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Sample records for age-0 white bass

  1. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  2. Relative persistence and dispersal of age-0 and age-1 largemouth bass stocked into two Ohio River embayments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    In October of 1998 the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources stocked age-0 [mean total length (MTL) = 178 mm] and age-1 (MTL = 273 mm) hatchery-reared largemouth bass into two embayments of the Ohio River. Stocked fish were fitted with both an anchor tag and a visible implant elastomer mark. A multifaceted sampling approach was undertaken to (1) evaluate the persistence of stocked largemouth bass, (2) estimate fidelity of stocked largemouth bass to release sites, and (3) compare return rates of the two age classes. Although stocked largemouth bass comprised the majority (81%) of all bass captured in electrofishing surveys of the stocked embayments during fall 1998, catches declined rapidly during winter 1998, and by spring and summer 1999 stocked largemouth bass were virtually absent from electrofishing surveys. Creel surveys indicated no catch of stocked largemouth bass in the release sites after winter 1998. Electrofishing surveys, creel surveys, and angler call-ins all suggested stocked fish did not persist and either moved out of the stocked embayments or died. The results suggest that stocking advanced-size largemouth bass into these embayments only provided a limited and short-term enhancement of the fishery in those areas.

  3. Reduction in recruitment of white bass in Lake Erie after invasion of white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Knight, Roger L.; Bur, Michael; Forney, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment to the adult population of white bass Morone chrysops in Lake Erie sharply declined during the early 1980s. To explain this phenomenon, we formulated the following four hypotheses: (1) the biological characteristics of adult spawners changed during the early 1980s, so that the ability to produce eggs decreased; (2) the decrease in phosphorus loadings to Lake Erie during the 1970s resulted in a lower abundance of crustacean zooplankton and thus in reduced survival of age-0 white bass; (3) the increase in the population of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum in Lake Erie during the 1970s and 1980s led to reduced survival of age-0 white bass; and (4) establishment of the white perch Morone americana population in Lake Erie during the early 1980s led to reduced survival of the early life stages of white bass. The growth, maturity, and fecundity of adults during the period 1981-1997 were compared with the same characteristics found by earlier studies. The mean length, weight, and condition factors that we calculated were higher than those reported for Lake Erie in 1927-1929 for all age groups examined, and white bass in Lake Erie matured at an earlier age during 1981-1997 than during 1927-1929. Fecundity estimates ranged from 128,897 to 1,049,207 eggs/female and were similar to estimates from other populations. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. With respect to the second hypothesis, zooplankton surveys conducted during 1970 and 1983-1987 indicated that the abundance of crustacean zooplankton in Lake Erie did not change between the two time periods. However, these results were not conclusive because only a single-year survey was conducted before 1980. Based on walleye diet studies and estimates of walleye population size, walleye predation pressure on age-0 white bass in Lake Erie during 1986-1988 was just slightly higher than that during 1979-1981. Thus, such pressure can explain only a minor portion of the reduction in white bass recruitment. To

  4. The influence of diet, consumption and lipid use on recruitment of white bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmayer, W.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of white bass (Morone chrysops) in Lake Erie has declined in recent years, sparking interest in mechanisms influencing its recruitment. We evaluate two mechanisms affecting recruitment: diet and the potential for competition, and storage of lipid energy reserves and the relationship to overwinter survival. The fish in our study were characteristic of white bass in the northern portion of their range, feeding predominantly on zooplankton. Only the largest age-0 white bass ate fish as a significant portion of their diet. Over the summer sampling period, we found decreasing ration sizes, expressed as a percentage of maximum ration, as the summer progressed with a concomitant decrease in the relative amount of lipid storage. In laboratory experiments, age-0 white bass held at 5??C and given food ad libitum did feed, but at rates that were insufficient to maintain body weight. Loss in weight was accompanied with a loss in lipids at a rate of 2.8 mg of lipids per gram of body weight per day. Based on our data, we concluded that age-0 white bass in Lake Erie were food-limited. Food limitation resulted in reduced growth rates, presumably related to competition with other planktivorous fishes. Reduced growth results in increased mortality and, ultimately, low recruitment through increased risk of predation by larger piscivorous fishes, reduced ability for white bass to switch to more energetically profitable piscivory and the increased likelihood of higher overwinter mortality because of reduced lipid stores.

  5. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam; Peatman, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white bass (Morone chrysops) are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass, a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass, white bass, and their hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species. Current resources consist of a medium-density genetic linkage map and a well-annotated ovarian transcriptome. A well-annotated transcriptome from across striped bass and white bass tissues is needed to advance both broad-based RNA-seq studies of gene expression as well as aid in more targeted studies of important genes and pathways critical for reproductive physiology and immunity. Here, we carried out Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing and annotation in both species utilizing the trinity and trinotate packages. The assembled Moronid reference transcriptomes and identified SSRs and SNPs should advance ongoing studies of reproduction, physiology, and immunology in these species and provide markers for broodstock management and selection.

  6. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

  7. Environmental factors regulating the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Koupal, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that regulate fish recruitment is essential for effective management of fisheries. Generally, first-year survival, and therefore recruitment, is inherently less consistent in systems with high intra- and interannual variability. Irrigation reservoirs display sporadic patterns of annual drawdown, which can pose a substantial challenge to recruitment of fishes. We developed species-specific models using an 18-year data set compiled from state and federal agencies to investigate variables that regulate the recruitment of walleye Sander vitreus and white bass Morone chrysops in irrigation reservoirs in south-west Nebraska, USA. The candidate model set for walleye included only abiotic variables (water-level elevation, minimum daily air temperature during winter prior to hatching, annual precipitation, spring warming rate and May reservoir discharge), and the candidate model set for white bass included primarily biotic variables (catch per unit effort (CPUE) of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, CPUE of age-0 walleye, CPUE of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and CPUE of age-3 and older white bass), each of which had a greater relative importance than the single abiotic variable (minimum daily air temperature during winter after hatching). Our findings improve the understanding of the recruitment of fishes in irrigation reservoirs and the relative roles of abiotic and biotic factors.

  8. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Response of White Sea Bass to practical diets with varying levels of protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the commercial culture of White Sea Bass atractoscion nobilis on the western coast of the United States has been increasing in recent years. Despite this interest, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the dietary requirements of this species, particularly as it relates to basic nutrient r...

  10. Evaluation of condition indices for estimation of growth of largemouth bass and white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, Steve; Childress, W. Michael

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of three condition indices-condition factor (K), relative condition (Kn), and relative weight (Wr)-to estimate annual growth rates of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and white crappies Pomoxis annularis collected during standardized autumn electrofishing and trap-net surveys of Texas reservoirs. Multiple-regression models for estimation of length increments from initial length (at the start of the growing season) and condition indices had R2 values of 0.63-0.76 for largemouth bass and 0.46-0.83 for white crappie. However, these models are not useful for indirect estimation ofgrowth rates because growth must be known (initial length equals length at capture minus estimated annual growth). Models based on length at capture and condition indices had R2 values of 0.22-0.68 for largemouth bass and less than 0.45 for white crappie. The low precision of models based on length at capture indicates that condition provides a weak basis for indirect estimation of growth rates from Texas reservoirs sampled during autumn and, therefore, is unreliable for detection of size-related growth phenomena such as "stockpiling" (size specific, density-dependent growth depression). Direct estimates of growth rates based on back-calculations or tagging data seem necessary for reliable detection of size-related growth patterns for largemouth bass and white crappies from Texas reservoirs.

  11. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  12. Physiological disturbances and overwinter mortality of largemouth bass from different latitudes.

    PubMed

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Wagner, Curtis P; Wahl, David H; Suski, Cory D

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conditions associated with winter can influence the distribution of a species. Because winter severity varies along latitudes, populations of temperate fish located along a latitudinal gradient may display variation in both sublethal and lethal responses to cold stressors. Sublethal physiological disturbances were quantified in age 1 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from populations originating from Alabama and Illinois but raised in a common environment. Fish were exposed to 6 h of rapid cold shock from 20° to 8°C (controls were held at 20°C) and then sampled for white muscle, whole blood, and plasma. After cold shock, glucose concentrations were elevated in Alabama but not Illinois fish. Sodium was lower and chloride was higher in Alabama largemouth bass, but fish from Illinois had a greater propensity for potassium loss during cold shock. In Illinois ponds, Alabama largemouth bass exhibited lower overwinter survival (adult: 10%; age 0: 22%) than did those from Illinois (adult: 80%; age 0: 82%). Latitudinal variation in physiological responses to cold stressors may therefore influence overwinter survival of largemouth bass and the ability of a fish species to exist over large geographic areas.

  13. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  15. Hybrid striped bass national breeding program: research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  16. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  17. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  18. Comparative cost analysis of hybrid striped bass fingerling production in ponds and tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round production of hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops×male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerlings would allow food fish growers to sell their product throughout the year, which would improve the consistency of market supply and cash flow for the farm. However, pond producti...

  19. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  1. Hierarchical Bass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  2. Treating sunshine bass eggs with copper sulfate controls fungus and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  3. Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  4. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), white bass (Morone chrysops), and their hybrid are an important group of recreational and farmed species in the United States. Regardless of habitat, it is not uncommon for fish of the genus Morone to encounter and cope with conditions of scarce oxygen availability....

  5. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  6. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M.; Zydlewski, J.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat ofAtlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species.We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment.We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  7. Mycobacteriosis in striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a bacterial disease in which striped bass (rockfish) may be disfigured as a result of skin ulcers and internal lesions. The bass may also be skinny or in extremely poor condition due to the chronic nature of this wasting disease. Stripers are a highly prized target species for both recreational anglers and commercial fishermen. As such, the economic impact of diseased and devalued fish could be significant. In addition, some of the mycobacteria that commonly infect fishes can cause infections in people and therefore are a human health concern. The total extent to which the disease is occurring along the Eastern seaboard is unknown but the disease has been reported from stripers taken from North Carolina to New York. During 1998-99, skin ulcers attributed to mycobacterial infection were observed in up to 28% of the striped bass from some Virginia tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Data obtained during 2002—2003 from fish harvested in Virginia and Maryland waters indicated that, at least in some areas, over 80% of striped bass may be infected with the mycobacteria that are associated with the disease. Given the persistence over the last 8 years of this mycobacteriosis outbreak, this does not appear to be a short-term problem.

  8. Hybridization between introduced spotted bass and smallmouth bass in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, P.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Introductions of black basses Micropterus spp. beyond their native ranges have led to hybridization within the genus. In the southeastern USA, the potential for hybridization appears high because species introductions have been common in reservoirs. We determined the extent of hybridization between smallmouth bass M. dolomieu and spotted bass M. punctulatus in reservoirs in which introductions of either species into the native range of the other species had occurred. Three allozyme loci were used to distinguish the two species and their hybrids. Significant hybridization occurred in two of three reservoirs where introductions had been reported. In Lake Chatuge, Georgia-North Carolina, where the Alabama subspecies of spotted bass M.p. henshalli was introduced, 77 of 276 fish had hybrid genotypes, and only 2 fish had genotypes of the native smallmouth bass. In Thurlow Reservoir, Alabama, where smallmouth bass were introduced and Alabama spotted bass were native, 3 of 17 fish had hybrid genotypes. Only I fish with a possible hybrid genotype was identified in two reservoirs containing native smallmouth bass and northern spotted bass M.p. punctulatus.

  9. Effects of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomeiu) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) habitat use and diel movements in an artificial stream.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Trial, Joan G.; Wathen, Gus

    2012-01-01

    Invasive smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have been introduced to some of the last remaining watersheds that contain wild anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, yet little is known about the interactions between these species. We used an artificial stream equipped with passive integrated transponder tag antenna arrays to monitor habitat use and movements of age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in sympatry and allopatry. We used additive and substitutive designs to test for changes in habitat use, diel movements, and diel activity patterns of prior-resident Atlantic salmon or smallmouth bass resulting from the addition of conspecifics or heterospecifics. Atlantic salmon prior residents did not change their habitat use in the presence of conspecific or heterospecific invaders. However, Atlantic salmon invaders did lessen riffle habitat use by smallmouth bass prior residents during daytime. Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass displayed different diel activity patterns of movement (Atlantic salmon were more nocturnal; smallmouth bass were more diurnal), which were affected by heterospecific introductions. Because the two species tended to favor different habitat types and displayed different diel activity patterns, we suggest that under the conditions tested, the level of interspecific competition for habitat was low. Age-0 Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass may be able to avoid intense interspecific competition through spatial and temporal habitat partitioning. These data do not, however, predict the potential for competition under different seasonal or ontogenetic circumstances.

  10. Relations between habitat variability and population dynamics of bass in the Huron River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Newcomb, Tammy J.; Coon, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the assumption of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) is that the dynamics of fish populations are directly or indirectly related to habitat availability. Because this assumption has not been successfully tested in coolwater streams, questions arise regarding the validity of the methodology in such streams. The purpose of our study was to determine whether relations existed between habitat availability and population dynamics of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in a 16-km reach of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Both species exhibited strong to moderate carryover of year classes from age 0 through age 2, indicating that adult populations were related to factors affecting recruitment. Year-class strength and subsequent numbers of yearling bass were related to the availability of young-of-year habitat during the first growing season for a cohort. Number of age-0, age-1, and adult smallmouth bass were related to the average length at age 0 for the cohort. Length at age 0 was associated with young-of-year habitat and thermal regime during the first growing season. Rock bass populations exhibited similar associations among age classes and habitat variables. Compared to smallmouth bass, the number of age-2 rock bass was associated more closely with their length at age 0 than with year-class strength. Length at age 0 and year-class strength of rock bass were associated with the same habitat variables as those related to age-0 smallmouth bass. We hypothesize that an energetic mechanism linked thermal regime to length at age 0 and that increased growth resulted in higher survival rates from age 0 to age 1. We also postulate that young-of-year habitat provided protection from predators, higher production of food resources, and increased foraging efficiency. We conclude that the IFIM is a valid methodology for instream flow investigations of coolwater streams. The results for our study support the

  11. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.

  12. Environmental quality for striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of environmental changes on the quality of life for striped bass populations can be evaluated objectively with modern procedures of environmental risk analysis. Such analysis requires knowledge of the sources of risk in the context of environmental requirements of the species. A prime environmental requirement of striped bass appears to be a suitable thermal structure that accommodates the hereditary thermal niche, which changes with age. Strong thermal preferences had promoted striped bass survival in the pristine natural estuaries of eastern North America, but they may increase risks to the species in some new environments and in native ones that are altered by man. The magnitude and likelihood of risks for striped bass from many pollutants and physical changes (structures or water flow, for example) depend upon the fish's thermally controlled distribution. The importance of a species' thermal niche and of the thermal structure of aquatic environments for population success is only beginning to be recognized and included in risk assessments.

  13. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  14. Growth characteristics and otolith analysis on age-0 American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this reoprt), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large number of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitive estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.


    Analysis of the age-0 American shad growth trajectory or individual growth records may show evidence of differential growth rates over

  15. Growth, dispersal, mortality, and contribution of largemouth bass stocked into Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, K.J.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Marked fingerling largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (both northern M. s. salmoides and Florida subspecies M. s. floridanus and their hybrid) were stocked into Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee, to enhance angling and introgress the Florida subspecies into the local gene pool. We evaluated mass marking and stocking success by sampling the stocked fish for 1 year poststocking. More than 128,000 fingerlings (35-64 mm total length) were immersed in a solution of 500 mg/L oxytetracycline (OTC) for 6 h and stocked into four embayments in the lake in spring 2002; two additional embayments served as controls and were not stocked (these embayments contained only wild, indigenous fish). In a blind test, 97% of sagittal otoliths were correctly scored as marked or unmarked. In a subsequent test, the OTC marks were clearly visible on every otolith removed from 240 OTC-treated bass held for 30 d. Age-0 largemouth bass were sampled with DC electrofishing gear at 7-19, 44-61, and 119-139 d after stocking, and sampling was conducted along 100-m transects within 1 km of the stocking sites in each embayment. Of all recaptures in the first sample, 31% occurred more than 600 m from the nearest stocking site, indicating rapid dispersal by some fish. Survival of stocked and wild age-0 largemouth bass was similar and low (4.5-6.9%) in two embayments; in the other two embayments, stocked fish survived at lower rates (0-4.3%) than wild fish (33.7-49.9%). Mean catches of all age-0 largemouth bass in the first sample were positively related to the number of fish stocked. By October 2002, the mean catch of all age-0 largemouth bass was similar among embayments. Contribution of stocked fish declined to approximately 2% (2 of 91 fish) the following spring. Cost per fingerling increased from US$0.35 at stocking to $12.00 at 140 d poststocking. Increasing the abundance of largemouth bass was not the primary objective of this stocking effort, but stocked fish will have to survive much better if

  16. BASS Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading

  17. Competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish–bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish–bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  18. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.


    Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters.


    Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for

  19. Spotted bass Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque 1819)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Timothy N.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2015-01-01

    Three subspecies of Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus were historically recognized: the smaller Northern Spotted Bass M. p. punctulatus, the larger, longer-lived Alabama Spotted Bass M. p. henshalli, and the now invalidated Wichita Spotted Bass M. p. wichitae (Bailey and Hubbs 1940; Cofer 1995; Warren 2009; Rider and Maceina 2015, this volume). The subspecific status has been examined over the past decade as advanced genetic analyses have been developed (e.g., Kassler et al. 2002; Baker et al. 2008; Tringali et al. 2015, this volume). The American Fisheries Society has recently changed the designation of the Alabama Spotted Bass to a separate species, Alabama Bass M. henshalli (Page et al. 2013). The remainder of this paper will discuss the biology and conservation of only Spotted Bass. Both species have been observed to hybridize with other Micropterus spp. (Koppelman 1994; Pierce and Van Den Avyle 1997; Barwick et al. 2006).

  20. Evaluating the potential for stock size to limit recruitment in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Michael S.; Rogers, Mark W.; Catalano, Mathew J.; Gwinn, Daniel G.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory changes in juvenile survival allow fish stocks to maintain relatively constant recruitment across a wide range of stock sizes (and levels of fishing), but few studies have experimentally explored recruitment compensation in fish populations. We evaluated the potential for recruitment compensation in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides by stocking six 0.4-ha hatchery ponds with adult densities ranging from 6 to 40 fish over 2 years. Ponds were drained in October each year, and the age-0 fish densities were used as a measure of recruitment. We found no relationship between stock abundance and recruitment; ponds with low adult densities produced nearly as many recruits as the higher-density ponds in some cases. Both prey abundance and the growth of age-0 largemouth bass declined with age-0 fish density. Recruit abundance was highly variable both within and among the adult density groups, and thus we were unable to identify a clear stock–recruit relationship for largemouth bass. Our results indicate that reducing the number of effective spawners via angling practices would not reduce recruitment over a relatively large range in stock size.

  1. Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries Resulting from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound in Two Sizes of Hybrid Striped Bass

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of loud sounds on fishes, such as those produced during impulsive pile driving, are an increasing concern in the management of aquatic ecosystems. However, very little is known about such effects. Accordingly, a High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid Filled wave Tube (HICI-FT) was used to investigate the effects of sounds produced by impulsive pile driving on two size groups of hybrid striped bass (white bass Moronechrysops x striped bass Moronesaxatilis). The larger striped bass (mean size 17.2 g) had more severe injuries, as well as more total injuries, than the smaller fish (mean size 1.3 g). However, fish in each size group recovered from most injuries within 10 days of exposure. A comparison with different species from previously published studies show that current results support the observation that fishes with physoclistous swim bladders are more susceptible to injury from impulsive pile driving than are fishes with physostomous swim bladders. PMID:24040089

  2. Recovery of barotrauma injuries resulting from exposure to pile driving sound in two sizes of hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Halvorsen, Michele B; Matthews, Frazer; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2013-01-01

    The effects of loud sounds on fishes, such as those produced during impulsive pile driving, are an increasing concern in the management of aquatic ecosystems. However, very little is known about such effects. Accordingly, a High Intensity Controlled Impedance Fluid Filled wave Tube (HICI-FT) was used to investigate the effects of sounds produced by impulsive pile driving on two size groups of hybrid striped bass (white bass Moronechrysops x striped bass Moronesaxatilis). The larger striped bass (mean size 17.2 g) had more severe injuries, as well as more total injuries, than the smaller fish (mean size 1.3 g). However, fish in each size group recovered from most injuries within 10 days of exposure. A comparison with different species from previously published studies show that current results support the observation that fishes with physoclistous swim bladders are more susceptible to injury from impulsive pile driving than are fishes with physostomous swim bladders.

  3. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  4. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  5. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker...

  6. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.703 Section 117.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9...

  7. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker...

  8. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) From January 1 through February 28, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in, or harvested from, the...

  9. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  10. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  11. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  12. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in,...

  13. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 20 black sea bass in,...

  14. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions....

  15. Groundwater influences on the distribution and abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in pasture landscapes of the midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how spring-flow (SF) contributions to streams related to the distribution and abundance of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in a predominately pasture landscape in Missouri, USA. Stream segments (N=13) with similar landscape characters were classified by SF volume into high SF (HSF) or low SF (LSF) groups. The densities of smallmouth bass, channel unit (CU) use and temperature-selection patterns were assessed for several life stages and frequency distributions for age 0 fish. More smallmouth bass were present in stream segments with HSF influence. Age 0 fish were twice as likely to be present in HSF stream segments. Older age classes were present in stream reaches independent of SF contribution. For all age classes, the use of particular CUs did not depend on SF influence. All age classes were more likely to be present in pools than other CUs. Microhabitat temperature selection differed among age classes. Age 0 fish selected warmer temperatures with a gradual shift towards cooler temperatures for older age classes. The length frequency of age 0 fish was skewed towards larger individuals in streams with limited SF influence, whereas the length frequency in HSF stream segments was skewed towards smaller individuals. The benefits of significant groundwater via SF influence seem to be related to increased hatch or survival of age 0 fish and the availability of optimal temperatures for adult smallmouth bass growth. Thermal refugia and stable flows provided by springs should be recognised for their biological potential to provide suitable habitat as climate change and other land-use alterations increase temperature regimes and alter flow patterns.

  16. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension... Federal Register a temporary rule to extend the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass... recreational harvest limit (RHL) based on the increased 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings...

  17. 75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule... emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota... year. Extending the increase to the 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings (TAL) will...

  18. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  19. Interactions between walleyes and smallmouth bass in a Missouri River reservoir with consideration of the influence of temperature and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Chipps, Steven R.; Willis, David W.; Adams, Wells E.

    2010-01-01

    Walleyes Sander vitreus are the most popular fish among South Dakota anglers, but smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced to provide new angling opportunities. Some walleye anglers have reported reductions in the quality of walleye fisheries since the introduction of smallmouth bass and attribute this to the consumption of young walleyes by smallmouth bass and competition for shared prey resources. We quantified the diets of walleyes and smallmouth bass in the lower reaches of Lake Sharpe (a Missouri River reservoir), calculated the diet overlap between the two predators, and determined whether they partitioned shared prey based on size. We also quantified walleye diets in the upper reach of the reservoir, which has a different prey base and allowed us to compare the growth rates of walleyes within Lake Sharpe. Age-0 gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum composed a substantial proportion of the diets of both predators, regardless of location, for most of the growing season; the patterns in shad vulnerability appeared to drive the observed patterns in diet overlap. Smallmouth bass appeared to consume a smaller size range of gizzard shad than did walleyes, which consumed a wide range. Smallmouth bass consumed Sander spp. in some months, but in very low quantities. Given that global climate change is expected to alter the population and community dynamics in Great Plains reservoirs, we also used a bioenergetics approach to predict the potential effects of limiting prey availability (specifically, the absence of gizzard shad and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax) and increased water temperatures (as projected from global climate change models) on walleye and smallmouth bass growth. The models indicated that the absence of rainbow smelt from the diets of walleyes in upper Lake Sharpe would reduce growth but that the absence of gizzard shad would have a more marked negative effect on both predators at both locations. The models also indicated that higher

  20. 76 FR 14804 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA AGENCY... the Hall Whitaker Bridge at mile 0.6 across the Bass River ] at Beverly, Massachusetts. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hall Whitaker Bridge, across the Bass River at Beverly, Massachusetts, has...

  1. Bioenergetics estimate of the effects of stocking density on hatchery production of smallmouth bass fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robel, G.L.; Fisher, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of and consumption by hatchery-reared tingerling (age-0) smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu at various simulated stocking densities were estimated with a bioenergetics model. Fish growth rates and pond water temperatures during the 1996 growing season at two hatcheries in Oklahoma were used in the model. Fish growth and simulated consumption and production differed greatly between the two hatcheries, probably because of differences in pond fertilization and mortality rates. Our results suggest that appropriate stocking density depends largely on prey availability as affected by pond fertilization and on fingerling mortality rates. The bioenergetics model provided a useful tool for estimating production at various stocking density rates. However, verification of physiological parameters for age-0 fish of hatchery-reared species is needed.

  2. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, Philip A.; Lemm, Carol A.; Woods, L. Curry

    1991-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested as an anesthetic on juvenile and mature adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis ). Concentrations of 55 mg/L at 22 degree C to 80 mg/L at 11 degree C effectively anesthetized fish in about 3 min. Recovery was more rapid as temperature increased. Fish survived concentrations of twice the effective concentration and exposure times up to 60 min at the effective concentration. Striped bass required higher concentrations for anesthetization than had been previously demonstrated for salmonid fishes, but safety margins for both concentration and exposure time were wider than for the salmonids.

  3. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  4. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  5. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  6. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  7. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  8. An Investigation of Double Bass Vibrato Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe various vibrato characteristics of university double bass students. The primary objectives were: (1) to describe vibrato rate and width for commonly used fingers in first, fourth, and thumb positions; (2) to investigate whether students initiate vibrato in an upward or downward direction;…

  9. Sunshine bass fingerling production without rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  10. Degree-day accumulation influences annual variability in growth of age-0 walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uphoff, Christopher S.; Schoenebeck, Casey W.; Hoback, W. Wyatt; Koupal, Keith D.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of age-0 fishes influences survival, especially in temperate regions where size-dependent over-winter mortality can be substantial. Additional benefits of earlier maturation and greater fecundity may exist for faster growing individuals. This study correlated prey densities, growing-degree days, water-surface elevation, turbidity, and chlorophyll a with age-0 walleye Sander vitreus growth in a south-central Nebraska irrigation reservoir. Growth of age-0 walleye was variable between 2003 and 2011, with mean lengths ranging from 128 to 231 mm by fall (September 30th–October 15th). A set of a priori candidate models were used to assess the relative support of explanatory variables using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). A temperature model using the growing degree-days metric was the best supported model, describing 65% of the variability in annual mean lengths of age-0 walleye. The second and third best supported models included the variables chlorophyll a (r2 = 0.49) and larval freshwater drum density (r2 = 0.45), respectively. There have been mixed results concerning the importance of temperature effects on growth of age-0 walleye. This study supports the hypothesis that temperature is the most important predictor of age-0 walleye growth near the southwestern limits of its natural range.

  11. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  12. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  13. Stress and body condition in a population of largemouth bass: implications for red-sore disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1980-09-01

    The body conditions, K = 10/sup 5/(weight, g)/(standard length)/sup 3/, and various hematological characters were examined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) taken from Par Pond, a reservoir heated by effluent from a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Largemouth bass with K less than 2.0 had significantly lower (P < 0.05) hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte fractions, and significantly higher granulocyte fractions and cortisol concentrations, than those with K greater than 2.0; monocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte fractions were not different between the two K-factor groupings. When data were pooled, all blood variables except the reticulocyte fraction were significantly correlated with K. Hematocrit, the lymphocyte fraction, and cortisol concentration account for 20.5% of the variation in K. These data support a previous hypothesis that elevated water temperature promotes stress. Stress within the Par Pond largemouth bass population may play an important role in the epizootiology of red-sore disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The instream flow suitability curves are intended for use with the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used by the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Smallmouth bass habitat.

  15. Cloning and organisation analysis of a hepcidin-like gene and cDNA from Japan sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Wang, Ke-Jian; Zhou, Hong-Ling; Yang, Ming

    2006-09-01

    A hepcidin gene was amplified from the liver of Lateolabrax japonicus challenged with a mixed bacterial suspension. Using RT-PCR and RACE, a full length cDNA sequence of the hepcidin like antimicrobial peptide was determined. The complete hepcidin cDNA Hepc2 is 581 bases and contains an ORF of 258 bases with a coding capacity of 86 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence, which shares eight cysteines at the identical conserved positions, and gene organisation are conserved between Japan sea bass and other fish species. The predicted molecular weight of the peptide is 9.4 kDa. The 3'-untranslated region is composed of 225 bp with a polyadenylation signal AATAAA sequence appearing at 189 nt and the poly(A) tail at 212 nt downstream of stop codon TGA. The predicted signal peptide cleavage site of its deduced peptide is between codons 24 and 25. Japan sea bass hepcidin-like genomic DNA hepc2 sequence including upstream and downstream regions was composed of two introns and three exons. The cloned 173-bp upstream sequence of Japan sea bass hepcidin-like gene contains putative regulatory elements and several binding motifs for transcription factors. High homologies with hepcidin cDNAs and peptides of white bass (Morone chrysops), human and other fish were shown. Hepc2 of Lateolabrax japonicus is a new member of the hepcidin gene family.

  16. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  17. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  18. Rearing sunshine bass using diets formulated for summer water temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  19. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture in the US. To construct a linkage map of striped bass, 480 microsatellite markers were screened for polymorphism among three parents of two half-sib mapping families that shared a common dam. A total of 289 markers ...

  20. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  1. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Striped Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    contribute to striped bass of age V and older in the the further reduction of adult striped Estuary, which has been estimated bass in the Estuary...harvest of adult bass of age V and older increased from The striped bass situation in the 15% to 27% (Stevens et al. 1985). The Sacramento-San Joaquin...7 Adults ................................................................. 7*7 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS

  2. Optimum temperature for growth and preferred temperatures of age-0 lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Cleland, Joshua

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the thermal preferences and optimum temperature for growth of age-0 lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to help predict the thermal habitat they select when they leave the spawning grounds and to assess the risk posed to them in the Great Lakes by piscivorus, nonnative fishes whose thermal habitat preferences are known. The test fish were hatched in the laboratory from eggs taken from wild fish, acclimated to 5, 10, 15, and 18°C, and fed to excess with commercial trout food for 47 d. The test fish grew at all of the temperatures, and the specific growth rate was highest at about 12.5°C (3.8% wet body weight/d). Fish used in the growth study were also tested in a vertical thermal gradient tank and had a final thermal preferendum between 10.1°C and 10.2°C. These results, which generally agreed with those of an earlier laboratory study of the temperature preference of age-1 lake trout and the limited information on thermal habitat use by age-0 lake trout in the Great Lakes, indicated age-0 lake trout would tend to seek temperatures near 10°C, or as high as 12.5°C, during summer if food was abundant. Published information on thermal habitat use of age-1 and adult alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax indicated they would be expected to co-occur with age-0 lake trout during much of the time when the lake trout were small enough to be eaten by these two introduced piscivores.

  3. Do predators influence the distribution of age-0 kokanee in a Colorado Reservoir?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, J.M.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in reservoir conditions such as productivity, light, and temperature create spatiotemporal variation in habitat that may segregate or aggregate predators and prey, producing implications for the distribution, growth, and survival of fishes. We used hydroacoustics to document the diel vertical distribution of age-0 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka relative to environmental gradients at Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado, during May-August of 2002. Temperature, light, and zooplankton density profiles were examined relative to foraging conditions for kokanee and their primary predator, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Age-0 kokanee displayed large diel vertical migrations in May despite the lack of an energetic advantage before reservoir stratification. Age-0 kokanee minimized near-surface foraging at this time, perhaps to avoid predation by visual predators, such as lake trout, in the well-lit surface waters. Strong reservoir stratification in midsummer appeared to provide a thermal refuge from lake trout that the kokanee exploited. By August vertical migrations were shallow and most kokanee remained in the epilimnion throughout the day. Although the energetic implications of the late-summer strategy are unclear, it appears that kokanee were responding to changes in their predator environment. A robust model for kokanee diel vertical migration across a range of systems should include a predator avoidance component.

  4. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  5. Backwaters in the upper reaches of reservoirs produce high densities of age-0 crappies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagel, Jonah D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir backwaters are aquatic habitats in floodplains of reservoir tributaries that are permanently or periodically flooded by the reservoir. Like many reservoir arms, backwaters are commonly shallow, littoral habitats, but they differ from arms in various respects, including their support of primarily wetland plant assemblages that are tolerant to flooding. Elsewhere, the reservoir floods mainly upland plants that are less tolerant to flooding, producing a band of barren shoreline along the fluctuation zone. We investigated differences in relative abundance of age-0 crappies Pomoxis spp. in backwaters and arms of widely fluctuating flood control reservoirs, examined the effect of water level, and estimated the likelihood and timing with which these habitats are flooded annually. Higher catch rates of age-0 crappies were obtained in backwater habitats than in arm habitats. When inundated during the crappie spawning season, backwaters provided vegetated habitat at lower water levels than arms. Backwaters flooded earlier than arms and remained flooded longer to provide prolonged nursery habitat. Whereas vegetated habitat was inundated almost yearly in backwaters and arms, inundation that was timed to the onset of spawning occurred less regularly. Because of differences in water elevation, vegetated habitats were flooded in time for crappie spawning about every other year in backwaters but only every third year in arms. Recruitment of age-0 crappies was inversely correlated with high water levels during the months preceding the spawning period, perhaps because early flooding degraded the vegetation. Our results suggest that water levels may be managed during late winter and spring to regularly flood wetland vegetation communities in backwaters; however, water levels should be maintained at or below normal pool and should only irregularly flood upland vegetation in reservoir arms to promote the preservation of such vegetation. Furthermore, management efforts to

  6. Validation of daily ring deposition in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We developed and validated methods for estimating the daily age of age-0 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Two clutches of channel catfish eggs were hatched in the laboratory; subsequently, one was stocked in a 186-m2 earthen nursery pond and the other in a 757-L outdoor circular tank. Before stocking, subsamples of fish were collected at swim-up and 3 d after swim-up to evaluate early ring formation. Fish were sampled from the pond and tank on eight occasions ranging from 30 to 119 d posthatch. Distinct differences in early ring formation were found between yolk sac and free-swimming larval stages. Mean ring count and known age were closely related for tank- and pond-raised fish, indicating that daily ring deposition occurred in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish up to 119 d posthatch. The accuracy of daily age estimation was similar between tank and pond samples, and daily ring counts were considerably accurate up to 60 d posthatch. Pond-raised fish were more difficult to age than tank-raised fish, which we attributed to ring compression resulting from slower growth among pond-raised fish after 30 d. The total length of tank- and pond-raised fish was positively related to otolith size; however, the slopes of the relationships between fish length and otolith radius were different between treatments. Therefore, we could not confirm that the relationship between fish length and otolith size was directly proportional for age-0 channel catfish. We encourage researchers to use this aging technique to determine how abiotic and biotic factors influence early life history characteristics and ultimately the population dynamics of catfishes (Ictaluridae). ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. BASS2000-Tarbes: current status and THEMIS data processing .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    I will review the history and status of the data archive BASS2000 and will concentrate my presentation on the BASS2000-Tarbes data base, which contains a very large volume of THEMIS data, i.e. spectropolarimetric data. I will insist the implementation of the processing of MTR-THEMIS (multi-line spectropolarimetry) data by the BASS2000 team, which has been our main project in 2006. New data levels are Stokes profiles and clean spectra, maps of continuum intensity and line-center intensity, Dopplergrams, magnetograms and vector magnetic field maps. I will also present the tools and services that we are providing.

  8. Survival of foul-hooked largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to determine the survival rate of foul-hooked (hooked external to the oral cavity) largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) caught and released by recreational anglers. Of 42 largemouth bass caught with hard-plastic baits containing three treble hooks, 15 were hooked only within the mouth and 27 had at least one hook penetrating the external surface of the fish (i.e., foul-hooked). There was no difference in survival of mouth-hooked (100%), foul-hooked (100%), or control (100%) largemouth bass.

  9. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in children aged 0- 5 years with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anejo-Okopi, Joseph Aje; Okojokwu, Julius Ocheme; Ebonyi, Augustine Odo; Ejeliogu, Emeka Uba; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Audu, Onyemocho; Akpakpan, Edoama Edet; Nwachukwu, Esther Ebere; Ifokwe, Christabel Kelechi; Ali, Murna; Lar, Patricia; Oguche, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immune-compromised individuals. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of subtype families that are thought to be more commonly associated with diarrhea. We aimed to isolate and characterize Cryptosporidium spp among children with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria. Methods Stool samples were collected from165 children aged 0-5 years with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined by wet mount preparation, using formalin ether and a modified acid fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive samples using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit and PCR-RFLP assay was carried out after quantification. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were done to determine the subtype families and their relatedness. Results From the 165 children studied, 8 (4.8%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. PCR-RFLP assay and genotype characterization found the following Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis 6 (75%) and C. parvum 2 (25.0%), with family subtypes Id-5, Ie-1 and IIa-1, IId-1 respectively.The most common species was C. hominis and the frequent subtype was C. hominis-Id 5 (62.5%). Conclusion Cryptosporidium is not an uncommon cause of diarrhea in children, with C. hominis being the dominant species. Also C. hominis Id is the commonest sub-family subtype. Put together, zoonotic species may be an important cause of diarrhea in children aged 0-5 years in Jos, Nigeria. PMID:28293369

  10. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jelks, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Review info: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation. Edited by Michael D. Tringali, James M. Long, Timothy W. Birdsong, and Michael S. Allen, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-934874-40-0, 685 pp.

  11. Review on the immunology of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Hellemans, B; Volckaert, F A M

    2007-05-15

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is a marine species of great economic importance, particularly in Mediterranean aquaculture. However, numerous pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites affect the species, causing various infectious diseases and thereby leading to the most heavy losses in aquaculture production of sea bass. In this respect, knowledge on molecular and genetic mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and specific features of immune response against various infectious agents should greatly benefit the development of effective vaccines and proper vaccination strategies in marker-assisted selection of fish resistant to a range of infections. To date, genetic knowledge on sea bass immune regulatory genes responsible for resistance to pathogens is relatively poor but tends to accumulate rapidly. In this review, we summarize and update current knowledge on the immune system and immune regulatory genes of the sea bass.

  12. Composition of Age-0 Fish Assemblages in the Apalachicola River, River Styx, and Battle Bend, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Buttermore, Elissa N.; Burgess, O. Towns; Pine, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Light traps were used to sample the age-0 year class of fish communities in the Apalachicola River and associated floodplain water bodies of River Styx and Battle Bend, Florida, in 2006-2007. A total of 629 light traps were deployed during the spring and early summer months (341 between March 15 and June 6, 2006; 288 between March 9 and July 3, 2007). For combined years, 13.8 percent of traps were empty and a total of 20,813 age-0 fish were captured representing at least 40 taxa of 29 genera and 16 families. Trap catches were dominated by relatively few species, with the most abundant groups represented by cyprinids, centrarchids, percids, and catostomids. Six taxa accounted for about 80 percent of all fish collected: Micropterus spp. (28.9 percent), Notropis texanus (28.9 percent), Lepomis macrochirus (7.9 percent), Carpiodes cyprinus (6.2 percent), Cyprinidae sp. (4.6 percent), and Minytrema melanops (4.2 percent). Based on chronological appearance in light traps and catch-per-unit effort, including data from previous years of sampling, peak spawning periods for most species occurred between early March and mid-June. A complementary telemetry study of pre-reproductive adults of select target species (Micropterus spp., Lepomis spp., and M. melanops) revealed distinct patterns of habitat use, with some individual fish exclusively utilizing mainstem river habitat or floodplain habitat during spawning and post-spawning periods, and other individuals migrating between habitats. A comparison of light-trap catches between a pre-enhancement, high-water year (2003) and post-enhancement, low-water year (2007) for the oxbow at Battle Bend revealed some difference in community composition, with slightly greater values of diversity and evenness indices in 2007. Two dominant species, Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides, were substantially greater in relative abundance among all age-0 fish collected in 2007 in comparison to 2003. Excavation of sediments at the mouth

  13. Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS): Electronics Check-Out Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna A.; Williams, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Summary The procedures described here are presented so that a technician with limited experience with BASS can perform basic tests which, when executed properly, should be a thorough evaluation of the health of the system. This is not intended as an in depth explanation of how BASS works. Should any significant problems be found, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer, Oceanographic Instrument Systems, North Falmouth, MA. The Tattletale controller is manufactured by the Onset Computer Corporation, Cataumet, MA.

  14. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374

  15. Posttournament survival and dispersal of adult striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a telemetry study from November 2004 to June 2005 at J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina and Georgia to quantify posttournament survival of striped bass and their dispersal from tournament weigh-in sites. During November-December 2004, 30 adult striped bass weighing 1.0-10.0 kg were angled, held in "striped bass tube" live-holding systems for 2-5 h, transported to a predetermined weigh-in and release site, and surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters. All striped bass survived transport, recovered from the surgical procedure, and were immediately released. The postrelease survival rate after 120 d was 87%. Surviving striped bass dispersed from the release site within 2-9 d. Fifty-four percent returned to their capture sites. Capture, holding, displacement, and weigh-in appeared to have no long-term adverse affects on behavior. Live release of striped bass may now be a viable option after tournaments during periods of cool water temperatures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  16. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Fletcher, D E; Jones, T; Dyer, S A; Isely, J J; Littrell, J W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access (137)Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of (137)Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River.

  17. Structure, molecular evolution, and hydrolytic specificities of largemouth bass pepsins.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoko; Suzuki-Matsubara, Mieko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2016-02-01

    The nucleotide sequences of largemouth bass pepsinogens (PG1, 2 and 3) were determined after molecular cloning of the respective cDNAs. Encoded PG1, 2 and 3 were classified as fish pepsinogens A1, A2 and C, respectively. Molecular evolutionary analyses show that vertebrate pepsinogens are classified into seven monophyletic groups, i.e. pepsinogens A, F, Y (prochymosins), C, B, and fish pepsinogens A and C. Regarding the primary structures, extensive deletion was obvious in S'1 loop residues in fish pepsin A as well as tetrapod pepsin Y. This deletion resulted in a decrease in hydrophobic residues in the S'1 site. Hydrolytic specificities of bass pepsins A1 and A2 were investigated with a pepsin substrate and its variants. Bass pepsins preferred both hydrophobic/aromatic residues and charged residues at the P'1 sites of substrates, showing the dual character of S'1 sites. Thermodynamic analyses of bass pepsin A2 showed that its activation Gibbs energy change (∆G(‡)) was lower than that of porcine pepsin A. Several sites of bass pepsin A2 moiety were found to be under positive selection, and most of them are located on the surface of the molecule, where they are involved in conformational flexibility. The broad S'1 specificity and flexible structure of bass pepsin A2 are thought to cause its high proteolytic activity.

  18. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... fax to the attention of the Sustainable Fisheries Division. Include ``Comments on 2010 Black Sea Bass... remaining 3,589,000 lb (1,628 mt) is divided 49 percent for the revised commercial fishery quota and...

  19. Total mercury concentrations in fillets of bluegill, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, and other fishes from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.; Alpers, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted during September-October 2002 to verify preliminary findings of elevated total mercury concentrations in skinless fillets of sportfishes inhabiting Lake Natoma. Although we measured total mercury concentrations, most mercury in fish flesh occurs in the methylated form. In August 2000, other investigators collected a small number of fish containing mercury concentrations that exceeded 0.30 ??g/g wet weight, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) tissue residue criterion derived from a reference dose for methylmercury that may cause undesirable neurological abnormalities in human infants exposed in utero when pregnant women consume mercury-contaminated foods. During our study, skinless fillets of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, contained as much as 0.19 ??g Hg/g wet weight (1.06 ??g Hg/g dry weight); redear sunfish, L. microlophus, contained as much as 0.39 ??g Hg/g wetweight (1.99 ??g Hg/g dry weight); and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, contained as much as 0.86 ??g Hg/g wet weight (3.85 ??g Hg/g dry weight). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.097 ??g/g wet weight (0.537 ??g/g dry weight) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to 0.56 ??g/g wet weight (3.07 ??g/g dry weight) in white catfish, Ameiurus catus. Altogether, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 14 of 61 largemouth bass, 1 of 1 brown builhead, A. nebulosus, 2 of 3 spotted bass, M. punctulatus, and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury residue criterion. Only bluegill and largemouth bass exhibited significant correlations between fish total length (TL), weight, and age, and total mercury concentration in fillets. Judging from a best-fit power-curve equation, largemouth bass measuring 273 mm TL (roughly 292g) or larger are estimated to contain total mercury concentrations in their fillets that exceed the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury criterion. These results confirmed that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma

  20. Correlation of transforming growth factor-β messenger RNA (TGF-β mRNA) expression with cellular immunoassays in Triamcinolone-treated captive hybrid striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harms, Craig A.; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S.

    2000-01-01

    Assessing fish immune status with molecular markers has been hampered by a lack of specific reagents. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (reverse transcription quantitative–competitive PCR, RT-qcPCR) for measuring transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) transcription from a broad range of teleost fish has recently been developed. The quantitative PCR now permits monitoring production of this important immunosuppressive cytokine in response to immunomodulating agents and conditions. We examined anterior kidney and spleen mononuclear cells from hybrid striped bass (female striped bass Morone saxatilis× male white bass M. chrysops) for production of TGF-β messenger RNA (mRNA) in response to administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone. We also compared TGF-β transcription with anterior kidney macrophage bactericidal activity and splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis. Anterior kidney mononuclear cell TGF-β mRNA levels decreased, whereas bactericidal activity increased. Spleen TGF-β mRNA levels did not change significantly, and splenic lymphocyte pokeweed mitogen stimulation index increased in triamcinolone-treated fish. Since triamcinolone is used therapeutically as a suppressive immunomodulator, the enhanced immune functions indicated by the cellular immunoassays were unexpected; however, the inverse response of TGF-β production and macrophage bactericidal activity was consistent with the known relationship between TGF-β and macrophage activation in mammals. Induced immunomodulation in hybrid striped bass was detectable by both traditional cellular immunoassays and the new RT-qcPCR for TGF-β.

  1. Length variation in age-0 westslope cutthroat trout at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcgrath, K.E.; Scott, J.M.; Rieman, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity provides ecological and evolutionary functions, stabilizing populations in variable environments. Although benefits of larger body size in juvenile fishes are well documented, size variation may have value as well. We explored the distribution of length and length variation in age-0 westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi at three spatial scales: area (102 km2), stream (101 km2), and site (100 km2). In addition, we examined relationships between length variables (mean length and interquartile range of length) and instream (temperature and conductivity) and landscape (aspect, elevation, headwater distance, and valley width) variables that were expected to be associated with fish size. Conductivity was included as a surrogate for productivity. Most variation in mean length and interquartile range of fish length was found among areas (62.2% and 62.6%, respectively). Mean length also varied among streams and sites (21.9% and 15.8%, respectively). Similarly, interquartile range of fish length varied among streams and sites (19.1% and 18.3%, respectively). Both length variables were associated with temperature and elevation. Mean fish length was also associated with conductivity, but the association between interquartile length range and conductivity was weak. We conclude that the conservation of variation in phenotypic attributes, such as length, in westslope cutthroat trout may require conservation of viable populations across broad areas and across environmental gradients that are associated with growth. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  2. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  3. Effects of ration and temperature on growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, J.L.; Arnold, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Our objective was to gain insight into the optimum temperature and ration for growth of age-0 Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in culture. We conducted two trials, each for 8 weeks. Trial 1 started with 60-g fish, trial 2 started with 0 3-g fish. Water temperatures of 15, 17, and 19??C were used separately in each trial. Rations (dry food, wet weight of fish) for 60-g fish were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of biomass per day, for 0.3-g fish, rations were 3, 5, and 7% of biomass per day. We set up three tank replicates, of equal fish biomass, at each combination of temperature and ration. The highest growth rate in trial 1 (for 60-g fish) was 0.014/d at 15??C and the 1.5% ration, although this growth rate was not significantly different from the growth rate at 17??C and 1.5% ration or at 17??C and 1.0% ration. The highest growth rate in trial 2 (for 0.3-g fish) was 0.067/d at 19??C and the 7.0% ration. Instantaneous growth at these conditions was significantly different from all other combinations of temperature and ration. Although these results may not completely define the temperature and ration under which fish could achieve maximum growth rate, they provide a solid starting point for further development of Atlantic sturgeon culture.

  4. Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. PMID:23995043

  5. The fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have described the temperatures selected by landlocked striped bass Morone saxatilis in different locales throughout the USA. However, seasonally low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in many systems prevented striped bass from using the cool waters (<22??C) they may have preferred. In Melton Hill Reservoir, a 92-km-long impoundment on the Clinch River in east Tennessee, 15 adult striped bass were tagged with temperature-sensing radio tags and tracked for an average of 418 d in 1999-2000. Cold, hypolimnetic discharges from an upstream dam and heated discharge from a steam-generating electric facility near the midpoint of this run-of-the-river reservoir provided a broad range of temperatures in most seasons, and hypoxic habitats were uncommon even during stratification. The mean temperature occupied by striped bass varied seasonally (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P < 0.0001) and was highest in summer (17.5??C), intermediate in spring and fall (15.4-16.9??C), and lowest in winter (13.0??C). The mean and modal temperatures occupied during the growing season (May-October 1999) were 17.5??C and 19.0??C, respectively; 30% of the observations were between 9??C and 15??C. These data indicate that the fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass may be lower than literature estimates. These results also represent the first unbiased field estimates of the influence of season on the thermal ecology of adult striped bass. The thermal characteristics of habitats considered optimal in habitat suitability index models for adult landlocked striped bass (i.e., 18-24??C) should be revised to include cooler waters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  6. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  7. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  8. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  9. Incidence of cancer in children aged 0-14 years in Taiwan, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Ya-Wen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Ho, Wan-Ling; Li, Meng-Ju; Miser, James S; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-02-01

    Studies have found lower risk of childhood cancer among Asian children. We aim to characterize the recent incidence and incidence-trend of childhood cancer in Taiwan after the National Health Insurance program was launched in March 1995. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, a population-based database established in 1979. Cases diagnosed at age 0-14 from 1996 to 2010 were analyzed and categorized according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3). In total, 8032 childhood cancer cases were included, with a microscopic verification rate of 93.9%. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence adjusted to the 2000 World Standard Population is 125.0 cases/million, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. The top five cancer types (ICCC-3 subgroup[s]; ASR per million) are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ia, 30.3), acute myeloid leukemia (Ib; 9.4), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (IIb,c,e, 9.0), extracranial germ cell tumor (Xb,c; 8.3), and neuroblastoma (IVa; 7.8). The median age of diagnosis was 6 years for both genders. During the study period, the ASR of childhood cancer has been increasing at a rate of 1.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.7%). In contrast to Western countries, China, Japan, and Taiwan have lower incidence of childhood cancer; however, Taiwan's incidence rates of childhood germ cell tumors and hepatic tumors are higher. In conclusion, this population-based study reveals that the incidence rate of childhood cancer in Taiwan is rising consistently. The high incidence of germ cell tumors warrants further investigation.

  10. Survey of intersex largemouth bass from impoundments in Georgia USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellock, Kristen A.; Trushel, Brittany E.; Ely, Patrick C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Intersex fish are increasingly being reported worldwide, primarily in rivers that receive treated wastewater, but few studies have investigated intersex in waters that do not receive wastewater. In a recent reconnaissance survey of intersex fish in North America, a high rate of intersex was reported for Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides in some southeastern U.S. rivers; however, the occurrence of intersex in impoundments has not been well described, especially on a statewide scale. Therefore, our objective for this project was to survey the occurrence of intersex Largemouth Bass in a variety of impoundment habitats across Georgia. Largemouth Bass were collected from 11 impoundments without direct municipal or agricultural wastewater inputs. Gonads from all male Largemouth Bass were evaluated for the incidence and severity of the intersex condition based on presence and arrangement of testicular oocytes. Overall 48% of male Largemouth Bass collected from impoundments were intersex, which was found in 9 of the 11 impoundments. Among impoundments, incidence of intersex ranged from 0 to 82% of the males sampled and surface area of the impoundment was a significant predictor of intersex incidence. Intersex fish were smaller than normal males, but population-level effects of intersex and causative factors of endocrine disruption in the impoundments remain unknown. The high incidence of intersex males in small impoundments demonstrates that the condition is not confined to rivers and suggests that factors other than those previously associated with intersex (i.e., municipal wastewater) may be involved.

  11. Sub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Suski, C D; Kieffer, J D; Killen, S S; Tufts, B L

    2007-03-01

    Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined using static exposure tests with immature fish over a 96-h period. These results may not be relevant to aquaculture, hauling or angling tournament scenarios where mature fish can be exposed to ammonia for shorter durations, often following additional stressors such as handling. The current study sought to quantify (1) the impact of ambient ammonia on the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise, (2) the behavioural response of largemouth bass to elevated ambient ammonia and (3) the concentration of ammonia that can accumulate in a live-release vessel at an angling tournament. After approximately 3 h, total ammonia (T(amm)) concentrations in a live-release vessel at an angling tournament were almost 200 muM. Exposure of fish to 1000 microM T(amm) (a value approximately 80% below the criteria maximum concentration for largemouth bass) caused significant reductions in ventilation rates, and increases in erratic swimming and irregular ventilation. Exposure to 100 microM T(amm) impaired the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise relative to fish recovering in fresh water. Therefore, sub-lethal ambient ammonia concentrations cause physiological disturbances that can impair the recovery of largemouth bass from exercise.

  12. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A. ); Hill, K.C. ); Smith, M.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received [approximately]10[sup 6] km[sup 3] of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana's Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960's, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana's Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable [approximately]300[prime] gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  13. Dealing with largemouth bass virus: benefits of multisector collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terre, David R.; Schramm, Harold; Grizzle , John M.; Fries, Loraine T.

    2015-01-01

    Largemouth bass virus (LMBV), a recently identified pathogen, affected largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the southeastern United States beginning in the 1990s. Concern about the impacts of this little-known pathogen on largemouth bass populations, effects on fisheries management, and the need to provide anglers and the media with consistent and accurate information prompted a private organization (Bass Anglers Sportsman Society) to invite managers and researchers from state and federal agencies and universities to a series of five annual public workshops beginning in 2000. These workshops provided a mechanism to share information, identify and prioritize action items, and develop consensus information and outreach materials that could be provided to bass anglers and the media. Regionalizing the LMBV issue and collaboration among researchers, managers, and a fishing organization may also have allayed angler and media concerns. The process embodied in these workshops is offered as a successful example of multi-agency, multi-sector collaboration to facilitate information acquisition and guide action to address a regional fisheries management issue.

  14. Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014.

  15. Growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in five lakes of northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1942-01-01

    Rock bass of corresponding length from Allequash, Silver, and Trout Lakes were so nearly of the same weight that one curve described the length-weight relationship of the three stocks. Muskellunge Lake rock bass were considerably lighter than fish of the same length from these three lakes, and Nebish Lake rock bass were somewhat lighter than those from Muskellunge Lake.

  16. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Preliminary 2013 Quota Adjustments; 2013... the 2013 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, as well as the 2014 summer flounder and... necessary to comply with regulations implementing the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass...

  17. 78 FR 32355 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME AGENCY... Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) special Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action...

  18. 75 FR 59078 - Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME... temporary safety zone around a ledge removal project in Bass Harbor, Maine. The United States Army Corps of... and around Bass Harbor both to increase mooring capacity for fishing trawlers and recreational...

  19. 78 FR 18931 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  20. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit has been exceeded. No one may fish for or possess black sea bass in Federal waters for the remainder...

  1. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  2. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  3. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  4. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  5. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  6. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  7. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  8. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule Correction and Extension AGENCY... recreational black sea bass fishery in the Federal waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 3 to 200... implemented with no end date, and to extend the prohibition on recreational fishing for black sea bass in...

  9. Immunological discrimination of Atlantic striped bass stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, W.B.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Stocks of Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis that were assumed to be geographically isolated during spawning showed strong antigenic differences in blood serum albumin. A discriminant function was estimated from the immunologic responses of northern (Canadian and Hudson River) and southern (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River) stocks to two reference antisera. The function correctly classified 92% of the northern and 95% of the southern fish in the training set. Cross-validation revealed similar percentages of correct classification for fish that were of known origin but not used to estimate the discriminant function. Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the ability of the discriminant function to predict the relative contribution of northern fish in samples of various size and stock composition. Averages of predicted proportions of northern fish in the samples agreed well with actual proportions. Coefficients of variation (100 × SD/mean) in the predicted proportions ranged from 1.5 to 36% for samples of 50–400 fish that contained at least 10% northern stock. In samples that contained only 2% northern stock, however, at least 1,600 fish were required to achieve similar levels of precision.

  10. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  11. The Safety of AQUAFLOR (50% Florfenicol; Type A Medicated Article) Administered in feed to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial diseases are a major problem in aquaculture and account for significant losses of fish (Clarke and Scott 1989; Frerichs and Roberts 1989; Bjorndal 1990). Therefore, the use of antimicrobial therapy plays an important role in aquaculture (Klontz 1987; Alderman 1988). Florfenicol (FFC) is a...

  12. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Molecular characterization, quantification in plasma, liver and ovary, and maturational proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibáñez, A Jose; Köksoy, Sadi; Amano, Haruna; Sullivan, Craig V

    2016-01-01

    Three complete vitellogenin (Vtg) polypeptides of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an acanthomorph teleost spawning pelagic eggs in seawater, were deduced from cDNA and identified as VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC based on current Vtg nomenclature and phylogeny. Label free quantitative mass spectrometry verified the presence of the three sea bass Vtgs or their product yolk proteins (YPs) in liver, plasma and ovary of postvitellogenic females. As evidenced by normalized spectral counts, VtgAb-derived protein was 2- to 5-fold more abundant, depending on sample type, than for VtgAa, while VtgC-derived protein was less abundant, albeit only 3-fold lower than for VtgAb in the ovary. Western blotting with Vtg type-specific antisera raised against corresponding gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins (Lvs) detected all three types of sea bass Vtg in the blood plasma of gravid females and/or estrogenized males and showed that all three forms of sea bass Lv undergo limited partial degradation during oocyte maturation. The comparatively high levels of VtgC-derived YPs in fully-grown oocytes and the maturational proteolysis of all three types of Lv differ from what has been reported for other teleosts spawning pelagic eggs in seawater but are similar to recent findings for two species of North American Moronidae, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana), which spawn pelagic and demersal eggs, respectively in fresh water. Together with the high Vtg sequence homologies and virtually identical structural features of each type of Vtg between species, these findings indicate that the moronid multiple Vtg systems do not substantially vary with reproductive environment.

  13. Population dynamics modeling of introduced smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breton, André R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Hawkins, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to identify an effective control strategy to further reduce smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin from the current level. Our simulation results showed that “the surge”, an early to mid-summer increase in electrofishing effort targeting nest-guarding male smallmouth bass, should be made a core component of any future smallmouth bass management strategy in the upper basin. Immigration from off channel reservoirs is supporting smallmouth bass popualtions in the Yampa River and our modeling analyses suggest that smallmouth bass  in Little Yampa Canyon might go extinct in a few years under the present level of exploitation.

  14. Forecasting Diffusion of Technology by using Bass Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hoi; Shin, Young-Geun; Park, Sang-Sung; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Generally, researching method of technology forecasting has been depended on intuition of expert until now. So there were many defects like consuming much time and money and so on. In this paper, we forecast diffusion of technology by using Bass model that is one of the quantitative analysis methods. We applied this model at technology market. And for input data of experiment, we use patent data that is representing each technology in technology market. We expect this research will be suggest new possibility that patent data can be applied in Bass model.

  15. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  16. Response by anglers to a differential harvest regulation on three black bass species at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Hyler, Randy G.; Fisher, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Angler responses to a differential harvest regulation on black bass, Micropterus spp. at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma was assessed from 1997 to 1999. This regulation allowed anglers to harvest 15 spotted bass, M. punctulatus (Rafinesque) of any size and six largemouth bass, M. salmoides (Lacepède) and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu Lacepède greater than 356 mm (in aggregate) per day. Anglers’ ability to differentiate spotted bass increased after the first year of the study, but their willingness to target or harvest spotted bass declined. Mean angler catch rates (number of fish per angling hour) for all three species remained steady throughout the study. Total harvest of largemouth bass and smallmouth bass was reduced by 1999 while total harvest of spotted bass remained steady throughout the study period. Despite the more liberal regulations as incentive, the regulation failed to accomplish the primary objective of increasing angler harvest of spotted bass because of high rates of voluntary catch and release.

  17. Safety of oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F) administered in feed to hybrid striped bass, walleyes, and yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Wolf, J.C.; Schleis, S.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin TM-100F, a medicated premix containing oxytetracycline at 220 g/kg) is approved in the United States to control certain systemic bacterial diseases of salmon and catfish when fed at a rate of 55-82.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per day for 10 d. Although oxytetracycline may also control certain systemic bacterial infections in coolwater or scaled warmwater fish, no safety data for such species are available. Our objective was to determine the safety of oxytetracycline administered in feed at nominal doses of 0, 82.5, 248, or 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 to yellow perch Perca flavescens and hybrid striped bass (striped bass Morone saxatilis x white bass M. chrysops) for 10 d and to walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) for 20 d. Yellow perch and hybrid striped bass consumed 50% to 100% of the diet, whereas walleye feed consumption was occasionally less than 50% of the diet. Feed or fecal material was present in the gastrointestinal tract of all necropsied walleyes except for one control fish. The single growth effect was that hybrid striped bass offered a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1 were significantly smaller than untreated controls. Oxytetracycline-related histopathological findings were limited to walleyes and were of low severity. The histopathological findings included decreased hematopoietic-lymphopoietic (H&L) tissue in the anterior kidneys, diffuse hyperplasia of the gill filament epithelium, and a decreased prevalence of fish with eosinophilic droplets in their renal tubular epithelial cells. Although the incidence of decreased H&L tissue tended to increase in proportion to oxytetracycline dose, this finding was statistically significant only for fish that received a nominal dose of 413 mg??kg-1??d-1. Given the pathogenicity of the types of bacteria that are controlled by oxytetracycline treatment and the long history of its use in major aquaculture species, the relative risk of the minor oxytetracycline

  18. Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 105 Mycobacterium marinum, M. shottsii sp. nov., or M. gordonae. Infected fish were maintained in a flow-through freshwater system at 18 to 21??C, and were examined histologically and bacteriologically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 36 and 45 wk post-infection (p.i.). M. marinum caused acute peritonitis, followed by extensive granuloma development in the mesenteries, spleen and anterior kidney. Granulomas in these tissues underwent a temporal progression of distinct morphological stages, culminating in well-circumscribed lesions surrounded by normal or healing tissue. Mycobacteria were cultured in high numbers from splenic tissue at all times p.i. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining, however, did not demonstrate acid-fast rods in most early inflammatory foci and granulomas. Large numbers of acid-fast rods were present in granulomas beginning at 8 wk p.i. Between 26 and 45 wk p.i., reactivation of disease was observed in some fish, with disintegration of granulomas, renewed inflammation, and elevated splenic bacterial densities approaching 109 colony-forming units g-1. Infection with M. shottsii or M. gordonae did not produce severe pathology. Mild peritonitis was followed by granuloma formation in the mesenteries, but, with 1 exception, granulomas were not observed in the spleen or anterior kidney. M. shottsii and M. gordonae both established persistent infections in the spleen, but were present at densities at least 2 orders of magnitude less than M. marinum at all time points observed. Granulomas in the mesenteries of M. shottsii- and M. gordonae-infected fish resolved over time, and no reactivation of disease was observed.

  19. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Berney, Simon; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Baronchelli, Linda; Gehrels, Neil; Stern, Daniel; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Harrison, Fiona; Fischer, Travis C.; Treister, Ezequiel; BASS Team; Swift BAT Team

    2017-01-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at z<0.2. Starting from an all-sky catalog of AGN detected based on their 14-195 keV flux from the 70-month Swift/BAT catalog, we analyze a total of 1279 optical spectra, taken from twelve dierent telescopes, for a total of 642 spectra of unique AGN. We present the absorption and emission line measurements as well as black hole masses and accretion rates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (473), representing more than a factor of 10 increase from past studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics. Additionally, we discuss follow-on efforts to study the variation of [OIII] to Xray measurements, a new method to measure accretion rates from using line ratios, a sample of 100 AGN observed with NIR spectroscopy, and an effort to measure the accretion rates and obscuration with merger stage in a subsample of mergers.

  20. NMR metabolic profiling of organic and aqueous sea bass extracts: implications in the discrimination of wild and cultured sea bass.

    PubMed

    Mannina, L; Sobolev, A P; Capitani, D; Iaffaldano, N; Rosato, M P; Ragni, P; Reale, A; Sorrentino, E; D'Amico, I; Coppola, R

    2008-10-19

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used as analytical tool to determine the complete metabolic profiling of sea bass extracts: water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as sugars, amino acids, dipeptides and organic acids as well as metabolites soluble in organic solvent such as lipids, sterols and fatty acids were identified. The metabolite profiling together with a suitable statistical analysis were used to discriminate between wild and cultured sea bass samples. Preliminary results show that discrimination between wild and cultured sea bass was obtained not only using fatty acid composition but also cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine and some water-soluble metabolites such as choline, trimethylamine oxide, glutamine, fumaric and malic acids.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BANYAN. VII. Candidate YMG members from BASS (Gagne+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, J.; Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Lafreniere, D.; Doyon, R.; Malo, L.; Burgasser, A. J.; Naud, M.-E.; Artigau, E.; Bouchard, S.; Gizis, J. E.; Albert, L.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained low-resolution NIR spectra of 241 candidate young moving group (YMG) members from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), LP-BASS, and PRE-BASS samples. A description of individual observations is included in Table 1. There are three samples that are referred to in this Paper: (1) PRE-BASS consists of targets that were initially selected as potential members and followed up with spectroscopy, but that were later rejected as we modified our selection criteria to reject contaminants; (2) Low-Priority BASS (LP-BASS) consists of targets that have NIR colors only slightly redder than field dwarfs; and (3) BASS is the final sample presented in Paper V (Gagne et al., 2015, J/ApJ/798/73) that contains targets at least 1σ redder than field dwarfs and that has a lower fraction of contaminants. (6 data files).

  2. Development of summer diets for hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and ammonia increase dramatically during summer production of sunshine bass. Global temperatures are projected to increase. A factorial experiment investigated the effects of three digestible protein (DP; 33, 40, 47%), two lipid (L; 10, 18 %) and two ration levels (satiation, restricted)...

  3. Response of sunshine bass to ration at elevated culture temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and ammonia increase dramatically during summer production of sunshine bass. Global temperatures are projected to increase. A factorial experiment investigated the effects of three digestible protein (DP; 33, 40, 47%), two lipid (L; 10, 18 %) and two ration levels (satiation, restricted)...

  4. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 masyr, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-ALLWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new ˜ 13 Mjup\\ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared spectrum for the companion, which reveals typical signs of youth and a spectral type L4γ.

  5. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings in tanks without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  6. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted protocol for production of fingerling size sunshine bass in tanks included the feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists and the cultures are ...

  7. Tank culture of sunshine bass without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocols for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to Artemia nauplii and prepared feed. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, and trai...

  8. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A.; Hill, K.C.; Smith, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received {approximately}10{sup 6} km{sup 3} of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana`s Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960`s, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana`s Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable {approximately}300{prime} gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  9. The Bass Parasites of Oneida Lake, 80 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    A survey of largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) parasite communities in Oneida Lake, New York, was conducted in the summer of 2012 and compared to an earlier survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller during the summers of 1929 to 1931. The component helminth communities between surveys were 31% similar in composition for largemouth and 28% similar for smallmouth bass. Between species, the component helminth communities were considerably more similar in the present survey (71%) than in the survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller (47%). Seven species reported by Van Cleave and Mueller were present in this survey and 21 species are new records for the bass of Oneida Lake. Van Cleave and Mueller did not report prevalence values for several taxa (Monogenea, Copepoda, Myxozoa, and a Trichodina sp.) that were important for separation of parasite infracommunities in species space for both bass species. These parasites represented 28% of all species found in the current survey and may be ecologically important. Several species of parasites exhibited differences in prevalence between surveys. Two species (Rhipidocotyle papillosa and Crepidostomum cornutum) were absent from this survey but were reported as common in the 1929-1931 survey and almost certainly represent extirpations that coincide with the loss of their native bivalve hosts from Oneida Lake. Other differences in the parasite communities may also be explained by the ecological disturbances in Oneida Lake over the past 81 yr. The changes in bass parasite communities between surveys emphasize the importance of recognizing the historical nature of parasite communities, especially in ecosystems with a history of large-scale changes. Most importantly our findings suggest that, similar to trends observed in free-living freshwater biotic communities, anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances may homogenize fish parasite communities.

  10. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  11. Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

    1995-01-01

    We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7–11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

  12. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  13. Discovery and validation of gene-linked diagnostic SNP markers for assessing hybridization between largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Florida bass (M. floridanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization of Florida bass (Micropterus floridanus) with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has dramatically expanded beyond a naturally-occurring intergrade zone in the Southeast U.S. Efforts to improve recreational fisheries have included widespread stocking of M. floridanus outside its n...

  14. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in striped bass Morone saxatilis and sunshine bass M. chrysops X M. saxatilis diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of waste by-products from the Alaskan fishery and use in fish feeds can potentially reduce pressure on fish harvested for animal feed applications. However, little data exist evaluating these by-products in moronid diets. Striped bass and sunshine bass growth, body composition, and imm...

  15. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  16. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  17. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis) from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA).

    PubMed

    Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L

    2009-04-01

    We examined the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of mercury in two marine finfish species, striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and tautog (Tautoga onitis), collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA). For each of these target fish, white muscle tissue was analyzed for total mercury (Hg) and results were evaluated relative to fish age, body size, and Hg content of preferred prey. Dietary and stable isotope analysis was also used to elucidate the effect of trophic processes on Hg concentrations in fish. The Hg content of muscle tissue was positively correlated with fish age and length for both species, although striped bass accumulated Hg faster than tautog. Accelerated Hg bioaccumulation in striped bass is consistent with its high trophic level (trophic level = 4.07) and Hg-enriched prey (forage fish and macrocrustaceans; mean Hg content = 0.03 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1)). In contrast, tautog maintain a lower trophic status (trophic level=3.51) and consume prey with lower Hg levels (mussels and crabs; mean Hg content = 0.02 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1)). Despite differences in Hg bioaccumulation between target fish, the mean Hg concentration of tautog exceeded levels in striped bass (0.24 and 0.16 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1), respectively) due to a disparity in age-at-catch between sampled groups (mean age of tautog and bass = 11.3 and 4.3 yr, respectively). Taking into account legal minimum catch lengths further revealed that 75.0% of legal-size striped bass (>70.2 cm TL; n = 4) and 44.8% of tautog (> 40.6 cm TL; n = 29) had Hg levels beyond the US EPA regulatory threshold of 0.3 mg Hg kg wet wt(-1). Moreover, Hg-length relationships suggest that each target fish meets this threshold near their minimum legal catch length. Our findings reiterate the value of species ecology to improve predictions of fish Hg and permit better management of human contamination by this important dietary source.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Inland stocks of striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and instream flow Suitability Index (SI) presented in this publication aid in identifying important variables that determine the quality of striped bass habitat. Facts, ideas, and opinions obtained from published and unpublished reports, a Delphi panel of 18 striped bass experts/authorities, and the Striped Bass Committee, Southern Division, American Fisheries Society, are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for habitat impact assessment and development of management alternatives.

  19. Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years--United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Strikas, Raymond A

    2015-02-06

    Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2014, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2015, which include several changes from the 2014 immunization schedules. For 2015, the figures, footnotes, and tables are being published on the CDC immunization schedule website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2015 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years also are available at the website in several formats, including portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions. Ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules also are available at the immunization schedule website.

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass. 2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river's water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales. 3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22%of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23 km (2009

  1. NASA OBPG Field Program and SeaBASS Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Calibrating ocean color satellite instruments and validating their data products requires temporal and spatial abundances of high quality in situ oceanographic data. To this end, the Ocean Ecology Laboratory (OEL) maintains two entities that are engaged in field data collection and archival. First, the OEL houses a Field Support Group to collect in situ oceanographic measurements, execute laboratory analyses, revise community-vetted protocols for conducting these exercises, and host community training events. Second, the OEL maintains the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) as the permanent archive for all in situ data collected under the auspices of the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program (OBB; Dr. Paula Bontempi, Program Manager). This talk provides the OBB community and interested researchers their annual update on both the Field Support Group and SeaBASS.

  2. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  3. Physiological effects of handling and hauling stress on smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, G.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; McCraren, J.P.; Millard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Basic physiological information on the stress caused by current hatchery practices is helpful in developing new and improved techniques to increase survival. In view of the present fishery management requirements for stocking smallmouth bas (Micropterus dolomieu), baseline information on the physiological effects of handling and hauling hatchery-reared fish is needed to serve as the foundation for improving transport methods. Shell (1959) summarized several physiological characteristics of smallmouth bass, but little information on their physiological tolerance to stress exists. The present study was designed to determine the physiological effects of handling and short-term hauling in small mouth bass. Plasma chloride, sodium, potassium, and glucose dynamics were monitored in indicate the severity of the resulting stress and the recovery time needed.

  4. BASS2000: on-going projects and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    2006-06-01

    We review the current status of the services proposed by the database BASS2000. Then we describe our main on-going project, i.e. the implementation of the processing, by the BASS2000 team, of a large data set (several Terabytes) of solar multi-line spectropolarimetric data (MTR mode) obtained by many observers at the THEMIS telescope in Tenerife. The implementation of this data processing and the data products are described as well as the future services associated to this processing: data sets of magnetograms, dopplergrams, vector magnetic field maps, organization of workshops. The other projects we are involved in are also briefly described, and concerns the Pic du Midi Coronagraph (HACO, as well as the future new version CLIMSO), the Lunette Jean Rösch of the Pic du Midi (mostly imagery data) and the implications in the Virtual Observatory.

  5. Comparison of BASS and VACM current measurements during STRESS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Steven J.; Butman, Bradford; Williams, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The equations used to convert VACM rotor rotation rates to current speed we based on a calibration study by Woodward and Appell rather than one based on a study by Cherriman that is routinely used at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The former yields closer agreement between the BASS and VACM speed measurements during STRESS (mean speed difference 0.2 cm s−1 versus 1.4 cm s−1).

  6. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  7. Noise Impact on European Sea Bass Behavior: Temporal Structure Matters.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Seitz, Johanna; Kastelein, Ronald A; Winter, Hendrik V; Cate, Carel Ten; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sounds come in different forms, varying not only in amplitude and frequency spectrum but also in temporal structure. Although fish are sensitive to the temporal characteristics of sound, little is known about how their behavior is affected by anthropogenic sounds of different temporal patterns. We investigated this question using groups of Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in an outdoor basin. Our data revealed that the temporal pattern of sound exposure is important in noise impact assessments.

  8. Is winter worse for stressed fish? The consequences of exogenous cortisol manipulation on over-winter survival and condition of juvenile largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Binder, Thomas R; O'Connor, Constance M; McConnachie, Sarah H; Wilson, Samantha M; Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Over-winter mortality is an important selective force for warm-water fish (e.g., centrarchids) that live in temperate habitats. Inherent challenges faced by fish during winter may be compounded by additional stressors that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis, either before or during winter, leading to negative sub-lethal impacts on fish health and condition, and possibly reducing chance of survival. We used experimental cortisol manipulation to test the hypothesis that juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to semi-chronic elevation in cortisol prior to winter would experience higher levels of over-winter mortality, physiological alterations and impaired immune status relative to control and sham-treated bass. Over-winter survival in experimental ponds was high, averaging 83%, and did not differ among treatment groups. Over the study period, bass exhibited an average increase in mass of 19.4%, as well as a slight increase in Fulton's condition factor, but neither measure differed among groups. Hepatosomatic index in cortisol-treated bass was 23% lower than in control fish, suggesting lower energy status, but white muscle lipid content was similar across all groups. Lastly, there was no difference in spleen somatic index or parasite load among treatment groups, indicating no long-term immune impairment related to our cortisol manipulation. The current study adds to a growing body of literature on glucocorticoid manipulations where field-based findings are not consistent with laboratory-based conceptual understanding of multiple stressors. This suggests that field conditions may provide fish with opportunities to mitigate negative effects of some stressors.

  9. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. avium, M. gordonae, M. peregrinum, M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. marinum granulomas in experimentally infected bass over a period of 45 wk. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. marinum were always contained within phagosomes. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion. Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. marinum granulomas was separated from overlying epithelioid cells by several layers of flattened, electron-opaque spindle-shaped cells. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles. Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Recrudescence was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes. Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris.

  10. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  11. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  12. The BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Artigau, Etienne; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Filippazzo, Joe; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Bowsher, Emily C.; Nicholls, Christine

    2016-01-01

    I will present in this dissertation talk the construction and follow-up of the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) that we led to identify dozens of new isolated young brown dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood, several of which have physical properties such as mass, age and temperature that make them similar to exoplanets that were recently discovered using the method of direct imaging.Such isolated analogs of the giant, gaseous exoplanets are precious benchmarks that will allow a deep characterization of their atmospheres using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, which is made possible due to the absence of a nearby and bright host star.I will end by describing BASS-Ultracool, an extension of BASS that focuses on the identification of extremely cool isolated exoplanet analogs that display methane in their atmospheres. This survey has already uncovered the first bonafide T dwarf member of a moving group, the ~150 Myr AB Doradus T5, SDSS1110+0116.

  13. Gonadotropins in European sea bass: Endocrine roles and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Mazón, María José; Molés, Gregorio; Rocha, Ana; Crespo, Berta; Lan-Chow-Wing, Olivier; Espigares, Felipe; Muñoz, Iciar; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana

    2015-09-15

    Follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are central endocrine regulators of the gonadal function in vertebrates. They act through specific receptors located in certain cell types found in the gonads. In fish, the differential roles of these hormones are being progressively elucidated due to the development of suitable tools for their study. In European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), isolation of the genes coding for the gonadotropin subunits and receptors allowed in first instance to conduct expression studies. Later, to overcome the limitation of using native hormones, recombinant dimeric gonadotropins, which show different functional characteristics depending on the cell system and DNA construct, were generated. In addition, single gonadotropin beta-subunits have been produced and used as antigens for antibody production. This approach has allowed the development of detection methods for native gonadotropins, with European sea bass being one of the few species where both gonadotropins can be detected in their native form. By administering recombinant gonadotropins to gonad tissues in vitro, we were able to study their effects on steroidogenesis and intracellular pathways. Their administration in vivo has also been tested for use in basic studies and as a biotechnological approach for hormone therapy and assisted reproduction strategies. In addition to the production of recombinant hormones, gene-based therapies using somatic gene transfer have been offered as an alternative. This approach has been tested in sea bass for gonadotropin delivery in vivo. The hormones produced by the genes injected were functional and have allowed studies on the action of gonadotropins in spermatogenesis.

  14. White House

    MedlinePlus

    ... to main content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home ... News Read the latest news from the White House Video Gallery View the most recent videos from ...

  15. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (< 1 kpc) Galactic magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation; (2) the distribution of the anomalous dust emission, its origin and the physical processes that affect it; (3) modeling of Galactic total intensity emission, which may allow CMB experiments access to the currently inaccessible region close to the Galactic plane. Observations at many wavelengths from radio to infrared are needed to fully understand the foregrounds. At 5 GHz, C-BASS maps synchrotron polarization with minimal corruption by Faraday rotation, and complements the full-sky maps from WMAP and Planck. I will present the project status, show results of component separation in selected sky regions, and describe the northern survey data products.C-BASS (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/cbass/) is a collaborative project between the Universities of Oxford and Manchester in the UK, the California Institute of Technology (supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre

  16. Diet and habitat use by age-0 deepwater sculpins in northern Lake Huron, Michigan and the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Deepwater sculpins (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) are an important link in deepwater benthic foodwebs of the Great Lakes. Little information exists about deepwater sculpin spawning habits and early life history ecology due to difficulty in sampling deep offshore habitats. Larval and age-0 deepwater sculpins collected in northern Lake Huron and the Detroit River during 2007 were used to improve our understanding of their habitat use, diet, age, and growth. Peak larval density reached 8.4/1000 m3 in the Detroit River during April and was higher than that in Lake Huron. Offshore bottom trawls at DeTour and Hammond Bay first collected benthic age-0 deepwater sculpins in early September when fish were ≥ 25 mm TL. Otolith analysis revealed that hatch dates for pelagic larvae occurred during late March and larvae remained pelagic for 40 to 60 days. Diet of pelagic larvae (10–21 mm TL) was dominated by calanoid copepods at all sample locations. Diets of benthic age-0 fish varied by location and depth: Mysis and chironomids were prevalent in fish from Hammond Bay and the 91 m site at DeTour, but only chironomids were found in fish from the 37 m DeTour site. This work showed that nearshore epilimnetic sites were important for pelagic larvae and an ontogenetic shift from pelagic planktivore to benthivore occurred at about 25 mm TL in late summer. Age analysis showed that larvae remained pelagic long enough to be transported through the St. Clair–Detroit River system, Lake Erie, and the Niagara River, potentially contributing to populations in Lake Ontario.

  17. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  18. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  19. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  20. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  1. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Striped Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    also the dominant prey of adult striped bass in the Santee-Cooper Striped bass undergo an ontogenetic shift in system, although nymphs of burrowing ...Fuller 1965; occurred in the South Atlantic Region. For Smith 1973; Barkuloo 1967). In general, the example, a parasitic nematode (Goezia sp.) has

  2. Habitat selection and abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass in north temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Peter James; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat use during early life history plays an important role in the ecology of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in north temperate lakes. The highest levels of mortality occur during the first year of life, and the habitat selected probably affects mortality. We used resource selection functions and abundance data from two northern Wisconsin lakes to determine the habitats that influence the survival of smallmouth bass. Coarse substrates were consistently important to both nesting locations and young-of-year smallmouth bass. Young smallmouth bass used woody structure after swimming from their nests but disassociated themselves from habitats with more complex woody structure by August. Nonwoody cobble areas offer protection for young-of-year smallmouth bass without attracting predators, as woody habitats do. The decline in the abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass was best fit to an exponential decay function in woody habitats, but in rock habitats it was linear. Habitat selection by young-of-year smallmouth bass shifts over time, and the shift is linked to predation risk: woody habitats initially offer them an advantage with respect to spawning but eventually provide their predators greater opportunities for ambush. This shift underscores the importance of having a diversity of littoral habitats. This study provides the first quantifiable analyses describing the habitat features selected by young-of-year smallmouth bass and links these descriptions to population dynamics.

  3. 50 CFR 622.189 - Restrictions and requirements for sea bass pots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions and requirements for sea... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... requirements for sea bass pots. (a) Tending restriction. A sea bass pot in the South Atlantic EEZ may be...

  4. 50 CFR 622.189 - Restrictions and requirements for sea bass pots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions and requirements for sea... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... requirements for sea bass pots. (a) Tending restriction. A sea bass pot in the South Atlantic EEZ may be...

  5. Food and feeding habits of larval striped bass: an analysis of larval striped bass stomachs from 1976 Potomac Estuary collections. Potomac River fisheries program. Final report. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, M.; Mihursky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The stomachs of 605 striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae collected from the Potomac River Estuary during the spring of 1976 were examined, and food organisms identified to species when possible. Copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers were the most abundant organisms found. Electivity indices indicated positive selection for the larger stages of copepods and cladocerans, and negative selection for copepod nauplii and most rotifer species, regardless of the size or stage of striped bass larvae.

  6. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  7. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  8. Physiological response of largemouth bass to angling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustaveson, A. Wayne; Wydoski, Richard S.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing on largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Powell and Mantua Reservoir, Utah, were evaluated, and an estimate of the time needed for recovery from hooking stress was obtained. Fatigue in Lake Powell fish, as indicated by elevated blood lactate, was directly proportional to hooking time (1–5 min) and water temperature, but recovery from the hyperlacticemia was relatively rapid (about 24 h). Hyperglycemia, an indicator of stress hormone production, did not occur in largemouth bass hooked and played for 1–5 min in the coldest water (11–13°C), was moderate in fish hooked and played at l6–20°C, and was severe in fish played for 5 min at 28–30°C. Fish held for recovery in live cages suffered further hyperglycemia, presumably because of the stress of confinement. Ionoregulation, as indicated by relatively stable plasma chloride values, was not immediately affected in largemouth bass caught at water temperatures of 11–13°C or 28–30°C, but an unusual hyperchloremia developed in fish hooked and played at 16–20°C. During recovery, the expected progressive hypochloremia developed. Plasma osmolality was somewhat affected by hooking at all water temperatures tested, but recovery was almost complete within about 8 h. Mantua Reservoir fish were hooked and played only at water temperatures of 23–26°C. The hyperlacticemia and hyperglycemia that occurred were generally more severe than in the Lake Powell fish hooked and played at either 16–20°C or 28–30°C. However, effects on plasma chloride and osmolality were similar to those occurring in Lake Powell fish.

  9. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  10. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification. Lake Acidification and Fisheries Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  11. Testing the thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis for estuarine striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Secor, D.H.; Wingate, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many stratified coastal ecosystems, conceptual and bioenergetics models predict seasonal reduction in quality and quantity of fish habitat due to high temperatures and hypoxia. We tested these predictions using acoustic telemetry of 2 to 4 kg striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) and high-resolution spatial water quality sampling in the Patuxent River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, during 2008 and 2009. Striped bass avoided hypoxic (dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg·l−1) subpycnocline waters, but frequently occupied habitats with high temperatures (>25 °C) in the summer months, as cooler habitats were typically not available. Using traditional concepts of the seasonal thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze, most of the Patuxent estuary would beconsidered unsuitable habitat for adult striped bass during summer. Application of a bioenergetics model revealed that habitats selected by striped bass during summer would support positive growth rates assuming fish could feed at one-half ofmaximum consumption. Occupancy of the estuary during summer by striped bass in this study was likely facilitated by sufficient prey and innate tolerance of high temperatures by sub-adult fish of the size range that we tagged. Our results help extend the thermalniche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis to native populations of striped bass in semi-enclosed coastal systems. Tolerance of for supraoptimal temperatures in our study supports recent suggestions by others that the thermal-niche concept for striped bass should be revised to include warmer temperatures.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of hepcidin regulation in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Neves, J V; Caldas, C; Wilson, J M; Rodrigues, P N S

    2011-12-01

    Hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide described as a key regulator of iron metabolism, is known to respond in mammals to several stimuli, including iron overload, anemia, hypoxia and inflammation, through a number of molecular pathways. In order to understand the molecular pathways involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression in teleost fish, we have isolated for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) several coding sequences of known molecules involved on these pathways in mammals, namely jak3, stat3, tmprss6, bmp6, bmpr2, hjv, smad4, smad5, tfr1 and tfr2. The transcription levels of the isolated genes were evaluated by real-time PCR on fish subjected to experimental iron modulation (overload/deficiency) or infection with Photobacterium damsela. Results show that genes associated with the major pathway of the inflammatory response (IL6/JAK/STAT pathway) in mammals are also modulated in sea bass, being up-regulated during infection. Similarly, genes of the pathways classically associated with the response to variations in iron status (the HJV/BMP/SMAD and HFE/TfR pathways) are also modulated, mostly through down-regulation in iron deficiency and up-regulation during iron overload. Interestingly, many of these genes are also found to be up-regulated during infection, which may indicate a crosstalk between the known pathways of hepcidin regulation. These observations suggest the evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms of hepcidin regulation in teleost fish.

  13. Embryonic occurrence of ionocytes in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Charmantier, Guy; Cucchi-Mouillot, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Because of the permeability of the chorion, sea bass embryos are exposed to seawater before hatching and hence require precocious osmoregulatory processes. Several studies of other species have demonstrated the existence of ion-transporting cells located on the yolk sac membrane of embryos. In these cells, called ionocytes, ion movements are controlled by a pool of transmembrane proteins. Among them, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an abundant driving enzyme, has been used to reveal the presence or absence of ionocytes. We have immunostained the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in sea-bass embryos and shown the presence of the first ionocytes on the yolk sac membrane at stage 12 somites and the occurrence of ionocytes at other sites before hatching. Ionocytes located on the first gill slits have been identified at stage 14 somites. Primitive enteric ionocytes have also been detected at stage 14 somites in the mid and posterior gut. The presence of these cells might be related to the early opening of the gut to perivitelline fluids, both anteriorly by the gill slits and posteriorly by the anus. The role of embryonic ionocytes in osmoregulation before hatching is discussed.

  14. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  15. Effects of variation in streamflow and channel structure on smallmouth bass habitat in an alluvial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason, Remshardt W.; Fisher, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of streamflow-related changes in channel shape and morphology on the quality, quantity, availability and spatial distribution of young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu habitat in an alluvial stream, the Baron Fork of the Illinois River, Oklahoma. We developed Habitat Suitability Criteria (HSC) for young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass to assess changes in available smallmouth bass habitat between years, and compare predicted smallmouth bass Weighted Usable Area (WUA) with observed WUA measured the following year. Following flood events between 1999 and 2000, including a record flood, changes in transect cross-sectional area ranged from 62.5% to 93.5% and channel mesohabitat overlap ranged from 29.5% to 67.0% in study three study reaches. Using Physical HABitat SIMulation (PHABSIM) system analysis, we found that both young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass habitat were differentially affected by intra- and inter-annual streamflow fluctuations. Maximum WUA for young-of-year and adults occurred at streamflows of 1.8 and 2.3m3 s-1, respectively, and WUA declined sharply for both groups at lower streamflows. For most microhabitat variables, habitat availability was similar between years. Habitat suitability criteria developed in 1999 corresponded well with observed fish locations in 2000 for adult smallmouth bass but not for young-of-year fish. Our findings suggest that annual variation in habitat availability affects the predictive ability of habitat models for young-of-year smallmouth bass more than for adult smallmouth bass. Furthermore, our results showed that despite the dynamic nature of the gravel-dominated, alluvial Baron Fork, HSC for smallmouth bass were consistent and transferable between years.

  16. Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morning-evening in Japanese infants and students aged 0-15 yrs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hirotani, Masaaki; Maeda, Mari; Nomura, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitomi

    2007-03-01

    Tryptophan can be metabolized via 5-hydroxytryptamine=serotonin to melatonin by a series of 4 enzymes in pineal body. Lack of serotonin in body fluid in the brain during daytime can lead to several psychiatric disorders, while shortage of plasma-melatonin at night can be related to sleep disorders. The Morning-Evening (M-E) questionnaire and the original questionnaire including questions on sleep habits, mental symptoms, and contents of meals were administered to 1055 infants aged 0-6 yrs, 751 students attending an elementary school, and 473 students attending junior high school in Kochi City (33 degrees N). The index of tryptophan taken at breakfast (Trp-Index) was calculated as tryptophan amount per one meal based on the tryptophan included in each 100 g of the foods and a standard amount of food per one meal. A significant positive-correlation between M-E scores and Trp-Index was not shown by relatively older students, aged 9-15 yrs (Pearson's test, r=0.044-0.123, p=0.071-0.505), whereas a significant positive correlation was shown by infants and young elementary school students aged 0-8 yrs (r=0.180, 0.258, p<0.001). The more frequently the infants had difficulty falling asleep at bedtime and waking up in the morning, the less the Trp-Indices taken at breakfast were (Kruskall-Wallis-test, p=0.027 for difficulty falling asleep; p=0.008 for difficulty waking up). The more frequently infants became angry even by a little trigger, or depressed, the lower (more evening-typed) the M-E scores were (Kruskal-Wallis test: p

  17. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  18. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  19. Modeling turbidity type and intensity effects on the growth and starvation mortality of age-0 yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Nathan M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Mayer, Christine M.; Bunnell, David B.; Tyson, Jeff T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Jackson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to quantify the possible population-level influence of sediment plumes and algal blooms on yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a visual predator found in systems with dynamic water clarity. We used an individual-based model (IBM), which allowed us to include variance in water clarity and the distribution of individual sizes. Our IBM was built with laboratory data showing that larval yellow perch feeding rates increased slightly as sediment turbidity level increased, but that both larval and juvenile yellow perch feeding rates decreased as phytoplankton level increased. Our IBM explained a majority of the variance in yellow perch length in data from the western and central basins of Lake Erie and Oneida Lake, with R2 values ranging from 0.611 to 0.742. Starvation mortality was size dependent, as the greatest daily mortality rates in each simulation occurred within days of each other. Our model showed that turbidity-dependent consumption rates and temperature are key components in determining growth and starvation mortality of age-0 yellow perch, linking fish production to land-based processes that influence water clarity. These results suggest the timing and persistence of sediment plumes and algal blooms can drastically alter the growth potential and starvation mortality of a yellow perch cohort.

  20. Growth and mortality of age-0 northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, rearing in shoreline habitats of the Columbia River Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barfoot, C.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Wertheimer, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated growth and mortality of age-0 northern squawfish during early rearing in shallow shoreline habitats. Larvae and juveniles (n=22914) were collected by weekly seining at three sample sites in the upper John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, during June through early September 1994–1996. Using a length-based ageing method, it was estimated that the exponential growth rate (G) for a common growth stanza (10–28 mm standard length SL) was significantly higher in 1994 (G=0.047) than in 1996 (G=0.037). Growth rate in 1995 could not be estimated, but was probably intermediate between 1994 and 1996 based on mean standard lengths of fish collected at the end of each sampling season (46.3, 40.0, and 32.0 mm SL in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively). For many fish species, variations in early growth can influence survival through size-selective mortality processes. Consistent with this possibility, our estimates of instantaneous mortality rates (Z) demonstrated that larvae and juveniles had significantly higher mortality in 1996 than in 1994 (Z=0.103 in 1994, versus Z=0.138 in 1996). Enhanced growth and lower mortality in 1994 were associated with a number of interrelated environmental conditions – comparatively low flows and turbidities, abundant instream vegetative cover, and high near-shore water temperatures.

  1. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  2. Effect of two thermal regimes on the muscle growth dynamics of sea bass larvae, Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    PubMed

    Ayala, M D; López Albors, O; García Alcázar, A; Abellán, E; Latorre, R; Vázquez, J M; Ramírez Zarzosa, G; Martínez, F; Gil, F

    2003-10-01

    Muscle growth was studied in larvae of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., reared at two temperatures: real ambient temperature ( congruent with 15 degrees C during vitelline phase and increased gradually) and 19 degrees C from fertilization until the end of larval development. Muscle cellularity, body length and body weight were measured. Early temperature influenced larval development and so, pre-larval phase finished earlier at 19 degrees C than at ambient temperature (4 and 6 days, respectively). Temperature also affected muscle growth such that at hatching and at mouth opening hypertrophy of muscle fibres was greater at 19 degrees C (P < 0.05), whereas hyperplasia was similar in both groups. After 25 days, the cross-sectional area of the white muscle was greater at 19 degrees C (P < 0.05), which was mainly associated with a higher proliferation of new white muscle fibres. At this stage the body length was also higher at 19 degrees C. Metamorphosis finished earlier in fish reared at 19 degrees C (52 days) than at natural temperature (82 days). At this developmental stage body length and cross-sectional area of the myotome were similar in both groups. However, muscle cellularity differed between groups. Thus, hypertrophy of muscle fibres was higher in fish reared at ambient temperature (P < 0.05), whereas proliferation of new muscle fibres was higher at 19 degrees C (P > 0.05).

  3. Age and growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1941-01-01

    studies of the age and growth of the rock bass (Wright, 1929), whitefish (Hile and Deason, 1934), yellow perch (Schneberger, 1935), cisco (Hile, 1936a), muskellunge (Schloemer, 1936, 1938), largemouth black bass (Bennett, 1937), common sucker (Spoor, 1938), and smalimouth black bass (Bennett, 1938). A total of five mimeographed reports on the growth of game fish in Wisconsin has been issued by Juday and Schneberger (1930, 1933), Juday and Bennett (1935), and Juday and Schloemer (1936,. 1938). In addition there have appeared two publications on the morphometry of the cisco (Hile 193Gb, 1937), three dealing with the parasites of fishes in the region (Cross 1934, 1935, 1938) and one on the food of fishes (Couey, 1935). A paper by Hile and Juday on the bathymetric distribution of fish will appear simultaneously with the present study of the rock bass. A contribution on the growth of the bluegill by Schloemer will be published in the near future.

  4. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  5. Survival, growth, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm PIT tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Rabe, Craig; Nelson, Doug D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to represent a population of migratory juvenile fish with PIT tags becomes difficult when the minimum tagging size is larger than the average size at which fish begin to move downstream. Tags that are smaller (e.g., 8 and 9 mm) than the commonly used 12-mm PIT tags are currently available, but their effects on survival, growth, and tag retention in small salmonid juveniles have received little study. We evaluated growth, survival, and tag retention in age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of three size-groups: 40–49-mm fish were implanted with 8- and 9-mm tags, and 50– 59-mm and 60–69-mm fish were implanted with 8-, 9-, and 12-mm tags. Survival 28 d after tagging ranged from 97.8% to 100% across all trials, providing no strong evidence for a fish-size-related tagging effect or a tag size effect. No biologically significant effects of tagging on growth in FL (mm/d) or weight (g/d) were observed. Although FL growth in tagged fish was significantly reduced for the 40–49-mm and 50–59-mm groups over the first 7 d, growth rates were not different thereafter, and all fish were similar in size by the end of the trials (day 28). Tag retention across all tests ranged from 93% to 99%. We acknowledge that actual implantation of 8- or 9-mm tags into small fish in the field will pose additional challenges (e.g., capture and handling stress) beyond those observed in our laboratory. However, we conclude that experimental use of the smaller tags for small fish in the field is supported by our findings.

  6. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  7. Skin mucus proteome map of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Brinchmann, Monica F; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2015-12-01

    Skin mucus is the first barrier of fish defence. Proteins from skin mucus of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were identified by 2DE followed by LC-MS/MS. From all the identified proteins in the proteome map, we focus on the proteins associated with several immune pathways in fish. Furthermore, the real-time PCR transcript levels in skin are shown. Proteins found include apolipoprotein A1, calmodulin, complement C3, fucose-binding lectin, lysozyme and several caspases. To our knowledge, this is the first skin mucus proteome study and further transcriptional profiling of the identified proteins done on this bony fish species. This not only contributes knowledge on the routes involved in mucosal innate immunity, but also establishes a non-invasive technique based on locating immune markers with a potential use for prevention and/or diagnosis of fish diseases.

  8. Microsatellite markers for the Amazon peacock bass (Cichla piquiti).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D C; Oliveira, D A A; Sampaio, I; Beheregaray, L B

    2009-01-01

    A set of primers to amplify 10 microsatellite DNA loci was developed for the Neotropical fish Cichla piquiti, one of the largest sized cichlids in the Amazon Basin. These loci were used to genotype individuals from two populations, one native population from the Tocantins River, the other an introduced population in southeast Brazil, Upper Paraná River. Cross-amplification was also successful for another species of peacock bass, C. kelberi. An average of 4.4 alleles per locus (2-9 alleles) was detected. These markers will be useful for the characterization of genetic structure of native populations, and also for invasive biology studies since Cichla species have been introduced in many river basins outside their native ranges.

  9. Feeding activity and spawning time of striped bass in the Colorado River Inlet, Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Bulkly, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from Lake Powell, Utah spawned in or near the mixing zone of the reservoir and the Colorado River in 1980 and 1981. The fish did not move through Cataract Canyon rapids just above the reservoir in either year. Of 321 adult striped bass stomachs examined, 30% contained food and 28% contained threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. No stomachs contained native threatened or endangered Colorado River fishes.

  10. A CD4 homologue in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): molecular characterization and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Casani, Daniela; Guerra, Laura; Picchietti, Simona; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo M; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2008-06-01

    CD4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein fundamental for cell-mediated immunity. Its action as a T cell co-receptor increases the avidity of association between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell by interacting with portions of the complex between MHC class II and TR molecules. In this paper we report the cDNA cloning, expression and structural analysis of a CD4 homologue from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The sea bass CD4 cDNA consists of 2071 bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 480 amino acids. The analysis of the sequence shows the presence of four putative Ig-like domains and that some fundamental structural features, like a disulphide bond in domain D2 and the CXC signalling motif in the cytoplasmic tail, are conserved from sea bass to mammals. Real-time PCR analysis showed that very high levels of CD4 mRNA transcripts are present in thymus, followed by gut and gills. In vitro stimulation of head kidney leukocytes with LPS and PHA-L gave an increase of CD4 mRNA levels after 4h and a decrease after 24h. Homology modelling has been applied to create a 3D model of sea bass CD4 and to investigate its interaction with sea bass MHC-II. The analysis of the 3D complex between sea bass CD4 and sea bass MHC-II suggests that the absence of a disulfide bond in the CD4 D1 domain could make this molecule more flexible, inducing a different conformation and affecting the binding and the way of interaction between CD4 and MHC-II. Our results will add new insights into the sea bass T cell immune responses and will help in the identification of T cell subsets in teleost fishes to better understand the evolution of cell-mediated immunity from fish to mammals.

  11. Mycobacterium-Inducible Nramp in Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burge, E.J.; Gauthier, David T.; Ottinger, C.A.; Van Veld, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene, Nramp1, plays a major role in resistance to mycobacterial infections. Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is currently experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis that threatens the health of this ecologically and economically important species. In the present study, we characterized an Nramp gene in this species and obtained evidence that there is induction following Mycobacterium exposure. The striped bass Nramp gene (MsNramp) and a 554-amino-acid sequence contain all the signal features of the Nramp family, including a topology of 12 transmembrane domains (TM), the transport protein-specific binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component signature, three N-linked glycosylation sites between TM 7 and TM 8, sites of casein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation in the amino and carboxy termini, and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site between TM 6 and TM 7. Phylogenetic analysis most closely grouped MsNramp with other teleost Nramp genes and revealed high sequence similarity with mammalian Nramp2. MsNramp expression was present in all tissues assayed by reverse transcription-PCR. Within 1 day of injection of Mycobacterium marinum, MsNramp expression was highly induced (17-fold higher) in peritoneal exudate (PE) cells compared to the expression in controls. The levels of MsNramp were three- and sixfold higher on days 3 and 15, respectively. Injection of Mycobacterium shottsii resulted in two-, five-, and threefold increases in gene expression in PE cells over the time course. This report is the first report of induction of an Nramp gene by mycobacteria in a poikilothermic vertebrate.

  12. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PIV Application to Fluid Dynamics of Bass Reflex Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Esposito, Enrico; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    A bass reflex (or vented or ported) loudspeaker system (BRS) is a particular type of loudspeaker enclosure that makes use of the combination of two second-order mechanic/acoustic devices, i.e., the driver and a Helmotz resonator, in order to create a new system with reinforced emission in the low frequency region. The resonator is composed by the box itself in which one or more ports are present with suitable shapes and dimensions. This category of loudspeaker presents several advantages compared to closed-box systems such as higher efficiency and power, smaller dimensions and reduced distortion at lower frequencies. Notwithstanding these advantages, they present some drawbacks like more complexity and unloading of the cone below the tuning frequency. Moreover, at high power levels the airflow in the port(s) may generate unwanted noises due to turbulence as well as distortion and acoustic compression. In this work we will present and compare a series of experiments conducted on two different bass reflex ports designs to assess their performance in terms of flow turbulence and sound-level compression at high input power levels. These issues are quite important in professional sound systems, where increasing power levels and sound clarity require exponentially growing cost and weight. For these reasons it is vital to optimize port design. To the knowledge of the authors there does not exist an accurate, nonintrusive experimental full-field study of air flows emitting from reflex ports in operating conditions. In this work, the experimental fluid dynamic investigation has been conducted by means of PIV and LDA techniques.

  14. Effects of live-well conditions on mortality and largemouth bass virus prevalence in largemouth bass caught during summer tournaments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Walters, A.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Beck, B.H.; Hanson, L.A.; Rees, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of improved live-well conditions and the interaction of tournament stress and largemouth bass virus (LMBV) on tournament-associated mortality of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides caught during 12 summer tournaments. Improvements in live-well conditions (reduction in water temperature by 2-5??C; addition of NaCl; continuous aeration) significantly reduced initial mortality of largemouth bass from 7% to 3% (F 1,11 = 10.29, P < 0.01). However, postrelease mortality of fish held for 5 d in net-pens or raceways was not reduced by the improved live-well conditions and averaged 76% for all tournament fish (F1,11 = 0.09, P = 0.77). The percentage of angler-caught fish infected with LMBV at the end of tournaments (14%) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) than the percentage infected in the general population (7%). The percentage of LMBV-infected fish increased during the post-tournament retention period to 64% for fish from live wells with improved conditions and 70% for fish from control live wells. Reference fish collected by electrofishing and held with tournament fish for 5 d also had high mortality (59%) and LMBV prevalence (47%), but these variables were significantly lower than those for tournament fish (mortality: F 2,30 = 3.63, P = 0.04; prevalence [Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test]: P < 0.01). Many of the fish also had bacterial diseases during the post-tournament period, so the effect of LMBV on postrelease mortality could not be determined. However, the higher postrelease mortality of tournament and reference fish in our study relative to that observed in previous tournaments on lakes presumed free of LMBV suggests that this newly discovered pathogen influences measurement of post-tournament mortality. Increases in LMBV prevalence after typical fishing tournaments without prolonged post-tournament fish confinement will probably be lower than those we observed, but further research on the effects of LMBV on fish released from tournaments

  15. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind.

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Black Sea Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    length, depths >12 m werp mature, and all age weight, and age. IV females were mature. Black sea bass eggs are pelagic, Sex ratios of black sea bass...fluorescent Management regulations for black sea blue and green around eyes and bass caught in the Fishery Conserva- nape; females are lighter and brownish...hermaphrodites. Most individuals usually absent ir young. Bortone function first as females , undergo (1977), who compared the osteology of sexual

  17. Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M; Reinold, Chris; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-09-10

    In April 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new international growth charts for children aged 0-59 months. Similar to the 2000 CDC growth charts, these charts describe weight for age, length (or stature) for age, weight for length (or stature), and body mass index for age. Whereas the WHO charts are growth standards, describing the growth of healthy children in optimal conditions, the CDC charts are a growth reference, describing how certain children grew in a particular place and time. However, in practice, clinicians use growth charts as standards rather than references. In 2006, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened an expert panel to review scientific evidence and discuss the potential use of the new WHO growth charts in clinical settings in the United States. On the basis of input from this expert panel, CDC recommends that clinicians in the United States use the 2006 WHO international growth charts, rather than the CDC growth charts, for children aged <24 months (available at https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts). The CDC growth charts should continue to be used for the assessment of growth in persons aged 2--19 years. The recommendation to use the 2006 WHO international growth charts for children aged <24 months is based on several considerations, including the recognition that breastfeeding is the recommended standard for infant feeding. In the WHO charts, the healthy breastfed infant is intended to be the standard against which all other infants are compared; 100% of the reference population of infants were breastfed for 12 months and were predominantly breastfed for at least 4 months. When using the WHO growth charts to screen for possible abnormal or unhealthy growth, use of the 2.3rd and 97.7th percentiles (or ±2 standard deviations) are recommended, rather than the 5th and 95th percentiles. Clinicians should be aware that fewer U.S. children will be identified as underweight using the WHO

  18. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income.

  19. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  20. Novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for distinguishing rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), Roanoke bass (Ambloplites cavifrons), and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Eschenroeder, Jackman C; Roberts, James H

    2016-10-01

    The rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) is a popular sport-fish native to the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins of North America. The species has been widely introduced outside its native range, including into Atlantic-slope streams of Virginia where it may hybridize with an imperiled, similar-looking congener, the Roanoke bass (Ambloplites cavifrons). In this study, we identified and evaluated novel molecular markers to facilitate identification of these species and study the extent of hybridization. Using molecular libraries developed from A. rupestris, we identified a suite of candidate nuclear microsatellite loci, synthesized primer sets, and tested these markers for amplification and polymorphism in populations of both species. We then calculated standard diversity statistics within and differentiation statistics between species, the latter providing an indication of marker power for distinguishing the species and their hybrids. Additionally, we evaluated our efficiency for identifying hybrids by classifying simulated genotypes of known ancestry. Eleven loci were polymorphic (2-22 alleles per locus) and reliably amplified in both species. Multilocus genetic differentiation between A. cavifrons and A. rupestris was quite high (F ST  = 0.66; D LR  = 19.3), indicating the high statistical power of this marker set for species and hybrid identification. Analyses of simulated data suggested these markers reliably distinguish between hybrids and non-hybrids, as well as between F1 hybrids and backcrossed individuals. This panel of 11 loci should prove useful for understanding patterns of hybridization between A. rupestris and A. cavifrons. As the first microsatellite markers developed for Ambloplites, these markers also should prove broadly useful for population genetic studies of this genus.

  1. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two "golden basses" found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3-135 m, 30-150 m, 133-411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182-241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  2. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  3. Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) User's Manual Beta Test Version 2.1. EPA/600/R-01/035

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this report describes the theoretical development, parameterization, and application software of a generalized, community-based, bioaccumulation model called BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator).

  4. The relationship between the abundance of smallmouth bass and double-crested cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Eckert, T.H.; Schneider, C.P.; Chrisman, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Available population and diet data on double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) numbers, demographics, and exploitation rates were synthesized to examine the relationship between cormorant and smallmouth bass abundance in the U.S. waters of the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. It was found that after the number of cormorants nesting on Little Galloo Island in New York exceeded 3,500 pairs in 1989, survival of young smallmouth bass, not yet of legal size for the sport harvest (< 305 mm), began to decline. Despite production of strong year classes in 1987 and 1988, abundance of smallmouth bass measured from gill net surveys declined to its lowest level by 1995 and remained there through 1998. Stable or increasing catch and harvest rates in other local fisheries along the U.S. shore suggested that declines in smallmouth bass abundance in the eastern basin were not related to water quality. Stable or increasing growth rates for smallmouth bass age 2 and older since the 1980s further indicated that food resource limitation was also not the cause for declines in abundance. Comparisons of estimates of size and age-specific predation on smallmouth bass by cormorants with projected smallmouth bass population size indicated that much of the increased mortality on young smallmouth bass, could be explained by cormorant predation.

  5. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. White Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Christine

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the issue of whether the implementation of school desegregation significantly increases the decline in percentage of resident white. Presents data from a study conducted in 86 Northern school districts from a 91-city study. Data were obtained from statistics published by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare beginning in 1967.…

  7. Characterization of endocrine-disruption and clinical manifestations in large-mouth bass from Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.A.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, B.; Folmar, L.

    1995-12-31

    Previous efforts from this laboratory have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefore, a survey of large mouth bass populations was conducted on several lakes in North Central Florida to examine reproductive and clinical health. Large-mouth bass were collected from lakes Apopka, Griffin, Jessup and Woodruff. Approximately 24 fish (12 males and 12 females) were collected from each lake during the spawning (March--April) and non-reproductive (July--August) seasons. Plasma samples were collected for analysis of estrogen, testosterone and 11-keto-testosterone concentrations. Gonadal and liver tissues were collected for histological analysis. General blood chemistry analyses and parasite surveys were also conducted to estimate general health. Additionally, fillet samples were collected and analyzed for pesticide levels. Fish from Lake Apopka had unusual concentrations of estrogen and 11-keto-testosterone in plasma when compared to bass from Lakes Woodruff, Jessup and Griffin. Parasites loads were significantly higher for bass from lake Apopka than from the other lakes. Male bass on Apopka had depressed concentrations of 11-keto-testosterone, skewing the E/T ratios upward while female bass had higher concentrations of estrogens than females from the other lakes, again resulting in skewed E/T ratios. These skewed E/T ratios are similar to those observed for alligators on the same lake and raise the possibility that they are caused by contaminants. However, contaminant levels in fillets did not differ significantly between lakes. These studies indicate potentially altered reproductive and immunological function for large-mouth bass living in a contaminated lake.

  8. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  9. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  10. Lateralized behavior in the attacks of largemouth bass on Rhinogobius gobies corresponding to their morphological antisymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, Masaki; Hori, Michio

    2012-07-15

    Vertebrates show left-right biases in turning direction, limb usage, predator-escape response and use of sensory organs. In particular, some fishes are known to have lateral biases in predatory behaviors corresponding to their morphological antisymmetry. To reveal the effects of these laterally biased behaviors on predator-prey interaction, we conducted behavioral tests of predatory events between largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and freshwater gobies, Rhinogobius sp., both of which have individuals with a well-developed left side and individuals with a well-developed right side. The left-developed bass tended to approach the goby clockwise from behind, whereas right-developed individuals tended to approach counterclockwise. Congruently, left-developed gobies began their escape maneuvers at a longer distance from bass when they were approached clockwise than when they were approached counterclockwise, whereas right-developed gobies showed the reverse tendency. The longer the distance between bass and gobies at the start of goby escape, the more the subsequent bass strike or dash was delayed. Under these conditions, predation should be more successful when a left (right)-developed bass meets a right (left)-developed goby, and less successful when a left (right)-developed bass meets a left (right)-developed goby. This prediction was consistent with the difference in predation success in our test and in field data from Lake Biwa, Japan. We conclude that lateral biases in the behavioral direction of each morphological type will generate bias in predation success between different combinations of predator and prey types, leading to the maintenance of antisymmetric dimorphism through negative frequency-dependent natural selection.

  11. Differential activation of kiss receptors by Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides in the sea bass.

    PubMed

    Felip, Alicia; Espigares, Felipe; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Two forms of kiss gene (kiss1 and kiss2) have been described in the teleost sea bass. This study assesses the cloning and characterization of two Kiss receptor genes, namely kissr2 and kissr3 (known as gpr54-1b and gpr54-2b, respectively), and their signal transduction pathways in response to Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that these paralogs originated by duplication of an ancestral gene before teleost specific duplication. The kissr2 and kissr3 mRNAs encode proteins of 368 and 378 amino acids, respectively, and share 53.1% similarity in amino acid sequences. In silico analysis of the putative promoter regions of the sea bass Kiss receptor genes revealed conserved flanking regulatory sequences among teleosts. Both kissr2 and kissr3 are predominantly expressed in brain and gonads of sea bass, medaka and zebrafish. In the testis, the expression levels of sea bass kisspeptins and Kiss receptors point to a significant variation during the reproductive cycle. In vitro functional analyses revealed that sea bass Kiss receptor signals are transduced both via the protein kinase C and protein kinase A pathway. Synthetic sea bass Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides activated Kiss receptors with different potencies, indicating a differential ligand selectivity. Our data suggest that Kissr2 and Kissr3 have a preference for Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides, respectively, thus providing the basis for future studies aimed at establishing their physiologic roles in sea bass.

  12. Discovery and validation of gene-linked diagnostic SNP markers for assessing hybridization between Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Florida bass (M. floridanus).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Gowan, Spencer; Anil, Ammu; Beck, Benjamin H; Thongda, Wilawan; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Peatman, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to improve recreational fisheries have included widespread stocking of Micropterus floridanus outside its native range of peninsular Florida. Hybridization of Florida bass (M. floridanus) with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has now dramatically expanded beyond a naturally occurring intergrade zone in the southeast U.S. In recent years, there has been growing interest in protecting the genetic integrity of native basses and assessing the impact and nature of M. salmoides/M. floridanus introgression from the standpoint of hatchery and sport-fishery managers, fish biologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Here, we conducted RNA-seq-based sequencing of the transcriptomes of M. salmoides, M. floridanus and their F1 hybrid and identified a set of 3674 SNP markers with fixed-allelic differences from 2112 unique genes. We then developed a subset of 25 of these markers into a single diagnostic multiplex assay and validated its capacity for assessing integrity and hybridization in hatchery and wild populations of largemouth and Florida bass. The availability of this resource, high-quality transcriptomes and a large set of gene-linked SNPs, should greatly facilitate functional and population genomics studies in these key species and allow the identification of traits and processes under selection during introgressive hybridization.

  13. In vitro kinetics of hepatic glutathione s-transferase conjugation in largemouth bass and brown bullheads

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, E.P.; Sheehy, K.M.; Lame, M.W.; Segall, H.J.

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of glutathione 5-transferase (GST) catalysis were investigated in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and brown bullheads (Amerius nebulosus), two freshwater fish species found in a variety of polluted waterways in the eastern US. The initial rates of hepatic GST activity toward four GST substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid, {Delta}5-androstene-17-dione, and nitrobutyl chloride, were significantly higher in brown bullheads than in largemouth bass. Hepatic GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, a {mu}-class GST substrate in rodents, was not detectable in either species. Liver cytosolic GSTs were more efficient in bullheads than in bass at catalyzing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-reduced glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation over a broad range of electrophile (CDNB) concentrations, including those representative of environmental exposure. In contrast, largemouth bass maintained higher ambient concentrations of GSH, the nucleophilic cofactor for GST-mediated conjugation, than brown bullheads. Biphasic kinetics for GST-CDNB conjugation under conditions of variable GSH concentration were apparent in Eadie-Hofstee plots of the kinetic data, suggesting the presence of at least two hepatic GST isozymes with markedly different K{sub m} values for GSH in both species. The GST-CDNB reaction rate data obtained under conditions of variable GSH were well fitted (R{sup 2} = 0.999) by the two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation. In addition, Western blotting experiments confirmed the presence of two different hepatic GST-like proteins in both largemouth bass and brown bullhead liver. Collectively, these findings indicate that largemouth bass and brown bullhead GSTs catalyze the conjugation of structurally diverse, class-specific GST substrates, and that brown bullheads exhibit higher initial rates of GST activity than largemouth bass. The relatively higher rates of in vitro liver GST activity at the low substrate concentrations

  14. Immersion booster vaccination effect on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, P

    2006-02-01

    In each challenge 30 sea bass juveniles (mean weight 3.3 +/- 0.2 g SD) were used. During the whole experiment (water T: 18 +/- 1 degrees C) the fish were held in four 50l seawater independent recirculation systems (one fish group per 50l system). The protection to the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum was tested on booster vaccinated sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles. The vaccination was performed by immersion for 60 s in a commercial anti-V. anguillarum vaccine suspension. Booster vaccination took place 60 days after the initial immunization. Thirty days after the booster vaccination all the fish received intraperitoneally (IP) 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/fish (colony forming units) virulent V. anguillarum bacteria. The booster vaccination showed a strong protection effect on the challenged sea bass. In the next 20 days after the challenge the mortality was 0% among the booster vaccinated sea bass, 10% among the once vaccinated fish and 50% in the control group (unvaccinated fish). No mortality was observed among the unvaccinated sea bass injected IP with sterile normal saline by the challenge.

  15. Mercury levels in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from regulated and unregulated rivers.

    PubMed

    Dharampal, Prarthana S; Findlay, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Within areas of comparable atmospheric mercury deposition rates methylmercury burden in largemouth bass populations vary significantly between regulated and unregulated rivers. To investigate if trophic dynamics strongly influenced pollutant body load, we sampled largemouth bass from two adjacent rivers, one regulated and one unregulated, and applied a suite of biochemical and stable isotope assays to compare their trophic dynamics. Total mercury burden in the bass from the unregulated Sipsey River (Elrod, AL, USA) and the regulated Black Warrior River (Demopolis, AL, USA) averaged 0.87 mg kg(-1) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. For both populations, age, weight, and length were positively correlated with muscle mercury concentration. Compound specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids showed the trophic position of both populations was just under four. Quantitative and isotopic analysis of neutral lipid fatty acid of Sipsey River bass indicated a greater reliance upon the detrital component of the food web compared to Demopolis Reservoir bass which fed within the autochthonous, pelagic component of the food web. Since the close proximity of the rivers makes differences in atmospheric deposition unlikely and both populations had similar trophic position, our findings indicate that food web dynamics should be included among the factors that can strongly influence mercury concentration in fish.

  16. Seasonal use of a New England estuary by foraging contingents of migratory striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Finn, John T.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Using acoustic telemetry on migratory striped bass Morone saxatilis in Plum Island Estuary (PIE), Massachusetts, we found that striped bass (335–634 mm total length) tagged in the spring and summer of 2005 (n = 14) and 2006 (n = 46) stayed in the estuary for an average of 66.0 d in 2005 and 72.2 d in 2006. Striped bass spent the most time in two specific reaches: middle Plum Island Sound and lower Rowley River. In both years, three different use-groups of striped bass were observed in PIE. Short-term visitors (n = 24) stayed in the estuary only briefly (range = 5–20 d). Two groups of seasonal residents stayed for more than 30 d, either in the Rowley River (n = 14) or in Plum Island Sound (n = 22). Within PIE, the two seasonal-resident use-groups may be foraging contingents that learn how to feed efficiently in specific parts of the estuary. These distinct within-estuary use patterns could have different implications for striped bass condition and prey impact.

  17. Proteomic profiling of sea bass muscle by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Pisanu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Preziosa, Elena; Saroglia, Marco; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the proteome profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of providing a more detailed characterization of its specific protein expression profile. A highly populated and well-resolved 2-DE map of the sea bass muscle tissue was generated, and the corresponding protein identity was provided for a total of 49 abundant protein spots. Upon Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the proteins mapped in the sea bass muscle profile were mostly related to glycolysis and to the muscle myofibril structure, together with other biological activities crucial to fish muscle metabolism and contraction, and therefore to fish locomotor performance. The data presented in this work provide important and novel information on the sea bass muscle tissue-specific protein expression, which can be useful for future studies aimed to improve seafood traceability, food safety/risk management and authentication analysis. This work is also important for understanding the proteome map of the sea bass toward establishing the animal as a potential model for muscular studies.

  18. Achieving high survival of tournament-caught black bass: past efforts and future needs and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, Harold; Gilliland, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of black bass (Micropterus spp.) tournaments in the 1960s and 1970s caused concern among fisheries managers and anglers about the impacts of tournament-caused mortality on bass populations. Tournament organizers voluntarily implemented live-release events in the early 1980s. As catch-and-release practices became more common, procedures to improve the survival of tournament-caught fish were developed and have evolved. The objectives of this paper are to review education and outreach efforts to improve survival of tournament-caught black bass, suggest research needs and opportunities to achieve greater survival, and show the relevance of high survival to contemporary black bass management. Since 1985, a succession of informational products describing those techniques have been developed and distributed to anglers. Although research has confirmed the effectiveness of the recommended procedures and documented that angler and tournament organizer behavior has changed and the survival of tournament-caught black bass has increased, the impacts of the outreach efforts on tournament practices have not been quantified. Continued efforts towards increasing angler awareness of proper handling techniques may benefit from better communication, endorsement by professional anglers, and the use of incentives by state agencies to encourage better fish care.

  19. Dispersal of smallmouth bass from a simulated tournament weigh-in site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaintz, Melissa A.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Simulated smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu fishing tournaments were staged in Dale Hollow Lake, a 12,400-ha reservoir in Tennessee, between March 2004 and February 2005 to investigate posttournament dispersal. Smallmouth bass (n = 54) were captured with conventional hook-and-line tackle and artificial lures, placed in live wells, and subjected to a weigh-in procedure before being externally tagged with an ultrasonic transmitter and released. Water temperatures ranged from 7.4°C to 29.3°C (mean [SE] = 17.6°C [2.5]), fish ranged in total length from 330 to 572 mm (mean = 452 [8.3]), and no fish were dead at the weigh-ins. Smallmouth bass dispersed rapidly away from the release site, which was located at the head of a 68-ha embayment. After 3-5d, survivors (n = 44) traversed an average distance of 1,475 m [213]. Most (72%) fish swam uplake and out of the 385-ha study area after 6 d. The rapid dispersal of smallmouth bass may be relevant in systems that experience heavy tournament activity. The smallmouth bass caught and subjected to simulated tournament conditions on Dale Hollow Lake did not stockpile near the release site.

  20. Prey vulnerability to peacock cichlids and largemouth bass based on predator gape and prey body depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Jeffrey E.; Nico, Leo G.; Cichra, Charles E.; Gilbert, Carter R.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of prey fish body depth and predator gape size may produce prey assemblages dominated by invulnerable prey and excessive prey-to-predator biomass ratios. Peacock cichlids (Cichla ocellaris) were stocked into southeast Florida canals to consume excess prey fish biomass, particularly spotted tilapia (Tilapia mariae). The ecomorphologically similar largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was already present in the canals. We present relations of length-specific gape size for peacock cichlids and largemouth bass. Both predators have broadly overlapping gape size, but largemouth bass ?126 mm total length have slightly larger gape sizes than peacock cichlids of the same length. Also, we experimentally tested the predictions of maximum prey size for peacock cichlids and determined that a simple method of measuring gape size used for largemouth bass also is appropriate for peacock cichlids. Lastly, we determined relations of body depth and length of prey species to investigate relative vulnerability. Using a simple predator-prey model and length frequencies of predators and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), and spotted tilapia prey, we documented that much of the prey biomass in southeast Florida canals is unavailable for largemouth bass and peacock cichlid predation.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterisation of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-3 gene.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marta I R; Nascimento, Diana S; do Vale, Ana; Silva, Manuel T; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2007-02-01

    Caspase-3 is one of the major caspases operating in apoptosis, cleaving and inactivating a number of molecules and largely contributing to the apoptotic phenotype and the dismantling of the apoptoting cell. The opening reading frame of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-3 has 281 amino acids. The complete sequence of caspase-3 shows a very close homology to the correspondent sequence from other vertebrates, in particularly with that of Takifugu rubripes and Oryzias latipes, with 87.7 and 87.9% of similarity, respectively. Furthermore, the sea bass caspase-3 sequence retains the motifs that are functionally important, such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. In the sea bass genome, the caspase-3 gene exists as a single copy gene and is organised in six exons and five introns. A very low expression of caspase-3 was detected by RT-PCR in various organs of non-stimulated sea bass, with slightly higher levels in thymus and heart and was increased in head kidneys of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infected sea bass. This increased expression was accompanied by the occurrence of high numbers of apoptoting cells with activated caspase-3.

  2. GABAA and GABAC receptors on hybrid bass retinal bipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Dowling, J E

    1995-11-01

    1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) responses from solitory hybrid bass retinal bipolar cells were studied with the use of conventional and perforated whole cell patch-clamp recording. 2. GABA elicited a chloride current in bipolar cells that had both transient and sustained components. The transient component was sensitive to bicuculline and resembled GABAA-mediated currents, whereas the more sustained component was resistant to bicuculline and resembled the responses mediated by GABAC receptors. 3. The bicuculline-resistant GABA responses recorded from the bipolar cells could not be modulated by either diazepam or pentobarbital sodium, and they were unaffected by phaclofen and 2-hydroxysaclofen, GABAB receptor antagonists. On the other hand, the bicuculline-resistant GABA responses could be blocked substantially by imidazole-4-acetic acid (I4AA), a competitive antagonist of GABAC receptors. 4. Noise analysis of the GABA-elicited currents suggested a different single channel conductance for GABAA (10.1 pS) and GABAC receptors (3.6 pS). 5. Zinc, a putative modulator of synaptic transmission, strongly inhibited the GABAC responses on bipolar cells, whereas the GABAA responses were not significantly affected by zinc. 6. The proportion of the GABAC to GABAA responses varied widely between bipolar cells. Local application of GABA onto dendrites or axon terminals showed that both types of GABA receptors are present on both regions of the cell. 7. The distinct properties of these two GABA receptor types suggest that they play different roles in retinal function.

  3. Electrofishing capture probability of smallmouth bass in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abundance estimation is an integral part of understanding the ecology and advancing the management of fish populations and communities. Mark-recapture and removal methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance of stream fishes. Alternatively, abundance can be estimated by dividing the number of individuals sampled by the probability of capture. We conducted a mark-recapture study and used multiple repeated-measures logistic regression to determine the influence of fish size, sampling procedures, and stream habitat variables on the cumulative capture probability for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in two eastern Oklahoma streams. The predicted capture probability was used to adjust the number of individuals sampled to obtain abundance estimates. The observed capture probabilities were higher for larger fish and decreased with successive electrofishing passes for larger fish only. Model selection suggested that the number of electrofishing passes, fish length, and mean thalweg depth affected capture probabilities the most; there was little evidence for any effect of electrofishing power density and woody debris density on capture probability. Leave-one-out cross validation showed that the cumulative capture probability model predicts smallmouth abundance accurately. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  4. Confinement and water quality-induced stress in largemouth bass

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, G.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1984-11-01

    Plasma values of corticosteroids, glucose, chloride, and osmolality were determined in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides under various environmental conditions. No differences were observed in quiescent fish due to sex, size, time of day, or the types of holding facilities tested (tanks, raceways, ponds). Differences were observed in plasma glucose, chloride, and osmolality values among fish acclimated to 10, 16, and 23 C. Abrupt temperature changes caused elevations in plasma corticosteroid and glucose concentrations and reduced plasma chloride and osmolality. Confinement in a net, for up to 48 hours, caused elevated glucose and corticosteroids and reduced chloride and osmolality values. After 48 hours of confinement, fish required up to 14 days to recover normal plasma characters. Generally, short-term exposure to poor water quality (high concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen) altered plasma corticosteroids and glucose but had little effect on plasma chloride or osmolality. Net confinement plus poor water quality caused additional stress. Plasma glucose and corticosteroid values were good indicators of stress during application of acute stressors whereas chloride and osmolality were useful indicators of long-term stress and patterns of recovery after stressors were removed.

  5. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes.

  6. Embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Patricia; Sucré, Elliott; Santos, Raphaël; Leclère, Jeremy; Charmantier, Guy; Castille, René

    2012-06-01

    The embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax during the endotrophic period is discussed. An 8 cells stage, not reported for other studied species, results from two rapid successive cleavages. Blastula occurs at the eighth division when the embryo is made of 128 cells. During gastrulation, the infolded blastoderm creates the endomesoblastic layer. The Kupffer's vesicle is reported to drive the left/right patterning of brain, heart and digestive tract. Heart formation starts at 8 pairs of somites, differentiation of myotomes and sclerotomes starts at the stage 18 pairs of somites; main parts of the digestive tract are entirely formed at 25 pairs of somites. At 28 pairs of somites, a rectal region is detected, however, the digestive tube is closed at both ends, the jaw appears the fourth day after hatching, but the mouth is not opened before the fifth day. Although cardiac beating and blood circulation are observed, gills are not reported in newly hatched individuals; eye melanization appears concomitant with exotrophic behavior.

  7. US Atlantic coast striped bass: Issues with a recovered population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), is an anadromous species naturally occurring along the US Atlantic coast, which historically supported valuable commercial and recreational fisheries. In response to a near order-of-magnitude decline in landings, the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission enacted a management plan in 1981 protecting fish until they could spawn at least once. By 1989, recruitment increased in natal rivers and regulations were relaxed, permitting limited fisheries by 1990. By 1995, the stock was declared fully recovered. Since the recovery, concern has increased over the health of the stocks. In the 1990s, fish in poor physical condition with dermal lesions became common in Chesapeake Bay. Pathogens of most concern in cultures from fish include the genus Mycobacterium. Coincident with declines in fish health were changes in diets, declines of preferred prey, and reduced growth and condition. Theories were suggested linking declines in condition to reductions in forage base or pathogens. Diets have changed since the 1950s and while many Chesapeake fish are infected with mycobacteria, it is still not known how or if these factors are linked. The highest priorities for research were considered to be: linking numerous local and regional studies to provide a coast-wide perspective; continuation of investigations linking population health to the prey-base; determination of the cause-effect of mycobacteria infections; and formulation of management options.

  8. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. [Largemouth Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  9. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  10. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2013-2014 Summer Flounder... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, and the 2014 summer flounder and scup fisheries, and... Fishery Management Council's Research Set-Aside Program. The implementing regulations for the...

  11. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... December 28, 2010, NMFS published in the Federal Register the final rule to implement the 2011 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder...

  12. Population structure and dynamics of northern pike and smallmouth bass in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous species have been introduced to Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho over the last century, but minimal research has been completed to understand their population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe the population demographics and dynamics of northern pike (Esox lucius) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), two important nonnative sport fishes in the system to provide information that will assist with guiding management decisions. The oldest northern pike was age 7 and the oldest smallmouth bass was age 11. Populations of both species exhibited very stable recruitment with a recruitment coefficient of determination of 0.99 for northern pike and 0.98 for smallmouth bass. Total annual mortality was estimated as 66% for northern pike and 42% for smallmouth bass. Growth of northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake was comparable to the 50–75th percentiles of growth exhibited by lentic northern pike populations across North America. Northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake were most similar to populations in the north-central and northeast United States with fast growth rates and short life spans. In contrast, smallmouth bass grew slowly and generally fell within the 5th percentile of lentic smallmouth bass populations in North America. Smallmouth bass in Coeur d'Alene Lake were similar to other populations in northern regions of the United States displaying slow growth rates with high longevity. Results of this study provide important insight on nonnative northern pike and smallmouth bass population dynamics.

  13. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  14. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the hree-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetic technologies in striped bass breeding programs, nearly 500 microsatellite markers were...

  15. Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 through 18 Years--United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report QuickGuide. Volume 58, Number 51 & 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) annually publishes an immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years that summarizes recommendations for currently licensed vaccines for children aged 18 years and younger and includes recommendations in effect as of December 15, 2009. The changes to the previous schedule are…

  16. Cloning of Wap65 in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) and expression in sea bass tissues.

    PubMed

    Pierre, S; Coupé, S; Prévot-d'Alvise, N; Gaillard, S; Richard, S; Gouze, E; Aubert, J; Grillasca, J P

    2010-04-01

    The complementary DNA encoding WAP65 protein was cloned from the liver of two fish species sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata). Full-length cDNA sequences were obtained from reverse transcribed total RNA, followed by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) experiments. The full-length cDNA sequence of D. labrax is 1709bp and the coding sequence is flanked by a 67bp 5'-UTR and a 358bp 3'-UTR. The full-length cDNA sequence of S. aurata is 1599bp, and the coding sequence is flanked by a 48bp 5'-UTR and a 273bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid putative primary sequences are composed of 427 and 425 amino acid residues for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. They display high homologies with previously described fish WAP65 and other hemopexin-like proteins from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Expression of Wap65 has proved to be a natural physiological adaptive answer of teleost fish to warm temperature acclimation. In all fish species studied to date, Wap65 was found expressed mainly by the liver, although other tissues seem able to express Wap65 in response to a warm temperature acclimation, in a specie specific manner. Here, we investigate the tissue specific expression of Wap65 in D. labrax and S. aurata in response to a warm temperature acclimation, by RT-PCR analysis.

  17. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  18. Effect of seasonal changes on the gelling properties of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Carlos L; Mendes, Rogério O; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Nunes, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes (summer versus winter) upon the quality of heat-induced gel products from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was studied. Moreover, the effect of microbial transglutaminase addition (0.5%, w/w) on the quality was assessed. Fat content of gel products attained from sea bass grown during summer was higher (12.0% versus 7.6%). Textural properties of the gels from the summer fish were higher. Protein of gels from winter fish was less soluble in SDS + DTT (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS; dithiothreitol, DTT). Contrary to some literature, higher fat level may have played a protective role during processing. Accordingly, season via fat content variation had a strong effect on the gelling ability of heat-induced gels prepared from sea bass.

  19. Hierarchical Bass model: a product diffusion model considering a diversity of sensitivity to fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new product diffusion model including the number of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met until he/she adopts the product, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing it. By this effect not considered in the Bass model, we can depict a diversity of sensitivity to fashion. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod and the iPhone unit sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model for the iPod data. We also present a new method to estimate the number of advertisements in a society from fitting parameters of the Bass model and this new model.

  20. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature.

  1. Hooking mortality and physiological responses of striped bass angled in freshwater and held in live-release tubes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettinger, J.M.; Tomasso, J.R.; Isely, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis angled from Lake Murray, South Carolina, and held in live-release tubes were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2003. To estimate mortality, we attached external ultrasonic transmitters to 59 striped bass (mean total length [TL] = 585 mm). Striped bass were caught with angling gear, tagged, and immediately released or held in live-release tubes for 2, 4, or 6 h prior to release. No mortality of striped bass was observed during spring. Overall mortality during summer was 83%. Mortality of summer-caught striped bass was not related to tube residence time, fish TL, depth of capture, or surface water temperature. To characterize physiological stress, we measured the plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels of 62 additional striped bass (mean TL = 563 mm) that were angled and immediately released or angled and held in live-release tubes. Plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality were positively related to tube residence time. When the hematological characteristics were considered only in relation to tube residence time, responses indicative of physiological stress continued for about 150 min, after which blood chemistry began to return to normal. Live-release tubes appear to be useful for keeping striped bass alive when they are angled from cool water, but they are not effective for striped bass angled from warm water. The high summer mortality of striped bass suggests a need for restrictive fishing regulations during the summer for the Lake Murray striped bass fishery. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Physiological changes in largemouth bass exposed to paper mill effluents under laboratory and field conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report here on studies designed to asses the effects of paper mill effluents on non-reproductive functions of free-ranging and captive Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) This was accomplished by conducting an outdoor tank study, in which fish were exposed to well water or to 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% full strength effluent for 28 or 56 days, and by sampling largemouth bass from sites within the St. Johns River, Florida, upstream and downstream from a paper mill plant. Blood and plasma samples from fish from the tank study and from fish sampled from the ambient sites were analyzed for over 20 variables. We also determined liver and spleen weights and examined them histologically. The most significant finding from the tank study was an increase in the concentration of albumin and hepatosomatic index for bass exposed to ???20% effluents for 56 days. Spleenosomatic index and number of melanomacrophage centers were decreased in bass from effluent-dominated sites (Palatka and Rice Creek), whereas concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, glucose, and creatinine were elevated in fish from these sites, compared to fish from reference streams. Fish from Rice Creek also had fewer red blood cells, and male bass from Palatka had lower concentrations of cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of albumin and hepatic concentrations of glutathione were elevated in males from Palatka, and both females and males from Rice Creek had higher concentrations of globulin. These results indicate a complex pattern of effects of paper mill effluents on several physiological functions. However, despite the myriad of treatment and site-related effects, most physiological parameters fell within normal ranges when compared to reports on largemouth bass and other freshwater species.

  3. Evaluation of a 16-inch minimum length limit for smallmouth bass in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, S.P.; Hoff, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a 16-in minimum length limit and two-fish daily bag limit for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin, from 1989 to 1996. Fish abundance, biomass, growth, survival, and angler harvest were compared with data from years when no length or bag limits were in force. Angler harvest and fishing effort were monitored by a complete mandatory creel census. Following the regulation changes, fishing effort increased by 62% despite a 95% decline in smallmouth bass harvest. The number and biomass of smallmouth bass 12.0-15.9 in and 16.0 in and greater increased, whereas the number of fish 6.0-11.9 in declined. Annual survival rates of fish age 3 and older increased from 0.21 during the no-limit years to 0.60 during the length-limit years. Annual exploitation rates for fish 8 in and greater averaged 0.53 during the no-limit years and 0.10 during the length-limit years. Smallmouth bass growth rates did not change. During the no-limit years, 27% of the anglers harvested smallmouth bass compared with only 3% of anglers during the length-limit years. The bag limit reduced harvest during only 3 years by an average of 11% (3 fish/year). Anglers accepted the restrictive regulations well and were primarily concerned about catch rates of fish 16.0 in and greater. For managers wishing to increase angler interest and numbers of fish 16.0 in and greater, we recommend considering similar or even more restrictive regulations. However, a sharp reduction in the number of smallmouth bass above the minimum length limit should be expected.

  4. Differential freshwater adaptation in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax: involvement of gills and urinary system.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Catherine; Romestand, Bernard; Nègre-Sadargues, Geneviève; Grousset, Evelyse; Aujoulat, Fabien; Bacal, Julien; Bonhomme, François; Charmantier, Guy

    2005-10-01

    The effects of long-term freshwater acclimatization were investigated in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax to determine whether all sea-bass juveniles are able to live in freshwater and to investigate the physiological basis of a successful adaptation to freshwater. This study particularly focused on the ability of sea-bass to maintain their hydromineral balance in freshwater and on their ion (re)absorbing abilities through the gills and kidneys. Two different responses were recorded after a long-term freshwater acclimatization. (1) Successfully adapted sea-bass displayed standard behavior; their blood osmolality was maintained almost constant after the freshwater challenge, attesting to their efficient hyperosmoregulation. Their branchial and renal Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity were high compared to seawater fish due to a high number of branchial ionocytes and to the involvement of the urinary system in active ion reabsorption, producing hypotonic urine. (2) Sea-bass that had not successfully adapted to freshwater were recognized by abnormal schooling behavior. Their blood osmolality was low (30% lower than in the successfully adapted sea-bass), which is a sign of acute osmoregulatory failure. High branchial Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity compared to successfully adapted fish were coupled to a proliferation of gill chloride cells, whose ultrastructure did not display pathological signs. The large surface used by the gill chloride cells might negatively interfere with respiratory gas exchanges. In their urinary system, enzyme abundance and activity were low, in accordance with the observed lower density of the kidney tubules. Urine was isotonic to blood in unsuccessfully adapted fish, ruling out any participation of the kidney in hyperosmoregulation. The kidney failure seems to generate a compensatory ion absorption through increased gill activity, but net ion loss through urine seems higher than ion absorption by the gills, leading to lower hyper

  5. The effects of bupropion on hybrid striped bass brain chemistry and predatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren E; Bisesi, Joseph H; Lei, E N Y; Lam, Michael H W; Klaine, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Increased use of antidepressants has led to an increase in their detection in final treated wastewater effluents and receiving streams. Antidepressants are intended to modify human behavior by altering brain chemistry, and because of the high functional conservation of antidepressant target receptors in vertebrates, aquatic organisms may be at risk. The antidepressant bupropion is designed to alter brain norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations in humans. The objective of the present study was to understand if alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis × Morone chrysops) brain by bupropion would alter this predator's ability to capture prey. The authors exposed hybrid striped bass to bupropion in a static system for 6 d, followed by a 6-d recovery period. During the present study's 12-d experiment, each hybrid striped bass was fed 4 unexposed fathead minnows every 3 d, and the time it took the hybrid striped bass to consume each of those 4 fathead minnows was quantified. After each feeding event, hybrid striped bass brains were harvested and analyzed for changes in several brain neurotransmitter concentrations, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and many of their metabolites. Although bupropion altered the concentration of dopamine and many of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations in the brains on day 3 of the exposure, it did not alter the time to capture prey. This suggests that alteration of dopaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in the hybrid striped bass brain does not alter a predator's ability to capture prey. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2058-2065. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.

    PubMed

    Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

    2006-08-01

    Moderation of stream temperatures by riparian shading and groundwater are known to promote growth and survival of salmonid fishes, but effects of riparian shade and groundwater on to be growth of warmwater stream fishes are poorly understood or assumed to be negligible. We used stream temperature models to relate shading from riparian vegetation and groundwater inflow to summer water temperatures in Missouri Ozark streams and evaluated effects of summer water temperatures on smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, growth using a bioenergetics model. Bioenergetics model simulations revealed that adult smallmouth bass in non-spring-fed streams have lower growth potential during summer than fish in spring-fed streams, are subject to mass loss when stream temperatures exceed 27 degrees C, and will likely exhibit greater interannual variation in growth during summer if all growth-influencing factors, other than temperature, are identical between the two stream types. Temperature models indicated that increased riparian shading will expand the longitudinal extent of thermal habitat capable of supporting adult smallmouth bass growth in spring-fed stream reaches when mean daily air temperatures exceed 27 degrees C. Optimum growth temperature (22 degrees C) will be present only in spring-fed streams under these conditions. Potential for increasing shade through riparian restoration is greatest for streams <5 m wide and along north-south reaches of larger streams. However, temperature models also indicated that restoring riparian shading to maximum levels throughout a watershed would increase the total stream mileage capable of supporting positive growth of adult smallmouth bass by only 1-6% when air temperatures are at or near average summer maxima; increases in suitable thermal habitat would be greatest in watersheds with higher spring densities. Riparian management for maintenance or restoration of the thermal habitat of adult smallmouth bass during summer should be

  7. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  8. Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885

  9. Molecular characterisation and structural analysis of an interferon homologue in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Casani, Daniela; Randelli, Elisa; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo M; Zou, Jun; Martin, Sam; Secombes, Chris J; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    The interferons (IFNs) are a large family of soluble cytokines involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. Three families of IFNs have been identified in mammals (type I, type II and type III) and, recently, homologues of type I and type II genes have been found in various teleost fish species. In this paper we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding an type I IFN molecule from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), its expression analysis and gene structure and, finally, its 3D structure obtained by template-based modelling. The sea bass IFN cDNA consists of 1047bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 185 amino acids. The analysis of the sequence revealed the presence of a putative 22 amino acid signal peptide, two cysteine residues and three potential N-glycosylation sites. The sea bass IFN gene contains four introns as with other type I IFN teleost genes, except medaka that contains three introns. Real time PCR was performed after poly I:C stimulation of DLEC cell line to investigate the expression of sea bass IFN and Mx and an induction was observed for both genes. The predicted 3D structure of sea bass IFN is characterized by an "all-alpha" domain that shows an "up-down bundle" architecture made of six helices (ABB'CDE). The two cysteine residues present in the sequence (i.e. Cys(23) and Cys(126)) are in a position and at a distance that suggest the possible formation of a disulfide bridge that may stabilize the structure. Our results will give the opportunity to investigate more in detail antiviral immune responses in sea bass and add to studies on the evolution of the IFN system in teleosts and vertebrates more generally.

  10. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Lee, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.

  11. Mixtures of Estrogenic Chemicals Enhance Vitellogenic Response in Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Ana D.; Freitas, Sandro; Scholze, Martin; Goncalves, José F.; Booij, Petra; Lamoree, Marja H.; Mañanós, Evaristo; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The potential impact of natural and synthetic estrogens on aquatic ecosystems has attracted considerable attention because it is currently accepted that their joint effects are more severe when they are present in mixtures. Although it is well-known that they occur as mixtures in the marine environment, there is little information about the combined effects of estrogenic chemicals on marine biota. Objective In 14-day tests with juvenile sea bass, we analyzed singly and in combination the estrogenic activity of estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2), and bisphenol A (BPA) using vitellogenin induction as an end point. Methods Fish were exposed to each compound, and on the basis of these concentration–response data, we predicted mixture effects by applying the model of concentration addition. The mixtures were tested using a fixed-ratio design, and the resulting mixture effects were compared to the predictions. Results EE2 was the most potent steroid, with an EC50 (median effective concentration) of 0.029 μg/L, 3.6 times more potent than E2 (EC50 = 0.104 μg/L); BPA was the least potent chemical, with an EC50 of 77.94 μg/L. The comparative assessment yielded a good agreement between observed and predicted mixture effects. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential hazard of these compounds to seawater life by their ability to act together in an additive manner. It provides evidence that concentration addition can be used as a predictive tool for assessing the combined effects of estrogenic chemicals in marine ecosystems. PMID:18174959

  12. European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 μatm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

  13. The effects of temperature change on the hatching success and larval survival of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu.

    PubMed

    Landsman, S J; Gingerich, A J; Philipp, D P; Suski, C D

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the effects of abrupt temperature change on the hatching success and larval survival of eggs, yolk-sac larvae (YSL) and larvae above nest (LAN), for both largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were quantified. Temperature had a significant effect on hatching success and time to 50% mortality, with large heat shocks causing accelerated mortality. The temperature changes shown to influence survival of all life stages, however, were beyond what is typically experienced in the wild. Micropterus salmoides had greater egg hatching success rates and increased survival rates at YSL and LAN stages, relative to M. dolomieu. Additionally, egg hatching success and survival of LAN varied across nests within the study. These findings suggest that temperature alone may not account for variations in year-class strength and may emphasize the need for protection of the nest-guarding male Micropterus spp. to ensure recruitment.

  14. Pepsinogens and pepsins from largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides: purification and characterization with special reference to high proteolytic activities of bass enzymes.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-01

    Six pepsinogens were purified from the gastric mucosa of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and Mono Q FPLC. The potential specific activities of two major pepsinogens, PG1-1 and PG2-2, against hemoglobin were 51 and 118 units/mg protein, respectively. The activity of pepsin 2-2 was the highest among the pepsins reported to date; this might be linked to the strongly carnivorous diet of the largemouth bass. The molecular masses of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were 39.0 and 41.0 kDa, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of PG1-1 and PG2-2 were LVQVPLEVGQTAREYLE- and LVRLPLIVGKTARQALLE-, respectively, showing similarities with those of fish type-A pepsinogens. The optimal pHs for hemoglobin-digestive activity of pepsins 1-1 and 2-2 were around 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, though both pepsins retained considerable activity at pHs over 3.5. They showed maximal activity around 50 and 40 °C, respectively. They were inhibited by pepstatin similarly to porcine pepsin A. The cleavage specificities clarified with oxidized insulin B chain were shown to be restricted to a few bonds consisting of hydrophobic/aromatic residues, such as the Leu(15)-Tyr(16), Phe(24)-Phe(25) and Phe(25)-Tyr(26) bonds. When hemoglobin was used as a substrate, the kcat/Km value of bass pepsin 2-2 was 4.6- to 36.8-fold larger than those of other fish pepsins. In the case of substance P, an ideal pepsin substrate mimic, the kcat/Km values were about 200-fold larger than those of porcine pepsin A, supporting the high activity of the bass pepsin.

  15. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  16. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Couch, Charlene R; Cordes, Jan F; Reece, Kimberly S; Sullivan, Craig V

    2012-04-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetics technologies in striped bass breeding programs, we previously developed nearly 500 microsatellite markers. The objectives of this study were to construct a microsatellite linkage map of striped bass and to examine conserved synteny between striped bass and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Of 480 microsatellite markers screened for polymorphism, 289 informative markers were identified and used to genotype two half-sib mapping families. Twenty-six linkage groups were assembled, and only two markers remain unlinked. The sex-averaged map spans 1,623.8 cM with an average marker density of 5.78 cM per marker. Among 287 striped bass microsatellite markers assigned to linkage groups, 169 (58.9%) showed homology to sequences on stickleback chromosomes or scaffolds. Comparison between the stickleback genome and the striped bass linkage map revealed conserved synteny between these two species. This is the first linkage map for any of the Morone species. This map will be useful for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes of interest in striped bass breeding programs. The conserved synteny between striped bass and stickleback will facilitate fine mapping of genome regions of interest and will serve as a new resource for comparative mapping with other Perciform fishes such as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and tilapia (Oreochromis ssp.).

  17. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana)

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Justin; Loziuk, Philip L.; Muddiman, David C.; Daniels, Harry V.; Reading, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The three white perch (Morone americana) vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC) were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS). Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like]) that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13). Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis). The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to late stage

  18. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B., Ed.; Grace, Andre P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from leading experts in the field, The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education collects in one volume the best previously published literature on the issues and trends affecting adult education today. The volume includes influential pieces from foundational authors in the profession such as Eduard C.…

  19. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  20. Laboratory approaches to understanding gonadal development and abnormalities in wild-caught smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous work reported smallmouth bass in Northeastern Minnesota rivers and lakes with a prevalence of testicular oocytes (TOs) ranging from 7 to 57%, which is consistent with findings reported in other U.S. river systems. While it is often presumed that TOs are caused by ex...

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  2. Efficacy of a Listonella anguillarum (syn. Vibrio anguillarum) vaccine for juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Crump, Elizabeth M

    2006-07-11

    The efficacy of a commercial bivalent Listonella anguillarum (serotype 01 and 02) vaccine (MICROViB, Microtek International) was tested on prime- and booster-immersion vaccinated sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. We carried out 2 challenge tests on the prime-vaccinated fish, 50 and 90 d after initial vaccination. A second group of fish received a booster vaccination 60 d after the prime vaccination, and were tested with a single challenge 30 d later. Relative percent survival (RPS) was 92 and 84% (both p < 0.01) among the prime-vaccinated fish on the first and second challenges, respectively. The RPS of the booster-vaccinated sea bass was 100% (p < 0.01). Antibody titres were tested only among 10 prime-vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated (control) sea bass, 60 d post-immunisation, and were found to rise to 1/32 in the vaccinated fish. Our results demonstrate that MICROViB immersion vaccine can effectively protect juvenile sea bass from L. anguillarum infection.

  3. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, David P.

    1989-07-01

    For the period March 1988 through February 1989, an estimated 154,558 angler-hours were expended to catch 20,037 rainbow trout, 3,933 smallmouth bass, and 14 bull trout. Estimated catch of other species, including cutthroat trout, whitefish, suckers, and squawfish totalled 84. Subcatchable rainbow trout (135 to 185mm) caught and released by boat anglers comprised 53% (12,770) of the total catch. An estimated 88.6% of the smallmouth bass caught were under the minimum legal size limit of 305mm and were released. Estimated harvest of smallmouth bass was 450. The highest monthly catch rate documented for all species excluding kokanee was 1.81 fish per hour during October. Severe weather conditions during February reduced effort and no fish were documented in the creel. Cumulative catch rates through the survey period for rainbow trout and smallmouth bass were .13 and .02, respectively. The lowest monthly catch rates generally occurred when fishing pressure was the highest, with fishing effort targeting on kokanee during the May through July high use periods. The Arlee strain rainbow trout was somewhat more vulnerable to boat anglers than the Shasta strain during the early post-release period. 20 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Does the dye Aquashade reduce pond production of sunshine bass fingerlings?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rooted macrophytes make harvesting fingerling sunshine bass Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis difficult because they tangle in the seines and increase fish stress. Aquashade(c), a dye, is used to reduce macrophyte growth. Fingerling culturists are reluctant to use it because it may reduce phytoplank...

  5. Binding and transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors by model compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens (EEs) are chemicals in the environment that can elicit adverse effects on estrogen (E2) signaling by binding with the estrogen receptors (ERs). In largemouth bass (LMB), the physiological actions of E2 are primarily mediated via three receptors (ERα, ERßb ...

  6. The Effect of Three Methods of Supporting the Double Bass on Muscle Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Allan

    1984-01-01

    Using different methods of holding the double bass, college students performed Beethoven's Symphony No. 9. Audio recordings of performance were rated. Muscle tension readings from the left arm, right arm, upper back, and lower back were taken, using electromyography. Results suggest nonsignificant differences in both performance quality and muscle…

  7. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively.

  8. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA.

    PubMed

    Yonkos, Lance T; Friedel, Elizabeth A; Fisher, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The authors describe the prevalence and severity of intersex in the form of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected over a 5-yr period from a variety of surface waters on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA, a region dominated by poultry production and agricultural land use. During a survey from 2005 to 2007 of approximately 200 male specimens representing 6 fish and 2 frog species collected from numerous small-order streams on Delmarva, intersex was observed in only largemouth bass (system-wide prevalence 17%). During 2008 and 2009, testicular oocytes were encountered in male largemouth bass from 6 lakes and 1 large river system, with prevalence ranging from 33% to 88% (weighted arithmetic mean, 57%). The prevalence of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass from Delmarva lakes was comparable to the highest levels reported in a national US Geological Survey reconnaissance of this species, which also occurred in regions of the Atlantic coastal plain with intensive row-crop and animal agriculture. To the authors' knowledge, the present study represents the first report in the peer-reviewed scientific literature of testicular oocytes in fish on the Delmarva Peninsula.

  9. A discrete analog of the extended Bass algorithm for stabilizing constant linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, E. S.; Rublein, G. T.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for stabilizing constant linear systems, namely, the extended Bass algorithm for continuous systems and a discrete system analog, are discussed. For the continuous algorithm, a new result on the degree of stability of the closed-loop eigenvalues is presented, and for both methods, typical results and asymptotic trends in the data are illustrated through an example computation.

  10. Effect of fasting on body composition and responses to stress in sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract The integrated responses of the hormonal regulation of growth and stress in sunshine bass as regulated by feed deprivation were investigated. Groups of fish were fed 1.5% of the body weight per day or offered no feed for 4 weeks. Another group of fish was not fed for 3 weeks ...

  11. Responses of hybrid striped bass to waterborne and dietary copper in freshwater and saltwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bielmyer, G.K.; Gatlin, D.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.; Klaine, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanisms of copper toxicity and consequences of exposure vary due to uptake route and ionoregulatory status. The goal of this research was to develop a model fish system to assess the influence of different Cu exposure routes (waterborne or dietary) on bioavailability, uptake, and effects in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops??Morone saxatilis) acclimated to fresh- or saltwater. Initially, hybrid striped bass were exposed to dietary Cu concentrations of 571, 785, and 1013 ??g Cu/g, along with a control (??? 5 ??g Cu/g), for 14 days in saltwater. Intestinal and liver Cu accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in fish exposed to increasing levels of dietary Cu. Chronic (42 days) experiments were then conducted to determine sub-lethal effects of aqueous, dietary, and combined aqueous and dietary Cu exposures to both freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated hybrid striped bass. Growth and Cu accumulation in the gill, intestine, and liver were measured. Although no significant effects were observed in fish exposed to waterborne Cu, those exposed through the diet accumulated significant liver and intestinal Cu but showed no significant change in growth. Overall, these results suggest that at the levels tested, exposure to elevated waterborne Cu did not cause significant long-term tissue Cu accumulation, whereas dietary Cu exposure caused significant liver and intestinal Cu accumulation in hybrid striped bass which was comparable in both freshwater and saltwater (15 g/L). ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  13. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, David P.

    1990-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative four-year effort to study impacts of Dworshak Dam operation on resident fisheries. This third annual report focuses on rainbow trout, smallmouth bass, and forage species. 22 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Molecular and structural characterisation of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Facchiano, Angelo M; Pallavicini, Alberto; Modonut, Martina; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2010-08-15

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine produced in numerous cell types, mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages, in response to inflammatory stimuli. In this paper we report the identification of a cDNA encoding a MIF molecule from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), its expression analysis and its 3D structure obtained by template-based modelling. The sea bass MIF cDNA consists of 609bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 115 amino acids. The sequence contains three cysteine residues in conserved positions compared to human MIF and most Teleost fishes, with the exception of zebrafish and carp. The Cys(57)-Ala(58)-Leu(59)-Cys(60) motif, present inside the stretch important for JAB1-interaction and mediator of the thiol-protein oxidoreductase activity of MIF, is conserved in sea bass, together with the Pro(2) residue that is crucial for the tautomerase catalytic activity. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that MIF is constitutively expressed in all selected tissues and organs, with the highest mRNA level observed in thymus. MIF expression was induced after 4h in vitro stimulation of head kidney leukocytes with LPS and decreased after 24h. The predicted 3D model of sea bass MIF has been used to verify the presence of structural requirements for its known biological activities.

  15. Nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Vogelbein, W K; Rhodes, M W; Reece, K S

    2008-12-01

    Wild striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay are experiencing a high prevalence of mycobacteriosis, which produces granulomatous lesions of the skin and visceral organs. Culture-based studies have indicated that the newly described species Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates from diseased fish. The classical fish pathogen M. marinum is also found, albeit at much lower frequencies. Both M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are extremely slow-growing on standard selective media, and up to 12 months may be required for isolation and characterization. Epidemiological studies of mycobacteriosis in Chesapeake Bay would therefore benefit from rapid molecular assays with which to detect these species in fish. In this paper, we describe the development of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays capable of detecting M. shottsii, M. pseudoshottsii, and, in most instances, coinfections thereof in striped bass tissues. In addition, PCR-RFLP assays were designed to detect M. marinum and other as-yet-undescribed Mycobacterium spp. present in Chesapeake Bay striped bass. Comparison of these molecular assays with culture-based techniques using splenic tissue from wild striped bass yielded generally concordant results and demonstrated the applicability of these techniques to the study of wild fish.

  16. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  17. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  18. Effects of increased discharge on spawning and age-0 recruitment of rainbow trout in the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Luke A.; Korman, Josh; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative interactions of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha pose challenges to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) to manage for both species in the Colorado River. Operations to enhance the Rainbow Trout tailwater fishery may lead to an increase in downstream movement of the trout to areas where they are likely to interact with Humpback Chub. We evaluated the effects of dam operations on age-0 Rainbow Trout in the tailwater fishery to inform managers about how GCD operations could benefit a tailwater fishery for Rainbow Trout; although this could affect a Humpback Chub population farther downstream. A near year-long increase in discharge at GCD in 2011 enabled us to evaluate whether high and stable flows led to increased spawning and production of age-0 Rainbow Trout compared with other years. Rainbow Trout spawning was monitored by fitting a model to observed redd counts to estimate the number of redds created over a spawning season. Data collected during electrofishing trips in July–September and November were used to acquire age-0 trout population and mortality rate estimates. We found that high and stable flows in 2011 resulted in 3,062 redds (1.7 times the mean of all survey years) and a population estimate of 686,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout (second highest on record). Despite high initial abundance, mortality remained low through the year (0.0043%/d) resulting in significant recruitment with a record high November population estimate of 214,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout. Recent monitoring indicates this recruitment event was followed by an increase in downstream migration, which may lead to increased interactions with downstream populations of Humpback Chub. Consequently, while our results indicate that manipulating flow at GCD can be used to manage Rainbow Trout spawning and recruitment, fisheries managers should use flow manipulation in moderation to minimize downstream migration in order to reduce negative

  19. Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

    1995-01-01

    Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety ofben-thic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two

  20. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  1. Effects of salinity on striped bass eggs and larvae from the Savannah River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Operation of a tide gate installed in the Savannah River by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to reduce dredging activities increased salinities upstream in important spawning habitat for striped bass Morone saxatilis. To assess the effects of salinity on survival and growth of striped bass at early life stages, newly fertilized eggs and 48-h-posthatch were exposed to serial dilutions of seawater, with salinities ranging from 0 to 33 permill (g/L) in increments of 3 permill in addition, older larvae (5-d posthatch) were exposed to salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 permill. Eggs were exposed until 24 h posthatch, 48-h-posthatch larvae were exposed for 10 d, and 5-d-posthatch larvae were exposed for 6 d. Eggs died within 24 h in salinities greater than 18 permill. Both survival and total length of larvae hatched from eggs exposed to salinities of 15 permill or higher were reduced. Percent mortality and mean total lengths of newly hatched larvae followed the same pattern for each of three sets of salinity regimes (i.e., changes in salinities over time) that striped bass eggs might encounter during passage downstream in the Savannah River. Hardening eggs in freshwater did not increase survival or length of hatched larvae over that shown by eggs hardened in saline water. The 5-d-posthatch larvae were less sensitive to salinity than the 48-h-posthatch larvae. Survival of larvae was negatively con-elated with both salinity and exposure time. For 48-h-posthatch larvae, the 10-d LC50 (the salinity lethal to 50% of the test fish within 10 d) was 10 permill. Probabilities of survival for larval striped bass exposed to different salinities for different amounts of time can be estimated from curves generated from models of survival analysis. Salinities judged to be critical to Savannah River striped bass eggs and larvae are those greater than 9 permill.

  2. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  3. Oxidative ecology of paternal care in wild smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Laura K; O'Connor, Constance M; Philipp, David P; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Willmore, William G; Barthel, Brandon L; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-03-16

    Physiologically, oxidative stress is considered a homeostatic imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and absorption. From an ecological perspective, oxidative stress may serve as an important constraint to life history traits such as lifespan, reproduction, and the immune system, and is gaining interest as a potential mechanism underlying life history trade-offs. Of late, there has been much interest in understanding the role of oxidative stress in the ecology of wild animals, particularly during challenging periods such as reproduction. Here, we used a long-term study population of a fish with sole-male parental care, the smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, to examine the associations among oxidative stress indicators and life history variables in nest-guarding males. In addition, we investigated the potential role of oxidative stress as a physiological mediator of the life history trade-off decision of paternal smallmouth bass to stay with or abandon their brood. We found that oxidative stress was significantly related to the life history of paternal smallmouth bass, such that older, larger fish with greater reproductive experience and larger broods nesting in cooler water temperatures had lower levels of oxidative stress. However, we found no significant correlation between oxidative stress and nesting success, suggesting that oxidative stress may not be involved in the decision of male smallmouth bass to abandon their brood. Wild fish have been relatively understudied in the emerging field of oxidative ecology, and the study presented here makes noteworthy contributions by revealing interesting connections between the life histories of paternal smallmouth bass and their oxidative status.

  4. Blood plasma levels of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin in striped bass (morone saxatilis) exposed to 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Monosson, E.; Fleming, W.J.; Sullivan, C.V.

    1996-05-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can impair reproductive processes in fish. Laboratory studies have demonstrated adverse effects in several different fish species. Evidence also exits for an association between exposure to PCBs and related compounds and impaired reproduction in wild fish. Although the mechanism of reproductive toxicity of PCBs is unclear, it appears that PCBs act of several different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG). Because of their structural similarity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), planar PCB congengers (e.g. 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)) are among the most toxic PCBs. Both TCB and dioxon are reproductive toxicants in fish. TCB exposure (via intraperitoneal injections) impaired maturation in adult female white perch (Monroe americana) and reduced egg deposition in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Larval or fry survival was also reduced following either maternal exposure to TCB for white perch or injections of TCB into fertilized eggs of rainbow trout. This study investigate the effects of exposure to TCB on reproductive processes in female striped bass. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Survival and reproduction of myxobolus cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout introduced to the colorado river and increased resistance of age-0 progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkelman, Dana L.; Fetherman, Eric R.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Schisler, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis caused severe declines in rainbow trout populations across Colorado following its introduction in the 1980s. One promising approach for the recovery of Colorado’s rainbow trout populations has been the production of rainbow trout that are genetically resistant to the parasite. We introduced one of these resistant crosses, known as the GR×CRR (cross between the German Rainbow [GR] and Colorado River Rainbow [CRR] trout strains), to the upper Colorado River. The abundance, survival, and growth of the stocked GR×CRR population was examined to determine if GR×CRRs had contributed offspring to the age-0 population, and determine whether these offspring displayed increased resistance and survival characteristics compared to their wild CRR counterparts. Apparent survival of the introduced GR×CRR over the entire study period was estimated to be 0.007 (±0.001). Despite low survival of the GR×CRRs, age-0 progeny of the GR×CRR were encountered in years 2008 through 2011. Genetic assignments revealed a shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population over time, with CRR fish comprising the entirety of the fry population in 2007, and GR-cross fish comprising nearly 80% of the fry population in 2011. A decrease in average infection severity (myxospores fish−1) was observed concurrent with the shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population, decreasing from an average of 47,708 (±8,950) myxospores fish−1 in 2009 to 2,672 (±4,379) myxospores fish−1 in 2011. Results from this experiment suggest that the GR×CRR can survive and reproduce in rivers with a high prevalence of M. cerebralis. In addition, reduced myxospore burdens in age-0 fish indicated that stocking this cross may ultimately lead to an overall reduction in infection prevalence and severity in the salmonid populations of the upper Colorado River.

  6. Burden and trend analysis of injury mortality in China among children aged 0–14 years from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhaoxue; Wu, Jing; Luo, Jiesi; Pak, Anita WP; Choi, Bernard CK; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To track changes of the burden and trends of childhood injury mortality among children aged 0–14 years in China from 2004 to 2011. Design National representative data from the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points system and Chinese Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance system from 2004 to 2011 were used. Rates and 95% CIs of aged-standardised mortality, as well as the proportions of injury death, were estimated. Setting Urban and rural China. Participants Children aged 0–14 years from 2004 to 2011. Results The proportion of injury among all deaths in children increased from 18.69% in 2004 to 21.26% in 2011. A ‘V’ shape change was found in the age-standardised injury mortality rate during the study period among the children aged 0–14 years, with the age-standardised injury mortality rate decreasing from 29.71 per 100 000 per year in 2004 to 24.12 in 2007, and then increasing to 28.12 in 2011. A similar change was observed in the rural area. But the age-standardised mortality rate decreased consistently in the urban area. The rate was higher among boys than among girls. Drowning, road traffic accidents and falls were consistently the top three causes of death among children. Conclusions Childhood injury is an increasingly serious public health problem in China. The increasing trend of childhood injury mortality is driven by the rural areas rather than urban areas. More effective strategies and measures for injury prevention and control are needed for rural areas, boys, drowning, road traffic accidents and falls. PMID:26137882

  7. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  8. Survival and reproduction of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout introduced to the Colorado river and increased resistance of age-0 progeny.

    PubMed

    Fetherman, Eric R; Winkelman, Dana L; Baerwald, Melinda R; Schisler, George J

    2014-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis caused severe declines in rainbow trout populations across Colorado following its introduction in the 1980s. One promising approach for the recovery of Colorado's rainbow trout populations has been the production of rainbow trout that are genetically resistant to the parasite. We introduced one of these resistant crosses, known as the GR×CRR (cross between the German Rainbow [GR] and Colorado River Rainbow [CRR] trout strains), to the upper Colorado River. The abundance, survival, and growth of the stocked GR×CRR population was examined to determine if GR×CRRs had contributed offspring to the age-0 population, and determine whether these offspring displayed increased resistance and survival characteristics compared to their wild CRR counterparts. Apparent survival of the introduced GR×CRR over the entire study period was estimated to be 0.007 (±0.001). Despite low survival of the GR×CRRs, age-0 progeny of the GR×CRR were encountered in years 2008 through 2011. Genetic assignments revealed a shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population over time, with CRR fish comprising the entirety of the fry population in 2007, and GR-cross fish comprising nearly 80% of the fry population in 2011. A decrease in average infection severity (myxospores fish-1) was observed concurrent with the shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population, decreasing from an average of 47,708 (±8,950) myxospores fish-1 in 2009 to 2,672 (±4,379) myxospores fish-1 in 2011. Results from this experiment suggest that the GR×CRR can survive and reproduce in rivers with a high prevalence of M. cerebralis. In addition, reduced myxospore burdens in age-0 fish indicated that stocking this cross may ultimately lead to an overall reduction in infection prevalence and severity in the salmonid populations of the upper Colorado River.

  9. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression in endangered age-0 shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) from Upper Klamath Lake, OR relative to histopathology, meristic, spatial, and temporal data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Densmore, Christine L.; Robertson, Laura S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Vanderkooi, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    During July – September of 2008, 2009, and 2010 endangered age-0 juvenile shortnose suckers were sampled from Upper Klamath Lake, OR in a health evaluation that included the measurement of transforming growth factor – beta (TGF-β) expression in spleen in combination with a histopathology assessment. This analysis was performed to determine if the expression of this immuno-regulator could be used as a component of a larger health evaluation intended to identify potential risk-factors that may help to explain why very few of these fish survive to age-1. Potential associations between TGF-β1 expression, histopathological findings, meristic data as well as temporal and spatial data were evaluated using analysis-of-variance. In this analysis, the absence or presence of opercula deformity and hepatic cell necrosis were identified as significant factors in accounting for the variance in TGF-β1 expression observed in age-0 shortnose suckers (n = 122, squared multiple R = 0.989). Location of sample collection and the absence or presence of anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) were identified as significant cofactors. The actual mechanisms involved with these relationships have yet to be determined. The strength, however, of our findings support the concept of using TGF-β1 expression as part of a broader fish health assessment and suggests the potential for using additional immunologic measures in future studies. Specifically, our results indicate that the measure of TGF-β1 expression in age-0 shortnose sucker health assessments can facilitate the process of identifying disease risks that are associated with the documented lack of recruitment into the adult population.

  10. Survival and Reproduction of Myxobolus cerebralis-Resistant Rainbow Trout Introduced to the Colorado River and Increased Resistance of Age-0 Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Schisler, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis caused severe declines in rainbow trout populations across Colorado following its introduction in the 1980s. One promising approach for the recovery of Colorado’s rainbow trout populations has been the production of rainbow trout that are genetically resistant to the parasite. We introduced one of these resistant crosses, known as the GR×CRR (cross between the German Rainbow [GR] and Colorado River Rainbow [CRR] trout strains), to the upper Colorado River. The abundance, survival, and growth of the stocked GR×CRR population was examined to determine if GR×CRRs had contributed offspring to the age-0 population, and determine whether these offspring displayed increased resistance and survival characteristics compared to their wild CRR counterparts. Apparent survival of the introduced GR×CRR over the entire study period was estimated to be 0.007 (±0.001). Despite low survival of the GR×CRRs, age-0 progeny of the GR×CRR were encountered in years 2008 through 2011. Genetic assignments revealed a shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population over time, with CRR fish comprising the entirety of the fry population in 2007, and GR-cross fish comprising nearly 80% of the fry population in 2011. A decrease in average infection severity (myxospores fish−1) was observed concurrent with the shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population, decreasing from an average of 47,708 (±8,950) myxospores fish−1 in 2009 to 2,672 (±4,379) myxospores fish−1 in 2011. Results from this experiment suggest that the GR×CRR can survive and reproduce in rivers with a high prevalence of M. cerebralis. In addition, reduced myxospore burdens in age-0 fish indicated that stocking this cross may ultimately lead to an overall reduction in infection prevalence and severity in the salmonid populations of the upper Colorado River. PMID:24811066

  11. Diarrheal Disease in Rural Mozambique: Burden, Risk Factors and Etiology of Diarrheal Disease among Children Aged 0–59 Months Seeking Care at Health Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Nhampossa, Tacilta; Mandomando, Inacio; Acacio, Sozinho; Quintó, Llorenç; Vubil, Delfino; Ruiz, Joaquin; Nhalungo, Delino; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhabanga, Arnaldo; Nhacolo, Ariel; Aide, Pedro; Machevo, Sónia; Sigaúque, Betuel; Nhama, Abel; Kotloff, Karen; Farag, Tamer; Nasrin, Dilruba; Bassat, Quique; Macete, Eusebio; Levine, Myron M.; Alonso, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in low-income countries. Its burden, microbiological causes and risk factors were examined in children aged 0–59 months living in Manhiça, rural southern Mozambique. Methods Trends of diarrhea-related burden of disease were estimated during the period 2001–2012. A prospective, age-stratified and matched (by age, gender and geographical origin), case-control study was conducted during 2007–2011. Clinical, epidemiology, anthropometric measurement and fecal samples obtained from recruited children were used to estimate moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) weighted attributable fractions. Results Over the last decade the incidence of acute diarrhea has dropped by about 80%. Incidence of MSD per 100 child years at risk for the period 2007–2011 was 9.85, 7.73 and 2.10 for children aged 0–11, 12–23 and 24–59 months respectively. By adjusted population attributable fractions, most cases of MSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC ST (ST only or ST/LT), Shigella and Adenovirus 40/41. Washing hands and having facilities to dispose child’s stools were associated with a reduced risk of MSD, while giving stored water to the child was associated with an increased risk of MSD. Conclusions Despite the predominantly decreasing trends observed throughout the last decade, diarrheal diseases remain today a major cause of morbidity among children aged 0–59 months living in this rural Mozambican area. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella, ETEC ST and Adenovirus 40/41 were the most important aetiologies of MSD. Thus, well-known preventive strategies such as washing hands, improving the treatment of stored water, having facilities to dispose children stools, and accelerating the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine should be promoted on a wider scale to reduce the current burden of diarrheal diseases. PMID:25973880

  12. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression in endangered age-0 shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) from Upper Klamath Lake, OR relative to histopathology, meristic, spatial, and temporal data.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Christopher A; Densmore, Christine L; Robertson, Laura S; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; VanderKooi, Scott P

    2016-02-01

    During July-September of 2008, 2009, and 2010 endangered age-0 juvenile shortnose suckers were sampled from Upper Klamath Lake, OR in a health evaluation that included the measurement of transforming growth factor - beta (TGF-β) expression in spleen in combination with a histopathology assessment. This analysis was performed to determine if the expression of this immuno-regulator could be used as a component of a larger health evaluation intended to identify potential risk-factors that may help to explain why very few of these fish survive to age-1. Potential associations between TGF-β1 expression, histopathological findings, meristic data as well as temporal and spatial data were evaluated using analysis-of-variance. In this analysis, the absence or presence of opercula deformity and hepatic cell necrosis were identified as significant factors in accounting for the variance in TGF-β1 expression observed in age-0 shortnose suckers (n = 122, squared multiple R = 0.989). Location of sample collection and the absence or presence of anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) were identified as significant cofactors. The actual mechanisms involved with these relationships have yet to be determined. The strength, however, of our findings support the concept of using TGF-β1 expression as part of a broader fish health assessment and suggests the potential for using additional immunologic measures in future studies. Specifically, our results indicate that the measure of TGF-β1 expression in age-0 shortnose sucker health assessments can facilitate the process of identifying disease risks that are associated with the documented lack of recruitment into the adult population.

  13. Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic Coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P.; Hilker, D.; Meyer, C.; Aldous, K.; Shane, L.; Donnelly, R.; Smith, R.; Sloan, R.; Skinner, L.; Horn, E.

    1984-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass.

  14. COMPARISON OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF LARGEMOUTH BASS, MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES, COLLECTED FROM THE ESCAMBIA AND BLACKWATER RIVERS IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Largemouth bass (LMB), Micropterus salmoides, were taken from the Escambia River (contaminated site) and the Blackwater River (reference site) near Pensacola, Florida. The Escambia River collection occurred downstream of the effluent from two identified point sources of pollution...

  15. Regulation of progastricsin mRNA levels in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in response to fluctuations in food availability.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Larghi, Stefano; Bernardini, Giovanni; Gornati, Rosalba; Saroglia, Marco

    2007-11-23

    In this study the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) pepsinogen C gene was isolated. The nucleotide sequences of all exons are presented. The organization of the gene is compatible with that of other aspartic proteinases. The predicted 388-residue amino acid (aa) sequence of sea bass pepsinogen C consists of a signal sequence of 16 amino acid residues, an activation peptide of 43 residues, and the mature pepsin of 329 residues containing the two characteristic active-site aspartic acids. We also analyzed fasting-induced changes in the expression of progastricsin mRNA, using real-time RT-PCR absolute quantification. Progastricsin mRNA copy number was downregulated under conditions of negative energy balance, such as starvation, and upregulated during positive energy balance, such as refeeding. These findings offer new information about the sea bass progastricsin gene and support a role of this gastric digestive enzyme in the regulation of food intake in sea bass.

  16. Widespread occurrence of intersex in black basses (Micropterus spp.) from U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Schmitt, C.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Intersex occurrence in freshwater fishes was evaluated for nine river basins in the United States. Testicular oocytes (predominantly male testes containing female germ cells) were the most pervasive form of intersex observed, even though similar numbers of male (n = 1477) and female (n = 1633) fish were examined. Intersex was found in 3% of the fish collected. The intersex condition was observed in four of the 16 species examined (25%) and in fish from 34 of 111 sites (31%). Intersex was not found in multiple species from the same site but was most prevalent in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; 18% of males) and smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu; 33% of males). The percentage of intersex fish per site was 8-91% for largemouth bass and 14-73% for smallmouth bass. The incidence of intersex was greatest in the southeastern United States, with intersex largemouth bass present at all sites in the Apalachicola, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins. Total mercury, trans-nonachlor, p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, and total PCBs were the most commonly detected chemical contaminants at all sites, regardless of whether intersex was observed. Although the genotype of the intersex fish was not determined, the microscopic appearance of the gonads, the presence of mature sperm, and the concentrations of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin indicate the intersex bass were males. Few reproductive endpoints differed significantly among male and intersex bass; plasma vitellogenin concentration in males was not a good indicator of intersex presence. Hierarchical linkages of the intersex condition to reproductive function will require a more quantitative measure of intersex (e.g. severity index) rather than presence or absence of the condition. The baseline incidence of intersex gonadal tissue in black basses and other freshwater fishes is unknown, but intersex prevalence may be related to collection season, age, and endocrine active compounds in the environment. Intersex was not found in

  17. White Men's Racial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Increasingly, researchers and educators have argued that alternative conceptions of Whiteness and White racial identity are needed because current conceptions have undermined, rather than strengthened, our critical pedagogies with White people. Grounded in critical Whiteness studies, and drawing especially on the writings of…

  18. Characterization of annual reproductive cycles for pond-reared Florida largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, T.S.; Wieser, C.M.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Schoeb, T.R.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of hatchery-raised largemouth bass (Florida subspecies Micropterus salmoides floridanus) was characterized over a one-year period. Largemouth bass have a distinct annual reproductive cycle with a spring spawning season (approximately between mid-January and mid-June). Cycle characterization focused on an evaluation of gonadal development and plasma concentrations of several sex steroids and vitellogenin (VTG). Adult largemouth bass (n = 20: 10 females and 10 males) were collected monthly from hatchery ponds for one full calendar year. Plasma samples were analyzed for estradiol-17?? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), testosterone (T), progesterone (P), and VTG. Gonadal tissues were weighed to calculate gonadosomatic index (GSI) and evaluated histologically to characterize reproductive stage. In both sexes, GSI began to increase in November, and peaked in February-March. Increases in gonad weights were correlated with maturation of gonads as evidenced by histological evaluations. Bass exhibited seasonal changes in plasma sex steroids and VTG. In males, 11-KT was the only sex steroid that showed strong seasonality, with highest values in February. In females, although E2 and T concentrations followed a similar annual cycle, with highest and lowest values in February and August, respectively, the strongest pattern was observed with E2. 11-KT concentrations were less variable across months, and values were about half of those observed in males. In females, P peaked two months after E2, with high values still in May and June and decreased thereafter, and VTG began to increase in October, but peaked a month prior to the observed peaked in E2. VTG was also detected in males but at concentrations that were about 1/12 that of females, and no seasonal pattern was evident. This study is the first to fully characterize the seasonal endocrine cycle for largemouth bass. These data will be useful when conducting reproductive evaluations of free

  19. Effects of garlic and ginger oils on hematological and biochemical variables of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of garlic and ginger oils on hematological and biochemical health characteristics of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish were exposed to garlic oil (0.01 or 0.02 mL/L), ginger oil (0.01 or 0.02 mL/L), or a combination of the two oils (each oil at a concentration of 0.005 or 0.01 mL/L) for 96 h via bath immersion. Results showed that the red blood cell count, hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL), mean corpuscular volume (μm(3)), mean corpuscular Hb (pg), and mean corpuscular Hb concentration (%) were not significantly affected by herb oil exposure. However, some changes in biochemical variables were observed. Sea bass exposed to the 0.005-mL/L garlic oil-ginger oil mixture exhibited a significant increase in serum glucose. Serum total protein and albumin levels decreased in sea bass that were exposed to a garlic oil-ginger oil mixture (0.005 or 0.01 mL/L) or to garlic oil at 0.02 mL/L. Serum globulin levels decreased and triglyceride levels increased in sea bass exposed to 0.02-mL/L garlic oil or to the 0.01-mL/L mixture. The serum lipase level decreased and the cholesterol level increased in fish that were exposed to 0.02-mL/L garlic oil. In summary, ginger oil at 0.01-0.02 mL/L can be used without negative effects, while the garlic oil or garlic oil-ginger oil mixture should be applied at a concentration below 0.005 mL/L for bath immersion of sea bass. This is the first study to examine how garlic oil and ginger oil exposure via bath immersion affects the hematological and biochemical status of sea bass.

  20. The CD8alpha from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Cloning, expression and 3D modelling.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Secombes, Chris J; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo; Mazzini, Massimo; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we describe the cloning, expression and structural study by modelling techniques of the CD8alpha from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). The sea bass CD8alpha cDNA is comprised of 1490 bp and is translated in one reading frame to give a protein of 217 amino acids, with a predicted 26 amino acids signal peptide, a 88 bp 5'-UTR and a 748 bp 3'-UTR. A multiple alignment of CD8alpha from sea bass with other known CD8alpha sequences shows the conservation of most amino acid residues involved in the peculiar structural domains found within CD8alpha's. Cysteine residues that are involved in disulfide bonding to form the V domain are conserved. In contrast, an extra cysteine residue found in most mammals in this region is not present in sea bass. The transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions are the most conserved regions within the molecule in the alignment analysis. However, the motif (CXCP) that is thought to be responsible for binding p56lck is missing in the sea bass sequence. Phylogenetic analysis conducted using amino acid sequences showed that sea bass CD8alpha grouped with other known teleost sequences and that three different clusters were formed by the mammalian, avian and fish CD8alpha sequences. The thymus was the tissue with the highest CD8alpha expression, followed by gut, gills, peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen. Lower CD8alpha mRNA levels were found in head kidney, liver and brain. It was possible to create a partial 3D model using the human and mouse structures as template. The CD8alpha 11-120 amino acid region was taken into consideration and the best obtained 3D model shows the presence of ten beta-strands, involving about 50% of the sequence. The global structure was defined as an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich made of two anti-parallel sheets. Two cysteines were present in this region and they were at a suitable distance to form an S-S bond as seen in the template human and mouse structures.

  1. Differential expression of hoxa2a and hoxa2b genes during striped bass embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Jean-Luc; Vernon, Jamie L; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2006-10-01

    Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of two previously uncharacterized paralogs group 2 Hox genes, striped bass hoxa2a and hoxa2b, and the developmental regulatory gene egr2. We demonstrate that both Hox genes are expressed in the rhombomeres of the developing hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches albeit with different spatio-temporal distributions relative to one another. While both hoxa2a and hoxa2b share the r1/r2 anterior boundary of expression characteristic of the hoxa2 paralog genes of other species, hoxa2a gene expression extends throughout the hindbrain, whereas hoxa2b gene expression is restricted to the r2-r5 region. Egr2, which is used in this study as an early developmental marker of rhombomeres 3 and 5, is expressed in two distinct bands with a location and spacing typical for these two rhombomeres in other species. Within the pharyngeal arches, hoxa2a is expressed at higher levels in the second pharyngeal arch, while hoxa2b is more strongly expressed in the posterior arches. Further, hoxa2b expression within the arches becomes undetectable at 60hpf, while hoxa2a expression is maintained at least up until the beginning of chondrogenesis. Comparison of the striped bass HoxA cluster paralog group 2 (PG2) genes to their orthologs and trans-orthologs shows that the striped bass hoxa2a gene expression pattern is similar to the overall expression pattern described for the hoxa2 genes in the lobe-finned fish lineage and for the hoxa2b gene from zebrafish. It is notable that the pharyngeal arch expression pattern of the striped bass hoxa2a gene is more divergent from its sister paralog, hoxa2b, than from the zebrafish hoxa2b gene. Overall, our results suggest that differences in the Hox PG2 gene complement of striped bass and zebrafish affects both their rhombomeric and pharyngeal arch expression patterns and may account for the similarities in pharyngeal arch expression between striped bass hoxa2a and zebrafish hoxa2b.

  2. Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by enrofloxacin in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, E; Giorgi, M; Longo, V; Mengozzi, G; Gervasi, P G

    2003-01-10

    Currently, there are no reports on the effects of enrofloxacin (EF), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, on the cytochrome p450 enzymes in fish, although its use as antimicrobial agent in aquaculture has been put forward. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro effects of EF on hepatic p450 enzymes of sea bass, a widespread food-producing fish, have been evaluated. Sea bass pretreated with a single dose of EF (3 mg/kg i.p.) or with three daily doses of EF (1 mg/kg i.p.) markedly depressed the microsomal N-demethylation of aminopyrine, erythromycin, the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin, ethoxyresorufin and the 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase. In vitro experiments showed that EF at 10 microM inhibited the above-mentioned activities and, in particular, the erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and 6beta-testosterone-hydroxylase, likely dependant on a p450 3A isoform. When the nature of ERND inhibition by EF was specifically studied with sea bass liver microsomes, it was found that EF is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor, with K(i) of 3.7 microM and a K(inact) of 0.045 min(-1). An immunoblot analysis with anti p450 3A27 of trout showed that the p450 3A isoform, constitutively expressed in sea bass, is particularly susceptible to inactivation by EF. In vitro experiments with sea bass microsomes have also demonstrated that EF is oxidative deethylated by the p450 system to ciprofloxacin (CF) and that this compound maintains the ability to inactivate the p450 enzymes. The mechanism by which EF or CF inactivate the p450 enzymes has not been studied but an attack of p450 on the cyclopropan ring, present, both in EF and CF structure, with the formation of electrophilic intermediates (i.e. radicals) has been postulated. In conclusion, the EF seems to be a powerful inhibitor of p450s in the sea bass. Therefore, the clinical use of this antibiotic in aquaculture has to be considered with caution.

  3. Reproductive and biochemical biomarkers in largemouth bass sampled downstream of a pulp and paper mill in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Wieser, C.M.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents (B/UKME) on the reproductive parameters of free-ranging Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus). The reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads, and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17??-estradiol, and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as a marker of exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing agents in these effluents. Endpoints were compared among adult bass sampled from tributary and mainstream effluent-contaminated and reference sites. Females sampled from the site closest to the mill outfall had a significant five-fold increase in EROD activity compared to bass sampled from reference streams. Although sex hormones were significantly reduced in bass from exposed sites, there were no differences in VTG and GSI across sites. The absence of organism-level responses was probably not related to a lack of sensitivity, as previous studies in our laboratory have shown that bass exposed to these effluents exhibit changes in GSI and in other measures associated with reproductive success. In females, inverse relationships were observed between VTG and GSI and EROD activity. These relationship, however, were not consistent within all of the sites studied. Collectively, our findings indicate that hepatic EROD induction is an effective marker of B/UKME exposure in largemouth bass and that it might be associated with antiestrogenic effects in this species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abundance and Distribution of Walleye, Northern Squawfish and Smallmouth Bass in John Day Reservoir and Tailrace, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.; Faler, Michael P.; Elliott, John C.

    1985-06-01

    Walleye, northern squawfish and smallmouth bass abundances were estimated in John Day Reservoir using a modified Schnabel multiple mark and recapture estimator. Sampling was conducted from March 25 to August 31 using gill nets, trap nets, boat electrofishing, angling and an angler survey. A total of 858 walleye, 4552 northern squawfish, and 1599 smallmouth bass were collected. Discrete populations were defined according to observed movements of recaptured and radiotagged fish. Abundance estimates were corrected for angler harvest, size selectivity of gear, tag loss and recruitment due to growth during sampling. In addition, the likelihood of biases resulting from differential mortality of marked fish was examined. Abundances in John Day pool of walleye and northern squawfish with fork lengths greater than 250 mm were estimated at 15,832 and 80,486. Abundances of smallmouth bass with fork lengths greater than 200 mm were estimated to be 2596 in lower John Day pool and 1791 in upper John Day pool. Walleye and northern squawfish moved throughout the pool, whereas movements by smallmouth bass were more localized. Angler harvests of walleye and smallmouth bass in upper John Day pool from April through August were estimated at 309 and 584 fish. Angler harvest of northern squawfish was negligible. Most walleye collected were age 5. The most abundant age groups of northern squawfish and smallmouth bass were 10 and 2. 10 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Historical trends in creel limits, length-based limits, and season restrictions for black basses in the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.; McInerny, M.; Schultz, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    We determined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), smallmouth bass (M. dolomeui), and spotted bass (M. punctulatus) historical trends in state- and province-wide creel limits, length limits, and season closures along with the rationale justifying these regulations. Based on data gathered via mail surveys and the Internet, 55 jurisdictions had state- or province-wide creel limits, minimum length limits, or season closures, with each regulation type enacted as early as pre-1900. Most early regulations were established to protect spawning bass, but providing equitable distribution of harvest and increasing the quality of bass catch or harvest were the most common rationales for current regulations. Spatial and temporal trends in regulations were similar among species, were affected by geographic location, were not affected by angler preference except for season closures, and were frequently uninfluenced by advances in scientific knowledge of black bass biology.

  6. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibody in a population aged 0-30 years in Shanghai, China: implications for hepatitis A immunization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Yuan, Z; Zhao, Q; Chen, G; Xu, B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody in subjects aged 0-30 years in Shanghai. A total of 5515 subjects were recruited through random clustering sampling in 2009. Basic clinical and demographic information and records of HAV vaccination were acquired by questionnaire interviews and review of immunization records. Serum samples were collected and tested for anti-HAV IgM and total anti-HAV. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV was 52·9%. Subjects aged 20-24 years had the lowest (34·4%) anti-HAV seropositivity and subjects aged 5-9 years had the highest (74·6%) positivity. Seroprevalence was significantly greater in subjects from suburban areas than in subjects from urban areas. Subjects who had HAV immunizations had significantly greater seropositivity for total anti-HAV. Previous hepatitis A immunization policies had a significant impact on the presence of anti-HAV seroprevalence in a population aged 0-30 years from Shanghai.

  7. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Outpatient rehabilitation utilization and medical expenses in children aged 0-7 years with ADHD: analyses of population-based national health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Medical costs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are substantial and have a large impact on the public health system. The present study presents information regarding outpatient rehabilitation care usage and medical expenditure for children with ADHD. A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database for the year 2009. A total of 6643 children aged 0-7 years with ADHD (ICD-9-CM codes 314.0x: attention deficit disorder, 314.00: attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity, or 314.01: attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity) who had used outpatient rehabilitation care were included in the analyses. Results showed that the mean annual rehabilitation care was 22.24 visits. Among the care users, 76% of patients were male, and 24% were female. More than half of the children with ADHD had comorbid mental illnesses as well. A logistic regression analysis of outpatient rehabilitation expenditure (low vs. high) showed that of those children with ADHD, those aged 0-2 years tended to incur more medical costs than those aged 6-7 years. Other factors such as frequency of rehabilitation visits, hospital medical setting and ownership, location of medical care setting, and types of rehabilitation were also significantly correlated with medical expenditure. The results from this study suggest that health care systems should ensure accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment to maintain appropriate and successful management of rehabilitation needs for children with ADHD.

  9. Surface-water hydrology and quality, and macroinvertebrate and smallmouth bass populations in four stream basins in southwestern Wisconsin, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Lillie, Richard A.; Schlesser, Roger A.; Mason, John W.; Lyons, John D.; Kerr, Roger A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Low concentrations of dissolved oxygen constituted the most detrimental water-quality problem affecting smallmouth bass populations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were occasionally less than 3 milligrams per liter, a dissolved-oxygen concentration that may be detrimental to early-life stages of smallmouth bass in the streams; however, smallmouth bass were apparently able to withstand these low dissolved-oxygen concentrations and seem to have survived in some situations when dissolved-oxygen concentration decreased to1 milligram per liter.

  10. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA barcoding and morphology unite an enigmatic fish larva from the Florida straits with a new species of sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern-most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon.

  11. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  12. Maturation and fecundity of a stock-enhanced population of striped bass in the Savannah River Estuary, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Will, T.A.; Reinert, T.R.; Jennings, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The striped bass Morone saxatilis population in the Savannah River (south-eastern U.S.A.) collapsed in the 1980s, and recent efforts to restore the population have resulted in increased catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of striped bass in the Savannah River Estuary (SRE). The abundance of eggs and larvae, however, remain well below historic levels. The primary cause of the population decline was remedied, and environmental conditions seem suitable for striped bass spawning. Regression analysis of data derived from ultrasonic imaging of 31 striped bass resulted in a statistical model that predicted ovary volume well (r2=0.95). The enumeration of oocytes from ovarian tissue samples and the prediction of ovary volume allowed fecundity to be estimated without sacrificing the fish. Oocyte maturation in Savannah River striped bass seemed to progress normally, with oocytes developing to final stages of maturity in larger fish (>750 mm LT). Additionally, fecundity estimates were comparable to a neighbouring striped bass population. The environmental cues needed to trigger development and release of striped bass oocytes into the SRE appeared to be present. If most of the striped bass females in the SRE are still young (<7 years), the ability to produce large numbers of eggs will be limited. As these young fish mature, egg production probably will increase and the density of striped bass eggs eventually will approach historic levels, provided suitable habitat and water quality are maintained. ?? 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning striped bass in the upper Chesapeak Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sidell, B.D.; Otto, R.G.; Powers, D.A. Karweit, M.; Smith, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of genetically distinct populations of spawning striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the river systems of the upper Chesapeake Bay was investigated by a biochemical genetic approach. Samples of blood and liver from adult fish were obtained during the 1976 spawning runs from the Rappanhannock (Virginia), Potomac, Choptank, Sassafras, Bohemia, and Elk rivers (Maryland), and Maryland waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Samples were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of a polymorphic liver enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and variable serum proteins which were not correlated with age or sex. Multivariate and Bayesian analyses of these data indicate apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning bass within the upper Chesapeake Bay. If natal stream homing occurs, a sufficient number of wanderers may provide significant gene flow among river systems. The results suggest that long-term management of the fishery need not be totally on the basis of separate river units.

  14. A sigmoid model to predict gastric evacuation rates of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui fed juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Jean Beyer; Burley , Craig C.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water temperature, predator size, prey size, and prey number on gastric evacuation of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fed juvenile salmon. The smallmouth bass were allowed to feed voluntarily after 24–48 h of starvation and stomachs were pumped at intervals of 1–4 h until 90% of the stomach contents were evacuated (E90). Evacuation approximated an S-shaped curve over time, and a sigmoid model was developed to predict evacuation at varying water temperatures, total meal weights, predator sizes, and prey number. The rate of evacuation increased with increasing water temperature, meal weight, or predator size. The E90 increased with larger meal weights but decreased with increasing temperature or predator size. E90 ranged between 4 and 95 h, depending upon conditions. E90 was slower than those estimated previously for another predator of salmon, the stomachless northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis).

  15. Striped bass, temperature, and dissolved oxygen: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis has a paradoxical record of distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions. This record is analyzed for consistency with a hypothesis that striped bass are squeezed between their thermal and dissolved oxygen preferences or requirements. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports an inherent thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences alone or coupled with avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathology and overfishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 139 references, 12 figures.

  16. Plasma osmotic and electrolyte concentrations of largemouth bass from some acidic Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, D.E. Jr.; Maceina, M.J.; Nordlie, F.G.; Shireman, J.V.

    1985-05-01

    Five acidic clear (pH 3.7-4.9), three acidic colored (pH 4.1-4.6), and three neutral (pH 6.9-7.3) north-central Florida lakes were surveyed in 1983 to determine plasma osmotic and electrolyte concentrations, growth, and coefficients of condition for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Plasma osmotic concentrations averaged greater than 273 milliosmoles/kg in fish from acidic colored and circumneutral lakes, but averaged less than 269 milliosmoles/kg in four of the acidic clear lakes. Growth and coefficients of condition of largemouth bass > 305 mm total length in the acidic lakes were significantly lower than in the neutral lakes. Reductions in fish growth and condition, however, could be related to either acidic conditions or lake trophic status. 29 references, 3 tables.

  17. Retention of mercury in the muscle of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laarman, Percy W.; Willford, Wayne A.; Olson, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) were collected from Lake St. Clair and stocked in two earthen ponds in September 1970. Twenty-six months later, concentrations of total mercury in the fillets had declined 53% in the yellow perch and 59% in the rock bass; however, the mean weight of the fish increased 88 and 183%, respectively, during the same period. All of the reduction in mercury concentrations was attributable to dilution by growth. Slight discrepancies between the theoretical and observed reduction of mercury concentrations suggest an initial redistribution of residues from other tissues to the muscle and a continued incorporation of background amounts of mercury during growth.

  18. Artificial infestation of largemouth bass and walleye with glochidia of Lampsilis ventricosa (Pelecypoda: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Holland Bartels, L. E.; Mitchell, L.G.; Kammer, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The unionid mussel Lampsilis ventricosa is a bundant in the upper Mississippi River and provides a model for studies related to recovery of the endangered Higgins' eye mussel (Lampsilis higginsi). We tested the suitability of two species of fish species as hosts for glochidia of L. ventricosa. Laboratory-reared largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were artificially infested with the glochidia of L. ventricosa and held separately in two flowthrough tanks for 21 days. Tank bottoms were siphoned daily, and the materials collected were examined for detached glochidia and metamorphosed juveniles. Juveniles were found in both tanks from day 13 post-exposure through day 20, indicating that largemouth bass and walleyes are suitable hosts for the glochidia of L. ventricosa.

  19. Having a BLAST: Searchable transcriptome resources for the gilthead sea bream and the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Louro, Bruno; Marques, João Pedro; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2016-12-01

    The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are the most important aquaculture species in the Mediterranean Sea and since the last decade it has been seen an exponential increase in their available molecular resources. In order to improve accessibility to transcriptome resources, Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), mRNA sequences and raw read sequences were assembled and deposited in BLAST queryable databases. The publicly available sea bream and sea bass sequences (6.4 and 247.5 million) generated 45,094 and 68,117 assembled sequences, with, respectively, arithmetic mean size of 998 and 2125bp and N50 of 1302 and 2966bp. The assemblies will be regularly updated and new analytical tools added to the web server at http://sea.ccmar.ualg.pt.

  20. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on reproductive success of largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Quinn, Brian P; Denslow, Nancy D; Holm, Stewart E; Gross, Timothy S

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bleached and unbleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Bass were exposed to effluent concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for 28 and 56 d. Parameters measured included hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and vitellogenin (VTG). At the end of the 56-d period, bass were moved to hatchery ponds to evaluate spawning success. Spawning mats with eggs either were brought indoors for evaluation of fecundities, hatchabilities, and egg and fry size (measured at age 3 d), or were left in ponds and fry number and size recorded (average age of 14 d). Effluent exposure was verified by measuring resin acids (isopimaric, abietic. and dehydroabietic acids) in bile. Compared to controls, exposed bass had greater concentrations of resin acids in bile. In general, exposed females had lower concentrations of E2 and VTG (> or = 20% effluent), whereas males had lower concentrations of 11-KT (> or = 20% effluent) and increased E2 (> or = 20% effluent). The HSI values increased in females (> or = 10% effluent), and GSI values decreased in both sexes (> or = 40% effluent). Fecundity, egg size, and hatchability did not differ across treatments, but an increase in the frequency of fry abnormalities and a decrease in fry weights was observed at effluent exposures of 40% and higher. However, results from the pond study, revealed a significant reduction in fry growth and survival (> or = 10%). This decline may have been caused by an increased frequency of deformities, in conjunction with alterations of growth. These changes could have resulted from alterations in egg quality because of failure of parental reproductive systems, from acute embryo toxicity after translocation of contaminants from the mother to the developing embryo, or from both.

  1. Intersex (Testicular Oocytes) in smallmouth bass from the Potomac River and selected nearby drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Smith, D.R.; Young, J.A.; Hedrick, J.D.; Foster, S.W.; Reeser, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Intersex, or the presence of characteristics of both sexes, in fishes that are normally gonochoristic has been used as an indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. In 2003, during health assessments conducted in response to kills and a high prevalence of skin lesions observed in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in the South Branch of the Potomac River, the presence of immature oocytes within testes was noted. To evaluate this condition, a severity index (0-4) was developed based on the distribution of oocytes within the testes. Using gonad samples collected from 2003 to 2005, the number of histologic sections needed to accurately detect the condition in mature smallmouth bass was statistically evaluated. The reliability of detection depended on the severity index and the number of sections examined. Examining five transverse sections taken along the length of the gonad resulted in a greater than 90% probability of detecting testicular oocytes when the severity index exceeded 0.5. Using the severity index we compared smallmouth bass collected at selected sites within the South Branch during three seasons in 2004. Seasonal differences in severity and prevalence were observed. The highest prevalence and severity were consistently noted during the prespawn-spawning season, when compared with the postspawn season. In 2005, smallmouth bass were collected at selected out-of-basin sites in West Virginia where fish kills and external skin lesions have not been reported, as well as at sites in the Shenandoah River, Virginia (part of the Potomac drainage), where kills and lesions occurred in 2004-2005. The prevalence of testicular oocytes is discussed in terms of human population and agricultural intensity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. Molecular, behavioral, and performance responses of juvenile largemouth bass acclimated to an elevated carbon dioxide environment.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Clark E; Adhikari, Shivani; Wright, Adam W; Suski, Cory D

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic hypercarbia, either naturally occurring or anthropogenically induced, can have extensive impacts on aquatic environments and resident organisms. While the impact of acute hypercarbia exposure on the behavior and physiology of fishes has been well studied, relatively little work has examined the physiological impact and acclimation capacity of fishes to chronic hypercarbia. To better understand the impacts of prolonged hypercarbia exposure, largemouth bass were held at ambient CO2 (13 mg L(-1)) and elevated CO2 (31 mg L(-1); ≈ 21,000 µatm) for 58 days. Following this acclimation period, fish were subjected to three separate, yet complementary, experiments: (1) acute hypercarbia challenge of 120 mg L(-1) CO2 for 1 h to quantify physiological and molecular responses; (2) hypercarbia avoidance challenge to compare CO2 agitation and avoidance responses; and (3) swim performance challenge to quantify burst swimming performance. Acclimation to 31 mg L(-1) CO2 resulted in a significant constitutive upregulation of c-fos expression in erythrocytes, combined with significant constitutive expression of hsp70 in both gill and erythrocytes, relative to controls. Largemouth bass acclimated to elevated CO2 also had a reduced glucose response (relative to controls) following an acute CO2 exposure, indicating a reduced stress response to CO2 stressors. In addition, largemouth bass acclimated to elevated CO2 conditions required 50 % higher CO2 concentrations to illicit agitation behaviors and displayed prolonged burst swimming abilities in high CO2 environments relative to controls. Together, results demonstrate that largemouth bass exposed to chronic hypercarbia may possess a physiological advantage during periods of elevated CO2 relative to naïve fish, which may permit increased performance in hypercarbia.

  3. Genetic effects and estimates for the heritability of size in fingerling hybrid striped bass reared indoors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability of body length and body weight was evaluated in 44 families of hybrid striped bass raised in replicated indoor tanks to 42 days post hatch. Fingerlings averaged 36.7 (' 2.6 SD) (range 27.7-45.3) mm and 0.53 (' 0.10) (0.22-1.22) g across all families after 42 days of indoor rearing. An...

  4. Examination of spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) pollutant bioaccumulation in San Diego Bay, San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) is an important recreational sport and subsistence food fish within San Diego Bay, a large industrialized harbor in San Diego, California. Despite this importance, few studies examining the species life history relative to pollutant tissue concentrations and the consumptive fishery exist. This study utilized data from three independent spotted sand bass studies from 1989 to 2002 to investigate PCB, DDT, and mercury tissue concentrations relative to spotted sand bass age and growth in San Diego Bay, with subsequent comparisons to published pollutant advisory levels and fishery regulations for recreational and subsistence consumption of the species. Subsequent analysis focused on examining temporal and spatial differences for different regions of San Diego Bay. Study results for growth confirmed previous work, finding the species to exhibit highly asymptotic growth, making tissue pollutant concentrations at initial take size difficult if not impossible to predict. This was corroborated by independent tissue concentration results for mercury, which found no relationship between fish size and pollutant bioaccumulation observed. However, a positive though highly variable relationship was observed between fish size and PCB tissue concentration. Despite these findings, a significant proportion of fish exhibited pollutant levels above recommended state recreational angler consumption advisory levels for PCBs and mercury, especially for fish above the minimum take size, making the necessity of at-size predictions less critical. Lastly, no difference in tissue concentration was found temporally or spatially within San Diego Bay. PMID:24282672

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) Tapasin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; da Silva, Diogo V; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian tapasin (TPN) is a key member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway, being part of the multi-protein complex called the peptide loading complex (PLC). Several studies describe its important roles in stabilizing empty MHC class I complexes, facilitating peptide loading and editing the repertoire of bound peptides, with impact on CD8(+) T cell immune responses. In this work, the gene and cDNA of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) glycoprotein TPN have been isolated and characterized. The coding sequence has a 1329 bp ORF encoding a 442-residue precursor protein with a predicted 24-amino acid leader peptide, generating a 418-amino acid mature form that retains a conserved N-glycosylation site, three conserved mammalian tapasin motifs, two Ig superfamily domains, a transmembrane domain and an ER-retention di-lysine motif at the C-terminus, suggestive of a function similar to mammalian tapasins. Similar to the human counterpart, the sea bass TPN gene comprises 8 exons, some of which correspond to separate functional domains of the protein. A three-dimensional homology model of sea bass tapasin was calculated and is consistent with the structural features described for the human molecule. Together, these results support the concept that the basic structure of TPN has been maintained through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on cell-mediated immunity and class I antigen presentation pathway in particular, in this important fish species.

  6. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  7. A simple model for predicting survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, G.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a controlled experiment in the laboratory to assess the influence of anatomical hooking location and water temperature on survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Survival was 98% (58 of 59 fish) among fish that were hand-hooked within the oral cavity (including the gills), whereas survival was 66% (33 of 50 fish) among fish that were hand-hooked in the esophagus. Survival of hooked fish was not significantly influenced by water temperature (7-27??C) or the hooking location X water temperature interaction. We combined our results with prior research to develop a predictive model of largemouth bass survival, which was 98.3% (SD = 1.87%) for fish hooked in the oral cavity and 55.0% (SD = 9.70%) for fish hooked in the esophagus. The model is valid for water temperatures ranging from 7??C to 27??C and allows one to estimate, with known precision, the survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass without the need for controlled studies or for holding fish in pens or cages to assess delayed mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. Melatonin rhythms in European sea bass plasma and eye: influence of seasonal photoperiod and water temperature.

    PubMed

    García-Allegue, R; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2001-08-01

    The transduction of seasonal information from the environment (i.e., photoperiod and water temperature) into melatonin rhythms was studied in sea bass. Plasma and ocular melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was determined in autumn, winter, spring and summer (experiment 1) under natural culture conditions, and in the summer and winter solstices under both natural and "6-month out-of-phase" photoperiods (experiment 2). At each sampling, 48 sea bass were sacrificed at a rate of 6 fish every 3 hr and the level of melatonin was determined in plasma and eye cup samples by ELISA. In experiment 1, significant diel changes were observed in plasma melatonin, with nocturnal melatonin varying from 144 pg/mL (summer) to 23 pg/mL (autumn), while diurnal melatonin remained low, around 8 pg/mL throughout the year. In experiment 2, the photoperiod length was shown to control the duration of the nocturnal melatonin rise, while the water temperature determined the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm. Ocular melatonin peaked during daytime in autumn and winter, but no significant changes were detected in summer and spring. In conclusion, plasma melatonin rhythms in sea bass reflect the pineal capacity to integrate seasonal information and supply precise calendar information, which may synchronize different physiological processes such as annual reproduction and feeding rhythms.

  9. Summer habitat selection by striped bass, Morone Saxatilis, in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, H.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Wilson, J.L.

    1980-02-01

    Summer habitat selection patterns of 18 adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Cherokee Reservoir were monitored with externally attached temperature-sensing acoustic or radio transmitters from June through September 1977. Mortalities of adult striped bass in this reservoir were hypothesized to be related to high summer temperatures and low dissolved oxygen (DO). The inhabited areas or refuges differed from noninhabited areas by maintaining temperatures less than or equal to 22 C and DO concentrations greater than 5 mg/liter. Total water hardness, pH, and water transparency were not significantly different among refuges and noninhabited areas. Movement of fish outside refuges occurred more frequently and for longer periods during June when the summer pattern of high temperatures and low DO was less severe. Fish experienced temperatures between 15 and 27 C with mean temperatures of individuals ranging from 18.5 to 22.0 C. Several tagged fish migrated outside the refuges and selected the lowest available temperature, generally near 21 C, even though DO concentrations at these temperatures were 3 mg/liter or less. Long-term survival of tagged and nontagged fish outside refuges was undetermined because no fish were tracked outside a refuge for more than 12 days without being lost. This study indicates that temperature strongly influences the behavior of striped bass and that adults of this species may have a thermal preferendum of approximately 21 C.

  10. Genetic population structure of US atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Audemard, Corinne A; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Darden, Tanya L; Denson, Michael R; Reece, Kimberly S; Carlsson, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated a stable population structure more than 2 years at all locations. Significant structure was absent within Hudson River, whereas weak but significant genetic differences were observed between northern and southern samples in Chesapeake Bay. The largest and smallest effective striped bass population sizes were found in Chesapeake Bay and South Carolina, respectively. Coalescence analysis indicated that the highest historical gene flow has been between Chesapeake Bay and Hudson River populations, and that exchange has not been unidirectional. Bayesian analysis of contemporary migration indicated that Chesapeake Bay serves as a major source of migrants for Atlantic coastal regions from Albemarle Sound northward. In addition to examining population genetic structure, the data acquired during this project were capable of serving as a baseline for assigning fish with unknown origin to source region.

  11. Genetic characterization and transcription analyses of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) isg15 gene.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Patricia; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fish interferons are cytokines involved in its resistance to viral infections by inducing the transcription of several interferon-induced genes, such as isg15. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of the European sea bass isg15 gene, describing the regulatory motifs found in its sequence. In addition, an in vivo analysis of transcription in response to betanodavirus (RGNNV genotype) and poly I:C has been performed. The analysis of the resulting sequences showed that sea bass isg15 gene is composed of two exons and a single 276-bp intron located at the 5'-UTR region. The full length cDNA is 1143-bp, including a 102-bp 5'-UTR region, a 474-bp ORF, and a 291-bp 3'-UTR region. Several mRNA-regulatory elements, including three unusual ATTTA instability motifs in the intron, and four ATTTA motifs along with a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element in the 3'-UTR region, have been found in this sequence. The in vivo analyses revealed a similar kinetics and level of transcription in fish brain and head kidney after poly I:C inoculation; however, the induction caused by RGNNV started earlier in brain, where the upregulation of isg15 gene transcription was high. The present study contributes to further characterize the European sea bass IFN I response against RGNNV infections.

  12. Construction of a robust microarray from a non-model species (largemouth bass) using pyrosequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Griffitt, Robert J.; Liu, Li; Kroll, Kevin J.; Farmerie, William G.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    A novel custom microarray for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was designed with sequences obtained from a normalized cDNA library using the 454 Life Sciences GS-20 pyrosequencer. This approach yielded in excess of 58 million bases of high-quality sequence. The sequence information was combined with 2,616 reads obtained by traditional suppressive subtractive hybridizations to derive a total of 31,391 unique sequences. Annotation and coding sequences were predicted for these transcripts where possible. 16,350 annotated transcripts were selected as target sequences for the design of the custom largemouth bass oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray was validated by examining the transcriptomic response in male largemouth bass exposed to 17β-œstradiol. Transcriptomic responses were assessed in liver and gonad, and indicated gene expression profiles typical of exposure to œstradiol. The results demonstrate the potential to rapidly create the tools necessary to assess large scale transcriptional responses in non-model species, paving the way for expanded impact of toxicogenomics in ecotoxicology. PMID:19936325

  13. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks.

    PubMed

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  14. Relationship between vegetation coverage and abundance, size, and diet of juvenile largemouth bass during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Pugh, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were collected by electrofishing during October through March 1992-1994 from coves (???25 ha) covered with aquatic macrophytes over 1-65% of their area. Mean total length of juvenile largemouth bass was highest in coves with the least vegetated cover, but increase in mean length between October and March was highest in coves having near 20% vegetation coverage. Catch per unit effort decreased between October and March; decreases were least at vegetation coverages near 10-20%, highest at coverages of 5% or less, and intermediate at coverages of 30-65%. By March, these disparate decreases contributed to the formation of a dome-like relationship between vegetation coverage and catch per unit effort. Consumption of fish foods was highest when vegetation coverage was low, but decreased asymptotically as coverage increased; consumption of invertebrate foods increased at low coverage, peaked near 20-30% coverage, and decreased at higher coverage. We suggest that greater length increases and greater abundance at 10-25% vegetation coverage were stimulated by a favorable blend of food availability and cover. Our results support reports that maximum recruitment of largemouth bass occurs at intermediate levels of vegetation coverage, and we further suggests that such increased production is reinforced during winter, when survival, invertebrate consumption, and length increases are highest at intermediate levels of vegetation coverage.

  15. European sea bass show behavioural resilience to near-future ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Duteil, M.; Pope, E. C.; Pérez-Escudero, A.; de Polavieja, G. G.; Fürtbauer, I.; Brown, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA)—caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2)—is thought to be a major threat to marine ecosystems and has been shown to induce behavioural alterations in fish. Here we show behavioural resilience to near-future OA in a commercially important and migratory marine finfish, the Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Sea bass were raised from eggs at 19°C in ambient or near-future OA (1000 µatm pCO2) conditions and n = 270 fish were observed 59–68 days post-hatch using automated tracking from video. Fish reared under ambient conditions, OA conditions, and fish reared in ambient conditions but tested in OA water showed statistically similar movement patterns, and reacted to their environment and interacted with each other in comparable ways. Thus our findings indicate behavioural resilience to near-future OA in juvenile sea bass. Moreover, simulated agent-based models indicate that our analysis methods are sensitive to subtle changes in fish behaviour. It is now important to determine whether the absences of any differences persist under more ecologically relevant circumstances and in contexts which have a more direct bearing on individual fitness. PMID:28018656

  16. Bass-SIR model for diffusion of new products in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibich, Gadi

    2016-09-01

    We consider the diffusion of new products in social networks, where consumers who adopt the product can later "recover" and stop influencing others to adopt the product. We show that the diffusion is not described by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model, but rather by a new model, the Bass-SIR model, which combines the Bass model for diffusion of new products with the SIR model for epidemics. The phase transition of consumers from nonadopters to adopters is described by a nonstandard Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model, in which clusters growth is limited by adopters' recovery. Therefore, diffusion in the Bass-SIR model only depends on the local structure of the social network, but not on the average distance between consumers. Consequently, unlike the SIR model, a small-worlds structure has a negligible effect on the diffusion. Moreover, unlike the SIR model, there is no threshold value above which the diffusion will peter out. Surprisingly, diffusion on scale-free networks is nearly identical to that on Cartesian ones.

  17. European sea bass show behavioural resilience to near-future ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Duteil, M; Pope, E C; Pérez-Escudero, A; de Polavieja, G G; Fürtbauer, I; Brown, M R; King, A J

    2016-11-01

    Ocean acidification (OA)-caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2)-is thought to be a major threat to marine ecosystems and has been shown to induce behavioural alterations in fish. Here we show behavioural resilience to near-future OA in a commercially important and migratory marine finfish, the Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Sea bass were raised from eggs at 19°C in ambient or near-future OA (1000 µatm pCO2) conditions and n = 270 fish were observed 59-68 days post-hatch using automated tracking from video. Fish reared under ambient conditions, OA conditions, and fish reared in ambient conditions but tested in OA water showed statistically similar movement patterns, and reacted to their environment and interacted with each other in comparable ways. Thus our findings indicate behavioural resilience to near-future OA in juvenile sea bass. Moreover, simulated agent-based models indicate that our analysis methods are sensitive to subtle changes in fish behaviour. It is now important to determine whether the absences of any differences persist under more ecologically relevant circumstances and in contexts which have a more direct bearing on individual fitness.

  18. Histologic and molecular characterization of Edwardsiella piscicida infection in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Fogelson, Susan B; Petty, Barbara D; Reichley, Stephen R; Ware, Cynthia; Bowser, Paul R; Crim, Marcus J; Getchell, Rodman G; Sams, Kelly L; Marquis, Hélène; Griffin, Matt J

    2016-05-01

    The genus Edwardsiella is composed of a diverse group of facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria that can produce disease in a wide variety of hosts, including birds, reptiles, mammals, and fish. Our report describes the isolation and identification of Edwardsiella piscicida associated with chronic mortality events in 2 separate captive largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) populations in New York and Florida. Wet-mount biopsies of skin mucus, gill, kidney, and spleen from several affected largemouth bass contained significant numbers of motile bacteria. Histologic examination revealed multifocal areas of necrosis scattered throughout the heart, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, and spleen. Many of the necrotic foci were encapsulated or replaced by discrete granulomas and associated with colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Initial phenotypic and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometric analysis against existing spectral databases of recovered isolates identified these bacteria as Edwardsiella tarda Subsequent molecular analysis using repetitive sequence mediated and species-specific PCR, as well as 16S rRNA, rpoB, and gyrB sequences, classified these isolates as E. piscicida As a newly designated taxon, E. piscicida should be considered as a differential for multiorgan necrosis and granulomas in largemouth bass.

  19. Influence of nitrite and chloride concentrations on survival and hematological profiles of striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Mazik, P.M.; Parker, N.C. ); Hinman, M.L.; Winkelmann, D.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Simco, B.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The 24-h median lethal concentration of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) for striped bass Morone saxatilis was 163 mg/L in static toxicity tests. Exogenous chloride ions increased the tolerance of the fish for NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}; CaCl{sub 2} was more than twice as effective as NaCl. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, cortisol, and methemoglobin were correlated positively with environmental NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. Plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and methemoglobin were correlated negatively with environmental Cl{sup {minus}}, but cortisol was not reduced by the presence of environmental Cl{sup {minus}}. Striped bass maintained NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} in the plasma (0-45 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L) at concentrations below those in the environment (0-250 mg NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/L). However, striped bass were sensitive to NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} that entered the plasma; methemoglobin levels greater than 60% and plasma NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} levels greater than 70 mg/L resulted in significant mortalities.

  20. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10-37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24-43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  1. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content. PMID:28265278

  2. Characterization of photochromogenic Mycobacterium spp. from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, D T; Helenthal, A M; Rhodes, M W; Vogelbein, W K; Kator, H I

    2011-06-16

    A large diversity of Mycobacterium spp. has been isolated from striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The new species M. shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii are the dominant isolates, while the classical fish pathogen M. marinum is found much less frequently. M. fortuitum and M. chelonae, other Mycobacterium spp. known to commonly infect fishes, have not yet been aseptically isolated from striped bass within Chesapeake Bay. While M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii have been phenotypically and genotypically characterized, other less common mycobacterial isolates have not. In the present study, we describe 17 photochromogenic isolates from Chesapeake Bay striped bass using phenotypic characterization and multilocus sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. Genetic characterization reveals that these isolates are related to widely divergent portions of the mycobacterial phylogeny; however, some interesting trends are observed, such as a majority of isolates (10/17) belonging to the M. simiae-related grouping. Five additional isolates were assigned to the slow-growing mycobacteria (including 2 identified as M. marinum), while 2 are clearly shown to belong genetically to the fast-growing mycobacteria.

  3. Distribution and migration of adult striped bass in Lake Whitney, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farquhar, B.W.; Gutreuter, S.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty adult (3.2a??8.6 kg) striped bass Morone saxatilis were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked for up to 475 d in 9,510-hectare Lake Whitney, a Texas reservoir, to determine seasonal distribution, migration patterns, and water temperatures occupied. Striped bass distribution in summer was limited to an area near the dam, where they survived temperatures as high as 29.0A?C. Tagged fish generally were found in the coolest water available (27.0a??29.0A?C) that contained adequate dissolved oxygen (>4.0 mg/L) in summer and occupied the warmest water (7.4a??8.8A?C) in winter. For the rest of the year, the fish were distributed throughout available water temperatures. Beginning in autumn, most striped bass moved up the reservoir to and into the main tributaries and remained there until spring, when they returned to the main reservoir. No spawning run up main tributaries was observed in either of the two study years, possibly due to low inflows. Individual fish displayed a preference for certain areas to which they returned yearly.

  4. A longitudinal, multilevel analysis of homicide against children aged 0-9 years using state-level characteristics: 1979-2007.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily; Vanderminden, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Annually, over a thousand children are the victims of homicide in the United States Homicide among younger children, 0-9 years of age, is usually perpetrated by parents and caregivers. Researchers neither have tracked changes in the homicide rate among young children over time nor have they used theory to understand what factors may drive these changes. In this analysis of state-level data, we used longitudinal growth modeling and ecological theory to examine changes in homicide rate against children aged 0-9 years from 1979 to 2007. Our results indicate that states are relatively consistent, over time, in their homicide rates. Furthermore, a cultural context of criminal and risky behavior is positively associated with homicide against children. We discuss implications for future research and prevention.

  5. Receptor specificity and functional comparison of recombinant sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) gonadotropins (FSH and LH) produced in different host systems.

    PubMed

    Molés, Gregorio; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz, Iciar; Crespo, Berta; Martínez, Iago; Mañanós, Evaristo; Gómez, Ana

    2011-06-01

    Different yields, biopotency, and in vivo pharmacokinetics are obtained for recombinant sea bass gonadoltropins depending on the production system and DNA construct, but they show specific activation of their corresponding receptors. Gonadotropins (GTHs) are glycoprotein hormones that play a major role in the regulation of gonadal functions. Recently, we succeeded in isolating the native sea bass Fsh from sea bass pituitaries, but to ensure the availability of bioactive GTHs and no cross-contamination with other related glycoproteins, recombinant sea bass GTHs were produced using two expression systems-insect and mammalian cells-and different constructs that yielded tethered or noncovalently bound dimers. Their production levels, binding specificity to their homologous cognate receptors, and bioactivity were investigated and compared. Both expression systems were successful in the generation of bioactive recombinant GTHs, but insect Sf9 cells yielded higher amounts of recombinant proteins than mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) stable clones. All recombinant GTHs activated their cognate receptors without cross-ligand binding and were able to stimulate sea bass gonadal steroidogenesis in vitro, although with different biopotencies. To assess their use for in vivo applications, their half-life in sea bass plasma was evaluated. Sf9-GTHs had a lower in vivo stability compared with CHO-GTHs due to their rapid clearance from the blood circulation. Cell-dependent glycosylation could be contributing to the final in vivo stability and biopotency of these recombinant glycoproteins. In conclusion, both insect and mammalian expression systems produced bioactive sea bass recombinant gonadotropins, although with particular features useful for different proposes (e.g., antibody production or in vivo studies, respectively).

  6. Effect of salinity on expression of branchial ion transporters in striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Madsen, Steffen Søndergaard; Borski, Russell John

    2004-12-01

    The time course of osmoregulatory adjustments and expressional changes of three key ion transporters in the gill were investigated in the striped bass during salinity acclimations. In three experiments, fish were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW), from SW to FW, and from 15-ppt brackish water (BW) to either FW or SW, respectively. Each transfer induced minor deflections in serum [Na+] and muscle water content, both being corrected rapidly (24 hr). Transfer from FW to SW increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter expression after 3 days. Abundance of Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA and protein was unchanged. Changes in Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter protein were preceded by increased mRNA expression after 24 hr. Expression of V-type H+-ATPase mRNA decreased after 3 days. Transfer from SW to FW induced no change in expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase. However, Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter mRNA and protein levels decreased after 24 hr and 7 days, respectively. Expression of H+-ATPase mRNA increased in response to FW after 7 days. In BW fish transferred to FW and SW, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was stimulated by both challenges, suggesting both a hyper- and a hypo-osmoregulatory response of the enzyme. Acclimation of striped bass to SW occurs on a rapid time scale. This seems partly to rely on the relative high abundance of gill Na+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+,2Cl- co-transporter in FW fish. In a separate study, we found a smaller response to SW in expression of these ion transport proteins in striped bass when compared with the less euryhaline brown trout. In both FW and SW, NEM-sensitive gill H+-ATPase activity was negligible in striped bass and approximately 10-fold higher in brown trout. This suggests that in striped bass Na+-uptake in FW may rely more on a relatively high abundance/activity of Na+,K+-ATPase compared to trout, where H+-ATPase is critical for establishing a thermodynamically favorable gradient for Na+-uptake.

  7. Confronting White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalwell, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Even as the United States becomes more diverse, a new era of "white flight" is unfolding. Whether they live in urban, suburban or rural communities, white students are likely to attend schools that reinforce their perceptions of cultural dominance. The average white student attends a school where 77 percent of the student body is of their race.…

  8. Valuation and the consequences of multiple sources of environmental deterioration: The case of the New York striped bass fishery

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.R. ); Buerger, R.B. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper examines two sources of environmental degradation in the New York striped bass fishery. The first is the decline in environmental quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the spawning ground for the majority of fish in New York waters. The second is the PCB contamination of striped bass from the Hudson River, the other primary spawning ground for striped bass in New York waters. The paper develops methodologies for examining loss in economic value, when the loss stems from two sources. The estimates resulting from the application of these methodologies suggest that the general deterioration of the Chesapeake Bay generated 2[center dot]3 to 7[center dot]7 million dollars in annual losses to the New York striped bass fishery, and that the annual losses from PCB contamination of the Hudson striped bass are between 0[center dot]745 and 3[center dot]7 million dollars. The paper also discusses how the dual sources of degradation generate barriers to the formation of effective management policy, and develops policy recommendations based on the estimated losses. 9 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. δ13C and δ15N values in scales of Micropterus salmoides largemouth bass as a freshwater environmental indicator.

    PubMed

    Inamura, O; Zhang, J; Minagawa, M

    2012-01-15

    We have investigated the effectiveness of using the Micropterus salmoides largemouth bass, which is a top predator found throughout the world, as the index of a hydrosphere environment and its food chain. To this end, we used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis (SIA). Largemouth bass were collected from eight dam reservoirs and two ponds in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Toyama is located in central Japan and features a variety of distinct geographical environments, a result of the 3000-m elevation that changes over short distances, and abundant water systems. The mean δ(13)C and δ(15)N values for the lipid-extracted muscle of largemouth bass from all sampling locations showed large variability, but there were only small standard deviations at each sampling location. The isotope ratios for largemouth bass express the characteristics of each investigated hydrosphere environment and food chain. A very high correlation (δ(13)C: Y(scale) = 0.96 X(muscle) + 1.58, R(2) = 0.98, δ(15)N: Y(scale) = 0.92 X(muscle) - 1.15, R(2) = 0.95) of SIA values was found between largemouth bass scales and lipid-extracted muscles, which suggests that the more easily analyzed scales are useful as SIA samples for the monitoring and comparison of hydrosphere environments throughout the world.

  10. Estimates of growth and mortality of under-yearling smallmouth bass in Spednic Lake, from 1970 through 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the product of a 2013 cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey, the International Joint Commission, and the Maine Bureau of Sea Run Fisheries and Habitat to quantify the effects of meteorological conditions (from 1970 through 2008) on the survival of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the first year of life in Spednic Lake. This report documents the data and methods used to estimate historical daily mean lake surface-water temperatures from early spring through late autumn, which were used to estimate the dates of smallmouth bass spawning, young-of-the-year growth, and probable strength of each year class. Mortality of eggs and fry in nests was modeled and estimated to exceed 10 percent in 17 of 39 years; during those years, cold temperatures in the early part of the spawning period resulted in mortality to fish that were estimated to have had the longest growing season and attain the greatest length. Modeled length-dependent overwinter survival combined with early mortality identified 1986, 1994, 1996, and 2004 as the years in which temperature was likely to have presented the greatest challenge to year-class strength in the Spednic Lake fishery. Age distribution of bass in fisheries on lakes in the St. Croix and surrounding watersheds confirmed that conditions in 1986 and 1996 resulted in weak smallmouth bass year classes (age-four or age-five bass representing less than 15 percent of a 100-fish sample).

  11. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Thomas K.; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-01-01

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species. PMID:28374772

  12. Genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes of IGF-II SNPs and their association with growth traits in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Bai, Junjie; Hu, Yinchang; Ye, Xing; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun

    2012-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is involved in the regulation of somatic growth and metabolism in many fishes. IGF-II is an important candidate gene for growth traits in fishes and its polymorphisms were associated with the growth traits. The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) IGF-II gene and to analyze potential association between IGF-II gene polymorphisms and growth traits in largemouth bass. Four SNPs (C127T, T1012G, C1836T and C1861T) were detected and verified by DNA sequencing in the largemouth bass IGF-II gene. These SNPs were found to organize into seven haplotypes, which formed 13 diplotypes (haplotype pairs). Association analysis showed that four individual SNPs were not significantly associated with growth traits. Significant associations were, however, noted between diplotypes and growth traits (P < 0.05). The fish with H1H3 (CTCC/CGCC) and H1H5 (CTCC/TTTT) had greater body weight than those with H1H1 (CTCC/CTCC), H1H2 (CTCC/TGTT) and H4H4 (TGCT/TGCT/) did. Our data suggest a significant association between genetic variations in the largemouth bass IGF-II gene and growth traits. IGF-II SNPs could be used as potential genetic markers in future breeding programs of largemouth bass.

  13. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues. PMID:27706080

  14. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3'-UTR, a 455 bp 5'-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 10⁶ cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  15. Parents’ socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0–6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Arpi, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0–6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. Design A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population-based registers from Statistics Denmark. Setting Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. Subjects The population of children aged 0–6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Main outcome measures High use of antibiotics identified by number of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents’ education, employment status, income, child’s sex, and ethnic background. Results Ten percent of children accounted for 25% of the total use DDD. There was a clear tendency that the risk for high antibiotic use increased as parental educational level decreased. The risk for high use was the highest among children of mothers and fathers with basic schooling ≤10 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29–1.98, and OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.34–1.91, respectively). Low income and unemployment were not associated with high antibiotic use. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors can only partially explain differences in antibiotic use. Further research is needed to clarify the unequal distribution of antibiotic prescribing and the association between high antibiotic use and low educational level. This would provide valuable information in the planning of strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics among children. Key Points The Capital Region of Denmark has the highest rate of antibiotic prescribing in Denmark.Preschool children are among the age groups with the highest use.Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use.Low parental educational level was

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALLMOUTH BASS QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY TO MEASURE VTG GENE INDUCTION IN MALE FISH FROM THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE POTOMAC RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high incidence of intersex bass, primarily male smallmouth bass with previtellogenic oocytes, exists in the south branch of the Potomac River. Exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be the cause of these abnormalities. Potential sources of EDCs to the river are ...

  17. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Özkan; İnuğur, Müge; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-07-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5 kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44 mg/100 g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26 mg/100 g and 23.61 mg/100 g were recorded at 2.5 and 5 kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5 kGy at +4C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5 kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5 kGy irradiated sea bass.

  18. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  19. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0-14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungchan; Chung, Jae Min; Kang, Dong Il; Ryu, Dong Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Sang Don

    2016-10-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0-14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern.

  20. The Change of Stretched Penile Length and Anthropometric Data in Korean Children Aged 0–14 Years: Comparative Study of Last 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There has been a great improvement in height and weight of Korean children owing to economic development over the last 25 years. This study aimed to evaluate the penile length of Korean children today and to compare it with a previous Korean study reported in 1987. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 909 Korean boys aged 0–14 years who had been brought to outpatient clinics of five tertiary hospitals (Busan, Ulsan, and Changwon) between September 2013 and May 2015. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured and the testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL). Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the result of our study and the study reported in 1987. SPL of Korean children gradually increased from 4.1 ± 0.8 cm at 0-1 year old to 9.6 ± 3.0 cm at 13-14 years old, the most rapidly during the age of 13. While body weight and testicular size significantly increased from 1987 in most of age groups, there were no significant changes in SPL although there was in some age groups. Height decreased in the infants < 1 year old and increased in the children > 6 years old. With the great economic development over the last quarter century in Korea, height, body weight, and testicular size of children significantly increased but there was no significant change in SPL except penile growth pattern. PMID:27550493

  1. Application Of A Dynamic Model to Assess Geomorphic and Hydrologic Controls on Age-0 Colorado Pikeminnow Distribution in the Green River, Colorado And Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of field data and development and application of a dynamic model indicate that water releases from Flaming Gorge Dam have a large potential effect on larval drift and distribution of age-0 Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the middle Green River. The model predicts that high releases at the time of drift greatly increase the proportion of the population transported beyond the study area to unfavorable river environments. The model also predicts that channel simplification caused by flow regulation results in a more even longitudinal distribution of larval fish habitat. Colorado pikeminnow are a federally endangered species endemic to the Colorado River basin that utilize backwaters during their larval stage. The present agency-mandated field-sampling program for backwater habitats is probably inadequate, because it takes place at a time when the model predicts that most larval fish have drifted beyond the study area. Development of the model shows that the role of the geomorphic and hydraulic attributes that control larval drift and transport into backwaters, and that were parameterized in the model, are not well known.

  2. Potential error with in situ surveys of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, as determined by radio-telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In situ surveys using scuba are important tools in the management of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in boreal, clear lakes of North America. Population estimates that are derived from such surveys may be erroneous if the size composition of the fish observed by divers differs from that of the entire population. Forty-four adult smallmouth bass of three size classes were radio-tagged and tracked during the summer of 1993 (mid June to early September) in Green Lake, Maine, USA, to investigate possible size-related error from observations by divers being towed along the lake shore. Our results indicate that scuba divers may fail to count a significant portion of large smallmouth bass during late summer (mid July to early September), compared to small- or medium-sized fish. The results suggest that scuba surveys should be conducted during early summer (mid June to mid July) to derive more accurate population estimates.

  3. Estrogen-induced yolk precursors in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: Status and perspectives on multiplicity and functioning of vitellogenins.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibañez, Antonio José; Amano, Haruna; Koksoy, Sadi; Sullivan, Craig V

    2015-09-15

    The estrogen-inducible egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) has received considerable scientific attention by virtue of its central importance in determination of oocyte growth and egg quality in this important aquaculture species. However, the multiplicity of vitellogenins in the sea bass has only recently been examined. Recent cloning and homology analyses have revealed that the sea bass possesses the three forms of vitellogenin, VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC, reported to occur in some other highly evolved teleosts. Progress has been made in assessing the relative abundance and special structural features of the three Vtgs and their likely roles in oocyte maturation and embryonic nutrition. This report discusses these findings in the context of our prior knowledge of vitellogenesis in this species and of the latest advances in our understanding of the evolution and function of multiple Vtgs in acanthomorph fishes.

  4. Toxicity of agricultural subsurface drainwater from the San Joaquin Valley, California to juvenile chinook salmon and striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Jennings, Mark R.; Wiedmeyer, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (40-50 mm total length, TL) and striped bass Morone saxatilis (30-40 mm TL) were exposed to serial dilutions (100, 50, 25, and 12.5%) of agricultural subsurface drainwater (WWD), reconstituted drainwater (RWWD), and reconstituted seawater (IO). Agricultural subsurface drainwater contained naturally elevated concentrations of major ions (such as sodium and sulfate) and trace elements (especially boron and selenium), RWWD contained concentrations of major ions that mimicked those in WWD but trace elements were not elevated, and IO contained concentrations of total dissolved salt that were similar to those in WWD and RWWD but chloride replaced sulfate as the dominant anion. After 28 d of static exposure, over 75% of the chinook salmon in 100% WWD had died, whereas none had died in other dilutions and water types. Growth of chinook salmon in WWD and RWWD, but not in IO, exhibited dilution responses. All striped bass died in 100% WWD within 23 d, whereas 19 of 20 striped bass had died in 100% RWWD after 28 d. In contrast, none died in 100% IO. Growth of striped bass was impaired only in WWD. Fish in WWD accumulated as much as 200 μg/g (dry-weight basis) of boron, whereas fish in control water accumulated less than 3.1 μg/g. Although potentially toxic concentrations of selenium occurred in WWD (geometric means, 158-218 μg/L), chinook salmon and striped bass exposed to this water type accumulated 5.7 μg Se/g or less. These findings indicate that WWD was toxic to chinook salmon and striped bass. Judging from available data, the toxicity of WWD was due primarily to high concentrations of major ions present in atypical ratios, to high concentrations of sulfate, or to both. High concentrations of boron and selenium also may have contributed to the toxicity of WWD, but their effects were not clearly delineated.

  5. There's More to Groove than Bass in Electronic Dance Music: Why Some People Won't Dance to Techno.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Brian C; Hofmann, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between audio descriptors for groove-based electronic dance music (EDM) and raters' perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor responses. From 198 musical excerpts (length: 15 sec.) representing 11 subgenres of EDM, 19 low-level audio feature descriptors were extracted. A principal component analysis of the feature vectors indicated that the musical excerpts could effectively be classified using five complex measures, describing the rhythmical properties of: (a) the high-frequency band, (b) the mid-frequency band, and (c) the low-frequency band, as well as overall fluctuations in (d) dynamics, and (e) timbres. Using these five complex audio measures, four meaningful clusters of the EDM excerpts emerged with distinct musical attributes comprising music with: (a) isochronous bass and static timbres, (b) isochronous bass with fluctuating dynamics and rhythmical variations in the mid-frequency range, (c) non-isochronous bass and fluctuating timbres, and (d) non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies. Raters (N = 99) were each asked to respond to four musical excerpts using a four point Likert-Type scale consisting of items representing cognitive (n = 9), affective (n = 9), and psychomotor (n = 3) domains. Musical excerpts falling under the cluster of "non-isochronous bass with rhythmical variations in the high frequencies" demonstrated the overall highest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Musical samples falling under the cluster of "isochronous bass with static timbres" demonstrated the overall lowest composite scores as evaluated by the raters. Moreover, music preference was shown to significantly affect the systematic patterning of raters' responses for those with a musical preference for "contemporary" music, "sophisticated" music, and "intense" music.

  6. Characterization of the annual regulation of reproductive and immune parameters on the testis of European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Sánchez-Hernández, Miriam; García-Alcázar, Alicia; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-10-01

    The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., is a seasonal gonochoristic species, the males of which are generally mature during their second year of life. It has been demonstrated that cytokines and immune cells play a key role in the testicular development. This reproductive-immune interaction might be very important in the sea bass since several pathogens are able to colonise the gonad and persist in this tissue, altering further reproductive functions and spreading disease. This study aims to investigate the reproductive cycle of 1-year European sea bass males by analysing cell proliferation and apoptosis and the expression profile of some reproductive and immune-related genes in the testis, as well as the serum sex steroid levels. Our data demonstrate that, in 1-year-old European sea bass males, the testis undergoes the spermatogenesis process and that the reproductive and immune parameters analysed varied during the reproductive cycle. In the testis, the highest proliferative rates were recorded at the spermatogenesis stage, while the highest apoptotic rates were recorded at the spawning stage. We have also analysed, for the first time in European sea bass males, the serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone and the gene expression profile of the enzymes implied in their production, determining that at least E2 might be involved in the regulation of the reproductive cycle. Some immune relevant genes, including cytokines, lymphocyte receptors, and anti-viral and anti-bacterial molecules were detected in the testis of naïve European sea bass specimens, and their expression profile was related to the stages of the reproductive cycle, suggesting an important role for the defence of the reproductive tissues.

  7. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  8. Isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Kaattari, I.; Gauthier, D.; Vogelbein, W.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis of Chesapeake Bay, USA, was first diagnosed in 1997 based on the presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria in skin and spleen. To confirm histopathology, bacteriological detection and identification of mycobacteria were begun using splenic tissue from fish with and without skin ulcerations. On the basis of initial studies using a variety of selective and nonselective media, decontamination, homogenization and incubation conditions, a simple and quantitative recovery method using aseptic necropsy of splenic tissue was developed. Optimal recovery was obtained by spread-plating homogenates on Middlebrook 7H10 agar with incubation for 3 mo at 23??C. Mycobacteria were recovered from 76% (n = 149/196) of fish examined. Mycobacterial densities exceeded 104 colony forming units??g tissue-1 in 38% of samples (n = 63/168) that were examined using a quantitative approach. The most frequently recovered mycobacterium, present in 57% (n = 109/192) of characterized samples, was the recently named new species Mycobacterium shottsii. Polyinfections of M. shottsii and other mycobacteria were observed in 25% of samples (n = 47/192) with densities of M. shottsii usually 1 or more orders of magnitude higher than co-isolate(s). Other mycobacteria recovered included isolates that, based on phenotypic traits, resembled M. interjectum, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai and M. triplex. M. marinum, commonly associated with fish mycobacteriosis and human disease, was recovered infrequently (3%, n = 6/192). The presence of multiple mycobacterial types occurring at high densities suggests that a variety of mycobacteria could be causative agents of mycobacteriosis in striped bass from the Chesapeake Bay. Striped bass is the major recreational fish species in the Chesapeake Bay, and the significance of the current epizootic to human health and the potential adverse effects on fish stocks are not known.

  9. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) switch feeding modalities in response to sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jayne M; Motta, Philip J

    2012-04-01

    Animals use a suite of sensory modalities to precisely locate and capture prey. While numerous studies have examined the effects of sensory deprivation on the behaviors leading to prey capture and while it is generally believed that information in the pre-strike period determines the way fish capture prey, this study is the first to examine the contribution of sensory information to jaw kinematics during capture. Largemouth bass were filmed using high-speed videography while capturing live mosquitofish. Bass were examined intact, with visual deprivation under infrared light, and with lateral line deprivation following treatment with cobalt chloride. Deprived of visual cues, this visual ram-feeding predator switches towards suction-based feeding to successfully capture prey. They approach prey slowly but open their mouths more rapidly, which has been shown to result in greater buccal pressure, causing their prey to move a greater distance at a more rapid velocity as they are being drawn into the predators' mouths. Deprived of lateral line cues, bass have higher forward velocities during capture and capture prey earlier in the gape cycle. This study demonstrates that sensory pre-strike information directly affects the capture modality employed by fishes and that fish can modulate between ram and suction not only by adjusting the amount of ram by increasing or decreasing their movements, but also by actively increasing the amount of suction used. These results suggest that the ability to modulate feeding behavior may allow animals to not only exploit a broader breadth of prey items, but also to be capable of doing so in a wider variety of environments.

  10. Zooplankton variability and larval striped bass foraging: Evaluating potential match/mismatch regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified temporal and spatial variability of zooplankton in three potential nursery sites (river, transition zone, lake) for larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Lake Marion, South Carolina, during April and May 1993-1995. In two of three years, microzooplankton (rotifers and copepod nauplii) density was significantly greater in the lake site than in the river or transition zone. Macrozooplankton (>200 ??m) composition varied among the three sites in all years with adult copepods and cladocerans dominant at the lake, and juvenile Corbicula fluminea dominant at the river and transition zone. Laboratory feeding experiments, simulating both among-site (site treatments) and within-site (density treatments) variability, were conducted in 1995 to quantify the effects of the observed zooplankton variability on foraging success of larval striped bass. A greater proportion of larvae fed in the lake than in the river or transition-zone treatments across all density treatments: mean (x), 10x and 100x. Larvae also ingested significantly more dry mass of prey in the lake treatment in both the mean and 10x density treatments. Field zooplankton and laboratory feeding data suggest that both spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton influence larval striped bass foraging. Prey density levels that supported successful foraging in our feeding experiments occurred in the lake during late April and May in 1994 and 1995 but were never observed in the river or transition zone. Because the rivers flowing into Lake Marion are regulated, it may be possible to devise flow management schemes that facilitate larval transport to the lake and thereby increase the proportion of larvae matched to suitable prey resources.

  11. An empirical comparison of stock identification techniques applied to striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldman, John R.; Richards, R. Anne; Schill, W. Bane; Wirgin, Isaac; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    Managers of migratory striped bass stocks that mix along the Atlantic coast of the USA require periodic estimates of the relative contributions of the individual stocks to coastal mixed- stock fisheries; however, to date, a standard approach has not been adopted. We compared the performances of alternative stock identification approaches, using samples taken from the same sets of fish. Reference (known) samples were collected from three Atlantic coast spawning systems: the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, and the Roanoke River. Striped bass of mixed-stock origin were collected from eastern Long Island, New York, and were used as test (unknown) samples. The approaches applied were discriminant analysis of morphometric data and of meristic data, logistic regression analysis of combined meristic and morphometric data, discriminant analysis of scale-shape features, discriminant analysis of immunoassay data, and mixed-stock analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data. Overall correct classification rates of reference samples ranged from 94% to 66% when just the Hudson and Chesapeake stocks were considered and were comparable when the Chesapeake and Roanoke stocks were grouped as the ''southern'' stock. When all three stocks were treated independently, correct classification rates ranged from 82% to 49%. Despite the moderate range in correct classification rates, bias due to misallocation was relatively low for all methods, suggesting that resulting stock composition estimates should be fairly accurate. However, relative contribution estimates for the mixed-stock sample varied widely (e.g., from 81% to 47% for the Hudson River stock, when only the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay stocks were considered). Discrepancies may be related to the reliance by all of these approaches (except mtDNA) on phenotypic features. Our results support future use of either a morphometrics-based approach (among the phenotypic methods) or a genotypic approach based on mtDNA analysis. We further

  12. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Kranenbarg, Sander; van Cleynenbreugel, Tim; Schipper, Henk; van Leeuwen, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive response to physical stimuli. Strenuous exercise is known to induce lordosis. Lordosis is a ventrad curvature of the vertebral column, and the affected vertebrae show an increase in bone formation. The effects of lordosis on the strain distribution in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) vertebrae are assessed using finite element modelling. The response of the local tissue is analyzed spatially and ontogenetically in terms of bone volume. Lordotic vertebrae show a significantly increased strain energy due to the increased load compared with normal vertebrae when loaded in compression. High strain regions are found in the vertebral centrum and parasagittal ridges. The increase in strain energy is attenuated by a change in architecture due to the increased bone formation. The increased bone formation is seen mainly at the articular surfaces of the vertebrae, although some extra bone is formed in the vertebral centrum. Regions in which the highest strains are found do not spatially correlate with regions in which the most extensive bone apposition occurs in lordotic vertebrae of sea bass. Mammalian-like strain-regulated bone modelling is probably not the guiding mechanism in adaptive bone modelling of acellular sea bass vertebrae. Chondroidal ossification is found at the articular surfaces where it mediates a rapid adaptive response, potentially attenuating high stresses on the dorsal zygapophyses.

  13. Generation and characterization of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax brain and liver transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Klopp, Christophe; Noirot, Celine; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack

    2014-07-01

    The sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax is the center of interest of an increasing number of basic or applied research investigations, even though few genomic or transcriptomic data is available. Current public data only represent a very partial view of its transcriptome. To fill this need, we characterized brain and liver transcriptomes in a generalist manner that would benefit the entire scientific community. We also tackled some bioinformatics questions, related to the effect of RNA fragment size on the assembly quality. Using Illumina RNA-seq, we sequenced organ pools from both wild and farmed Atlantic and Mediterranean fishes. We built two distinct cDNA libraries per organ that only differed by the length of the selected mRNA fragments. Efficiency of assemblies performed on either or both fragments size differed depending on the organ, but remained very close reflecting the quality of the technical replication. We generated more than 19,538Mbp of data. Over 193million reads were assembled into 35,073 contigs (average length=2374bp; N50=3257). 59% contigs were annotated with SwissProt, which corresponded to 12,517 unique genes. We compared the Gene Ontology (GO) contig distribution between the sea bass and the tilapia. We also looked for brain and liver GO specific signatures as well as KEGG pathway coverage. 23,050 putative micro-satellites and 134,890 putative SNPs were identified. Our sampling strategy and assembly pipeline provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome for the sea bass. It constitutes an indisputable quantitative and qualitative improvement of the public data, as it provides 5 times more base pairs with fewer and longer contigs. Both organs present unique signatures consistent with their specific physiological functions. The discrepancy in fragment size effect on assembly quality between organs lies in their difference in complexity and thus does not allow prescribing any general strategy. This information on two key organs will facilitate

  14. Characterization of the sea bass melanocortin 5 receptor: a putative role in hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Rubio, V C; Cerdá-Reverter, J M

    2009-12-01

    The melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R) plays a key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion in mammalian species. This receptor has also been characterized in some fish species but its function is unknown. We report the molecular and pharmacological characterization, as well as the tissue expression pattern, of sea bass MC5R. Cloning of five active alleles showing different levels of sensitivity to endogenous melanocortin and one non-functional allele demonstrate the allelic complexity of the MC5R locus. The sea bass receptor was activated by all the melanocortins tested, with ACTH and desacetyl-MSH and beta-MSH showing the lowest efficiency. The acetylation of the MSH isoforms seems to be critical for the effectiveness of the agonist. Agouti-related protein had no effect on basal or agonist-stimulated activation of the receptor. SbMC5R was mainly expressed in the brain but lower expression levels were found in several peripheral tissues, including liver. Progressive fasting did not induce up- or downregulation of hypothalamic MC5R expression, suggesting that central MC5R is not involved in the regulation of food intake in the sea bass. MTII, a sbMC5R agonist, stimulated hepatic lipolysis in vitro, measured as free fatty acid release into the culture medium after melanocortin agonist exposure of liver fragments, suggesting that MC5R is involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Taken together, the data suggest that different allelic combinations may confer differential sensitivity to endogenous melanocortin in tissues where MC5R is expressed and, by extension, in hepatic lipid metabolism.

  15. A redescription of Myxobolus inornatus from young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    PubMed

    Walsh, H L; Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, L R; Smith, G

    2012-12-01

    During investigations of young-of-the year smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieu ) mortalities in the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. and affected tributaries, raised areas were noted in the muscle in the vicinity of the caudal peduncle. The raised areas were caused by plasmodia of a myxozoan parasite. Spores found within plasmodia were similar to those of Myxobolus inornatus previously described from the caudal peduncle of fingerling largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in Montana. Here, M. inornatus is redescribed based on histologic comparisons and spore measurements. The addition of spore photographs, line drawings, a voucher specimen, and partial small-subunit ribosomal (rSSU) DNA gene sequence are new in this study. This is also the first description of M. inornatus from smallmouth bass. The plasmodia of M. inornatus were grossly observed at the base of the caudal and dorsal fins and were 280.3 ± 33.5 (range 77.1-920.3) μm long and 320.6 ± 41.0 (range 74.85-898.4) μm wide. In some instances, plasmodia of M. inornatus were large enough to rupture the epidermis or were associated with misaligned vertebrae. The slightly pyriform spores were 11.3 ± 0.2 (range 8.6-17.4) μm in length and 8.6 ± 0.2 (range 7.1-13.7) μm wide with an iodinophilous vacuole and a sutural ridge with 8 to 10 sutural folds. The SSU rDNA gene sequence places M. inornatus in a sister group with Myxobolus osburni .

  16. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Mackinnon, A-M; Boston, L; Souter, B; Cook-Versloot, M; Griffiths, S; Olivier, G

    2007-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from mortalities occurring in populations of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus, brown trout, Salmo trutta, and striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The isolated viral strains produced a cytopathic effect on the epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line. Serum neutralization indicated the virus was VHSV and sequencing identified the rhabdovirus isolates as the North American strain of VHSV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass.

  17. Social exclusion, deprivation and child health: a spatial analysis of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children aged 0-4 years in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Danielle C; Thurecht, Linc; Brown, Laurie; Konings, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Recent Australian policy initiatives regarding primary health care focus on planning services around community needs and delivering these at the local area. As in many other countries, there has also been a growing concern over social inequities in health outcomes. The aims of the analysis presented here were firstly to describe small area variations in hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) among children aged 0-4 years between 2003 and 2009 in the state of Victoria, Australia, and secondly to explore the relationship of ACSC hospitalisations with socio-economic disadvantage using a comparative analysis of the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and the Composite Score of Deprivation (CSD). This is a cross sectional secondary data analysis, with data sourced from 2003 to 2009 ACSC data from the Victorian State Government Department of Health; the Australian Standard Geographical Classification of remoteness; the Australian 2006 Census of Population and Housing; and AMPCo General Practitioner data from 2010. The relationship between the indexes and child health outcomes was examined through bivariate analysis and visually through a series of maps. The results show there is significant variation in the geographical distribution of the relationship between ACSCs and socio-economic disadvantage, with both indexes capturing important social gradients in child health conditions. However, measures of access, such as geographical accessibility and workforce supply, detect additional small area variation in child health outcomes. This research has important implications for future primary health care policy and planning of services, as these findings confirm that not all areas are the same in terms of health outcomes, and there may be benefit in tailoring mechanisms for identifying areas of need depending on the outcome intended to be affected.

  18. Relationships between river discharge and abundance of age 0 redhorses (Moxostoma spp.) in the Oconee River, Georgia, USA, with implications for robust redhorse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, R.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Peterson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum) and notchlip redhorse (M. collapsum) are two species of redhorses that reside in the lower Oconee River, Georgia. Robust redhorse is listed as a state endangered species in Georgia and North Carolina, and attempts to investigate factors affecting its reproductive success have met with limited success. Therefore, catch of robust redhorse young were combined with catch of notchlip redhorse to increase sample size. These congeners with similar spawning repertoire were assumed to respond similarly to environmental conditions. River discharge during spawning and rearing seasons may affect abundance of both redhorses in the lower Oconee River. An information-theoretic approach was used to evaluate the relative support of models relating abundance of age 0 redhorses to monthly discharge statistics that represented magnitude, timing, duration, variability and frequency of river discharge events for April through June 1995–2006. The best-approximating model indicated a negative relationship between the abundance of redhorses and mean maximum river discharge and the number of high pulses during June as well as a positive relationship with intermediate duration of low flows during April–June. This model is 9.6 times more plausible than the next best-fitting model, which revealed a negative relationship between the abundance of redhorses and mean maximum river discharge during May and the number of high pulses during June as well as a positive relationship between abundance and intermediate duration of low flows during April–June. Management implications from the results indicate low-stable flows for at least a 2-week period during spawning and rearing may increase reproductive success of robust and notchlip redhorses.

  19. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus, and other micropterids.

    PubMed

    Lutz-Carrillo, Dijar J; Hagen, Cris; Dueck, Lucy A; Glenn, Travis C

    2008-01-01

    We isolated and characterized 52 novel microsatellite markers from Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus, for use in conservation, management and population genetic studies. Markers were assessed in M. s. floridanus from peninsular Florida (n = 30) and averaged eight alleles per locus with observed heterozygosity of 0.57 (range 0-0.97). Cross-taxa amplification was successful among 88% of tested congeners. These polymorphic and potentially taxon-diagnostic markers contribute to the limited number of microsatellites currently available for micropterids and specifically M. s. floridanus.

  20. [Respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria of bass (Morone labrax) and their dependence on temperature].

    PubMed

    Ventrella, V; Pagliarani, A; Trigari, G; Borgatti, A R

    1982-12-15

    In the present paper the respiratory function in bass liver mitochondria is studied over the temperature range 6-34 degrees C. The respiratory rate in state 3 and state 4 at the temperatures examined agrees with data from poikiloterms reported elsewhere by other investigators ICR and ADP/O values with glutamate and succinate as substrates are considered and their variations as a function of the experimental temperature are discussed. ICR shows a maximum at 20 degrees C which approximatively corresponds with the temperature of the seawater where these fishes were bred. On the contrary ADP/O ratio does not show any meaningful variation.

  1. [Arrhenius diagrams of respiratory enzymes of liver mitochondria from bass (Morone labrax)].

    PubMed

    Borgatti, A R; Trigari, G; Pagliarani, A; Ventrella, V

    1982-12-15

    Arrhenius plot of glutamate, succinate and ascorbate+TMPD oxidation in bass liver mitochondria show a break at different temperatures. Above the break activation energies (Ea) of the three enzymes. Above the break activation energies (Ea) of the three enzymes examined are similar and comparable with literature data in poikilotermic and homeothermic animals. Below the break the Ea are again comparable with poikiloterm and homeotherm ones except for succinate-oxidase whose Ea is surprisingly higher. The data are suggested to be due to the features of the enzymes or to the microenvironmental physical state.

  2. Modeling of gene expression pattern alteration by p,p′-DDE and dieldrin in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, David; Gross, Timothy; Denslow, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, largemouth bass (LMB) were subchronically exposed to p,p′-DDE or dieldrin in their diet to evaluate the effect of exposure on expression of genes involved in reproduction and steroid homeostasis. Using real-time PCR, we detected a different gene expression pattern for each OCP, suggesting that they each affect LMB in a different way. We also detected a different expression pattern among sexes, suggesting that sexes are affected differently by OCPs perhaps reflecting the different adaptive responses of each sex to dysregulation caused by OCP exposure.

  3. Beneath Bass Strait: Linking Tasmania and Mainland Australia using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, S.; Rawlinson, N.; Direen, N. G.; Reading, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most hotly debated topics in Australian geology pertains to the tectonic relationship between Tasmania and mainland Australia. Studies that attempt to link Victoria and Tasmania have been wide ranging and have undergone considerable change through time, leading to a variety of plausible tectonic models. One of the main difficulties in reconciling mainland Australian and Tasmanian tectonics is the lack of Precambrian exposure in the Lachlan Orogen (Victoria), which contrast with the West Tasmania Terrane that exhibits numerous outcrops of Proterozoic rocks, apparently excluding any tectonic affinity between them. Furthermore, the West Tasmania Terrane differs significantly from the East Tasmania Terrane in that the latter does not contain any evidence of Precambrian rocks and no evidence of a Proterozoic continental basement has been reported, either in outcrop nor inferred from geophysical surveys. Perhaps most significantly, the presence of Bass Strait and the Mesozoic and Cainozoic sedimentary and volcanic sequences that mask the older terranes, makes the link between Tasmania and southeast mainland Australia even harder to decipher. This has significantly impeded the ability of conventional surface mapping to unravel the tectonic history of this area, which remains one of the great challenges of Australian Earth sciences. The focus of this study is ambient seismic noise data from 24 broadband stations, which span northern Tasmania, several islands in Bass Strait (King Island, Deal Island and Flinders Island) and southern Victoria, thus allowing a dense coverage of surface wave paths that can be exploited to image the 3-D structure of the crust joining Tasmania and Victoria in high detail. To produce the highest quality Green's functions, careful processing of the data has been performed, after which Group and Phase velocity dispersion measurements have been carried out using a frequency-time analysis method on the symmetric component (average of the

  4. Effects of in vivo chronic hydrocarbons pollution on sanitary status and immune system in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Kanan, Rami; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2011-10-01

    Following the development of an experimental system to expose adult fish to low and stable concentration of pollutant over a prolonged period, the in vivo effects of hydrocarbons on sanitary status, i.e. the health status of fish with regard to chemical pollution, and immune system in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax were assessed. A total of 90 fish were acclimated for 15 days, then 45 fish were exposed to the water soluble fraction (WSF) of Arabian crude oil, similar to a complex pollution by hydrocarbons chronically observed in situ in estuaries, while the 45 other control fish sustained the same experimental conditions in clean seawater. After 21 days of exposure, 30 contaminated and control fish were sampled, then 30 other fish were collected after a 15 day recovery period in clean sea water. PAH concentrations in crude oil, WSF, muscles and bile were measured by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. White blood cell counts and differential leucocyte counts were determined by classical haematology methods. Cell mortality and phagocytosis activity of leucocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Haemolytic alternative complement activity and stress parameters were analyzed in blood plasma by spectrophotometry. After a 21 day exposure period to a mixture of 41 parent/alkylated-PAHs (835 ± 52/85 ± 1 5 ng L(-1)). Fish flesh was contaminated by a bioconcentration of naphthalene very closed to the Reference Dose for Oral Exposure estimated by US-EPA's Integrated Risk Information System, causing a potential risk for human consumers. A leucopenia due to a lymphopenia, a rise in leucocyte mortality and a decrease in phagocytosis activity were noted in contaminated fish compared to controls. All these results may be explained by the damage to membrane cells integrity by uptake of PAHs and suggested an impairment of specific and nonspecific immune systems. After a 15 day recovery period, effects were reversible for sanitary status and an offset in

  5. Laboratory studies on the vulnerability of young white sturgeon to predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite evidence of annual spawning by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in rivers of the northwestern United States and Canada, in some years and locations little or no recruitment of age-0 white sturgeon has been observed. We examined the vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles to predation to further understand possible causes of mortality. We were particularly interested in the vulnerability of older larvae and juveniles because at about 25 mm total length (TL) white sturgeon develop sharp dorsal and lateral scutes that may act as a morphological defense. In the laboratory, white sturgeon ranging from newly hatched larvae to about 170-mm TL juveniles were exposed to predatory fishes they might encounter in the natural environment. We found that channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (mean TL = 464 mm) and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (mean TL = 472 mm) ate white sturgeon up to mean sizes of 121 and 134 mm TL, respectively. Conversely, similarly sized walleyes Sander vitreus ingested almost no white sturgeon, although juvenile walleyes (mean TL = 184 mm) ate white sturgeon up to 59 mm TL. The smallest predator we tested, prickly sculpins Cottus asper (mean TL = 126 mm), ate white sturgeon up to a mean TL of 50 mm. Our study demonstrated that predation is a likely cause of mortality of age-0 white sturgeon and may be contributing to the year-class failures that have been observed. In addition, the results from this study could be used to reduce the predation risk of artificially propagated white sturgeon released to augment declining populations since fish could be reared to sizes where their vulnerability is low.

  6. Whiteness in Social Work Education Authentic White Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is guided by the following questions: How do People of Color define and experience White people as "authentic" allies? What does a White ally look like to People of Color? How do White allies view themselves as "authentic" White allies? What experiences lead White people to anti-racism and anti-racist praxis?…

  7. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Moreira, Ana R; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2013-06-01

    Mammalian calreticulin (CRT) is a key molecular chaperone and regulator of Ca(2+) homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also being implicated in a variety of physiological/pathological processes outside the ER. Importantly, it is involved in assembly of MHC class I molecules. In this work, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) CRT (Dila-CRT) gene and cDNA have been isolated and characterized. The mature protein retains two conserved motifs, three structural/functional domains (N, P and C), three type 1 and 2 motifs repeated in tandem, a conserved pair of cysteines and ER-retention motif. It is a single-copy gene composed of 9 exons. Dila-CRT three-dimensional homology models are consistent with the structural features described for mammalian molecules. Together, these results are supportive of a highly conserved structure of CRT through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on sea bass CRT involvement in immunity and in particular class I antigen presentation.

  9. Competitive interactions between walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) under various controlled conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, M.R.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Willis, D.W.; Galster, B.J.; Selch, T.M.; Chipps, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The range of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is expanding northward, creating new interactions with native predators, including walleye (Sander vitreus). We used a series of experiments to investigate competition between walleye (WAE) and smallmouth bass (SMB) at different life stages and light conditions, identified behaviors that allowed one fish to outcompete another, and evaluated whether prey switching mitigated competitive interactions. Juvenile and adult SMB appeared to outcompete WAE when fed during the daytime; neither species dominated when fed near dusk. Attack rates and capture efficiencies of both species were similar with an intra- or interspecific competitor, but SMB often exploited prey before the competitor had a chance to feed (exploitative competition) or displayed agonistic behaviors toward a potential competitor (interference competition). Prey selectivity of WAE or SMB did not differ when by themselves or with a potential competitor. These results indicate that SMB could outcompete WAE under limiting prey conditions due to the aggressive nature of SMB, but resources may be partitioned at least along a temporal scale. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  11. Applications of NMR metabolomics to the study of foodstuffs: truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea bass.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Capitani, Donatella

    2012-08-01

    In this review, four examples of the NMR metabolomic approach to foodstuff investigation are reported. Different types of foodstuff of different origin (namely truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea bass), with different metabolite composition, processing, and storage procedures have been chosen to demonstrate the versatility and potentiality of NMR in the foodstuff analysis. Fundamental aspects of NMR methodology such as sample preparation, metabolites extraction, quantitative elaboration of spectral data, and statistical analysis have been described. Metabolic profilings of aqueous and/or organic extracts as obtained by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments have been reported together with the results obtained from their statistical elaboration. Discrimination between wild and farmed sea bass and between genetically modified and wild lettuces as well as changes in the kiwifruit metabolic profiles monitored over the season have been investigated. For each foodstuff, some complementary findings provided by other analytical methods are also described to underline the importance of different analytical approaches to explore specific aspects related to foodstuff.

  12. Evaluation of the impact of polyethylene microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mazurais, D; Ernande, B; Quazuguel, P; Severe, A; Huelvan, C; Madec, L; Mouchel, O; Soudant, P; Robbens, J; Huvet, A; Zambonino-Infante, J

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and may be ingested by low trophic organisms such as fish larvae, with uncertain physiological consequences. The present study aims at assessing the impact of polyethylene (PE 10-45 μM) microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Fish were fed an inert diet including 0, 10(4) and 10(5) fluorescent microbeads per gram from 7 until 43 days post-hatching (dph). Microbeads were detected in the gastrointestinal tract in all fish fed diet incorporating PE. Our data revealed an efficient elimination of PE beads from the gut since no fluorescent was observed in the larvae after 48 h depuration. While the mortality rate increased significantly with the amount of microbeads scored per larvae at 14 and 20 dph, only ingestion of the highest concentration slightly impacted mortality rates. Larval growth and inflammatory response through Interleukine-1-beta (IL-1β) gene expression were not found to be affected while cytochrome-P450-1A1 (cyp1a1) expression level was significantly positively correlated with the number of microbeads scored per larva at 20 dph. Overall, these results suggest that ingestion of PE microbeads had limited impact on sea bass larvae possibly due to their high potential of egestion.

  13. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  14. Response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from different thermal environments to increased water temperature.

    PubMed

    Mulhollem, Joshua J; Suski, Cory D; Wahl, David H

    2015-08-01

    Due to concerns of global climate change, additional research is needed to quantify the thermal tolerance of species, and how organisms are able to adapt to changes in thermal regime. We quantified the thermal tolerance and thermal stress response of a temperate sportfish from two different thermal environments. One group of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabited thermally enhanced reservoirs (used for power plant cooling), with water temperatures typically 2-5°C warmer than nearby reservoirs. We tested fish for chronic thermal maxima and reaction to an 8°C heat shock using three common physiological indices of stress. We observed no evidence of differences between groups in thermal maxima. We observed no differences in thermal maxima between fish from artificially warmed and natural systems. Our results disagree with research, suggesting differences due to adaptation to different thermal environments. We speculate that behavioral modifications, lack of adequate time for genetic divergence, or the robust genetic plasticity of largemouth bass explain the lack of difference between treatment groups.

  15. Updating control of puberty in male European sea bass: A holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Manuel; Espigares, Felipe; Felip, Alicia; Escobar, Sebastian; Molés, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarado, Maria Victoria; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    Puberty is the process by which an immature animal acquires the ability to reproduce for the first time; its onset occurs soon after sexual differentiation and is characterized by the beginning of gametogenesis in both sexes. Here we present new insights on when and how the onset of puberty occurs in male European sea bass, its dependence on reaching a critical size, and how it can be controlled by photoperiod, revealing the existence of a photolabile period with important applications in aquaculture. Regarding size, apparently only European sea bass above a certain size threshold attain the ability to carry out gametogenesis during their first year of life, while their smaller counterparts fail to do so. This could imply that fish need to achieve an optimal threshold of hormone production, particularly from the kisspeptin/Gnrh/Gth systems, in order to initiate and conclude puberty. However, a long-term restricted feeding regime during the second year of life did not prevent the onset of puberty, thus suggesting that the fish are able to maintain the reproductive function, even at the expense of other functions. Finally, the study of daily hormonal rhythms under different photoperiod regimes revealed the equivalence between their core values and those of seasonal rhythms, in such a way that the daily rhythms could be considered as the functional units of the seasonal rhythms.

  16. Synthetic hepcidin from fish: Uptake and protection against Vibrio anguillarum in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Acosta, Félix; Montero, Daniel; Guzmán, Fanny; Torres, Elisa; Vega, Belinda; Mercado, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The generation of a variety of new therapeutic agents to control and reduce the effects of pathogen in aquaculture is urgently needed. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the major components of the innate defenses and typically have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, absorption and distributions of exogenous AMPs for therapeutics application on farmed fish species need to be studied. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown the properties of hepcidin as an effective antimicrobial peptide produced in fish in response to LPS and iron. Therefore, we decided to investigate the antimicrobial activity of four synthetic variants of hepcidin against Vibrio anguillarum in vitro, and using the more effective peptide we demonstrated the pathogen's ability to protect against the infection in European Sea bass. Additionally the uptake of this peptide after ip injection was demonstrated, reaching its distribution organs such as intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The synthetic peptide did not show cytotoxic effects and significantly reduced the accumulated mortalities percentage (23.5%) compared to the European Sea bass control (72.5%) at day 21. In conclusion, synthetic hepcidin shows antimicrobial activity against V. anguillarum and the in vivo experiments suggest that synthetic hepcidin was distributed trough the different organs in the fish. Thus, synthetic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide could have high potential for therapeutic application in farmed fish species.

  17. BASS-Ultracool : A Survey for Isolated Analogs of Methane Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Artigau, Etienne; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, Rene; Bowsher, Emily; Nicholls, Christine P.

    2015-12-01

    I will present BASS-Ultracool, a new survey to identify isolated cold, late L and T-type members of young moving groups. These objects have masses below 10 MJup and physical properties similar to those of exoplanets identified with the direct-imaging method. The discovery of such isolated planetary-mass objects will allow us to characterize their atmospheres with unprecedented signal-to-noise and spectroscopic resolution due to the absence of a host star. They will serve as benchmarks to understand cold exoplanets such as the recently discovered 51 Eri b.I will also present how the prototype version of the BASS-Ultracool survey has already identified the first isolated T-type member of a nearby moving group SDSS J1110+0116, which is a young 10-12 MJup T5.5 member of the ~150 Myr-old AB Doradus moving group. This object is an isolated and slightly cooler version of the previously identified T3.5 AB Doradus member GU Psc b.

  18. Acoustic stress responses in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax induced by offshore pile driving.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild.

  19. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, David P.

    1988-05-01

    Dworshak Dam and Reservoir is a Corps of Engineers facility located on the North Fork Clearwater River 3.2 km upstream from the Mainstem Clearwater confluence. Since initial filling in 1971, conversion of 87 km of river habitat to a 6644 hectare impoundment has had a profound influence on resident fisheries. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative effort to study these impacts. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka assessment is included in the IDFG agreement, and is not addressed in this report. This project pertains primarily to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and forage species. For the period November 1987 through February 1988, an estimated 4339 angler-hours were expended to catch 430 rainbow trout. An estimated 20 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, 4 smallmouth bass, and 4 suckers Catostomus spp. were also caught. Catch rates were generally poor through the period, at .091 fish per hour for all species combined (excluding kokanee). Shasta strain hatchery rainbow trout were dominant in the creel, comprising 53.9 percent of the catch, although this strain was last planted in the reservoir in June 1986. Bank anglers caught a higher percentage (93.5 percent) of the total catch of Shasta strain rainbows than Kamloops strain rainbows (33.3 percent). 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Overcompensatory response of a smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) population to harvest: Release from competition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, E.F.; Sullivan, P.J.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraft, C.E.; Shuter, B.J.; Weidel, B.C.

    2008-01-01

    An intensive seven-year removal of adult, juvenile, and young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from a north temperate lake (Little Moose Lake, New York, USA) resulted in an increase in overall population abundance, primarily due to increased abundance of immature individuals. We developed a density-dependent, stage-structured model to examine conditions under which population control through harvest could result in the increase of a targeted species. Parameter values were derived from a 54-year data set collected from another north temperate lake (Lake Opeongo, Ontario, Canada) smallmouth bass population. Sensitivity analyses identified the demographic conditions that could lead to increased abundance in response to harvest. An increase in population abundance with harvest was most likely to occur when either (i) per capita recruitment at low levels of spawner abundance was large, juvenile survivorship was high, and maturation of age-4 and older juveniles was moderately high or (ii) per capita recruitment at low levels of spawner abundance was slightly lower, yet the maturation rate of age-3 juveniles and adult survivorship were high. Our modeling results together with empirical evidence further demonstrate the importance of overcompensation as a substantial factor to consider in efforts to regulate population abundance through harvest. ?? 2008 NRC.

  1. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S.T.; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M.; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

  2. Vaccination trials of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against pasteurellosis using oral, intraperitoneal and immersion methods.

    PubMed

    Paolini, A; Ridolfi, V; Zezza, D; Cocchietto, M; Musa, M; Pavone, A; Conte, A; Giorgetti, G

    2005-01-01

    Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp) is the aetiological agent of fish pasteurellosis, causing heavy losses in intensive mariculture plants. The present work compares the protective efficacy of five different vaccine formulation: oral, intraperitoneal, immersion, bivalent immersion (Vibrio anguillarum) and immersion associated with immunostimulants. Each of these vaccine formulations containing whole cells of Phdp formalin inactivated (FKC), was administered to 100 sea bass weighing approximately 2 g; 100 non-vaccinated sea bass were used as controls. Protection against pasteurellosis was tested for 40 days after vaccination by intraperitoneal challenge: each fish was inoculated with Phdp cells at a concentration of 2.75 x 10(4) cfu/ml. Mortality was recorded over the following 14 days, vaccine protection was evaluated using a relative percentage survival (RPS) index. The intraperitoneal formulation gave excellent protection (RPS 82.4%). The most effective immersion form was that followed by simple immersion (RPS 23.1%) followed by the group vaccinated with bivalent vaccine (RPS 18.7%). Protection conferred orally (RPS 28.6%) is of interest for practical purposes.

  3. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with assortative and disassortative correlations and a case of inhomogeneous advertising where the publicity terms are "targeted" on the hubs while maintaining their total cost constant.

  4. Pyrosequencing survey of intestinal microbiota diversity in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed functional diets.

    PubMed

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mira, Alex; Fouz, Belén

    2014-02-01

    The routine use of chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases in aquatic populations has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The inclusion of immunostimulants in fish diets (functional diets) is one of the main strategies to solve this threat. This study aimed to analyse the intestinal microbiota of cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed two functional diets applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Quality-filtered reads were assigned to family and genus taxonomic levels using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. The autochthonous intestinal microbiota of sea bass consisted of two dominant bacterial genera: Dysgonomonas (Bacteroidetes) and Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria), but effects of diet on this dominance were observed. In fact, the genus Dysgonomonas significantly decreased in samples from fish fed functional diets, recovering control levels at the end of the study. However, Ralstonia proportion significantly raised in samples from fish fed diet C and maintained this high level along the study period. The developed protocol could be used to study the composition of bacterial communities in the fish intestine under different nutritional and environmental conditions and its impact on infection, immune system and general fitness of fish.

  5. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation.

    PubMed

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S T; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A M; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-12-23

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) CD8alpha.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Nascimento, Diana S; Vale, Ana do; Santos, Nuno M S Dos

    2006-03-15

    In this work, the gene and cDNA of the sea bass CD8alpha have been isolated and characterized. The coding sequence has an ORF of 666 bp. It retains the Ig motif that interacts with MHC and the two cysteines responsible for an intra-chain disulfide bridge. The hinge region contains the two essential cysteines involved in dimerization. The transmembrane region is well conserved in all analysed sequences. Similar to other teleosts, the cytoplasmic region lacks the consensus p56(lck) motif common in higher vertebrates. Analysis of the expression pattern using RT-PCR shows the highest expression in the thymus. Like in the human gene, the sea bass CD8alpha genomic structure is organized into six exons, which roughly correspond to separate functional domains of the protein. Southern blotting shows that CD8alpha exists as a single copy gene. Together, these results support the concept that the basic structure of CD8alpha has been maintained through evolution.

  7. Cloning, characterization, expression, and feeding response of thyrotropin receptor in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Y L; Song, W; Jiang, L L; Mao, M X; Wang, C L; Ge, C T; Qian, G Y

    2016-07-29

    Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that regulates the synthesis, storage, and secretion of thyroid hormones in the thyroid tissue. The aims of the present study were to characterize the full-length TSHR cDNA in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and to determine the TSHR gene transcription levels in different tissues. In addition, the response of TSHR transcription levels to daily feeding in thyroid tissue was investigated. The results showed that the full-length cDNA sequence was 2743 bp with an open reading frame of 2340 bp encoding a 779-amino acid peptide. BLAST analysis indicated that the amino acid sequence displayed 58.4-90.2% identity and 5.6-125.8 divergence, compared with other known fish species. The most abundant TSHR transcription levels were found in the spleen, head kidney, and kidney. Feeding did not affect the transcription level of TSHR in thyroid tissue over the course of the day. Thus, the current study suggests that there was no relationship between daily nutritional status and TSHR transcription level in the thyroid tissue of largemouth bass. The spleen, head kidney, and kidney exhibited the most abundant TSHR transcription levels.

  8. A polygenic hypothesis for sex determination in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Marc; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Chavanne, Hervé; Chatain, Béatrice

    2007-06-01

    Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 +/- 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (r(A) = 0.50 +/- 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild.

  9. Cloning and characterization of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) myostatin encoding gene and its promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengjie; Bai, Junjie; Wang, Lin

    2008-08-01

    Myostatin or GDF-8, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. In the present study, we obtained a 5.64 kb sequence of myostatin encoding gene and its promoter from largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides). The myostatin encoding gene consisted of three exons (488 bp, 371 bp and 1779 bp, respectively) and two introns (390 bp and 855 bp, respectively). The intron-exon boundaries were conservative in comparison with those of mammalian myostatin encoding genes, whereas the size of introns was smaller than that of mammals. Sequence analysis of 1.569 kb of the largemouth bass myostatin gene promoter region revealed that it contained two TATA boxes, one CAAT box and nine putative E-boxes. Putative muscle growth response elements for myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), serum response factor (SRF), activator protein 1 (AP1), etc., and muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF) were also detected. Some of the transcription factor binding sites were conserved among five teleost species. This information will be useful for studying the transcriptional regulation of myostatin in fish.

  10. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  11. Field and laboratory approaches to understanding testicular oocytes and gonadal development in smallmouth bass in relation to exposure to EACs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In previous work we reported smallmouth bass populations in Northeastern Minnesota rivers and lakes with testicular oocyte (TOs) prevalence ranging from 7 to 59%, which is consistent with reports from other U.S. river systems. While it is often presumed that TOs are associated wi...

  12. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  13. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... black sea bass, and improves fisheries data collection in the for-hire sector of the snapper-grouper... year, and to improve fisheries data reporting in the for-hire sector of the snapper-grouper fishery... Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) was provided with data from the NMFS Southeast Fisheries...

  14. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  15. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  16. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... specifications; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2011 summer flounder, scup...-Aside (RSA) program. The implementing regulations for the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea...

  17. The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Bailey, Sean W.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.

  18. Exposure to chronic moderate hypoxia impacts physiological and developmental traits of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Vanderplancke, Gwenaëlle; Claireaux, Guy; Quazuguel, Patrick; Huelvan, Christine; Corporeau, Charlotte; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José-Luis

    2015-02-01

    Since European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae occurred in coastal and estuarine waters at early life stages, they are likely to be exposed to reduced dissolved oxygen waters at a sensitive developmental stage. However, the effects of hypoxia at larval stage, which depend in part on fish species, remain very poorly documented in European sea bass. In the present study, the impacts of an experimental exposure to a chronic moderate hypoxia (40 % air saturation) between 30 and 38 days post-hatching on the physiological and developmental traits of European sea bass larvae were assessed. This study was based on the investigation of survival and growth rates, parameters related to energy metabolism [Citrate Synthase (CS) and Cytochrome-c Oxidase (COX) activities], and biological indicators of the maturation of digestive function [pancreatic (trypsin, amylase) and intestinal (Alkaline Phosphatase "AP" and Aminopeptidase-N "N-LAP") enzymes activities]. While condition of hypoxia exposure did not induce any significant mortality event, lower growth rate as well as CS/COX activity ratio was observed in the Hypoxia Treatment group. In parallel, intestinal enzyme activities were also lower under hypoxia. Altogether, the present data suggest that sea bass larvae cope with moderate hypoxia by (1) reducing processes that are costly in energy and (2) regulating mitochondria functions in order to respond to energy-demand conditions. Both these effects are associated with a delay in the maturation of the digestive function.

  19. Regulation of natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) genes in teleost fish, gilthead seabream and European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Esteban, María A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents.

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta response to mycobacterial infection in striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Howard, Kristina E; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Smith, Stephen A; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2003-10-15

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were experimentally infected with Mycobacterium marinum. Splenic mononuclear cell transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA was measured by reverse transcription quantitative-competitive PCR (RT-qcPCR). In histologic sections of liver and anterior kidney, the area of each section that was occupied by granulomas and the total area of each section were measured by computer-assisted image analysis and compared as a proportion (the granuloma proportion). Infected striped bass splenic mononuclear cell TGF-beta mRNA expression was significantly lower than uninfected controls, while for tilapia there was no significant difference between infected and control fish. Mycobacterial granuloma proportion of liver and anterior kidney sections was significantly greater for infected striped bass than tilapia. Three (of 10) infected tilapia with the most pronounced inflammatory response displayed a decrease in TGF-beta mRNA expression, similar to the overall striped bass response to mycobacterium challenge. Downregulation of TGF-beta and failure to modulate the immune response may be related to excessive inflammatory damage to organs observed in mycobacteria-sensitive fish species.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF MECURY IN FISH SCALES AS AN ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR PREDICTING MUSCLE TISSUE MERCURY CNOCENTRATIONS IN LARGEMOUTH BASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in fish scales and in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 20 freshwater sites was developed and evaluated to determine whether scale analysis would allow a non lethal and convenient method for predicti...

  2. Survival of vaccinated,feed-trained largemouth bass fry (Micropterus Salmoides Floridanus) during natural exposure to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus; Centrarchidae) are often reared in government hatchery programs, then stocked to supplement wild fish populations. After the eggs obtained from broodstock are hatched, fry are stocked into ponds to feed on zooplankton and other small invertebrates....

  3. The dietary branched chain amino acid requirements of hybrid striped bass(Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirements for branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are unknown in hybrid striped bass and necessary for formulating efficient and nutritious diets. Moreover, the dietary balance among these three amino acids can substantially influence the performance of meat animals fed those diets. The diet...

  4. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements an accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea... has determined that the annual catch limit (ACL) (equal to the commercial quota) for black sea...

  5. Effect of an experimental oil spill on vertebral bone tissue quality in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Deschamps, Marie-Hélène; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify biomarkers of oil pollution in fish we tested the effects of an experimental Light Cycle Oil (LCO) exposure on vertebral bone of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. A total of 60 adult fish were acclimated for fifteen days, then twenty were collected as controls (Day 0) while 40 were exposed to a soluble fraction of LCO (1136 ng L(-1) of ten Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) for seven days. Twenty of them were sampled at the end of the exposure period and the twenty last after a recovery period of fourteen days in clean seawater. Vertebral abnormalities were counted and bone mineralization, total bone area and bone density profiles were established for several post-cranial and caudal vertebrae. In sea bass, seven days of LCO exposure did not affect the frequency and severity of the vertebral abnormalities. No significant differences were observed in bone density and bone repartition (parameters of bone area profiles) between unexposed (Day 0), exposed (D7) and decontaminated (D21) fish. In contrast, bone mineralization of the vertebrae decreased in contaminated sea bass, but in a reversible way, which confirms a previous study in trout showing that this parameter is an early stress indicator. Our results suggest that vertebral bone mineralization could be used as a biomarker of PAH pollution in sea bass. It would be interesting to check this new biomarker in other teleost species exposed to various xenobiotics.

  6. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in striped bass, Morone saxatilis: molecular characterization and processing during oocyte growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Williams, V N; Reading, B J; Hiramatsu, N; Amano, H; Glassbrook, N; Hara, A; Sullivan, C V

    2014-04-01

    The multiple vitellogenin (Vtg) system of striped bass, a perciform species spawning nearly neutrally buoyant eggs in freshwater, was investigated. Vitellogenin cDNA cloning, Western blotting of yolk proteins (YPs) using Vtg and YP type-specific antisera, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of the YPs revealed the complex mechanisms of yolk formation and maturation in this species. It was discovered that striped bass possesses a tripartite Vtg system (VtgAa, VtgAb, and VtgC) in which all three forms of Vtg make a substantial contribution to the yolk. The production of Vtg-derived YPs is generally similar to that described for other perciforms. However, novel amino-terminal labeling of oocyte YPs prior to MS/MS identified multiple alternative sites for cleavage of these proteins from their parent Vtg, revealing a YP mixture far more complex than reported previously. This approach also revealed that the major YP product of each form of striped bass Vtg, lipovitellin heavy chain (LvH), undergoes limited degradation to smaller polypeptides during oocyte maturation, unlike the case in marine fishes spawning buoyant eggs in which LvHAa undergoes extensive proteolysis to osmotically active free amino acids. These differences likely reflect the lesser need for hydration of pelagic eggs spawned in freshwater. The detailed characterization of Vtgs and their proteolytic fate(s) during oocyte growth and maturation establishes striped bass as a freshwater model for investigating teleost multiple Vtg systems.

  7. Molecular characterization of two sea bass gonadotropin receptors: cDNA cloning, expression analysis, and functional activity.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Carrillo, Manuel

    2007-06-30

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) play central roles in vertebrate reproduction. They act through their cognate receptors to stimulate testicular and ovarian functions. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of two sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cDNAs encoding a FSH receptor (sbsFSHR) and a LH receptor (sbsLHR). The mature proteins display typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family members, but the sbsFSHR also contains some remarkable differences when compared with other fish or mammalian FSHRs. Among them, a distinct extracellular N-terminal cysteine domain as regards to its length and cysteine number, and the presence of an extra leucine-rich repeat. Expression analysis revealed that the sbsFSHR is exclusively expressed in gonadal tissues, specifically in the follicular wall of previtellogenic and early-vitellogenic follicles. On the contrary, sbsLHR mRNA was found to be widely distributed in sea bass somatic tissues. When stably expressed in mammalian cell lines, sbsFSHR was specifically stimulated by bovine FSH, while sbsLHR was activated by both bovine LH and FSH. Nevertheless, specific stimulation of the sbsLHR was observed when recombinant sea bass gonadotropins were used. The isolation of a FSHR and a LHR in sea bass opens new ways to study gonadotropin action in this species.

  8. Hypoxia affects performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance traits and body composition of juvenile hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) in response to hypoxia were evaluated in replicate tanks maintained at constant dissolved oxygen concentrations that averaged 23.0 +/- 2.3%, 39.7 +/- 3.0%, and 105.5 +/- 9.5% dissolved oxygen sat...

  9. White Flight: Some Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegmann, Robert G.

    The available literature on white flight, or, more properly, school resegregation -- the phenomenon of white withdrawal (total or partial) from desegregated schools -- is reviewed in this paper which also reports some new research in this area. The distinction is made between those schools located on the fringes of the inner city, which first…

  10. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American teachers'…

  11. The Hidden Curriculum of Whiteness: White Teachers, White Territory, and White Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    This paper suggests that space and spatiality are major features of racial identity and the formation of student resistance. It brings together critical studies of "Whiteness," human territoriality, and theories of resistance in education. The problems between white teachers and students of color can be understood better through a combination of…

  12. Sailing to White Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  13. Whites in Desegregated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Center for Equal Education.

    In 1972, over 1.3 million white children attended schools in which they were a minority. This document consists of articles addressing this little studied phenomenon. In Gretchen Schafft's article, an anthropological method is employed to study the role of white children in a predominantly black junior high school in Washington, D.C. Jean Le…

  14. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  15. Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation from east. White Holly in foreground, with White Sage behind. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  16. Transcriptome assembly and identification of genes and SNPs associated with growth traits in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Li, Shengjie; Liu, Hao; Bai, Junjie; Zhu, Xinping

    2017-04-01

    Growth is one of the most crucial economic traits of all aquaculture species, but the molecular mechanisms involved in growth of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to screen growth-related genes of M. salmoides by RNA sequencing and identify growth-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers through a growth association study. The muscle transcriptomes of fast- and slow-growing largemouth bass were obtained using the RNA-Seq technique. A total of 54,058,178 and 54,742,444 qualified Illumina read pairs were obtained for the fast-growing and slow-growing groups, respectively, giving rise to 4,865,236,020 and 4,926,819,960 total clean bases, respectively. Gene expression profiling showed that 3,530 unigenes were differentially expressed between the fast-growing and slow-growing phenotypes (false discovery rate ≤0.001, the absolute value of log2 (fold change) ≥1), including 1,441 up-regulated and 2,889 down-regulated unigenes in the fast-growing largemouth bass. Analysis of these genes revealed that several signalling pathways, including the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis and signalling pathway, the glycolysis pathway, and the myostatin/transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway, as well as heat shock protein, cytoskeleton, and myofibril component genes might be associated with muscle growth. From these genes, 10 genes with putative SNPs were selected, and 17 SNPs were genotyped successfully. Marker-trait analysis in 340 individuals of Youlu No. 1 largemouth bass revealed three SNPs associated with growth in key genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, FOXO3b, and heat shock protein beta-1). This research provides information about key genes and SNPs related to growth, providing new clues to understanding the molecular basis of largemouth bass growth.

  17. Rates of cortisol increase and decrease in channel catfish and sunshine bass exposed to an acute confinement stressor.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth B; Small, Brian C

    2006-05-01

    Channel catfish and sunshine bass were exposed to a low-water stress event and allowed to recover in fresh water or a solution of metomidate (dl-1-(1-phenylethyl)-5-(metoxycarbonyl) imidazole hydrochloride), which inhibits the synthesis of cortisol. Change in time of plasma cortisol was used as an index of cortisol secretion and clearance. Plasma cortisol and glucose increased during the exposure to low-water stress in both fish, but the changes of both plasma components were more dramatic in sunshine bass. Exposure to metomidate during recovery resulted in a short-term increase in plasma glucose but differences between controls and metomidate-exposed fish were relatively minor thereafter. Cortisol began to decrease in catfish immediately after the removal of the stress but continued to increase for 15 min in sunshine bass recovering in fresh water and for 5 min in bass recovering in metomidate. Catfish recovering in fresh water had a cortisol elimination rate of -1.28 ng/mL/min compared with -2.45 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05) while sunshine bass recovering in fresh water had an elimination rate of -6.96 ng/mL/min compared with -4.50 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05). These data indicate that the rapid decrease of plasma cortisol after removal of the stressor is due to an almost immediate decrease of secretion, tissue uptake and a rapid renal loss due to the absence of a plasma binding protein.

  18. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  19. Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, Nancy A.

    We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.

  20. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    PubMed

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  1. ESCO White Paper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  2. Distribution System White Papers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA worked with stakeholders and developed a series of white papers on distribution system issues ranked of potentially significant public health concern (see list below) to serve as background material for EPA, expert and stakeholder discussions.

  3. White Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  4. Carpenter in White Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

  5. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  6. Toxicity of water from three South Carolina rivers to larval striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Susan E.; Bulak, James S.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of water from three rivers in the Santee-Cooper drainage of South Carolina was evaluated in a series of on-site studies with larval striped bass Morone saxatilis. Mortality and swimming behavior were assessed daily for larvae exposed to serial dilutions of water collected from the Santee, Congaree, and Wateree rivers. After 96 h, cumulative mortality was 90% in the Wateree River, and a dose–response pattern was evident in serial dilutions of the water. Larvae exposed to water from the Santee and Congaree rivers swam lethargically, but no appreciable mortality was observed. Acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic contaminants were not detected in the rivers; however, pentachloroanisole, a methylated by-product of pentachlorophenol, was twice as high in the Wateree River as it was in the other two rivers. Phenolic compounds may have contributed to larval mortality in the Wateree River and to lethargic activity of larvae in the Santee and Congaree rivers.

  7. Striped bass, temperature, and eutrophication: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The paradoxical record of striped bass distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions, is analyzed for consistency with a thermal niche-dissolved oxygen-squeeze hypothesis. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports a genetic-based thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences and avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathological symptoms and over fishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 141 references, 13 figures.

  8. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  9. Evaluation of an electronic fry counter with striped bass embryos and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemarie, D.P.; Weller, D.A.; Theisen, D.D.; Woods, L. Curry

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated an electronic fry counter (Jensorter, Inc., model FC-2) for accuracy. precision, and effects on embryo hatchability and larval survival of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Hatching success of embryos and 96-h survival of 5-d larvae passed through the counter did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from controls. Mean electronic counts of embryos and larvae differed from hand counts by -5.2% and -9.7%, respectively. Precision was estimated by the coefficient of variation of repeated counts and ranged as high as 4.43% for embryos and 8.62% for larvae. Site- and species-specific factors may have increased variability that re suited in the reduced levels of accuracy and precision. The advantages of greatly increased speed of counting and ease of use, as well as potentially better performance under other conditions, warrant further evaluation of this counter with other species and water supplies.

  10. Development of digestive enzyme activity in larvae of spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus II: Electrophoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-González, C A; Moyano-López, F J; Civera-Cerecedo, R; Carrasco-Chávez, V; Ortíz-Galindo, J L; Nolasco-Soria, H; Tovar-Ramírez, D; Dumas, S

    2010-03-01

    The activities of several digestive enzymes during larval development of the spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus) were evaluated using electrophoretic techniques. The results show the presence of three isoforms of alkaline protease from day 2 after hatching (ah) and the early appearance of one pepsin-like band from day 12 ah onwards. In addition, two lipase bands first appeared on day 2 ah, and there was a change in the molecular weight of one band from day 15 ah onwards. Several alpha-amylase isoforms were observed from hatching up to day 5 ah. These results indicate that the important digestive enzymes develop rapidly in these larvae, supporting the possibility of early weaning at day 12 ah using artificial diets.

  11. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  12. Concurrent environmental stressors and jellyfish stings impair caged European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) physiological performances

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Giomi, Folco; Rinaldi, Alessandro; Mandich, Alberta; Fuentes, Verónica; Mirto, Simone; Sarà, Gianluca; Piraino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The increasing frequency of jellyfish outbreaks in coastal areas has led to multiple ecological and socio-economic issues, including mass mortalities of farmed fish. We investigated the sensitivity of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a widely cultured fish in the Mediterranean Sea, to the combined stressors of temperature, hypoxia and stings from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, through measurement of oxygen consumption rates (MO2), critical oxygen levels (PO2crit), and histological analysis of tissue damage. Higher levels of MO2, PO2crit and gill damage in treated fish demonstrated that the synergy of environmental and biotic stressors dramatically impair farmed fish metabolic performances and increase their health vulnerability. As a corollary, in the current scenario of ocean warming, these findings suggest that the combined effects of recurrent hypoxic events and jellyfish blooms in coastal areas might also threaten wild fish populations. PMID:27301314

  13. Molecular cloning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-8 gene and its involvement in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marta I R; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; do Vale, Ana; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2010-07-01

    Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this work, the sea bass counterpart of mammalian caspase-8 was sequenced and characterized, and its involvement in the apoptogenic activity of a toxin from a fish pathogen was assessed. A 2472 bp cDNA of sea bass caspase-8 was obtained, consisting of 1455 bp open reading frame coding for 484 amino acids and with a predicted molecular weight of 55.2 kDa. The sea bass caspase-8 gene has 6639 bp and is organized in 11 introns and 12 exons. Several distinctive features of sea bass caspase-8 were identified, which include two death effector domains, the caspase family domains p20 and p10, the caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. The sea bass caspase-8 sequence revealed a significant degree of similarity to corresponding sequences from several vertebrate taxonomic groups. A low expression of sea bass caspase-8 was detected in various tissues of non-stimulated sea bass. Furthermore, it is shown that stimulation of sea bass with mid-exponential phase culture supernatants from Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp), known to induce selective apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils, resulted in an increased expression of caspase-8 in the spleen, one of the main affected organs by Phdp infection.

  14. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  15. Robotics Strategy White Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    VIRGINIA 23651-1087 REPlY TO A1Tl!NTlON OF ATFC-DS 19 MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Robotics Strategy White Paper 1. The enclosed... Robotics Strategy White Paper is the result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Tank-Automotive...Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). This paper builds on a confederated Anny robotics "strategy" that is described by senior leader

  16. Safety of fish therapeutants to glochidia of the plain pocketbook mussel during encystment on largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Brady, T.; Schreier, T.M.; Aloisi, D.

    2006-01-01

    Mussel biologists and fisheries managers have developed propagation techniques to duplicate the natural glochidia infestation on host fish. However, in intensive culture situations, fish diseases may threaten the survival of both fish and their attached glochidia and chemical treatments may be required to control a disease epizootic. Five therapeutants were evaluated for their safety to largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides encysted with mussel glochidia by comparing the number of sloughed glochidia in the chemical treatment groups with that of an untreated control group. Largemouth bass were infested with glochidia from the plain pocketbook mussel Lampsilis cardium and treated with 20 mg chloramine-T/L, 2 mg Cutrine/L, or 200 mg formalin/L (trial 1) and 200 mg formalin/L, 100 mg hydrogen peroxide/L, or 20,000 mg sodium chloride/L (trial 2). Chemicals were applied for 60 min (15 min in the case of sodium chloride in trial 2) once every other day, for a total of three treatments (six in the case of formalin in trial 2). After the first treatment, aquaria were siphoned each weekday to determine the number of sloughed glochidia or transformed juveniles. In trial 1, the initial mean number of glochidia per fish ranged from 257 to 294, and approximately 94% of the glochidia transformed to juveniles. In trial 2, the initial mean number of glochidia per fish ranged from 97 to 115, and approximately 91% of the glochidia transformed to juveniles. The mean percent of sloughed glochidia varied by less than 2% among all test groups in each trial. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) in the number of sloughed glochidia or transformed juveniles among control or treatment groups in either trial. Therapeutic treatment of diseased fish with chloramine-T, Cutrine, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium chloride at the treatment regimens evaluated are viable options for enhancing the survival of fish encysted with glochidia.

  17. Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1α (HIF-1α)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival.

  18. Bio-Mos: an effective inducer of dicentracin gene expression in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Forchino, Andrea; Rimoldi, Simona; Brambilla, Fabio; Antonini, Micaela; Saroglia, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Concern over the use of dietary antibiotics in aquaculture has encouraged the industry to search for alternatives that both enhance performance and afford protection from disease. Bio-Mos, derived from the outer cell wall of a specific strain of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Alltech Inc, USA) is a product that fits these criteria. Here, we present data on the impact of a Bio-Mos supplemented diet on the mRNA copy number of the antimicrobial peptide dicentracin, whose transcript regulation has not yet been explored in fish.We analyzed Bio-Mos-induced changes in the expression of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) dicentracin,using a one-tube two-temperature real-time RT-PCR with which the gene expression can be absolutely quantified using the standard curve method. Our results revealed that 30 days of feeding fish with diets containing Bio-Mos supplemented at either 3 per thousand or 5 per thousand significantly increased the dicentracin mRNA copy number in the head kidney. Furthermore, the mRNA copy number in fish fed at 3 per thousand was significantly higher than that of the group fed at 5 per thousand for the same period of feeding Bio-Mos. A longer feeding period (60 days)did not further increase the dicentracin transcript levels as compared to the values recorded after 30 days of feeding either in the group fed at 3 per thousand or in the one fed at 5 per thousand diet. However, the transcript levels in fish fed at 3 per thousand proved to be significantly higher than those of the controls after 60 days of feeding. These findings offer new information about the response of antimicrobial peptides at the transcriptional level to diets supplemented with immune response modulators, and support a role of Bio-Mos in promoting sea bass nonspecific immune system.

  19. Influence of water chemistry on mercury concentration in largemouth bass from Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, T.R.; Royals, H.E.; Connor, L.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Harvestable-size largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were collected from 53 Florida lakes to determine relationships between mercury concentration in fish and physical and chemical lake characteristics. Diverse lakes with a broad range of sizes (15-181,000 hectares), pH (3.6-9.1), and alkalinities (1.2-128 mg/L as CaCO[sub 3]) were sampled. Total mercury concentrations in axial muscle of individual fish ranged from 0.04 to 2.04 [mu]g/g wet weight and were positively correlated with fish age (strongest correlation) and size. There was no difference in the rate of mercury accumulation by age between the sexes, even though females grew faster. Chemical characteristics of lakes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of mercury in largemouth bass. Mercury concentrations, standardized to age-3 fish for comparison among lakes, ranged from 0.04 to 1.53 [mu]g/g and were negatively correlated with alkalinity, calcium, chlorophyll a, conductance, magnesium, pH, total hardness, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. No significant correlations were observed between the standardized fish mercury concentration and lake color, secchi transparency, tannic acid, or surface area. Linear regression revealed that pH accounted for 41% of the variation in the standardized fish mercury concentration. Multiple regression revealed that chlorophyll a and alkalinity accounted for 45% of the variation in the standardized fish mercury concentration. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in lakes with either pH less than 7, alkalinity less than 20 mg/L as CaCO[sub 3], or chlorophyll a less than 10 [mu]g/L. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Somatotropic axis genes are expressed before pituitary onset during zebrafish and sea bass development.

    PubMed

    Besseau, Laurence; Fuentès, Michaël; Sauzet, Sandrine; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Chatain, Béatrice; Covès, Denis; Boeuf, Gilles; Falcón, Jack

    2013-12-01

    The somatotropic axis, or growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis, of fish is involved in numerous physiological process including regulation of ionic and osmotic balance, lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, growth, reproduction, immune function and behavior. It is thought that GH plays a role in fish development but conflicting results have been obtained concerning the ontogeny of the somatotropic axis. Here we investigated the developmental expression of GH, GH-receptor (GHR) and IGF-1 genes and of a GH-like protein from fertilization until early stages of larval development in two Teleosts species, Danio rerio and Dicentrarchus labrax, by PCR, in situ hybridization and Western blotting. GH, GHR and IGF-1 mRNA were present in unfertilized eggs and at all stages of embryonic development, all three displaying a similar distribution in the two species. First located in the whole embryo (until 12 hpf in zebrafish and 76 hpf in sea bass), the mRNAs appeared then distributed in the head and tail, from where they disappeared progressively to concentrate in the forming pituitary gland. Proteins immunoreactive with a specific sea bass anti-GH antibody were also detected at all stages in this species. Differences in intensity and number of bands suggest that protein processing varies from early to later stages of development. The data show that all actors of the somatotropic axis are present from fertilization in these two species, suggesting they plays a role in early development, perhaps in an autocrine/paracrine mode as all three elements displayed a similar distribution at each stage investigated.

  1. Behavioural Stress Responses Predict Environmental Perception in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Øverli, Øyvind; Oliveira, Rui F.; Martins, Catarina I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour. PMID:25264870

  2. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  3. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  4. Gene expression fingerprints of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denslow, N.D.; Kocerha, J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, Timothy; Holm, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents from pulp and paper mills that historically have used elemental chlorine in the bleaching process have been implicated in inhibiting reproduction in fish. Compounds with estrogenic and androgenic binding affinities have been found in these effluents, suggesting that the impairment of reproduction is through an endocrine-related mode of action. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to phytoestrogens and resin acids that are present in mill process streams as a result of pulping trees. Estrogen and estrogen mimics interact directly with the estrogen receptor and have near immediate effects on gene transcription by turning on the expression of a unique set of genes. Using differential display (DD) RT-PCR, we examined changes in gene expression induced by exposure to paper mill effluents. Largemouth bass were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80% paper mill effluent concentrations in large flow-through tanks for varied periods of time including 7, 28 or 56 days. Plasma hormone levels in males and females and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) in females decreased with dose and time. Measurements of changes in gene expression using DD RT-PCR suggest that the gene expression patterns of male fish do not change much with exposure, except for the induction of a few genes including CYP 1A, a protein that is induced through the action of the Ah receptor in response to dioxin and similar polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, in the case of females, exposure to these effluents resulted in an up-regulation of CYP 1A that was accompanied by a generalized down-regulation of genes normally expressed during the reproductive season. These antiestrogenic changes are in agreement with previous studies in bass exposed to these effluents, and could result in decreased reproductive success in affected populations. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  6. Methylmercury-induced changes in gene transcription associated with neuroendocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Chasar, Lia C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) is a potent neuroendocrine disruptor that impairs reproductive processes in fish. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize transcriptomic changes induced by MeHg exposure in the female largemouth bass (LMB) hypothalamus under controlled laboratory conditions, (2) investigate the health and reproductive impacts of MeHg exposure on male and female largemouth bass (LMB) in the natural environment, and (3) identify MeHg-associated gene expression patterns in whole brain of female LMB from MeHg-contaminated habitats. The laboratory experiment was a single injection of 2.5 μg MeHg/g body weight for 96 h exposure. The field survey compared river systems in Florida, USA with comparably lower concentrations of MeHg (Wekiva, Santa Fe, and St. Johns Rivers) in fish and one river system with LMB that contained elevated concentrations of MeHg (St. Marys River). Microarray analysis was used to quantify transcriptomic responses to MeHg exposure. Although fish at the high-MeHg site did not show overt health or reproductive impairment, there were MeHg-responsive genes and pathways identified in the laboratory study that were also altered in fish from the high-MeHg site relative to fish at the low-MeHg sites. Gene network analysis suggested that MeHg regulated the expression targets of neuropeptide receptor and steroid signaling, as well as structural components of the cell. Disease-associated gene networks related to MeHg exposure, based upon expression data, included cerebellum ataxia, movement disorders, and hypercalcemia. Gene responses in the CNS are consistent with the documented neurotoxicological and neuroendocrine disrupting effects of MeHg in vertebrates.

  7. Review of stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential of Bass basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; Pigram, C.J.; Colwell, J.B.; Scherl, A.S.; Lockwood, K.L.; Branson, J.C. )

    1987-03-01

    The intracratonic Bass basin is the central basin of three that underlie Bass Strait in southeastern Australia. The basin was formed by extensional tectonics during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. It contains up to 7 km (23,000 ft) of nonmarine sediments of ( )Late Jurassic to late Eocene age and up to 3.5 km (11,500 ft) of upper Eocene to Holocene marine sediments. Volcanics occur in places. The sedimentary history of the basin is interpreted to have been dominated initially by Cretaceous flood-plain, alluvial-fan, and lacustrine deposition, then Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary flood-plain deposition, and finally, Cenozoic shallow marine deposition. Seismic reflection studies show that significant structural and stratigraphic prospects for petroleum exploration occur at Paleocene, Cretaceous, and ( )Jurassic levels. Source rock studies combined with depositional models for the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene non-marine fill suggest that suitable source and reservoir rocks occur at these levels. Present-day maturation levels of organic matter in sediments of the basin suggest that mature levels for petroleum generation occur at 3-5 km (10,000-16,000 ft) depth, which generally corresponds to Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene sediments. An analysis of the maturation history of the basin suggests that the lower levels of the Upper Cretaceous sediments had peak petroleum generation potential (R{sub 0} = 0.7%) by about 40 Ma, whereas the upper levels of the Paleocene sediments have attained this level of maturity only in the last 5 m.y. 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Massive Microbiological Groundwater Contamination Associated with a Waterborne Outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Mansfield, Linda S.; Wilson, David L.; Schwab, David J.; Molloy, Stephanie L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2007-01-01

    Background A groundwater-associated outbreak affected approximately 1,450 residents and visitors of South Bass Island, Ohio, between July and September 2004. Objectives To examine the microbiological quality of groundwater wells located on South Bass Island, we sampled 16 wells that provide potable water to public water systems 15–21 September 2004. Methods We tested groundwater wells for fecal indicators, enteric viruses and bacteria, and protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). The hydrodynamics of Lake Erie were examined to explore the possible surface water–groundwater interactions. Results All wells were positive for both total coliform and Escherichia coli. Seven wells tested positive for enterococci and Arcobacter (an emerging bacterial pathogen), and F+-specific coliphage was present in four wells. Three wells were positive for all three bacterial indicators, coliphages, and Arcobacter; adenovirus DNA was recovered from two of these wells. We found a cluster of the most contaminated wells at the southeast side of the island. Conclusions Massive groundwater contamination on the island was likely caused by transport of microbiological contaminants from wastewater treatment facilities and septic tanks to the lake and the subsurface, after extreme precipitation events in May–July 2004. This likely raised the water table, saturated the subsurface, and along with very strong Lake Erie currents on 24 July, forced a surge in water levels and rapid surface water–groundwater interchange throughout the island. Landsat images showed massive influx of organic material and turbidity surrounding the island before the peak of the outbreak. These combinations of factors and information can be used to examine vulnerabilities in other coastal systems. Both wastewater and drinking water issues are now being addressed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Department of Health. PMID:17589591

  9. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Mañanos, Evaristo; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the sea bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior.

  10. A strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus causes high mortality among cultured Largemouth Bass in South China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongmei; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Junjie; Li, Shengjie; Yu, Lingyun; Quan, Yingchun; Yang, Xiaojing; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zemin; Ye, Xing

    2013-09-01

    In April 2011, 40% mortality of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides juveniles occurred at a farm of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Infected fish became lethargic, exhibited corkscrew and irregular swimming, and developed a distended abdomen and crooked body. Fish began to die within 2 d after the appearance of clinical signs. In order to analyze the pathogeny and diagnose the disease earlier, observation of clinical signs, cell infection, titer calculation, electron microscopy, immersion infection assay for fish, and nucleotide sequence analysis were carried out. Fathead minnow (FHM) cell cultures, inoculated with filtrate of liver and spleen homogenates from the diseased fish, developed the obvious cytopathic effect 46 h after inoculation in the primary culture and 24 h at the first passage. Typical rhabdovirus particles, 115-143 nm in length and 62-78 nm in diameter, were observed in infected FHM cells by direct transmission electron microscopy. The isolated virus produced a titer of 10(7.15) TCID50/mL. Immersion-Fish infected with the virus had similar clinical signs and 80% mortality with 10(2.5) LD50/mL. The data indicated that the rhabdovirus was the lethal pathogeny of the current disease. Based on nucleoprotein-gene nucleotide sequence multiple alignment analysis, the newly isolated virus is a strain of Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) under family Rhabdoviridae, which was initially isolated from Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi. Up to the present, at least four virus strains have been isolated from diseased Largemouth Bass, which have had different clinical signs. Comparison of the clinical signs can help in an early diagnosis of the disease.

  11. Role of axial muscles in powering mouth expansion during suction feeding in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-04-15

    Suction-feeding fishes capture food by fast and forceful expansion of the mouth cavity, and axial muscles probably provide substantial power for this feeding behavior. Dorsal expansion of the mouth cavity can only be powered by the epaxial muscles, but both the sternohyoid, shortening against an immobile pectoral girdle to retract the hyoid, and the hypaxial muscles, shortening to retract both the pectoral girdle and hyoid, could contribute ventral expansion power. To determine whether hypaxial muscles generate power for ventral expansion, and the rostrocaudal extent of axial muscle shortening during suction feeding, we measured skeletal kinematics and muscle shortening in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The three-dimensional motions of the cleithrum and hyoid were measured with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), and muscle shortening was measured with fluoromicrometry, wherein changes in the distance between radio-opaque intramuscular markers are measured using biplanar X-ray video recording. We found that the hypaxials generated power for ventral suction expansion, shortening (mean of 6.2 mm) to rotate the pectoral girdle caudoventrally (mean of 9.3 deg) and retract the hyoid (mean of 8.5 mm). In contrast, the sternohyoid shortened minimally (mean of 0.48 mm), functioning like a ligament to transmit hypaxial shortening to the hyoid. Hypaxial and epaxial shortening were not confined to the rostral muscle regions, but extended more than halfway down the body during suction expansion. We conclude that hypaxial and epaxial muscles are both crucial for powering mouth expansion in largemouth bass, supporting the integration of axial and cranial musculoskeletal systems for suction feeding.

  12. Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Smith, Terry; Detopoulou, Maria; Tsikrika, Constantina; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Barkas, Dimitris; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to structurally characterise the polar lipids of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), fed with an experimental diet containing olive pomace (OP), that exhibit cardioprotective activities. OP has been added to conventional fish oil (FO) feed at 4% and this was the OP diet, having been supplemented as finishing diet to fish. Sea bass was aquacultured using either FO or OP diet. At the end of the dietary experiment, lipids in both samples of fish muscle were quantified and HPLC fractionated. The in vitro cardioprotective properties of the polar lipid fractions, using washed rabbit's platelets, have been assessed and the two most biologically active fractions were further analysed by mass spectrometry. The gas-chromatrograpy-mass spectrometric data shows that these two fractions contain low levels of myristic (14:0), oleic (18:1 cis ω-9) and linoleic acids (18:2 ω-6), but high levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic acids (18:0) as well as eicosadienoic acid (20:2 ω-6). The first fraction (MS1) also contained significant levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 ω-6) and the omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6). Electrospray-mass spectrometry elucidated that the lipid composition of the two fractions contained various diacyl-glycerophospholipids species, where the majority of them have either 18:0 or 18:1 fatty acids in the sn-1 position and either 22:6 or 20:2 fatty acids in the sn-2 position for MS1 and MS2, respectively. Our research focuses on the structure/function relationship of fish muscle polar lipids and cardiovascular diseases and structural data are given for polar lipid HPLC fractions with strong cardioprotective properties.

  13. Spawning migration of telemetered striped bass in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.T.; Haeseker, S.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The spring spawning migration is a key period for effective management of anadromous populations of striped bass Morone saxatilis. Information on migratory behavior is needed in order to develop appropriate harvest regulations and to conduct effective surveys while fish are on the spawning grounds. We used ultrasonic telemetry to estimate the timing and duration of the upriver spawning migration for the Roanoke River, North Carolina, population and to evaluate whether a short-term fluctuation in temperature or flow would alter the distribution of telemetered fish on the spawning grounds. Seventy-eight fish implanted with transmitters were released during 1993 and 1994. Twenty-nine telemetered fish migrated upriver in 1994, and 14 telemetered fish entered the river in 1995. Migration of telemetered fish began in mid- to late April when water temperatures in the lower river reached 17-18??C. Males began their spawning migration significantly earlier than females in 1994; the difference was not significant in 1995. The 165-km upriver migration took about a week, as did the downriver migration after the spawning season. In 1994 and 1995 respectively, males remained on the spawning grounds for averages of 22 and 21 d, females for 8 and 11 d. Because of shorter residency times only about half the telemetered females were on the spawning grounds at any one time during the peak of the spawning season. Striped bass remained on the spawning grounds during a short-term temperature decrease of about 4??C (over 5 d) and an increase in flow from about 190 to 390 m3/s (over 1 d).

  14. Double Bass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askenfelt, Anders

    The study of the acoustics of bowed instruments has for several reasons focused on the violin. A substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century (see Hutchins 1975, 1976; Hutchins and Benade 1997). The violin is discussed in Chap. 13, while the cello is discussed in Chap. 14. The bow is discussed in Chap. 16.

  15. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  16. The Cenomanian/Turonian carbon burial event, Bass River, NJ, USA: Geochemical, paleoecological, and sea-level changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarman, P.J.; Miller, K.G.; Olsson, R.K.; Browning, J.V.; Wright, J.D.; De Romero, L. M.; White, T.S.; Muller, F.L.; Uptegrove, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bass River borehole (ODP Leg 174AX) recovered approximately 200 ft (61 m) of upper Cenomanian to lower Turonian strata from the New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA, including the expression of a global carbon burial event. The Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) boundary is recognized at Bass River at ???1935.5 ft (589.9 m) based on the contact of nannofossil Microstaurus chiastius and Eiffellithus eximius Subzones of the Parhabdolithus asper Zone. Carbon isotopic records of both Gavelinella and Epistomina show a large (>2???) increase immediately below the C/T boundary, with maximum values of 6??? in Epistomina and 4.3??? in Gavelinella. The ??13C offset between these taxa is constant and we conclude that Epistomina, like Gavelinella, faithfully records seawater ??13C changes. Above the sharp ??13C increase, elevated ??13C and sedimentary organic carbon (>0.9%) values continue into the lower Turonian, culminating in a sharp ??13C decrease. High ??13C values in the uppermost Cenomanian-lower Turonian at Bass River correlate with a global carbon burial event recorded in Europe and the U.S. Western Interior; we estimate the duration of this event at Bass River as 400-500 k.y. Although the carbon burial event occurred during a long-term eustatic rise (10 m.y. scale), it occurs within a 1-2 m.y. long sequence at Bass River that indicates no relationship with sea-level lowering on the m.y. scale. The carbon burial event does not appear to be associated with maximum flooding either, indicating little correlation with sea-level rise on a m.y. scale. Within the sequence spanning the carbon event, there are at least 4 shallowing-upward parasequences (durations ???350-460 k.y.) indicated by changes in abundance and type of Epistomina species, ??18O variations, and minor lithologic variations. The highest occurrences of 6 Epistomina species and the origination of Epistomina sliteri Olsson n. sp. are associated with the parasequences and possibly with higher ??18O values. There is no

  17. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost.

    PubMed

    Morin, Scott J; Decatur, Wayne A; Breton, Timothy S; Marquis, Timothy J; Hayes, Mary K; Berlinsky, David L; Sower, Stacia A

    2015-04-01

    We cloned two cDNAs for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), respectively, from the black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Black sea bass are protogynous hermaphroditic teleosts that change from females to males between 2 and 5 years of age. Similar to other GnRH precursors, the precursors of black sea bass GnRH2 and GnRH23 consisted of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. Our analyses failed to identify GnRH1. GnRH3 precursor transcript was more widely distributed in a variety of tissues compared with GnRH2. Further examination of GnRH expression and gonadal histology was done in black sea bass from three different size groups: small (11.4-44.1 g), medium (179.4-352.2 g) and large (393.8-607.3 g). Interestingly, GnRH3 expression occurred only in the pituitaries of males in the small and medium groups compared with expression of GnRH2. Future functional studies of the sea bass GnRHs will be valuable in elucidating the potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms of black sea bass reproduction and may ultimately contribute to management advances in this commercially important fish.

  18. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Thomas R; Peterson, James T

    2008-05-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (< or =1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research.

  19. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  20. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...