation by swimming away from the threat, whereas suckers reduced movement. Effects of antipredator conditioning on survival of fish reared in hatcheries is unknown; however, our results suggest some native fish can be conditioned to recognize introduced predators, which could increase poststocking survival.

  7. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  8. Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03693 Channel

    This channel is located south of Iani Chaos.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.9N, Longitude 345.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Comparative catfish macrophage function in families expressing high and low survivor phenotype following experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two channel catfish families were identified as displaying a high (>90%) or low (<10%) survival phenotype in repeated experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri. In order to gain understanding of the biological basis of these phenotypes, primary macrophages were prepared from head kidney tiss...

  10. Characterization and value-added utilization of proteins extracted from the by-products from catfish fillet processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish farming is the most important warm water aquaculture in the Southeastern United States. The by-products, including heads, skin, bone frame and viscera, account for 55-65% of the whole fish mass after fillet processing. The by-products contain 35% of protein on a dry basis, and may be...

  11. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Dorooshi, Gholamali

    2012-01-01

    Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported. PMID:23626639

  12. Practical use of copper sulfate in catfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate has been used in aquaculture for many years to control weeds, algae, snails (which carry catfish trematode), and ecto-parasitic organisms in catfish production. Our research has also shown it to be safe and effective to treat fungus on various fish eggs (catfish, hybrid striped bass,...

  13. Rapid loss of lampricide from catfish and rainbow trout following routine treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Schreier, T.M.; Boogaard, M.A.; Spanjers, N.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and Bayluscide (niclosamide) during a sea lamprey control treatment of the Ford River, located in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Caged fish were exposed to a nominal concentration of 0.02 mg/L of niclosamide for a period of approximately 12 h. Samples of fillet tissue were collected from each fish species before treatment and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h following the arrival of the block of chemical at the exposure site. The fish were dissected, homogenized, extracted, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major residues found in the fillet tissues were TFM and niclosamide. Niclosamide concentrations were highest 12 h after arrival of the chemical block for rainbow trout (0.0395 ?? 0.0251 ??g/g) and 18 h after arrival of the chemical block for channel catfish (0.0465 ?? 0.0212 ??g/g). Residues decreased rapidly after the block of lampricide had passed and were below the detection limits in fillets of rainbow trout within 24 h and channel catfish within 96 h after the arrival of the lampricide.

  14. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers,; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  15. Degree-day accumulation influences annual variability in growth of age-0 walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uphoff, Christopher S.; Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Hoback, W. Wyatt; Koupal, Keith D.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of age-0 fishes influences survival, especially in temperate regions where size-dependent over-winter mortality can be substantial. Additional benefits of earlier maturation and greater fecundity may exist for faster growing individuals. This study correlated prey densities, growing-degree days, water-surface elevation, turbidity, and chlorophyll a with age-0 walleye Sander vitreus growth in a south-central Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Growth of age-0 walleye was variable between 2003 and 2011, with mean lengths ranging from 128 to 231 mm by fall (September 30th–October 15th). A set of a priori candidate models were used to assess the relative support of explanatory variables using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). A temperature model using the growing degree-days metric was the best supported model, describing 65% of the variability in annual mean lengths of age-0 walleye. The second and third best supported models included the variables chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.49) and larval freshwater drum density (r2 = 0.45), respectively. There have been mixed results concerning the importance of temperature effects on growth of age-0 walleye. This study supports the hypothesis that temperature is the most important predictor of age-0 walleye growth near the southwestern limits of its natural range.

  16. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  17. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  18. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of catfish linkage group 8 reveals two homologous chromosomes in zebrafish and other teleosts with extensive inter-chromosomal rearrangements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from model species to related non-model species. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the primary aquaculture species in the United States. Its existing genome resources such as genomic sequences generated from n...

  20. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  1. Optimum temperature for growth and preferred temperatures of age-0 lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Cleland, Joshua

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the thermal preferences and optimum temperature for growth of age-0 lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to help predict the thermal habitat they select when they leave the spawning grounds and to assess the risk posed to them in the Great Lakes by piscivorus, nonnative fishes whose thermal habitat preferences are known. The test fish were hatched in the laboratory from eggs taken from wild fish, acclimated to 5, 10, 15, and 18°C, and fed to excess with commercial trout food for 47 d. The test fish grew at all of the temperatures, and the specific growth rate was highest at about 12.5°C (3.8% wet body weight/d). Fish used in the growth study were also tested in a vertical thermal gradient tank and had a final thermal preferendum between 10.1°C and 10.2°C. These results, which generally agreed with those of an earlier laboratory study of the temperature preference of age-1 lake trout and the limited information on thermal habitat use by age-0 lake trout in the Great Lakes, indicated age-0 lake trout would tend to seek temperatures near 10°C, or as high as 12.5°C, during summer if food was abundant. Published information on thermal habitat use of age-1 and adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax indicated they would be expected to co-occur with age-0 lake trout during much of the time when the lake trout were small enough to be eaten by these two introduced piscivores.

  2. Do predators influence the distribution of age-0 kokanee in a Colorado Reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, J.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reservoir conditions such as productivity, light, and temperature create spatiotemporal variation in habitat that may segregate or aggregate predators and prey, producing implications for the distribution, growth, and survival of fishes. We used hydroacoustics to document the diel vertical distribution of age-0 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka relative to environmental gradients at Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado, during May-August of 2002. Temperature, light, and zooplankton density profiles were examined relative to foraging conditions for kokanee and their primary predator, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Age-0 kokanee displayed large diel vertical migrations in May despite the lack of an energetic advantage before reservoir stratification. Age-0 kokanee minimized near-surface foraging at this time, perhaps to avoid predation by visual predators, such as lake trout, in the well-lit surface waters. Strong reservoir stratification in midsummer appeared to provide a thermal refuge from lake trout that the kokanee exploited. By August vertical migrations were shallow and most kokanee remained in the epilimnion throughout the day. Although the energetic implications of the late-summer strategy are unclear, it appears that kokanee were responding to changes in their predator environment. A robust model for kokanee diel vertical migration across a range of systems should include a predator avoidance component.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Flathead Catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Lawrence A.; Terrell, James W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Production Practices of Commercial Catfish Producers in Northeast Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letlow, Richard M.; Verma, Satish

    A study determined the yields obtained and the production practices followed by Louisiana commercial catfish farmers in Catahoula, Concordia, and Franklin Parishes. This information was used by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (LCES) faculty to develop a catfish education program. The study: (1) determined use of selected recommended…

  5. Treating catfish diseases: walking the line between excess and moderation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost savings by using a cheaper disease treatment will increase profitability of any catfish farm. This invited producer presentation will discuss costs savings using copper sulfate in catfish production and a summation of our research, specifically in the hatchery. Copper sulfate is not approved ...

  6. Backwaters in the upper reaches of reservoirs produce high densities of age-0 crappies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagel, Jonah D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir backwaters are aquatic habitats in floodplains of reservoir tributaries that are permanently or periodically flooded by the reservoir. Like many reservoir arms, backwaters are commonly shallow, littoral habitats, but they differ from arms in various respects, including their support of primarily wetland plant assemblages that are tolerant to flooding. Elsewhere, the reservoir floods mainly upland plants that are less tolerant to flooding, producing a band of barren shoreline along the fluctuation zone. We investigated differences in relative abundance of age-0 crappies Pomoxis spp. in backwaters and arms of widely fluctuating flood control reservoirs, examined the effect of water level, and estimated the likelihood and timing with which these habitats are flooded annually. Higher catch rates of age-0 crappies were obtained in backwater habitats than in arm habitats. When inundated during the crappie spawning season, backwaters provided vegetated habitat at lower water levels than arms. Backwaters flooded earlier than arms and remained flooded longer to provide prolonged nursery habitat. Whereas vegetated habitat was inundated almost yearly in backwaters and arms, inundation that was timed to the onset of spawning occurred less regularly. Because of differences in water elevation, vegetated habitats were flooded in time for crappie spawning about every other year in backwaters but only every third year in arms. Recruitment of age-0 crappies was inversely correlated with high water levels during the months preceding the spawning period, perhaps because early flooding degraded the vegetation. Our results suggest that water levels may be managed during late winter and spring to regularly flood wetland vegetation communities in backwaters; however, water levels should be maintained at or below normal pool and should only irregularly flood upland vegetation in reservoir arms to promote the preservation of such vegetation. Furthermore, management efforts to

  7. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). Sea catfish and Gafftopsail catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.; Wingo, W.M.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. Sea catfish and gafftopsail catfish are not preferred sport nor commercial fish; however, their high abundance inshore along the northern Gulf of Mexico causes them to rank 2nd or 3rd and no lower than 13th of all saltwater finfish in angler surveys. Sea catfish comprised less than 2% in industrial bottom trawl fisheries although surveys in depths to 20 m revealed they comprised 2 to 36%, by weight, of the bottom fishes. Sea catfish attain sexual maturity before 2 years of age, and spawn from May to August in shallow bays. Adult males do not feed for 60 to 80 days while carrying fertilized eggs and sac-fry in their mouths. Juveniles remain in low-salinity estuaries until decreasing water temperatures above 25/sup 0/C but remain inshore at temperatures above 10/sup 0/C. Sea catfish and gafftopsail catfish have been collected from waters with salinities ranging from 0 to 30 ppt, but prefer water salinities above 10 ppt. Water depth preferences of sea catfish and gafftopsail catfish appear related to water temperature, salinity, and bottom substrate. As juveniles, both species are opportunistic feeders utilizing microcrustaceans, and as adults, they feed upon detritus, microcrustaceans, and larger invertebrates. Blue crabs and shrimp are considered major food items. 70 references, 2 figures.

  8. Diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and origins of venomous catfishes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The study of venomous fishes is in a state of relative infancy when compared to that of other groups of venomous organisms. Catfishes (Order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of bony fishes that have long been known to include venomous taxa, but the extent and phylogenetic distribution of this venomous species diversity has never been documented, while the nature of the venoms themselves also remains poorly understood. In this study, I used histological preparations from over 100 catfish genera, basic biochemical and toxicological analyses of fin spine extracts from several species, and previous systematic studies of catfishes to examine the distribution of venom glands in this group. These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. Results Histological examinations of 158 catfish species indicate that approximately 1250-1625+ catfish species should be presumed to be venomous, when viewed in conjunction with several hypotheses of siluriform phylogeny. Maximum parsimony character optimization analyses indicate two to three independent derivations of venom glands within the Siluriformes. A number of putative toxic peptides were identified in the venoms of catfish species from many of the families determined to contain venomous representatives. These peptides elicit a wide array of physiological effects in other fishes, though any one species examined produced no more than three distinct putative toxins in its venom. The molecular weights and effects produced by these putative toxic peptides show strong similarities to previously characterized toxins found in catfish epidermal secretions. Conclusion Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes (Order Siluriformes), and venomous catfishes may outnumber the combined diversity of all other venomous vertebrates. The toxic peptides found in catfish venoms may be derived from epidermal secretions that have been demonstrated to accelerate the

  9. Chemotaxis of Flavobacterium columnare: To Channel Catfish Mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiological agent of columnaris disease in fresh water fish. The disease is characterized by chronic skin lesions and severe mortality. The skin mucus constitutes a large portion of body and many infectious organisms including F. columnare, is believed to invade throu...

  10. Solids management in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofloc technology (BFT) production systems are being used more commonly to produce high yields of fish or shrimp because very high feed rates are possible. In an outdoor BFT production system, a complex of living organisms is closely associated with particulate organic matter and is maintained in s...

  11. Growing stocker channel catfish in a biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofloc technology (BFT), or mixed suspended-growth, production systems are being used more frequently worldwide for culturing various aquatic animals because of the high yields that are possible. In an outdoor BFT production system, a complex of living organisms is closely associated with particula...

  12. Environmental assessment of copper sulfate use in channel catfish ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used worldwide as a waterborne disease therapeutant in commercial and ornamental fish culture. However, it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for therapeutic use in aquaculture; regulatory action on the use of CuSO4 has been deferred pending the...

  13. Composition of Age-0 Fish Assemblages in the Apalachicola River, River Styx, and Battle Bend, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Buttermore, Elissa N.; Burgess, O. Towns; Pine, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Light traps were used to sample the age-0 year class of fish communities in the Apalachicola River and associated floodplain water bodies of River Styx and Battle Bend, Florida, in 2006-2007. A total of 629 light traps were deployed during the spring and early summer months (341 between March 15 and June 6, 2006; 288 between March 9 and July 3, 2007). For combined years, 13.8 percent of traps were empty and a total of 20,813 age-0 fish were captured representing at least 40 taxa of 29 genera and 16 families. Trap catches were dominated by relatively few species, with the most abundant groups represented by cyprinids, centrarchids, percids, and catostomids. Six taxa accounted for about 80 percent of all fish collected: Micropterus spp. (28.9 percent), Notropis texanus (28.9 percent), Lepomis macrochirus (7.9 percent), Carpiodes cyprinus (6.2 percent), Cyprinidae sp. (4.6 percent), and Minytrema melanops (4.2 percent). Based on chronological appearance in light traps and catch-per-unit effort, including data from previous years of sampling, peak spawning periods for most species occurred between early March and mid-June. A complementary telemetry study of pre-reproductive adults of select target species (Micropterus spp., Lepomis spp., and M. melanops) revealed distinct patterns of habitat use, with some individual fish exclusively utilizing mainstem river habitat or floodplain habitat during spawning and post-spawning periods, and other individuals migrating between habitats. A comparison of light-trap catches between a pre-enhancement, high-water year (2003) and post-enhancement, low-water year (2007) for the oxbow at Battle Bend revealed some difference in community composition, with slightly greater values of diversity and evenness indices in 2007. Two dominant species, Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides, were substantially greater in relative abundance among all age-0 fish collected in 2007 in comparison to 2003. Excavation of sediments at the mouth

  14. Evaluation of a modified Ph-shift process to reduce 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in spiked catfish and produce a consumer acceptable fried catfish nugget-like product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm-raised catfish weighing about 1 kg were selected and placed into 3 tanks each containing 1000 L of water. Treatment of tanks was blocked by week. In week 1, catfish in tanks were allowed to depurate 24 h, and then were held an additional 24 h. In weeks 2 and 3, catfish were treated as in wee...

  15. Aerobic scope for activity in age 0 year Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S L; von Herbing, I Hunt

    2009-05-01

    Key components of swimming metabolism: standard metabolism (R(s)), active metabolism (R(a)) and absolute aerobic scope for activity (R(a)-R(s)) were determined for small age 0 year Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Gadus morhua juveniles grew from 0.50 to 2.89 g wet body mass (M(WB)) over the experimental period of 100 days, and growth rates (G) ranged from 1.4 to 2.9% day(-1), which decreased with increasing size. Metabolic rates were recorded by measuring changes in oxygen consumption over time at different activity levels using modified Brett-type respirometers designed to accommodate the small size and short swimming endurance of small fishes. Power performance relationships were established between oxygen consumption and swimming speed measurements were repeated for individual fish as each fish grew. Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (RsMWB-1) were calculated from the power performance relationships by extrapolating to zero swimming speed and decreased from 7.00 to 5.77 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1), mass-specific active metabolic rates (RaMWB-1) were calculated from extrapolation to maximum swimming speed (U(max)) and decreased from 26.18 to 14.35 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1) and mass-specific absolute scope for activity was calculated as the difference between active and standard metabolism (RaMWB-1-RsMWB-1) and decreased from 26.18 to 14.35 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1) as M(WB) increased. Small fish with low R(s) had bigger aerobic scopes but, as expected, R(s) was higher in smaller fish than larger fish. The measurements and results from this study are unique as R(s), R(a) and absolute aerobic scopes have not been previously determined for small age 0 year G. morhua.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds. PMID:27598647

  17. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    PubMed

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds.

  18. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  19. 52. FRONT VIEW OF INSIDE DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. FRONT VIEW OF INSIDE DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 38. VIEW SHOWING 'CATFISH' SILO ELEVATOR IN UP POSITION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW SHOWING 'CATFISH' SILO ELEVATOR IN UP POSITION, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 50. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC PUMP INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 37. CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 36. CLOSEUP OF ELEVATOR DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CLOSE-UP OF ELEVATOR DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 43. DETAIL VIEW OF 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD (continues view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL VIEW OF 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD (continues view of CA-57-7) Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 57. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 45. VIEW OF 'CATFISH' LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF 'CATFISH' LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 55. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 40. VIEW SHOWING TOP OF 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW SHOWING TOP OF 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 41. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING ENTRANCE TO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING ENTRANCE TO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 48. DETAIL VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 56. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 35. VIEW OF GATES INTO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Marilyn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF GATES INTO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 47. VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ENTRANCE TO 'BRAVO' IN BACK Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 34. VIEW OF GATE INTO LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; 'CATFISH' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF GATE INTO LAUNCH AREA, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; 'CATFISH' DOORS OPEN Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 51. FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR LIFT IN 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR LIFT IN 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  20. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  1. Effects of ration and temperature on growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, J.L.; Arnold, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to gain insight into the optimum temperature and ration for growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in culture. We conducted two trials, each for 8 weeks. Trial 1 started with 60-g fish, trial 2 started with 0 3-g fish. Water temperatures of 15, 17, and 19??C were used separately in each trial. Rations (dry food, wet weight of fish) for 60-g fish were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of biomass per day, for 0.3-g fish, rations were 3, 5, and 7% of biomass per day. We set up three tank replicates, of equal fish biomass, at each combination of temperature and ration. The highest growth rate in trial 1 (for 60-g fish) was 0.014/d at 15??C and the 1.5% ration, although this growth rate was not significantly different from the growth rate at 17??C and 1.5% ration or at 17??C and 1.0% ration. The highest growth rate in trial 2 (for 0.3-g fish) was 0.067/d at 19??C and the 7.0% ration. Instantaneous growth at these conditions was significantly different from all other combinations of temperature and ration. Although these results may not completely define the temperature and ration under which fish could achieve maximum growth rate, they provide a solid starting point for further development of Atlantic sturgeon culture.

  2. Trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an atlantic river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Jessica R.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris is a large piscivore that is native to the Mississippi and Rio Grande river drainages but that has been widely introduced across the United States. River ecologists and fisheries managers are concerned about introduced flathead catfish populations because of the negative impacts on native fish communities or imperiled species associated with direct predation and indirect competition from this apex predator. We studied the trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an Atlantic river to further understand the effects on native fish communities. Crayfish (Astacidea) occurred most frequently in the flathead catfish diet, while sunfish Lepomis spp. comprised the greatest percentage by weight. Neither of two sympatric imperiled fish species (the federally endangered Cape Fear shiner Notropis mekistocholas and the Carolina redhorse Moxostoma sp., a federal species of concern) was found in any diet sample. An ontogenetic shift in diet was evident when flathead catfish reached about 300 mm, and length significantly explained the variation in the percent composition by weight of sunfish and darters Etheostoma and Percina spp. Flathead catfish showed positive prey selectivity for taxa that occupied similar benthic microhabitat, highlighting the importance of opportunistic feeding and prey encounter rates. Flathead catfish displayed a highly variable diel feeding chronology during July, when they had a mean stomach fullness of 0.32%, but then showed a single midday feeding peak during August (mean fullness = 0.52%). The gastric evacuation rate increased between July (0.40/h) and August (0.59/h), as did daily ration, which more than doubled between the 2 months (3.06% versus 7.37%). Our findings increase the understanding of introduced flathead catfish trophic relations and the degree of vulnerability among prey taxa, which resource managers may consider in fisheries management and conservation of native fish populations and

  3. Catfish stings and the venom apparatus of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), and stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794).

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Kuciel, Michal; Gawlikowski, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The ability of catfish to inflict extremely painful wounds with their pectoral and dorsal stings has been well known for many decades. The venom apparatus of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), and stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) is constituted by a single, sharp and stout sting immediately in front of the soft-rayed portion of the pectoral fins. The sting has well developed articulations, making it possible for it to become erect and locked. The toxicological centres in Poland have recorded 17 cases of envenomations caused by stinging catfish and African catfish; the injury was accompanied by intense pain, numbness of the site, dizziness, local oedema and erythema. In addition, systemic symptoms such as tachycardia, weakness and arterial hypotension were observed. The treatment of these injuries should include cleansing of the wound and surrounding area. Immersion of the wounded extremity in hot water (45 degrees C) was used for the pain control. An attempt to remove any spinal sheath or remnant must be undertaken. Antibiotic management depends on several factors: the age and immune status of the victim, the interval between injury and presentation, or the presence of a foreign body. The most serious long-term complications of sting envenomation involve infections.

  4. DNA barcoding of catfish: species authentication and phylogenetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Lian; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Kucuktas, Huseyin; He, Shunping; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Na-nakorn, Uthairat; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-03-15

    As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from individuals of 9 species (and an Ictalurid hybrid) of domestic and imported catfish in accordance with standard DNA barcoding protocols. These included domestic Ictalurid catfish, and representative imported species from the families of Clariidae and Pangasiidae. Alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (98% similarity on average). These alignments allowed the development and analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species and comparison with limited sequences in public databases (GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems). Validation tests carried out in blinded studies and with commercially purchased catfish samples (both frozen and fresh) revealed the reliability of DNA barcoding for differentiating between these catfish species. The developed protocols and consensus barcodes are valuable resources as increasing market and governmental scrutiny is placed on catfish and other fisheries and aquaculture products labeling in the United States.

  5. Foodborne agents associated with the consumption of aquaculture catfish.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Erica; Morrison, Jamie; Cook, Victor; Johnston, John; Eblen, Denise; Guo, Chuanfa

    2011-03-01

    In the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act (Farm Bill) of 2008, Congress amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that catfish be inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). As part of the development of its inspection program, the FSIS conducted an assessment of the food safety risk associated with consuming farm-raised catfish. To thoroughly identify hazards for consideration in the risk assessment, the scientific literature was surveyed for all potential agents that have been linked to illness associated with farm-raised catfish consumption. A review of microbial hazards suggested that Salmonella is the foodborne pathogen most likely to be associated with catfish, but the impact of other pathogens remains unclear. This review also summarizes the current data available on chemical residues in catfish, including pesticides and heavy metals, and any regulatory levels that have been established for these compounds. The current usage of veterinary drugs in aquaculture also is outlined, including information on unapproved usage of drugs in catfish.

  6. DNA Barcoding of Catfish: Species Authentication and Phylogenetic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Lian; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Kucuktas, Huseyin; He, Shunping; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Na-nakorn, Uthairat; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from individuals of 9 species (and an Ictalurid hybrid) of domestic and imported catfish in accordance with standard DNA barcoding protocols. These included domestic Ictalurid catfish, and representative imported species from the families of Clariidae and Pangasiidae. Alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (98% similarity on average). These alignments allowed the development and analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species and comparison with limited sequences in public databases (GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems). Validation tests carried out in blinded studies and with commercially purchased catfish samples (both frozen and fresh) revealed the reliability of DNA barcoding for differentiating between these catfish species. The developed protocols and consensus barcodes are valuable resources as increasing market and governmental scrutiny is placed on catfish and other fisheries and aquaculture products labeling in the United States. PMID:21423623

  7. Simulation modeling of high-throughput cryopreservation of aquatic germplasm: a case study of blue catfish sperm processing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, E; Liao, T. W.; Tiersch, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging commercial-level technology for aquatic sperm cryopreservation has not been modeled by computer simulation. Commercially available software (ARENA, Rockwell Automation, Inc. Milwaukee, WI) was applied to simulate high-throughput sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) based on existing processing capabilities. The goal was to develop a simulation model suitable for production planning and decision making. The objectives were to: 1) predict the maximum output for 8-hr workday; 2) analyze the bottlenecks within the process, and 3) estimate operational costs when run for daily maximum output. High-throughput cryopreservation was divided into six major steps modeled with time, resources and logic structures. The modeled production processed 18 fish and produced 1164 ± 33 (mean ± SD) 0.5-ml straws containing one billion cryopreserved sperm. Two such production lines could support all hybrid catfish production in the US and 15 such lines could support the entire channel catfish industry if it were to adopt artificial spawning techniques. Evaluations were made to improve efficiency, such as increasing scale, optimizing resources, and eliminating underutilized equipment. This model can serve as a template for other aquatic species and assist decision making in industrial application of aquatic germplasm in aquaculture, stock enhancement, conservation, and biomedical model fishes. PMID:25580079

  8. Relation of age-0 largemouth bass abundance to hydrilla coverage and water level at Lochloosa and Orange Lakes, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, W.B.; Allen, M.S.; Myers, R.A.; Nagid, E.J.; Estes, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in electrofishing catch per hour (CPH) of age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were examined in relation to aquatic macrophytes and seasonal water elevation at Lochloosa and Orange lakes, Florida, during the 1990s. At Lochloosa Lake, stepwise multiple regression revealed a significant positive relationship between the mean CPH of age-0 largemouth bass and the percentage of areal coverage by hydrilla Hydrilla verticallata. At Orange Lake, mean CPH was directly associated with the percentage of areal coverage by hydrilla and inversely related to summer water levels. Thus, the influence of vegetation on age-0 largemouth bass abundance was similar at both lakes, but the effects of water levels were not. Further investigations into the effects of fluctuations in water levels on age-0 largemouth bass in natural lakes are needed.

  9. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  10. Trends and physiology of common serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18 years.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Metz, Michael Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to visually present and discuss in detail the physiological trends of 22 serum biochemistries in children aged 0-18.A data-mining, LMS (lambda, mu, and sigma) approach was employed to derive the smoothed continuous serum biochemistry centile charts, after application of stringent outlier exclusion criteria.Serum sodium and calculated osmolality are low in early life and rise with age due to maturing kidney and body water redistribution. Urea, creatinine and uric acid is high at birth, declines to reach a trough by 1 month of age and gradually rises again thereafter. Serum bicarbonate falls initially during the neonatal and toddler period, then rises with declining respiratory rate, further increasing sodium and suppressing chloride. Potassium, calcium and phosphate are required for somatic growth and are actively accrued during periods of rapid growth. Albumin increases until puberty while globulin rises to age 10 as a result of increased hepatic synthetic capacity and maturing immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity peaks during bone growth spurts in infancy and adolescence due to osteoblast leakage, while creatinine increases with muscle mass. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities are high at birth and decline with age. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity is low at birth and is induced by increased gluconeogenesis. Serum bilirubin increases continuously with age, mirroring haemoglobin concentration. Serum total cholesterol declines more markedly in boys than girls during puberty due to the combined effects of free testosterone (lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys) and oestradiol (lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and girls).It is important to understand trends and biological variation when interpreting results since partitioned reference intervals may mask this information. PMID:26126034

  11. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  12. Age-0 Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker nearshore habitat use in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: A patch occupancy approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, S.M.; Hendrixson, H.A.; VanderKooi, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined habitat use by age-0 Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris over six substrate classes and in vegetated and nonvegetated areas of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. We used a patch occupancy approach to model the effect of physical habitat and water quality conditions on habitat use. Our models accounted for potential inconsistencies in detection probability among sites and sampling occasions as a result of differences in fishing gear types and techniques, habitat characteristics, and age-0 fish size and abundance. Detection probability was greatest during mid- to late summer, when water temperatures were highest and age-0 suckers were the largest. The proportion of sites used by age-0 suckers was inversely related to depth (range = 0.4-3.0 m), particularly during late summer. Age-0 suckers were more likely to use habitats containing small substrate (64 mm) and habitats with vegetation than those without vegetation. Relatively narrow ranges in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH prevented us from detecting effects of these water quality features on age-0 sucker nearshore habitat use.

  13. Catfish production using intensive, pond-based culture systems in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. is catfish farming. Many catfish farmers feel that intensifying production will reduce production costs by improving efficiency and profitability. Catfish farmers in Mississippi have been able to increase production by increasing aeration rates (~5 to 15 h...

  14. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  18. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Metrifonate on Monogenean ligictaluridus floridanus on Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus , Rafinesque) Gills.

    PubMed

    Benavides-González, Flaviano; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo Alberto; Rábago-Castro, Jaime Luis; Sánchez-Martínez, Jesús Genaro; Montelongo-Alfaro, Isidro Otoniel

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and metrifonate (Mtf) are common products used in ectoparasite infestations on fish cultures. The therapeutic efficacy of H2O2 and Mtf on a common monogenean parasite, Ligictaluridus floridanus, was evaluated in channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). In vitro trials were conducted using excised fish gills naturally infected with L. floridanus, which were immersed in H2O2 (150, 300, and 570 mg L(-1)) and Mtf (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mg L(-1)) solutions. The efficacy of the treatments was based on the survival time of the parasites, observed microscopically. In addition, an in vivo trial using catfish juveniles, naturally infected with L. floridanus, was also performed. One group received immersion baths of 570 mg L(-1) H2O2 (3%) during 4 min; the Mtf (90%) group received 0.5 mg L(-1) Mtf for 10 min. Treatments were done on days 3, 7, and 11 of the experiment. Results indicate that baths with Mtf do not significantly reduce the mean intensity of the parasite per gill arch, nor do they reduce the in vitro survival time of parasites during treatment; H2O2 baths at 570 mg L(-1) during 4 min were effective (P < 0.05) against adult and juvenile stages of L. floridanus. This study supports the use of H2O2 as an effective antiparasitic agent against I. punctatus . PMID:26286108

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Ke, F; Zhang, H B; Wang, Y; Hou, L F; Dong, H J; Wang, Z F; Pan, G W; Cao, X Y

    2016-09-01

    This study represents the first report of a C-type lectin (ctl) in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. The complete sequence of ctl complementary (c)DNA consisted of 685 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of c.y 20.204 kDa. The deduced amino-acid sequence contained a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate recognition domain with four cysteine residues and GlnProAsp (QPD) and TrpAsnAsp (WND) motifs. Ctl showed the highest identity (56.0%) to the predicted lactose binding lectin from channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Quantitative real-time (qrt)-PCR analysis showed that ctl messenger (m)RNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish, with high expression in trunk kidney and head kidney, which was increased following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in a duration-dependent manner. Purified recombinant Ctl (rCtl) from Escherichia coli BL21 was able to bind and agglutinate Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner. These results suggested that Ctl might be a C-type lectin of T. fulvidraco involved in innate immune responses as receptors (PRR). PMID:27418461

  1. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Peatman, Eric; Lange, Miles; Zhao, Honggang; Beck, Benjamin H

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catfish depend more heavily on mucosal barriers than their terrestrial counterparts as they are continuously interacting with the aquatic microbiota. Our understanding of these barriers, while growing, is still limited relative to that of mammalian model systems. Nevertheless, a combination of molecular and cellular studies in catfish over the last few decades, and particularly within the last few years, has helped to elucidate many of the primary actors and pathways critical to their mucosal health. Here we describe aspects of innate and adaptive immune responses in the primary mucosal tissues (skin, gill, and intestine) of catfish, focusing on mucus-driven responses, pathogen recognition, soluble mediators, and immunoglobulin and T-cell derived immunity. Modulation of mucosal barriers will be critical moving forward for crafting better diets, improving vaccine delivery, enhancing water quality, and ensuring sustainable production practices in catfish. PMID:26716071

  2. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  3. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  4. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  5. Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

    1995-01-01

    We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7–11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

  6. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  7. Effects of river discharge on abundance and instantaneous growth of age-0 carpsuckers in the Oconee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Ronald C.; Jennings, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Oconee River in middle Georgia, U.S.A., has been regulated by the Sinclair Dam since 1953. Since then, the habitat of the lower Oconee River has been altered and the river has become more incised. The altered environmental conditions of the Oconee River may limit the success of various fish populations. Some obligate riverine fishes may be good indicator species for assessing river system integrity because they are intolerant to unfavourable conditions. For example, many sucker species require clean gravel for feeding and reproduction. Further, age-0 fishes are more vulnerable than adults to flow alterations because of their limited ability to react to such conditions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between abundance and growth of age-0 carpsuckers to river discharge in the Oconee River. A beach seine was used to collect age-0 carpsuckers (Carpiodes spp.) from littoral zones of the lower Oconee River from May through July of 1995 to 2001. Regression models were used to assess whether 12 river discharge categories (e.g. peak, low, seasonal flows) influenced age-0 carpsucker abundance or instantaneous growth. Our analysis indicated that abundance of age-0 carpsuckers was significantly negatively related to number of days river discharge was >85 m3 s-1(r2=0.61, p=0.04). Estimates of instantaneous growth ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. Instantaneous growth rates were significantly positively related to summer river discharge (r2=0.95, p<0.01). These results suggest that (1) moderate flows during spawning and rearing are important for producing strong-year classes of carpsuckers, and (2) river discharge is variable among years, with suitable flows for strong year-classes of carpsuckers occurring every few years. River management should attempt to regulate river discharge to simulate historic flows typical for the region when possible. Such an approach is best achieved when regional climatic conditions are considered.

  8. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years--United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Strikas, Raymond A

    2015-02-01

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2014, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2015, which include several changes from the 2014 immunization schedules. For 2015, the figures, footnotes, and tables are being published on the CDC immunization schedule website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2015 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years also are available at the website in several formats, including portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions. Ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules also are available at the immunization schedule website.

  9. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Candice L

    2016-02-05

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2015, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2016; the 2016 schedules include several changes from the 2015 immunization schedules. For 2016, the figures, footnotes, and tables will be published on the CDC immunization schedule website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2016 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years in several formats (e.g., portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions) and ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules are available at the immunization schedule website.

  10. Diet and habitat use by age-0 deepwater sculpins in northern Lake Huron, Michigan and the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) are an important link in deepwater benthic foodwebs of the Great Lakes. Little information exists about deepwater sculpin spawning habits and early life history ecology due to difficulty in sampling deep offshore habitats. Larval and age-0 deepwater sculpins collected in northern Lake Huron and the Detroit River during 2007 were used to improve our understanding of their habitat use, diet, age, and growth. Peak larval density reached 8.4/1000 m3 in the Detroit River during April and was higher than that in Lake Huron. Offshore bottom trawls at DeTour and Hammond Bay first collected benthic age-0 deepwater sculpins in early September when fish were ≥ 25 mm TL. Otolith analysis revealed that hatch dates for pelagic larvae occurred during late March and larvae remained pelagic for 40 to 60 days. Diet of pelagic larvae (10–21 mm TL) was dominated by calanoid copepods at all sample locations. Diets of benthic age-0 fish varied by location and depth: Mysis and chironomids were prevalent in fish from Hammond Bay and the 91 m site at DeTour, but only chironomids were found in fish from the 37 m DeTour site. This work showed that nearshore epilimnetic sites were important for pelagic larvae and an ontogenetic shift from pelagic planktivore to benthivore occurred at about 25 mm TL in late summer. Age analysis showed that larvae remained pelagic long enough to be transported through the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Lake Erie, and the Niagara River, potentially contributing to populations in Lake Ontario.

  11. Application Of A Dynamic Model to Assess Geomorphic and Hydrologic Controls on Age-0 Colorado Pikeminnow Distribution in the Green River, Colorado And Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of field data and development and application of a dynamic model indicate that water releases from Flaming Gorge Dam have a large potential effect on larval drift and distribution of age-0 Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the middle Green River. The model predicts that high releases at the time of drift greatly increase the proportion of the population transported beyond the study area to unfavorable river environments. The model also predicts that channel simplification caused by flow regulation results in a more even longitudinal distribution of larval fish habitat. Colorado pikeminnow are a federally endangered species endemic to the Colorado River basin that utilize backwaters during their larval stage. The present agency-mandated field-sampling program for backwater habitats is probably inadequate, because it takes place at a time when the model predicts that most larval fish have drifted beyond the study area. Development of the model shows that the role of the geomorphic and hydraulic attributes that control larval drift and transport into backwaters, and that were parameterized in the model, are not well known.

  12. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. PMID:26173852

  13. Characterization of MMP-9 gene from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Yun; Hong, Jun; Xu, Chen; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Shuai-Bang

    2015-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), one of members of the MMP family, is important for the cleaving of structural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and involved in inflammatory processes. In this study, MMP-9 cDNA was isolated and characterized from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (designated as YcMMP-9). The complete sequence of YcMMP-9 cDNA consisted of 2561 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 685 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 77.182 kDa. Amino acid sequence of YcMMP-9 have typical characteristics of MMP-9 family and showed highest identity (85.3%) to channel catfish MMP-9. The YcMMP-9 genomic DNA contains 13 exons and 12 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that YcMMP-9 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish with high expression in head kidney, trunk kidney, blood, and spleen. However, expression of YcMMP-9 mRNA was induced by Aeromonas hydrophila stimulation, especially in these four tissues mentioned above. It indicated that YcMMP-9 was involved in innate immune responses against bacterial infection. PMID:25910849

  14. Energy Costs of Catfish Space Use as Determined by Biotelemetry

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources. PMID:24896256

  15. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  16. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Wilson, M.D.; Hammond, R.A.; Uribe, R.; Mizner, A.A.

    1985-02-01

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables.

  17. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  18. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  19. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tekedar, Hasan C; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G; Liles, Mark R; Griffin, Matt J; Lawrence, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group.

  1. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  2. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  4. Effects of turbidity and prey density on the foraging success of age 0 year yellow perch Perca flavescens.

    PubMed

    Wellington, C G; Mayer, C M; Bossenbroek, J M; Stroh, N A

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how larval and juvenile yellow perch Perca flavescens respond to changes in prey density when exposed to different levels and types of turbidity (phytoplanktonic or sedimentary). Across prey densities, consumption by P. flavescens tended to be less in phytoplanktonic turbidity compared with sedimentary turbidity. For larvae, this effect was dependent on turbidity level (consumption differed between turbidity types only at high turbidity), while for juveniles the difference with turbidity type was equal across turbidity levels. These results suggest that phytoplankton blooms are detrimental to the ability of late season age 0 year P. flavescens to forage and support the need to control factors leading to excessive phytoplankton growth in lakes.

  5. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  6. Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morning-evening in Japanese infants and students aged 0-15 yrs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hirotani, Masaaki; Maeda, Mari; Nomura, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitomi

    2007-03-01

    Tryptophan can be metabolized via 5-hydroxytryptamine=serotonin to melatonin by a series of 4 enzymes in pineal body. Lack of serotonin in body fluid in the brain during daytime can lead to several psychiatric disorders, while shortage of plasma-melatonin at night can be related to sleep disorders. The Morning-Evening (M-E) questionnaire and the original questionnaire including questions on sleep habits, mental symptoms, and contents of meals were administered to 1055 infants aged 0-6 yrs, 751 students attending an elementary school, and 473 students attending junior high school in Kochi City (33 degrees N). The index of tryptophan taken at breakfast (Trp-Index) was calculated as tryptophan amount per one meal based on the tryptophan included in each 100 g of the foods and a standard amount of food per one meal. A significant positive-correlation between M-E scores and Trp-Index was not shown by relatively older students, aged 9-15 yrs (Pearson's test, r=0.044-0.123, p=0.071-0.505), whereas a significant positive correlation was shown by infants and young elementary school students aged 0-8 yrs (r=0.180, 0.258, p<0.001). The more frequently the infants had difficulty falling asleep at bedtime and waking up in the morning, the less the Trp-Indices taken at breakfast were (Kruskall-Wallis-test, p=0.027 for difficulty falling asleep; p=0.008 for difficulty waking up). The more frequently infants became angry even by a little trigger, or depressed, the lower (more evening-typed) the M-E scores were (Kruskal-Wallis test: p

  7. Modeling turbidity type and intensity effects on the growth and starvation mortality of age-0 yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Nathan M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Mayer, Christine M.; Bunnell, David B.; Tyson, Jeff T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Jackson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to quantify the possible population-level influence of sediment plumes and algal blooms on yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a visual predator found in systems with dynamic water clarity. We used an individual-based model (IBM), which allowed us to include variance in water clarity and the distribution of individual sizes. Our IBM was built with laboratory data showing that larval yellow perch feeding rates increased slightly as sediment turbidity level increased, but that both larval and juvenile yellow perch feeding rates decreased as phytoplankton level increased. Our IBM explained a majority of the variance in yellow perch length in data from the western and central basins of Lake Erie and Oneida Lake, with R2 values ranging from 0.611 to 0.742. Starvation mortality was size dependent, as the greatest daily mortality rates in each simulation occurred within days of each other. Our model showed that turbidity-dependent consumption rates and temperature are key components in determining growth and starvation mortality of age-0 yellow perch, linking fish production to land-based processes that influence water clarity. These results suggest the timing and persistence of sediment plumes and algal blooms can drastically alter the growth potential and starvation mortality of a yellow perch cohort.

  8. Relative persistence and dispersal of age-0 and age-1 largemouth bass stocked into two Ohio River embayments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    In October of 1998 the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources stocked age-0 [mean total length (MTL) = 178 mm] and age-1 (MTL = 273 mm) hatchery-reared largemouth bass into two embayments of the Ohio River. Stocked fish were fitted with both an anchor tag and a visible implant elastomer mark. A multifaceted sampling approach was undertaken to (1) evaluate the persistence of stocked largemouth bass, (2) estimate fidelity of stocked largemouth bass to release sites, and (3) compare return rates of the two age classes. Although stocked largemouth bass comprised the majority (81%) of all bass captured in electrofishing surveys of the stocked embayments during fall 1998, catches declined rapidly during winter 1998, and by spring and summer 1999 stocked largemouth bass were virtually absent from electrofishing surveys. Creel surveys indicated no catch of stocked largemouth bass in the release sites after winter 1998. Electrofishing surveys, creel surveys, and angler call-ins all suggested stocked fish did not persist and either moved out of the stocked embayments or died. The results suggest that stocking advanced-size largemouth bass into these embayments only provided a limited and short-term enhancement of the fishery in those areas.

  9. Growth and mortality of age-0 northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, rearing in shoreline habitats of the Columbia River Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barfoot, C.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Wertheimer, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated growth and mortality of age-0 northern squawfish during early rearing in shallow shoreline habitats. Larvae and juveniles (n=22914) were collected by weekly seining at three sample sites in the upper John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, during June through early September 1994–1996. Using a length-based ageing method, it was estimated that the exponential growth rate (G) for a common growth stanza (10–28 mm standard length SL) was significantly higher in 1994 (G=0.047) than in 1996 (G=0.037). Growth rate in 1995 could not be estimated, but was probably intermediate between 1994 and 1996 based on mean standard lengths of fish collected at the end of each sampling season (46.3, 40.0, and 32.0 mm SL in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively). For many fish species, variations in early growth can influence survival through size-selective mortality processes. Consistent with this possibility, our estimates of instantaneous mortality rates (Z) demonstrated that larvae and juveniles had significantly higher mortality in 1996 than in 1994 (Z=0.103 in 1994, versus Z=0.138 in 1996). Enhanced growth and lower mortality in 1994 were associated with a number of interrelated environmental conditions – comparatively low flows and turbidities, abundant instream vegetative cover, and high near-shore water temperatures.

  10. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  11. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  12. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

  13. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  14. Survival, growth, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Rabe, Craig; Nelson, Doug D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent a population of migratory juvenile fish with PIT tags becomes difficult when the minimum tagging size is larger than the average size at which fish begin to move downstream. Tags that are smaller (e.g., 8 and 9 mm) than the commonly used 12-mm PIT tags are currently available, but their effects on survival, growth, and tag retention in small salmonid juveniles have received little study. We evaluated growth, survival, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of three size-groups: 40–49-mm fish were implanted with 8- and 9-mm tags, and 50– 59-mm and 60–69-mm fish were implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm tags. Survival 28 d after tagging ranged from 97.8% to 100% across all trials, providing no strong evidence for a fish-size-related tagging effect or a tag size effect. No biologically significant effects of tagging on growth in FL (mm/d) or weight (g/d) were observed. Although FL growth in tagged fish was significantly reduced for the 40–49-mm and 50–59-mm groups over the first 7 d, growth rates were not different thereafter, and all fish were similar in size by the end of the trials (day 28). Tag retention across all tests ranged from 93% to 99%. We acknowledge that actual implantation of 8- or 9-mm tags into small fish in the field will pose additional challenges (e.g., capture and handling stress) beyond those observed in our laboratory. However, we conclude that experimental use of the smaller tags for small fish in the field is supported by our findings.

  15. Relationship between body size and severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever among children aged 0-14 years.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Mongkalangoon, Noparat; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit

    2006-03-01

    A hospital based case-control study was conducted from October 2002 to November 2003 among children aged 0-14 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (Children's Hospital), Bangkok, Thailand. This study focused on body size and severity of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in children. One hundred five patients diagnosed as having DHF grade III or IV were the cases and 105 diagnosed as having DHF grade I or II were controls. They were matched at a ratio of 1:1 by their gender and age (within 5 years). Normal growth charts were used to differentiate child body size into normal, thin and obese. Data were collected using face to face interviews with caregivers, questionnaires, laboratory and physical examination reports as research tools. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that only two variables were related to severity of DHF: obesity (OR = 3.00, 95 % CI = 1.20-7.48) and dengue virus type II (OR = 4.94, 95 % CI = 2.57-9.47), respectively. Other variables were childhood factors: duration of breast-feeding, education, and parity; caregivers factors: age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, family income, knowledge of DHF, antipyretic type, treatment before hospitalization, and duration of fever; environmental factors: history of DHF patients in house, house pattern, time from house to hospital, and residence; and etiological factors: type of infection and history of DHF among children. These factors showed no significant association (p > 0.05). This result can be utilized in a preventive and control program, particularly in more aggressive management of overweight children. Health personnel should continue to provide health education, particularly, signs and symptoms of shock, to the community and private sectors. Government and Non-Government Protective Projects in primary schools (5-9 years children) should be continued in the high risk groups.

  16. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    PubMed

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration.

  17. Soft dentin results in unique flexible teeth in scraping catfishes.

    PubMed

    Geerinckx, Tom; Huysseune, Ann; Boone, Matthieu; Claeys, Myriam; Couvreur, Marjolein; De Kegel, Barbara; Mast, Peter; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Verbeken, Kim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Teeth are generally used for actions in which they experience mainly compressive forces acting toward the base. The ordered tooth enamel(oid) and dentin structures contribute to the high compressive strength but also to the minor shear and tensile strengths. Some vertebrates, however, use their teeth for scraping, with teeth experiencing forces directed mostly normal to their long axis. Some scraping suckermouth catfishes (Loricariidae) even appear to have flexible teeth, which have not been found in any other vertebrate taxon. Considering the mineralized nature of tooth tissues, the notion of flexible teeth seems paradoxical. We studied teeth of five species, testing and measuring tooth flexibility, and investigating tooth (micro)structure using transmission electron microscopy, staining, computed tomography scanning, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectrometry. We quantified the extreme bending capacity of single teeth (up to 180°) and show that reorganizations of the tooth (micro)structure and extreme hypomineralization of the dentin are adaptations preventing breaking by allowing flexibility. Tooth shape and internal structure appear to be optimized for bending in one direction, which is expected to occur frequently when feeding (scraping) under natural conditions. Not all loricariid catfishes possess flexible teeth, with the trait potentially having evolved more than once. Flexible teeth surely rank among the most extreme evolutionary novelties in known mineralized biological materials and might yield a better understanding of the processes of dentin formation and (hypo)mineralization in vertebrates, including humans.

  18. Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M; Reinold, Chris; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-09-10

    In April 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new international growth charts for children aged 0-59 months. Similar to the 2000 CDC growth charts, these charts describe weight for age, length (or stature) for age, weight for length (or stature), and body mass index for age. Whereas the WHO charts are growth standards, describing the growth of healthy children in optimal conditions, the CDC charts are a growth reference, describing how certain children grew in a particular place and time. However, in practice, clinicians use growth charts as standards rather than references. In 2006, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened an expert panel to review scientific evidence and discuss the potential use of the new WHO growth charts in clinical settings in the United States. On the basis of input from this expert panel, CDC recommends that clinicians in the United States use the 2006 WHO international growth charts, rather than the CDC growth charts, for children aged <24 months (available at https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts). The CDC growth charts should continue to be used for the assessment of growth in persons aged 2--19 years. The recommendation to use the 2006 WHO international growth charts for children aged <24 months is based on several considerations, including the recognition that breastfeeding is the recommended standard for infant feeding. In the WHO charts, the healthy breastfed infant is intended to be the standard against which all other infants are compared; 100% of the reference population of infants were breastfed for 12 months and were predominantly breastfed for at least 4 months. When using the WHO growth charts to screen for possible abnormal or unhealthy growth, use of the 2.3rd and 97.7th percentiles (or ±2 standard deviations) are recommended, rather than the 5th and 95th percentiles. Clinicians should be aware that fewer U.S. children will be identified as underweight using the WHO

  19. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  20. Age and growth of flathead catfish, Pylodictus olivaris rafinesque, in the Altamaha River system, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabowski, T.B.; Isely, J.J.; Weller, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Flathead catfish were introduced to the Altamaha River system, Georgia in the 1970's. We determined the length-weight relationship, Von Bertalanffy growth parameters, and back calculated lengths by examining the sagittal otoliths of 331 individuals captured from this population. We found that there were no sex related differences in length weight relationship or Von Bertalanffy growth parameters. Flathead catfish in the Altamaha River system grow at about the same rate as individuals in other introduced populations.

  1. Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of vasotocin and isotocin precursor genes from Ostariophysian catfishes: phylogeny and evolutionary considerations in teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Putul; Chaube, Radha; Joy, Keerikkattil P.

    2015-01-01

    Basic and neutral neurohypophyseal (NH) nonapeptides have evolved from vasotocin (VT) by a gene duplication at the base of the gnathostome lineage. In teleosts, VT and IT are the basic and neutral peptides, respectively. In the present study, VT and IT precursor genes of Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus (Siluriformes, Ostariophysi) were cloned and sequenced. The channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus NH precursor sequences were obtained from EST database. The catfish NH sequences were used along with the available Acanthopterygii and other vertebrate NH precursor sequences to draw phylogenetic inference on the evolutionary history of the teleost NH peptides. Synteny analysis of the NH gene loci in various teleost species was done to complement the phylogenetic analysis. In H. fossilis, the NH transcripts were also sequenced from the ovary. The cloned genes and the deduced precursor proteins showed conserved characteristics of the NH nonapeptide precursors. The genes are expressed in brain and ovary (follicular envelope) of H. fossilis with higher transcript abundance in the brain. The addition of the catfish sequences in the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VT and IT precursors of the species-rich superorders of teleosts have a distinct phylogenetic history with the Acanthopterygii VT and IT precursors sharing a less evolutionary distance and the Ostariophysi VT and IT having a greater evolutionary distance. The genomic location of VT and IT precursors, and synteny analysis of the NH loci lend support to the phylogenetic inference and suggest a footprint of fish- specific whole genome duplication (3R) and subsequent diploidization in the NH loci. The VT and IT precursor genes are most likely lineage-specific paralogs resulting from differential losses of the 3R NH paralogs in the two superorders. The independent yet consistent retention of VT and IT in the two superorders might be directed by a stringent ligand-receptor selectivity. PMID:26029040

  2. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator-Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails.

    PubMed

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and <0.5 µg/L, respectively, whereas the 48- and 96-h LC50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan concentrations between 0.03 and 1.0 µg/L were used. Predation was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in control tanks than in all other treatments. There was progressively decreasing predation with increasing toxicant concentration. Biological control of Schistosoma host snails using fish may be affected in endosulfan-polluted aquatic systems of Southern Africa because it has been found present at concentrations that are indicated to cause lethal effects on the evaluated hybrid catfish and to inhibit the predation of snails by this hybrid catfish. PMID:27033099

  3. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  4. Reproductive strategy of the Patagonian catfish Hatcheria macraei.

    PubMed

    Chiarello-Sosa, J M; Battini, M A; Barriga, J P

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the reproductive strategy of the stream-dwelling catfish Hatcheria macraei in the Pichileufu River, Argentina. Gonad maturity phases, classified on the basis of histological analysis, stages of gamete development and the frequency distribution of oocyte size, were correlated with macroscopic features of the gonads. Hatcheria macraei has a cystovarian ovary, asynchronous oocyte development and lobular testes. Five oocyte and four spermatogenic stages were identified and related to macroscopic gonad characteristics, making it possible to divide gonad development into five phases for females and males. Mature oocyte diameter ranged from 922 to 1935 µm. Absolute fecundity in mature females varied from 115 to 480 oocytes. Hatcheria macraei has multiple spawning during a protracted reproductive season that extends from December to April. This, together with its small size, is characteristic of an opportunistic reproductive strategy, commonly found in species that inhabit adverse and unpredictable environments, such as the low-order rivers of Patagonia.

  5. Spatiotemporal testing and modeling of catfish retinal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, H I; Naka, K

    1980-01-01

    The responses of retinal neurons depend on the interaction of both temporal and spatial aspects of a light stimulus. We developed a linear spatiotemporal model of receptor and horizontal cell layers in the catfish retina based on reciprocal interactions between both layers and coupling within each. Horizontal cell transfer properties were measured experimentally using white-noise intensity modulated light spots of different diameters and were compared with analytical predictions based on the model. Good agreement was obtained with a reasonable choice of model space-constants and feedback parameters. Furthermore, the same set of parameter values determined from spot experiments enabled accurate prediction of experimental horizontal cell responses to traveling gratings. The proposed feedback connections from horizontal cells to receptors quicken the time-course of responses in both layers and sharpen receptive fields. PMID:7260243

  6. Risk analysis of tractor overturns on catfish farms.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Walter B; Ibendahl, Gregory A; Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2010-10-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries occur on catfish farms as a result of tractor overturns, but these injuries can be greatly mitigated when a tractor is equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS) and seatbelt. This study analyzed the proportion of tractors on catfish farms in Mississippi not equipped with ROPS and the cost of retrofitting those tractors with a ROPS and seatbelt as compared to the expected benefits gained from adding the protection. To determine if farmers have the financial incentive to retrofit older tractors, a net present value framework was used because the expected benefits occur over a number of years. The ROPS retrofit is a one-time cost that occurs immediately, and thus the present value does not need to be calculated, i.e., time period 0. According to this study adding ROPS will provide a net benefit of $22,877 in the event of an overturn. When dealing with small farms (<125 acres) where an average tractor is used for approximately twice as many hours compared to an average tractor on large farms, the extra hours worked by a single tractor resulted in total benefits of retrofitting ROPS of $9.45 per year, whereas for large farms the net benefit is $4.70 (=125 acres). Given that the least expensive retrofit is $147, it would take 15.5 years of tractor use on the small farms for the expected benefits to outweigh the cost. Given the large range of costs that could occur due to an overturn, there could be a significant premium for not having ROPS protection. In other words, there likely is a smaller range of costs from an overturn with ROPS than without ROPS because ROPS reduces the more serious incidents. PMID:20954036

  7. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  8. Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 through 18 Years--United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report QuickGuide. Volume 58, Number 51 & 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) annually publishes an immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years that summarizes recommendations for currently licensed vaccines for children aged 18 years and younger and includes recommendations in effect as of December 15, 2009. The changes to the previous schedule are…

  9. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1991 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during ...

  10. Microarray chip development using infrared imaging for the identification of catfish species.

    PubMed

    Handy, Sara M; Chizhikov, Vladimir; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Paul, Stephen Z; Deeds, Jonathan R; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2014-01-01

    Several families of catfish species are extensively aquacultured around the world; however, only those from the family Ictaluridae can be labeled as catfish in the United States. Non-Ictalurid catfish species that are marketed as "catfish" in the USA are considered misbranded. Misbranding in general has led to an increased interest in developing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based methods such as DNA barcoding, polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA microarrays with fluorescence detection for the identification of fish species. In this proof-of-concept study, DNA microarrays coupled with a newly developed mid-infrared imaging detection method were applied to the identification of seven species of catfish for the first time. Species-specific DNA probes targeting three regions per species of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (barcoding) gene were developed and printed as microarrays on glass slides. Deoxyribonucleic acid targets labeled with biotin were hybridized to their complementary probes using a strategy that allowed the selective formation of a silver layer on hybridized spots needed for detection. Using this three-probe format, the seven species were all identified correctly, even when a limited number of false positive spots were observed. Raman spectroscopy was employed to further characterize the arrays.

  11. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in raw catfish fillets by essential oils and phenolic constituent carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monil A; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, M Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2012-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of various essential oils and carvacrol was determined on fresh raw catfish fillets against a 4-strain Listeria monocytogenes mixture representing serotypes 1/2b, 3b, 4b, and 4c that were predominantly isolated from catfish processing environments. Thyme oil, oregano oil and carvacrol exhibited concentration and time dependent responses in broth against L. monocytogenes; for example 0.5% concentrations resulted in 4 log CFU/mL reduction within 30 min whereas 0.1% concentrations required more than 24 h for the same level of reduction. Lemon, orange, and tangerine oils, at 0.5% showed listeriostatic effect in which 4 log CFU/mL of the initial L. monocytogenes load was unchanged at 4 °C in 10 d whereas 1% concentrations were listericidal in a time dependent manner. Apart from carvacrol, efficacy of tested essential oils in reducing L. monocytogenes and total microbial load from catfish fillet was very limited. Dipping treatment of catfish fillets in 2% carvacrol solution for 30 min at 4 °C reduced L. monocytogenes to an undetectable level from their initial load of 5 log CFU/g and reduced total microbial load from catfish fillets by approximately 5 log CFU/g. In sensory analysis trained panelist preferred control samples over 2% carvacrol treated samples implying potential limitation in applicability of carvacrol for fillet treatments. PMID:22901012

  12. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  13. Molecular responses of calreticulin genes to iron overload and bacterial challenge in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection and inflammation are often accompanied by oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species which can be deleterious to the health of the host. Antioxidant defense mechanisms and components are crucial in limiting cellular and tissue-level damage and restoring homeosta...

  14. Molecular responses of calreticulin genes to iron overload and bacterial challenge in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection and inflammation are often accompanied by oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species which can be deleterious to the health of the host. Antioxidant defense mechanisms and components are crucial in limiting cellular and tissue-level damage and restoring homeosta...

  15. ESTROGENIC RESPONSES TO XENOBIOTICS IN CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) (R823450)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Several environmentally relevant contaminants are characterized as xenoestrogens by virtue of their ability to induce responses similar to 17small beta, Greek-estradiol (E2). T...

  16. Chemotactic factors of Flavobacterium columnare to skin mucus of healthy channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into chemotactic factors involved in chemotaxis, we exposed a virulent strain of Flavobacterium columnare to various treatments followed by analysis of its chemotactic activity. The chemotactic activity of F. columnare was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited when cells were pretreated...

  17. Chemotactic factors of Flavobacterium columnare to skin mucus of healthy channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into chemotactic factors involved in chemotaxis, we exposed a virulent strain of Flavobacterium columnare to various treatments followed by analysis of its chemotactic activity. Chemotactic activity of F. columnare was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited when cells were pretreated by ...

  18. Complete genome sequence of channel catfish epidemic isolate Aeromonas hydrophila ML09-119

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, mesophilic bacteria that infects both aquatic poikilothermic animals and mammals, including humans. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila ML-09-119, which represents a clonal group of A. hydrophila isolates causing ...

  19. Molecular Cloning and Sequence of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. This enzyme digests the invariant chain molecules so that antigenic peptides are able to load on the class II-associated invariant chain peptide of MHC. The complexes can subsequently be presented to the CD4 cell surface. In ...

  20. Molecular Cloning, Sequencing and Characterization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque 1818) Cathepsin S Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family. Our preliminary results showed the up-regulation of cathepsin S (CTSS) transcript during the early stage of Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. This prompted us to speculate that the CTSS may play a role in infection. In this re...

  1. Basal polarization of the mucosal compartment in Flavobacterium columnare susceptible and resistant channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The freshwater bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, infects a variety of ornamental and farmed fish species worldwide through mucosal attachment points on the gill and skin. While previous studies have demonstrated a chemotactic response of F. columnare to fish mucus, little is known about ...

  2. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  3. NPY family genes respond negatively to alternative feedstuffs in channel catfish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of considerable importance in fish nutrition is the development of aquafeeds using alternative dietary ingredients which will allow aquaculture to grow globally, without putting excessive pressure on natural fisheries or adding considerable cost to production, while also addressing and maintaining t...

  4. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ghrelin (GRLN), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuropeptides involved in the regulation of appetite and feeding in vertebrates. We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma GHRL and mRNAs encoding GRL...

  5. The influence of water chemistries on Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease can cause tremendous losses of freshwater fish. While it has been studied exhaustively, little is known about its affinity to specific water chemistries that affects attachment. Recent studies in our labs have illuminated this subject. In the first experiment, two waters were u...

  6. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  7. Biofloc technology production systems reduce common preharvest off-flavors in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biofloc technology production systems continues to increase in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Studies have not previously been performed to determine the composition of phytoplankton communities and related off-flavor problems in these biofloc production systems. In two separate st...

  8. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  9. Molecular immune response of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. The fish surviving natural infections or immunized with live theronts develop strong specific and non-specific immune resp...

  10. A cohabitation challenge model in immunization trials for channel catfish against the parasite Ichthyophthirius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a fish protozoan that causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. There are no chemical treatments truly effective in controlling Ich infection. However, vaccination offers a preventive method against Ich. A method which closely mimics natural exposure is ne...

  11. Expression and activity of recombinant proaerolysin derived from Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from diseased channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proaerolysin-coding gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of A. hydrophila and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant proaerolysin was inactive and could be activated by treatment with proteases, furin and trypsin, and extra-cellular proteins (ECPs, the cell-free supernatant of...

  12. The effects of essential oils on growth performance survival and fillet composition of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils (EOs) are highly scented compounds of fragrant grasses, trees, and plants. The word “essential” is derived from the word “quintessence” which can be defined as the “pure and concentrated essence of a substance”. Since EOs contain most of the plant’s active substances, their name is ...

  13. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (<1ms) too short for being detected by the catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  14. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  15. Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Novel Genes with Sexually Dimorphic Expression in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) Brain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Zheng, Min; Zheng, Jiajia; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Peng, Lina; Wang, Pingping; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiushi; Luan, Peixian; Mahbooband, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-10-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is a pivotal freshwater aquaculture species in China. It shows sexual size dimorphism favoring male in growth. Whole transcriptome approach is required to get the overview of genetic toolkit for understanding the sex determination mechanism aiming at devising its monosex production. Beside gonads, the brain is also considered as a major organ for vertebrate reproduction. Transcriptomic analyses on the brain and of different developmental stages will provide the dynamic view necessary for better understanding its sex determination. In this regard, we have performed a de novo assembly of yellow catfish brain transcriptome by high throughput Illumina sequencing. A total number of 154,507 contigs were obtained with the lengths ranging from 201 to 27,822 bp and N50 of 2,101 bp, as well as 20,699 unigenes were identified. Of these unigenes, 13 and 54 unigenes were detected to be XY-specifically expressed genes (SEGs) for one and 2-year-old yellow catfish, while the corresponding numbers of XX-SEGs for those two stages were 19 and 13, respectively. Our work identifies a set of annotated genes that are candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide variation (SNV) in yellow catfish. To validate the expression patterns of the sex-related genes, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicating the reliability and accuracy of our analysis. The results in our study may enhance our understanding of yellow catfish sex determination and potentially help to improve the production of all-male yellow catfish for aquaculture. PMID:26242754

  16. Optimization and physical properties of gelatin extracted from pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) bone.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodani, F; Ardekani, V Sanaei; See, S F; Yusop, S M; Babji, A S

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, to establish the optimum gelatin extraction conditions from pangasius catfish (Pangasius sutchi) bone, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a 4-factor, 5-level Central Composite Design (CCD) was conducted. The model equation was proposed with regard to the effects of HCl concentration (%, X1), treatment time (h, X2), extraction temperature (°C, X3) and extraction time (h, X4) as independent variables on the hydroxyproline recovery (%, Y) as dependent variable. X 1 = 2.74 %, X 2 = 21.15 h, X 3 = 74.73 °C and X 4 = 5.26 h were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain the highest hydroxyproline recovery (68.75 %). The properties of optimized catfish bone gelatin were characterized by amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE, gel strength, TPA and viscosity in comparison to bovine skin gelatin. The result of SDS-PAGE revealed that pangasius catfish bone gelatin consisted of at least 2 different polypeptides (α1 and α2 chains) and their cross-linked chains. Moreover, the pangasius catfish bone gelatin was found to contain 17.37 (g/100 g) imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline). Pangasius catfish bone gelatin also indicated physical properties comparable with that of bovine and higher than those from cold water fish gelatin. Based on the results of the present study, there is a potential for exploitation of pangasius catfish bone for gelatin production. Furthermore, RSM provided the best method for optimizing the gelatin extraction parameters. PMID:26396302

  17. Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Max; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2008-07-01

    The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our review suggests that catfish consumption may be a significant PCB source for the one million non-Hispanic black anglers who fish for catfish. In comparison to non-Hispanic white anglers, non-Hispanic black anglers consume more catfish, are more likely to eat the whole fish rather than just the fillets that contain less PCBs, and are more likely to fish in watersheds with high PCB contamination. Efforts to diminish potential racial disparities in PCB exposure are challenged by geographic, economic, cultural, and educational barriers. In response, we propose that a fish consumption survey be performed that identifies the extent of subsistence fishing by non-Hispanic black anglers for catfish in watersheds with PCB contamination, the type and quantity of catfish subsistence fishing provides, and what actions would help moderate PCB exposure due to subsistence fishing for catfish in such areas. Understanding the contamination and consumption factors that contribute to higher PCB body burdens will help identify and offer solutions to racial disparities in exposure to PCBs due to subsistence fishing while providing a model to prevent similar disparities in exposure to toxics ranging from mercury to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18407261

  18. ‘Cand. Actinochlamydia clariae’ gen. nov., sp. nov., a Unique Intracellular Bacterium Causing Epitheliocystis in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Steigen, Andreas; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil; Akoll, Peter; Fiksdal, Ingrid U.; Nylund, Stian; Odong, Robinson; Plarre, Heidrun; Semyalo, Ronald; Skår, Cecilie; Watanabe, Kuninori

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Epitheliocystis, caused by bacteria infecting gill epithelial cells in fish, is common among a large range of fish species in both fresh- and seawater. The aquaculture industry considers epitheliocystis an important problem. It affects the welfare of the fish and the resulting gill disease may lead to mortalities. In a culture facility in Kampala, Uganda, juveniles of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was observed swimming in the surface, sometimes belly up, showing signs of respiratory problems. Histological examination of gill tissues from this fish revealed large amounts of epitheliocysts, and also presence of a few Ichthyobodo sp. and Trichodina sp. Methods and Results Sequencing of the epitheliocystis bacterium 16S rRNA gene shows 86.3% similarity with Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Transmission electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the developmental stages of the bacterium is similar to that of members of the family Chlamydiaceae. The similarity of the bacterium rRNA gene sequences compared with other chlamydia-like bacteria ranged between 80.5% and 86.3%. Inclusions containing this new bacterium have tubules/channels (termed actinae) that are radiating from the inclusion membrane and opening on the cell surface or in neighbouring cells. Conclusions Radiation of tubules/channels (actinae) from the inclusion membrane has never been described in any of the other members of Chlamydiales. It seems to be a completely new character and an apomorphy. We propose the name Candidatus Actinochlamydia clariae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Actinochlamydiaceae fam. nov., order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) for this new agent causing epitheliocystis in African sharptooth catfish. PMID:23826156

  19. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    PubMed

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks.

  20. Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

    1995-01-01

    Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety ofben-thic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two