Science.gov

Sample records for age-adjusted lung cancer

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  2. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  3. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  4. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  5. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the ...

  8. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  9. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  11. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  12. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  13. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  14. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  16. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Deffebach, Mark E; Humphrey, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Screening for lung cancer in high-risk individuals with annual low-dose computed tomography has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% and is recommended by multiple health care organizations. Lung cancer screening is not a specific test; it is a process that involves appropriate selection of high-risk individuals, careful interpretation and follow-up of imaging, and annual testing. Screening should be performed in the context of a multidisciplinary program experienced in the diagnosis and management of lung nodules and early-stage lung cancer.

  17. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  18. Cancer procoagulant (CP) in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rucińska, M; Skrzydlewski, Z; Zaremba, E; Furman, M; Kasacka, I

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, microcellular carcinoma, macrocellular carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) show procoagulant activity. It mainly depends on the presence of cancer procoagulant (CP) in lung cancer cells.

  19. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  20. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  1. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  2. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  4. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  5. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of N2 means cancer has spread to the middle part of the chest (called the mediastinum). A rating ... so that the surgeon can remove the cancerous part of the lung and/or lymph node ... biopsied are your lungs, bones, and brain. These types of biopsies can be done with ...

  6. Justice and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, yet research funding is by far the lowest for lung cancer than for any other cancer compared with respective death rates. Although this discrepancy should appear alarming, one could argue that lung cancer deserves less attention because it is more attributable to poor life choices than other common cancers. Accordingly, the general question that I ask in this article is whether victims of more avoidable diseases, such as lung cancer, deserve to have their needs taken into less consideration than those of less avoidable diseases, on the grounds of either retributive or distributive justice. Such unequal treatment may be the "penalty" one incurs for negligent or reckless behavior. However, I hope to show that such unequal treatment cannot be supported by any coherent accounts of retributive or distributive justice.

  7. Justice and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Aaron

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, yet research funding is by far the lowest for lung cancer than for any other cancer compared with respective death rates. Although this discrepancy should appear alarming, one could argue that lung cancer deserves less attention because it is more attributable to poor life choices than other common cancers. Accordingly, the general question that I ask in this article is whether victims of more avoidable diseases, such as lung cancer, deserve to have their needs taken into less consideration than those of less avoidable diseases, on the grounds of either retributive or distributive justice. Such unequal treatment may be the "penalty" one incurs for negligent or reckless behavior. However, I hope to show that such unequal treatment cannot be supported by any coherent accounts of retributive or distributive justice. PMID:23449364

  8. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  9. Industrial Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Maxwell

    1982-01-01

    There are many known chemical and physical causes of industrial lung cancer. Their common feature is a long latent period—usually ten to 40 years—between initial exposure to the carcinogen and clinical recognition of the lesion. Occupationally induced lung cancer is indistinguishable from lung cancer of unknown etiology or that caused by cigaret smoking. Smoking alone is responsible for a very large proportion of all lung cancer and it potentiates the effect of most other carcinogens. Most cases of lung cancer in the next 20-30 years will be the result of exposures which have already occurred. In these cases, early diagnosis of pre-invasive resectable lesions offers the only hope for prolonging life. PMID:21286559

  10. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  11. Lung and Bronchus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 224,390 % of All New Cancer Cases 13.3% Estimated Deaths in 2016 158,080 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 415,707 people living with lung and bronchus ...

  12. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  13. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... substances increases the risk of lung cancer: Asbestos . Arsenic . Chromium. Nickel. Beryllium. Cadmium . Tar and soot. These ...

  14. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

  15. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  16. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  17. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  18. Lung Cancer Statistics.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. It is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Lung cancer rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography because of differences in historical smoking patterns. Lung cancer mortality rates in the United States are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and in the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, such as those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of these countries (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia), especially in men, they are increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. Low- and middle-income countries now account for more than 50% of lung cancer deaths each year. This chapter reviews lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the United States and globally.

  19. Radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Tarsheen K; El-Ghamry, Moataz N; Kloecker, Goetz H

    2012-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer, following tobacco smoke. Radon is not only an independent risk factor; it also increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Numerous cohort, case-control, and experimental studies have established the carcinogenic potential of radon. The possibility of radon having a causative effect on other cancers has been explored but not yet proven. One of the postulated mechanisms of carcinogenesis is DNA damage by alpha particles mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species. The latter are also thought to constitute one of the common mechanisms underlying the synergistic effect of radon and tobacco smoke. With an estimated 21,000 lung cancer deaths attributable to radon in the United States annually, the need for radon mitigation is well acknowledged. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an indoor limit of 4 picocuries (pCi)/L, and various methods are available for indoor radon reduction when testing shows higher levels. Radon mitigation should accompany smoking cessation measures in lung cancer prevention efforts.

  20. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  1. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  2. Screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D.

    1981-01-01

    The survival from bronchogenic carcinoma is highly dependent upon stage at the time of treatment. This is particularly true for squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma, but holds true for small cell carcinoma as well. The problem presented to the medical profession has been to find a practical means of detecting lung cancer while it is still at an early stage. Three studies in progress have indicated that a larger proportion of the patients may be found to have early stage lung cancer when screened with a combination of chest X-rays and sputum cytology. However, the detection of these early stage cases has not yet been translated into an improvement in the overall mortality rate from lung cancer. PMID:6278787

  3. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trial that will examine tumor tissue from patients with early-stage, completely resected lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and a

  4. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trials

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trials that will examine tumor tissue from patients with early-stage, completely resected lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and a

  5. [Lung cancer in elderly patients: lung cancer and lung function].

    PubMed

    Tanita, Tatsuo

    2005-07-01

    The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma is increasing as life expectancy rises. With increase in the aged population in Japan, the number of patients suffering from lung cancer and candidates for lung resections are increasing. In this paper, the author lists up indispensable procedures for diagnosis, namely, lung function tests, unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion test and exercise tolerance test. The cut-offs for identifying candidates for elderly patients for lung resections can be applied the same cut-offs for younger patients. Also the author indicates the importance of postoperative management for lung lobe resections. In order to prevent postoperative problems such as congestive heart failure that might be a fetal complication, the most useful check values after the lung surgery for elderly patients are rate of transfusion and urine volume. In conclusion, when elderly patients assert their rights to undergo lung surgery, we, the thoracic surgeons, should reply their requests under the equal quality of safe surgery as that for younger patients. Besides, it is desirable that even elderly patients, over 80 years old, who undergo lung surgery should guarantee their quality of daily life after surgery.

  6. Radon and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.

    1989-05-10

    Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general population, which is exposed through contamination of indoor air by radon from soil, water, and building materials. This review describes radon's sources, levels in U.S. homes, dosimetry, the epidemiologic evidence from studies of miners and the general population, and the principal, recent risk assessments.91 references.

  7. Radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Samet, J M

    1989-05-10

    Radon, an inert gas released during the decay of uranium-238, is ubiquitous in indoor and outdoor air and contaminates many underground mines. Extensive epidemiologic evidence from studies of underground miners and complementary animal data have documented that radon causes lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers. Radon must also be considered a potentially important cause of lung cancer for the general population, which is exposed through contamination of indoor air by radon from soil, water, and building materials. This review describes radon's sources, levels in U.S. homes, dosimetry, the epidemiologic evidence from studies of miners and the general population, and the principal, recent risk assessments.

  8. Lung Cancer Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Sarah B; Contessa, Joseph N; Omay, Sacit B; Chiang, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are common among patients with lung cancer and have been associated with significant morbidity and limited survival. However, the treatment of brain metastases has evolved as the field has advanced in terms of central nervous system imaging, surgical technique, and radiotherapy technology. This has allowed patients to receive improved treatment with less toxicity and more durable benefit. In addition, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy for lung cancer in recent years, and several treatments including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy exhibit activity in the central nervous system. Utilizing systemic therapy for treating brain metastases can avoid or delay local therapy and often allows patients to receive effective treatment for both intracranial and extracranial disease. Determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer brain metastases therefore requires a clear understanding of intracranial disease burden, tumor histology, molecular characteristics, and overall cancer prognosis. This review provides updates on the current state of surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases, as well as an overview of systemic therapy options that may be effective in select patients with intracranial metastases from lung cancer.

  9. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  11. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  13. Racial and Gender Disparities in Incidence of Lung and Bronchus Cancer in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Oates, Gabriela R.; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Akinlawon, Akinola; Ekadi, Green; Fouad, Mona N.; Singh, Karan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain population groups in the United States carry a disproportionate burden of cancer. This work models and analyzes the dynamics of lung and bronchus cancer age-adjusted incidence rates by race (White and Black), gender (male and female), and prevalence of daily smoking in 38 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and across eight U.S. geographic regions from 1999 to 2012. Methods Data, obtained from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Section of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reflect approximately 77% of the U.S. population and constitute a representative sample for making inferences about incidence rates in lung and bronchus cancer (henceforth lung cancer). A longitudinal linear mixed-effects model was used to study lung cancer incidence rates and to estimate incidence rate as a function of time, race, gender, and prevalence of daily smoking. Results Between 1999 and 2012, age-adjusted incidence rates in lung cancer have decreased in all states and regions. However, racial and gender disparities remain. Whites continue to have lower age-adjusted incidence rates for this cancer than Blacks in all states and in five of the eight U.S. geographic regions. Disparities in incidence rates between Black and White men are significantly larger than those between Black and White women, with Black men having the highest incidence rate of all subgroups. Assuming that lung cancer incidence rates remain within reasonable range, the model predicts that the gender gap in the incidence rate for Whites would disappear by mid-2018, and for Blacks by 2026. However, the racial gap in lung cancer incidence rates among Black and White males will remain. Among all geographic regions, the Mid-South has the highest overall lung cancer incidence rate and the highest incidence rate for Whites, while the Midwest has the highest incidence rate for Blacks. Between 1999 and 2012, there was a downward trend in the prevalence of daily smokers in both genders. However, males

  14. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Penelope A; Shepherd, Frances A

    2008-06-01

    Reports of tumor regression after infection date back as far as 1550 bc. In the twentieth century, Dr. William Coley, witnessing regression of a malignant tumor in one of his patients after a bacterial infection, developed the first cancer treatment vaccine derived from killed bacteria, with some reported success. However, despite decades of research, no specific, active tumor vaccine has been approved for the treatment of cancer. In lung cancer, initial attempts to modulate the immune system with nonspecific therapies were unsuccessful. However, more sophisticated specific vaccines have now been developed, and an increasing number are being evaluated in randomized phase 3 trials, raising hopes that vaccines may be an additional novel therapy for patients with lung cancer. This article reviews the following seven vaccines, which have entered randomized trials: L-BLP25 (Stimuvax), BEC-2, 1E10, PF-3512676 (Promune), melanoma-associated antigen A3 immunotherapeutic, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic cancer cellular immunotherapy, and belagenpumatucel-L (Lucanix).

  15. Screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, O S

    2000-05-01

    Screening for lung cancer serves to prevent deaths from this disease insofar as earlier resections are associated with higher rates of cure. There is good reason to believe that this is the case: in stage I, the 5-year survival rate with resection is 70%, whereas without resection the corresponding rate is only 10%. Before this evidence emerged, various authoritative organizations and agencies in North America advised against screening for lung cancer on the grounds of the results of several RCTs. As for CXR, I argue that the study results are consistent with up to 40% reduction in the fatality rate. Moreover, modern helical CT screening provides for detecting much smaller tumors than were detected in those studies. It is time to revoke the conclusion that screening for lung cancer does not serve to prevent deaths from this disease, and to quantify the usefulness of CT screening in particular. As for the requisite research, the prevailing orthodoxy has it that RCTs are to be used, but I argue that more meaningful results are obtainable, more rapidly and much less expensively, by the use of noncomparative (and hence unrandomized) studies. PMID:10855255

  16. Cholinergic Targets in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spindel, Eliot R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancers express an autocrine cholinergic loop in which secreted acetylcholine can stimulate tumor growth through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Because activation of mAChR and nAChR stimulates growth; tumor growth can be stimulated by both locally synthesized acetylcholine as well as acetylcholine from distal sources and from nicotine in the high percentage of lung cancer patients who are smokers. The stimulation of lung cancer growth by cholinergic agonists offers many potential new targets for lung cancer therapy. Cholinergic signaling can be targeted at the level of choline transport; acetylcholine synthesis, secretion and degradation; and nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. In addition, the newly describe family of ly-6 allosteric modulators of nicotinic signaling such as lynx1 and lynx2 offers yet another new approach to novel lung cancer therapeutics. Each of these targets has their potential advantages and disadvantages for the development of new lung cancer therapies which are discussed in this review. PMID:26818857

  17. American Cancer Society lung cancer screening guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A; Church, Timothy R; Ettinger, David S; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K; LaMonte, Samuel J; Michaelson, James S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M D; Brawley, Otis W; Smith, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute's National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation.

  18. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  19. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  20. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  1. [Grading of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Bohle, R M; Schnabel, P A

    2016-07-01

    In comparison with other tumor entities there is no common generally accepted grading system for lung cancer with clearly defined criteria and clinical relevance. In the recent fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2015 of tumors of the lungs, pleura, thymus and heart, there is no generally applicable grading for pulmonary adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas or rarer forms of carcinoma. Since the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of adenocarcinomas published in 2011, 5 different subtypes with significantly different prognosis are proposed. This results in an architectural (histologic) grading, which is usually applied to resection specimens. For squamous cell carcinoma the number of different histological subtypes in the new WHO classification was reduced compared to earlier versions but without a common grading system. In recent publications nesting and budding were proposed as the main (histologic) criteria for a grading of squamous cell carcinomas. The grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lungs in comparison with NET in other organs is presented in a separate article in this issue. Certain rare tumor types are high grade per definition: small cell, large cell and pleomorphic carcinomas, carcinosarcomas and pulmonary blastomas. In the future it is to be expected that these developments will be further refined, e. g. by adding further subtypes for adenocarcinomas and cytologic and/or nuclear criteria for adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27356985

  2. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Shimizu, H

    1977-12-01

    The relationship between incidence of lung cancer and the volume of traffic as indicated by auto exhaust concentration was examined; the results, though suggestive, did not yield consistent evidence of the association between them. Traffic jams in Nagoya began 15 years ago, a period that may not be long enough to provide definitive data on the incidence of lung cancer. The high standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of lung cancer was observed in cities with a population of less than 1 million and guns (rural areas) along the coast, although those in the metropolitan areas with populations of more than 1 million were average. The SMR did not correlate with various socioeconomic conditions and industrial air pollution. Meteorologic or geologic conditions and ocean currents were not associated with SMR of lung cancer by city and gun. The population of a gun or of some cities was not large enough to be statistically significant, and the mortality rate of lung cancer was not always stable.

  3. Polonium and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  4. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties. PMID:21772848

  5. Bronchoscopy of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Emslander, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cancer site in men and women with a high incidence and mortality rate. Most patients are diagnosed when the disease has already spread. An early, detection and immediate and accurate histological or cytological diagnosis are essential for a hopeful outcome. In most patients, bronchoscopy is the method of choice in establishing a suspected lung neoplasm. With the rigid and flexible method, two complementary techniques are available. The methods bear a very low mortality rate if sufficient monitoring and resuscitative instrumentation is available. Rigid bronchoscopy offers the possibility of obtaining large biopsy specimens from the tumorous tissue and provides an effective tool in the control of major haemorrhage. However, it cannot be used for the inspection of further peripherally located parts of the bronchial system and needs general anaesthesia. In contrast, the flexible method can be quickly and readily performed at practically any location using portable equipment. Bronchi can be inspected up to the 8th order and with bronchial washing, forceps biopsy, brush biopsy and fluorescence bronchoscopy techniques with a high diagnostic yield are available. This holds true, especially if these sampling techniques are used as complementary methods. PMID:18493335

  6. Association of lung cancer mortality with precambrian granite.

    PubMed

    Archer, V E

    1987-01-01

    Sixteen counties in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey that are associated with the Reading Prong granite deposits have significantly higher age-adjusted lung cancer rates among whites of both sexes (1950-1979) than do 17 nearby control counties. Elevated radon daughter concentrations have been found in homes near the Reading Prong granites. Fraction of populations living in cities with over 5,000 persons, industrial centers, cities with populations above 20,000, and median incomes did not differ significantly for three county groups (those which include the granite, fringe area, and control areas). Weaknesses were inadequate home measurements of radon and lack of smoking information. Findings are consistent with several other studies relating radon in homes to lung cancer.

  7. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  8. Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Erica B; Jalal, Shadia I

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive cancer of neuroendocrine origin, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. Patients typically present with a short duration of symptoms and frequently (60-65 %) with metastatic disease. SCLC is a heterogeneous disease including extremely chemosensitive and chemoresistant clones. For this reason, a high percentage of patients respond to first-line chemotherapy but rapidly succumb to the disease. SCLC is generally divided into two stages, limited and extensive. Standard treatment of limited stage disease includes combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for four cycles, thoracic radiation initiated early with the first cycle of chemotherapy, and consideration of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in the subset of patients with good response. Surgery may play a role in TNM stages I and II. In extensive disease, platinum agents and etoposide, used in combination, are again the first-line standard of care in the USA. However, thoracic radiation therapy is used predominately in patients where local control is important and PCI is of uncertain benefit. Despite these treatments, prognosis remains poor and novel therapies are needed to improve survival in this disease. PMID:27535400

  9. Proteomic biomarkers in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M D; Nogal, A; Molina-Pinelo, S; Carnero, A; Paz-Ares, L

    2013-09-01

    The correct understanding of tumour development relies on the comprehensive study of proteins. They are the main orchestrators of vital processes, such as signalling pathways, which drive the carcinogenic process. Proteomic technologies can be applied to cancer research to detect differential protein expression and to assess different responses to treatment. Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death in the world. Mostly diagnosed at late stages of the disease, lung cancer has one of the lowest 5-year survival rates at 15 %. The use of different proteomic techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), isotope labelling (ICAT, SILAC, iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry may yield new knowledge on the underlying biology of lung cancer and also allow the development of new early detection tests and the identification of changes in the cancer protein network that are associated with prognosis and drug resistance. PMID:23606351

  10. Screening for occult lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, T. H.; MacIntosh, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A pilot screening program for the early detection of lung cancer was carried out in Saskatchewan in 1968 using chest roentgenography and cytologic examination of sputum samples. The yield from 23 000 men aged 40 years and over was only 10 cases. Nine of the men had advanced disease. One had occult lung cancer. A period of 31 months elapsed between the discovery of malignant cells in this patient's sputum and roentgenographic localization of the tumour. Following pneumonectomy he has survived with no discernible residual or metastatic tumour for 12 years. The morphologic changes in the resected lung provided a basis for discussing the preclinical phase of squamous cancer of the lung, the treatment of occult cancer and multicentric primary pulmonary tumours. The survey would have been more successful with a narrower target group and more frequent examination. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6299495

  11. Nanomedicine: Sniffing out lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzone, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A sensor consisting of an array of gold nanoparticles can distinguish the breath of lung cancer patients from the breath of healthy individuals without the need to pre-treat or dehumidify the samples.

  12. Lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Katz, R; Zhang, C X

    1986-10-01

    A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, and lung cancer mortality has been carried out in two adjacent areas in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, designated as the "high background" and the "control" area. Annual exposure rates are 0.38 working level months (WLM) per year in the high background, and 0.16 WLM/yr in the control area. In 14 yr of continuous study, from 1970 to 1983, age-adjusted mortality rates were found to be 2.7 per 10(5) living persons of all ages in the high background area, and 2.9 per 10(5) living persons in the control area. From this data, we conclude that we are unable to determine excess lung cancers over the normal fluctuations below a cumulative exposure of 15 WLM. This conclusion is supported by lung cancer mortality data from Austrian and Finnish high-background areas. A theoretical analysis of epidemiological data on human lung cancer incidence from inhaled 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, which takes into account cell killing as competitive with malignant transformation, leads to the evaluation of a risk factor which is either a linear-exponential or a quadratic-exponential function of the alpha-particle dose. Animal lung cancer data and theoretical considerations can be supplied to support either hypothesis. Thus we conclude that at our current stage of knowledge both the linear-exponential and the quadratic-exponential extrapolation to low doses seem to be equally acceptable for Rn-induced lung cancer risk, possibly suggesting a linear-quadratic transformation function with an exponential cell-killing term, or the influence of risk-modifying factors such as repair or proliferation stimuli.

  13. Lung Cancer and Hispanics: Know the Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... other segments of the American population. However, lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic men and the second-leading cause among Hispanic women. November is Lung Cancer Awareness ...

  14. Lung cancer working group report.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Nagahiro; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Ichinose, Yukito; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Mok, Tony Shu Kam; Ohe, Yuichiro; Park, Keunchil; Wu, Yi-Long

    2010-09-01

    Asia needs a guideline for non-small-cell lung cancer because of differences in medical care, medical care insurance, ethnic variation and drug approval lag within Asian countries and compared with Western countries. Due to ethnic differences, drug dosages are often higher in the USA than in Japan. EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer was detected in 32% of Asians but only 6% of non-Asians, while differences in irinotecan metabolism cause higher frequencies of toxicity (leukopenia, diarrhea) in Asians. Pharmacodynamic ethnic differences in relation to paclitaxel/carboplatin resulted in longer median survival and a higher 1-year survival rate for Japanese-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients compared with Americans. To solve the problem of drug lag, pharmaceutical companies must perform multinational Asian clinical trials with quick accrual of patients, while regulatory authorities must establish high-quality, efficient approval processes, and achieve regulatory harmonization. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network promotes creation of national clinical practice guidelines, and Korea, China and Thailand adapted the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Many Asian countries still lack such guidelines, and there are no pan-Asian guidelines for non-small-cell lung cancer. Japan developed its own non-small-cell lung cancer guidelines and also a gefitinib guidance. The study group members concluded that immediate establishment of an Asian non-small-cell lung cancer guideline will be difficult because of the differences among the countries. Asian collaborative trials on treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer need to be started at an early date to generate Asian data.

  15. Palliative Procedures in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Emi; Sista, Akhilesh K.; Pua, Bradley B.; Madoff, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Palliative care aims to optimize comfort and function when cure is not possible. Image-guided interventions for palliative treatment of lung cancer is aimed at local control of advanced disease in the affected lung, adjacent mediastinal structures, or distant metastatic sites. These procedures include endovascular therapy for superior vena cava syndrome, bronchial artery embolization for hemoptysis associated with lung cancer, and ablation of osseous metastasis. Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, indications of these palliative treatments, procedural techniques, complications, and possible future interventions are discussed in this article. PMID:24436537

  16. Lung cancer screening: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Munden, Reginald F; Godoy, Myrna C B

    2013-10-01

    Results from the National Lung Screening Trial have confirmed that lung cancer mortality is reduced using low-dose CT screening. Opening a lung cancer screening program requires a multidisciplinary approach. While the fundamental aspects of a screening program are similar, such as scheduling, performing, and managing follow-up, there are aspects of a lung cancer screening program that are unique. This article will discuss factors important in establishing a state of the art lung cancer screening program.

  17. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  18. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  19. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  20. Palliative Care in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Arvind M; Dashti, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the USA. Symptom burden in patients with advanced lung cancer is very high and has a negative impact on their quality of life (QOL). Palliative care with its focus on the management of symptoms and addressing physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and existential suffering, as well as medically appropriate goal setting and open communication with patients and families, significantly adds to the quality of care received by advanced lung cancer patients. The Provisional Clinical Opinion (PCO) of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) as well as the National Cancer Care Network's (NCCN) clinical practice guidelines recommends early integration of palliative care into routine cancer care. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of palliative care in lung cancer and will examine the evidence and recommendations with regard to a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to symptom management, as well as discussions of goals of care, advance care planning, and care preferences. PMID:27535397

  1. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Functional imaging in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harders, S W; Balyasnikowa, S; Fischer, B M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) have demonstrated promising results within this field. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a brief and balanced introduction to these three functional imaging modalities and their current or potential application in the care of patients with lung cancer. PMID:24289258

  3. Rising lung cancer death rates among black men: the importance of occupation and social class.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Cooper, R

    1982-03-01

    From 1950 to 1977 the age-adjusted cancer death rates for nonwhite men in the United States rose an astonishing 63.2 percent, while rates for white men increased 22.2 percent and fell slightly for women of both races. The bulk of this increase can be accounted for by cancer of the lung. As a serious health problem that is increasing in severity, cancer in black men deserves close attention and definitive action. This discussion focuses on basic epidemiological relationships in the origins of this epidemic, particularly in regard to the relative importance of occupation, cigarette smoking, and social class.

  4. Impacts of Exercise on Prognostic Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  5. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  6. Medical imaging in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Heelan, R.T.; Bains, M.S.; Yeh, S.

    1987-10-01

    The routine imaging work-up of suspected lung cancer should include posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs and, in most cases, a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the entire thorax and adrenal glands. In asymptomatic patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung, there is justification for doing routine contrast-enhanced CT examination of the brain. Further imaging workup will be suggested by the patient's history, physical findings, and laboratory findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest in patients with lung cancer is being investigated, but current studies comparing it with CT demonstrate no definite advantage at this time, with the possible exception of the lung apex in which T1 weighted thin-section coronal views are useful.

  7. Epidemiology of lung cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China. Along with socioeconomic development, environmental problems have intensified and the burden of lung cancer continues to increase. Methods In this study, national cancer registry data was used for evaluating incidence, mortality, time trend, and prediction. Results In China in 2010, 605 900 patients were diagnosed and 486 600 patients died of lung cancer. Throughout the last three decades, the mortality of lung cancer has dramatically increased, as shown in national death surveys. From 2000 to 2010, age specific incidence of lung cancer increased in most age groups. It is estimated that in 2015, the total number of new cases of lung cancer will reach 733 300. Conclusions Lung cancer is a serious disease affecting public health and an effective control strategy is needed in China. PMID:26273360

  8. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  10. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  11. Electrochemical treatment of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Y.L.; Xue, F.Z.; Ge, B.S.; Zhao, F.R.; Shi, B.; Zhang, W.

    1997-03-01

    A pilot study of electrochemical treatment (ECT) as a therapy for 386 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer was undertaken. There were 103 stage 2 cases, 89 stage 3a cases, 122 stage 3b cases, and 72 stage 4 cases. Two ECT methods were used. For peripherally located lung cancer, platinum electrodes were inserted transcutaneously into the tumor under x-ray or CT guidance. For central type lung cancer or for those inoperable during thoracotomy, electrodes were inserted intraoperatively directly into the cancer. Voltage was 6--8 V, current was 40--100 mA, and electric charge was 100 coulombs per cm of tumor diameter. The number of electrodes was determined from the size of cancer mass, because the diameter of effective area around each electrode is approximately 3 cm. The short-term (6 months after ECT) results of the 386 lung cancer cases were: complete response (CR), 25.6% (99/386); partial response (PR), 46.4% (179/386); no change (NC), 15.3% (59/386); and progressive disease (PD), 12.7% (49/386). The total effective rate (CR + PR) was 72% (278/386). The 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival rates were 86.3% (333/386), 58.8% (227/386), and 29.5% (114/386), respectively. The main complication was traumatic pneumothorax, with an incidence rate of 14.8% (57/386). These clinical results show that ECT is simple, safe, effective, and minimally traumatic. ECT provides an alternative method for treating lung cancers that are conventionally inoperable, that are not responsive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or that cannot be resected after thoracotomy. Long-term survival rates suggest that ECT warrants further investigation.

  12. FR901228 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Progressive Small Cell Lung Cancer or Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-14

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Böhm, G M

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro researches (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  14. Air pollution and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  15. Phase II Etirinotecan Pegol in Refractory Brain Metastases & Advanced Lung Cancer / Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  16. Radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Namer, M.; Lalanne, C.M.; Boublil, J.L.; Hery, M.; Chauvel, P.; Verschoore, J.; Aubanel, J.M.; Bruneton, J.N.

    1980-08-01

    Evaluation of loco-regional results obtained by radiotherapy for 31 patients with inoperable epidermoid lung cancer revealed objective remission (over 50%) in only 25% of patients. These results emphasize the limited effectiveness of radiotherapy in such cases and point out the need for increased research in radiotherapy techniques if survival rates are to be improved.

  17. Atmospheric pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R

    1978-01-01

    Lung cancer is consistently more common in urban areas than in rural. The excess cannot be accounted for by specific occupational hazards but some of it might be due to the presence of carcinogens in urban air. The excess cannot be wholly due to such agents, because the excess in nonsmokers is small and variable. Cigarette consumption has also been greater in urban areas, but it is difficult to estimate how much of the excess it can account for. Occupational studies confirm that pollutants present in town air are capable of causing lung cancer in man and suggest that the pollutants and cigarette smoke act synergistically. The trends in the mortality from lung cancer in young and middle-aged men in England and Wales provide uncertain evidence but support the belief that atmospheric pollution has contributed to the production of the disease. In the absence of cigarette smoking, the combined effect of all atmospheric carcinogens is not responsible for more than about 5 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 persons per year in European populations. PMID:648488

  18. Lung Cancer Staging and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Jones, Kirk D; Jablons, David M

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) TNM staging system was developed by the International Association for the Staging of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lung Cancer Staging Project by a coordinated international effort to develop data-derived TNM classifications with significant survival differences. Based on these TNM groupings, current 5-year survival estimates in NSLCC range from 73 % in stage IA disease to 13 % in stage IV disease. TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in predicting recurrence rates and survival times, followed by tumor histologic grade, and patient sex, age, and performance status. Molecular prognostication in lung cancer is an exploding area of research where interest has moved beyond TNM stage and into individualized genetic tumor analysis with immunohistochemistry, microarray, and mutation profiles. However, despite intense research efforts and countless publications, no molecular prognostic marker has been adopted into clinical use since most fail in subsequent cross-validation with few exceptions. The recent interest in immunotherapy for NSCLC has identified new biomarkers with early evidence that suggests that PD-L1 is a predictive marker of a good response to new immunotherapy drugs but a poor prognostic indicator of overall survival. Future prognostication of outcomes in NSCLC will likely be based on a combination of TNM stage and molecular tumor profiling and yield more precise, individualized survival estimates and treatment algorithms. PMID:27535389

  19. TG4010 and Nivolumab in Patients With Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-07

    Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  20. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-16

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential curative therapy is surgical resection of early stage lung cancer. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer could potentially increase the chance of cure by surgery and underlines the importance of screening and detection of lung cancer. In the past fifty years, screening of lung cancer by chest X-Ray (CXR), sputum cytology, computed tomography (CT), fluorescence endoscopy and low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) has not improved survival except for the recent report in 2010 by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which showed a 20 percent mortality reduction in high risk participants screened with LDCT compared to those screened with CXRs. Furthermore, serum biomarkers for detection of lung cancer using free circulating DNA and RNA, exosomal microRNA, circulating tumor cells and various lung cancer specific antigens have been studied extensively and novel screening methods are being developed with encouraging results. The history of lung cancer screening trials using CXR, sputum cytology and LDCT, as well as results of trials involving various serum biomarkers, are reviewed herein.

  1. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential curative therapy is surgical resection of early stage lung cancer. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer could potentially increase the chance of cure by surgery and underlines the importance of screening and detection of lung cancer. In the past fifty years, screening of lung cancer by chest X-Ray (CXR), sputum cytology, computed tomography (CT), fluorescence endoscopy and low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) has not improved survival except for the recent report in 2010 by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which showed a 20 percent mortality reduction in high risk participants screened with LDCT compared to those screened with CXRs. Furthermore, serum biomarkers for detection of lung cancer using free circulating DNA and RNA, exosomal microRNA, circulating tumor cells and various lung cancer specific antigens have been studied extensively and novel screening methods are being developed with encouraging results. The history of lung cancer screening trials using CXR, sputum cytology and LDCT, as well as results of trials involving various serum biomarkers, are reviewed herein. PMID:24252206

  2. Lung cancer incidence decreases with elevation: evidence for oxygen as an inhaled carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The level of atmospheric oxygen, a driver of free radical damage and tumorigenesis, decreases sharply with rising elevation. To understand whether ambient oxygen plays a role in human carcinogenesis, we characterized age-adjusted cancer incidence (compiled by the National Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2009) across counties of the elevation-varying Western United States and compared trends displayed by respiratory cancer (lung) and non-respiratory cancers (breast, colorectal, and prostate). To adjust for important demographic and cancer-risk factors, 8–12 covariates were considered for each cancer. We produced regression models that captured known risks. Models demonstrated that elevation is strongly, negatively associated with lung cancer incidence (p < 10−16), but not with the incidence of non-respiratory cancers. For every 1,000 m rise in elevation, lung cancer incidence decreased by 7.23 99% CI [5.18–9.29] cases per 100,000 individuals, equivalent to 12.7% of the mean incidence, 56.8. As a predictor of lung cancer incidence, elevation was second only to smoking prevalence in terms of significance and effect size. Furthermore, no evidence of ecological fallacy or of confounding arising from evaluated factors was detected: the lung cancer association was robust to varying regression models, county stratification, and population subgrouping; additionally seven environmental correlates of elevation, such as exposure to sunlight and fine particulate matter, could not capture the association. Overall, our findings suggest the presence of an inhaled carcinogen inherently and inversely tied to elevation, offering epidemiological support for oxygen-driven tumorigenesis. Finally, highlighting the need to consider elevation in studies of lung cancer, we demonstrated that previously reported inverse lung cancer associations with radon and UVB became insignificant after accounting for elevation. PMID:25648772

  3. Lung cancer and peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    SERENO, MARÍA; RODRÍGUEZ-ESTEBAN, ISABEL; GÓMEZ-RAPOSO, CÉSAR; MERINO, MARÍA; LÓPEZ-GÓMEZ, MIRIAM; ZAMBRANA, FRANCISCO; CASADO, ENRIQUE

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies in the world and peritoneal involvement is rare in these types of tumors. Clinical manifestations of these metastases are also uncommon and include intestinal perforation and obstruction. The present study reviewed certain aspects of the complication of peritoneal involvement and illustrated it with four cases of patients that were diagnosed with primary lung carcinoma and secondary peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). The outcome of these patients is poor and they rarely respond to chemotherapy. Surgery is successful in the majority of cases. PMID:24137394

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  5. Phosphoproteomics and Lung Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    López, Elena; Cho, William C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed. PMID:23202899

  6. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  7. Lung Cancer Awareness Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Catherine; Laczko, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. Tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States and the cause of premature death of approximately 2 million individuals in developed countries. Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and is a major cause of heart disease, cerebrovascular…

  8. [Molecular diagnostics of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ryska, A; Dziadziuszko, R; Olszewski, W; Berzinec, P; Öz, B; Gottfried, M; Cufer, T; Samarzija, M; Plank, L; Ostoros, Gy; Tímár, J

    2015-09-01

    Development of the target therapies of lung cancer was a rapid process which fundamentally changed the pathological diagnosis as well. Furthermore, molecular pathology became essential part of the routine diagnostics of lung cancer. These changes generated several practical problems and in underdeveloped countries or in those with reimbursement problems have been combined with further challenges. The central and eastern region of Europe are characterized by similar problems in this respect which promoted the foundation of NSCLC Working Group to provide up to date protocols or guidelines. This present paper is a summary of the molecular pathology and target therapy guidelines written with the notion that it has to be upgraded continuously according to the development of the field.

  9. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting.

  10. Lung cancer risk associated with cancer in relatives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G L; Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Mason, T J; Buffler, P A

    1991-01-01

    Family history data from an incident case-control study of lung cancer conducted in the Texas Gulf Coast region between 1976 and 1980 were analyzed to evaluate the contribution of cancer in first-degree relatives to lung cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) increased slightly as the number of relatives with any cancer increased (reaching 1.5 with 4 or more relatives with cancer). Risks were higher for tobacco-related cancers (OR = 1.5 for 2 or more relatives with these tumors) and greatest for first-degree relatives with lung cancer (OR = 2.8 for lung cancer in 2 or more relatives). For cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung, risks with 3 or more relatives with any cancer were increased 2-fold (OR = 1.8 and 1.9 respectively), and a significantly elevated risk was found for having a first-degree relative with lung cancer for each histologic type (ORs from 1.7-2.1). Having a spouse with lung cancer increased lung cancer risk (OR = 2.5), and cases with lung cancer reported in a first-degree relative were diagnosed at an earlier age, as were case siblings with lung cancer.

  11. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  12. Lung cancer screening: subsequent evidences of national lung screening trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Sik

    2014-08-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6.7% decrease in all-cause mortality. The NLST is the only trial showing positive results in a high-risk population, such as in patients with old age and heavy ever smokers. Lung cancer screening using a low-dose chest computed tomography might be beneficial for the high-risk group. However, there may also be potential adverse outcomes in terms of over diagnosis, bias and cost-effectiveness. Until now, lung cancer screening remains controversial. In this review, we wish to discuss the evolution of lung cancer screening and summarize existing evidences and recommendations.

  13. Year-in-Review of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the last several years, we have made slow but steady progress in understanding molecular biology of lung cancer. This review is focused on advances in understanding the biology of lung cancer that have led to proof of concept studies on new therapeutic approaches. The three selected topics include genetics, epigenetics and non-coding RNA. This new information represents progress in the integration of molecular mechanisms that to identify more effective ways to target lung cancer. PMID:23166546

  14. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W. )

    1990-03-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references.

  15. Lung cancer in the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Vanita; Pinninti, Rakesh; Patil, Vijay M.; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Smoking tobacco, both cigarettes and beedis, is the principal risk factor for causation of lung cancer in Indian men; however, among Indian women, the association with smoking is not strong, suggesting that there could be other risk factors besides smoking. Despite numerous advances in recent years in terms of diagnostic methods, molecular changes, and therapeutic interventions, the outcomes of the lung cancer patients remain poor; hence, a better understanding of the risk factors may impact the preventive measures to be implemented at the community level. There is a lack of comprehensive data on lung cancer in India. In this review, we attempt to collate the available data on lung cancer from India.

  16. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. [Advances in Lung Stem Cells and Lung Cancer Stem Cells].

    PubMed

    Yin, Huijing; Deng, Jiong

    2015-10-20

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs), including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2). Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathways. As CSC plays an critical role in tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug-resistance, understanding the difference between lung CSCs and normal lung SCs, identifying and targeting CSC markers or related signaling pathways may increase the efficacy of therapy on lung cancer and improved survival of lung cancer patients.

  18. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

  19. Personalized therapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Andre L; Eng, Juliana

    2014-12-01

    The past decade has seen an enormous advancement in the therapy for lung cancer, predominantly seen in adenocarcinoma, ranging from the introduction of histology-based drugs to the discovery of targetable mutations. These events have led to a personalized therapeutic approach with the delivery of drugs that target specific oncogenic pathways active in a given tumor with the intent of acquiring the best response rate. The discovery of sensitizing mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene as the basis for clinical response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors led to a systematic search for other molecular targets in lung cancer. Currently, there are several molecular alterations that can be targeted by experimental drugs. These new discoveries would not be possible without a parallel technological evolution in diagnostic molecular pathology. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a technology that allows for the evaluation of multiple molecular alterations in the same sample using a small amount of tissue. Selective evaluation of targeted cancer genes, instead of whole-genome evaluation, is the approach that is best suited to enter clinical practice. This technology allows for the detection of most molecular alteration with a single test, thus saving tissue for future discoveries. The use of NGS is expected to increase and gain importance in clinical and experimental approaches, since it can be used as a diagnostic tool as well as for new discoveries. The technique may also help us elucidate the interplay of several genes and their alteration in the mechanism of drug response and resistance.

  20. Enhanced Quitline Intervention in Smoking Cessation for Patients With Non-Metastatic Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tobacco Use Disorder

  1. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the lungs and basics about lung cancer Treatment for lung ...

  2. Association between Six Environmental Chemicals and Lung Cancer Incidence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael; Ducatman, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background. An increased risk of lung cancer has been observed at exposure to certain industrial chemicals in occupational settings; however, less is known about their carcinogenic potential to the general population when those agents are released into the environment. Methods. We used the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to conduct an ecological study at the county level. We used multiple linear regression to assess the association of age-adjusted lung cancer incidence with the quantities of on-site air and water releases of six selected industrial chemicals including arsenic, 1,3 butadiene, cadmium, chromium, formaldehyde, and nickel after controlling for other risk variables. Results. Overall, we observed a significantly increased risk of lung cancer incidence associated with releases of chromium, formaldehyde, and nickel. The links were present for both males and females. Significant effects were present in nonmetropolitan but not metropolitan counties. Releases of arsenic, 1,3 butadiene, and cadmium were reported by small numbers of facilities, and no relationships to lung cancer incidence were detected. Conclusions. Our results suggest that environmental exposure to chromium, formaldehyde, and nickel from TRI sites may increase population risk of lung cancer. These findings need to be confirmed in individual-level studies, but in congruence with the precautionary principle in environmental science, support prudent efforts to limit release of these agents into the environment. PMID:21776439

  3. Diagnosis and Molecular Classification of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Parra-Cuentas, Edwin; Wistuba, Ignacio I

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease composed of diverse histological and molecular types with clinical relevance. The advent of large-scale molecular profiling has been helpful to identify novel molecular targets that can be applied to the treatment of particular lung cancer patients and has helped to reshape the pathological classification of lung cancer. Novel directions include the immunotherapy revolution, which has opened the door for new opportunities for cancer therapy and is also redefining the classification of multiple tumors, including lung cancer. In the present chapter, we will review the main current basis of the pathological diagnosis and classification of lung cancer incorporating the histopathological and molecular dimensions of the disease. PMID:27535388

  4. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent.

  5. Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, C.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A significant dose-response relation between ingested arsenic and several cancers has recently been reported in four townships of the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral artery disease related to the chronic arsenic exposure in southwestern Taiwan. This study was carried out to examine ecological correlations between arsenic level of well water and mortality from various malignant neoplasms in 314 precincts and townships of Taiwan. The arsenic content in water of 83,656 wells was determined by a standard mercuric bromide stain method from 1974 to 1976, while mortality rates of 21 malignant neoplasms among residents in study precincts and townships from 1972 to 1983 were standardized to the world population in 1976. A significant association with the arsenic level in well water was observed for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney in both males and females as well as for the prostate cancer in males. These associations remained significant after adjusting for indices of urbanization and industrialization through multiple regression analyses. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient indicating an increase in age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 person-years for every 0.1 ppm increase in arsenic level of well water was 6.8 and 2.0, 0.7 and 0.4, 5.3 and 5.3, 0.9 and 1.0, 3.9 and 4.2, as well as 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, in males and females for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient for the prostate cancer was 0.5. These weighted regression coefficients were found to increase or remain unchanged in further analyses in which only 170 southwestern townships were included.

  6. Chemoprevention studies within lung cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, G; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A; Infante, M; Bonanni, B

    2015-01-01

    While aggressive tobacco control and help to stop smoking are essential weapons in the fight against lung cancer, screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk populations and chemoprevention may also contribute to reducing lung cancer deaths. Persons undergoing LDCT screening are an ideal population to be tested for agents potentially able to prevent the development of lung cancer by the regression of precancerous lesions, which are routinely monitored as part of the screening process. Peripheral subsolid nodules appear as particularly suitable targets, since many are adenocarcinoma precursors. A study on inhaled budesonide (a potential chemopreventive drug) for 1 year found that the mean size of non-solid lung nodules was significantly reduced over 5 years of follow-up, compared to inhaled placebo, in a population of high-risk individuals with indeterminate lung nodules not requiring immediate specific investigation for lung cancer and detected as part of a lung cancer screening program with LDCT. A new randomised placebo-controlled phase-II trial to test the ability of aspirin to induce the regression of non-solid and partially solid nodules detected by LDCT screening has been started. The effect of aspirin on a miRNA signature able to predict the presence of both cancer and precancerous lesions in high-risk asymptomatic individuals is also being monitored in the trial. This signature was previously shown to predict the presence of both lung cancer and non-solid lung nodules in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:26635901

  7. Classification and Pathology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min

    2016-07-01

    Advancement in the understanding of lung tumor biology enables continued refinement of lung cancer classification, reflected in the recently introduced 2015 World Health Organization classification of lung cancer. In small biopsy or cytology specimens, special emphasis is placed on separating adenocarcinomas from the other lung cancers to effectively select tumors for targeted molecular testing. In resection specimens, adenocarcinomas are further classified based on architectural pattern to delineate tissue types of prognostic significance. Neuroendocrine tumors are divided into typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma based on a combination of features, especially tumor cell proliferation rate. PMID:27261908

  8. [Developing surgical options for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Sihvo, Eero

    2016-01-01

    The selection of correct treatment for lung cancer is multidisciplinary collaboration and requires careful assessment of the extent of the tumor and the condition of the patient. In localized non-small cell lung cancer, mere surgery or surgery in combination with adjuvant therapies are the best options for curing the disease. The trend in modern surgery is mini-invasiveness and preservation of lung tissue. Accordingly, any unit conducting lung cancer operations should have access to all modern techniques in order to provide each patient with optimal, patient-tailored surgical therapy. PMID:27132298

  9. Gene Therapy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Roth, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy was originally conceived to treat monogenic diseases. The replacement of a defective gene with a functional gene can theoretically cure the disease. In cancer, multiple genetic defects are present and the molecular profile changes during the course of the disease, making the replacement of all defective genes impossible. To overcome these difficulties, various gene therapy strategies have been adopted, including immune stimulation, transfer of suicide genes, inhibition of driver oncogenes, replacement of tumor-suppressor genes that could mediate apoptosis or anti-angiogenesis, and transfer of genes that enhance conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Some of these strategies have been tested successfully in non-small-cell lung cancer patients and the results of laboratory studies and clinical trials are reviewed herein. PMID:27481008

  10. Recent advances in lung cancer biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of carcinogenesis, especially as related to lung cancers. Various growth factors and their mutated forms as oncogenes are discussed with respect to gene location and their role in the oncogenic process. Finally the data is related to lung cancer induction in uranium miners and exposure to radon.

  11. Lung Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) سرطان الرئة - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Lung Cancer Karcinom pluća - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Lung Cancer 肺癌 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  12. Indoor radon and lung cancer in China

    SciTech Connect

    Blot, W.J.; Xu, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Zhao, D.Z.; Stone, B.J.; Sun, J.; Jing, L.B.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-06-20

    Radon has long been known to contribute to risk of lung cancer, especially in undergound miners who are exposed to large amounts of the carcinogen. Recently, however, lower amounts of radon present in living areas have been suggested as an important cause of lung cancer. In an effort to clarify the relationship of low amounts of radon with lung cancer risk, we placed alpha-track radon detectors in the homes of 308 women with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 356 randomly selected female control subjects of similar age. Measurements were taken after 1 year. All study participants were part of the general population of Shenyang, People's Republic of China, an industrial city in the northeast part of the country that has one of the world's highest rates of lung cancer in women. The median time of residence in the homes was 24 years. The median household radon level was 2.3 pCi/L of air; 20% of the levels were greater than 4 pCi/L. Radon levels tended to be higher in single-story houses or on the first floor of multiple-story dwellings, and they were also higher in houses with increased levels of indoor air pollution from coal-burning stoves. However, the levels were not higher in homes of women who developed lung cancer than in homes of controls, nor did lung cancer risk increase with increasing radon level. No association between radon and lung cancer was observed regardless of cigarette-smoking status, except for a nonsignificant trend among heavy smokers. No positive associations of lung cancer cell type with radon were observed, except for a nonsignificant excess risk of small cell cancers among the more heavily exposed residents. Our data suggest that projections from surveys of miners exposed to high radon levels may have overestimated the overall risks of lung cancer associated with levels typically seen in homes in this Chinese city.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Lung Cancer Screening Decision Aid.

    PubMed

    Hart, Katelyn; Tofthagen, Cindy; Wang, Hsiao-Lan

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer; however, it often is not diagnosed until the advanced stages. Early-stage lung cancer is curable, but screening tools are not usually implemented in practice because of a lack of provider awareness. A lung cancer screening decision aid may increase screening use and, ultimately, reduce lung cancer deaths.
. PMID:27668377

  14. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  15. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomanno, Geno; Bechtel, Joel J.

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the incidence of cigarette smoking is decreasing in the United States it appears to be increasing worldwide. The five-year survival rate has not improved in cases with advanced disease, but several articles have indicated that survival can be improved in cases diagnosed early by sputum cytology and chest x-ray. In cases diagnosed while the lesion is in the in-situ stage or measures less than 1 cm in diameter, surgical excision and/or radiation therapy improves survival; therefore, the early diagnosis of high-risk patients should be vigorously pursued. A recent study at a community hospital in Grand Junction, Colorado, presented 45 lung cancer cases diagnosed with positive sputum cytology and negative chest x-ray, and indicates that early diagnosis does improve survival. This study has been conducted during the past six years; 16 cases have survived three years and six cases show five-year survival.

  16. Study of Ponatinib in Patients With Lung Cancer Preselected Using Different Candidate Predictive Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-07

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  18. Genomic heterogeneity of multiple synchronous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jianjun; Li, Lin; Yin, Guangliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zheng, Shan; Cheung, Hannah; Wu, Ning; Lu, Ning; Mao, Xizeng; Yang, Longhai; Zhang, Jiexin; Zhang, Li; Seth, Sahil; Chen, Huang; Song, Xingzhi; Liu, Kan; Xie, Yongqiang; Zhou, Lina; Zhao, Chuanduo; Han, Naijun; Chen, Wenting; Zhang, Susu; Chen, Longyun; Cai, Wenjun; Li, Lin; Shen, Miaozhong; Xu, Ningzhi; Cheng, Shujun; Yang, Huanming; Lee, J. Jack; Correa, Arlene; Fujimoto, Junya; Behrens, Carmen; Chow, Chi-Wan; William, William N.; Heymach, John V.; Hong, Waun Ki; Swisher, Stephen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Wang, Jun; Lin, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangyang; Futreal, P. Andrew; Gao, Yanning

    2016-01-01

    Multiple synchronous lung cancers (MSLCs) present a clinical dilemma as to whether individual tumours represent intrapulmonary metastases or independent tumours. In this study we analyse genomic profiles of 15 lung adenocarcinomas and one regional lymph node metastasis from 6 patients with MSLC. All 15 lung tumours demonstrate distinct genomic profiles, suggesting all are independent primary tumours, which are consistent with comprehensive histopathological assessment in 5 of the 6 patients. Lung tumours of the same individuals are no more similar to each other than are lung adenocarcinomas of different patients from TCGA cohort matched for tumour size and smoking status. Several known cancer-associated genes have different mutations in different tumours from the same patients. These findings suggest that in the context of identical constitutional genetic background and environmental exposure, different lung cancers in the same individual may have distinct genomic profiles and can be driven by distinct molecular events. PMID:27767028

  19. Residential Radon Appears to Prevent Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2011-01-01

    Residential radon has been found to be associated with lung cancer in epidemiological/ecological studies and the researchers have inappropriately concluded that residential radon causes lung cancer. Their conclusion relates to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis-based, risk-assessment paradigm; however, the LNT hypothesis has been invalidated in numerous studies. It is shown in this paper that our hormetic relative risk (HRR) model is consistent with lung cancer data where detailed measurements of radon in each home were carried out. Based on the HRR model, low-level radon radioactive progeny is credited for activated natural protection (ANP) against lung cancer including smoking-related lung cancer. The proportion B(x) (benefit function) of ANP beneficiaries increases as the average radon level x increases to near the Environmental Protection Agency’s action level of 4 picocuries/L (approximately 150 Bq m−3). As the average level of radon increases to somewhat above the action level, ANP beneficiaries progressively decrease to zero (B(x) decreases to 0), facilitating the occurrence of smoking-related lung cancers as well as those related to other less important risk factors. Thus, residential radon does not appear to cause lung cancer but rather to protect, in an exposure-level-dependent manner, from its induction by other agents (e.g., cigarette-smoke-related carcinogens). PMID:22461755

  20. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  1. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  2. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C.

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of recent clinical trials with targeted agents, immuno-oncology agents, and novel drug combinations.

  3. Immune checkpoint blockade in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Aswin; Socinski, Mark A; Villaruz, Liza C

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapy has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of advanced lung cancer. The adaptive immune system has developed a sophisticated method of tumor growth control, but T-cell activation is regulated by various checkpoints. Blockade of the immune checkpoints with therapies targeting the PD-1 pathway, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has been validated as a therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer. Newer therapies and novel combinations are also being evaluated, and the use of biomarkers in conjunction with these drugs is an area of active investigation. This review summarizes the current evidence for the efficacy and safety of the above approaches in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27585231

  4. Retrospective Analysis of Lung Transplant Recipients Found to Have Unexpected Lung Cancer in Explanted Lungs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahiro; Cypel, Marcelo; de Perrot, Marc; Pierre, Andrew; Waddell, Tom; Singer, Lianne; Roberts, Heidi; Keshavjee, Shaf; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Unexpected lung cancer is sometimes found in explanted lungs. The objective of this study was to review these patients and their outcomes to better understand and optimize management protocols for lung transplant candidates with pulmonary nodules. Retrospective analysis of pretransplant imaging and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients who were found to have lung cancer in their explanted lungs was performed. From January 2003 to December 2012, 13 of 853 lung transplant recipients were found to have unexpected lung cancer in their explanted lung (1.52%). Of them, 9 cases were for interstitial lung disease (2.8%; 9/321 recipients) and 4 cases were for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.57%; 4/255 recipients). The median period between computed tomographic scan and lung transplantation was 2.40 months (range: 0.5-19.2). On computed tomographic scan, only 3 cases were shown to possibly have a neoplasm by the radiologist. The staging of these lung cancers was as follows: 3 cases of IA, 1 case of IB, 5 cases of IIA, 1 case of IIIA, and 3 cases of IV. Of 13 cases, 9 died owing to cancer progression. On the contrary, only 1 stage I case with small cell lung cancer showed cancer recurrence. The median survival time was 339 days, and the 3-year survival rate was 11.0%. In conclusion, most of the patients with unexpected lung cancer showed poor prognosis except for the early-stage disease. The establishment of proper protocol for management of such nodules is important to improve the management of candidates who are found to have pulmonary nodules on imaging. PMID:26074103

  5. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approa | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  6. Lung cancer screening guidelines: common ground and differences

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for almost one-third of all cancer related deaths. Lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation and so many lung cancers now are diagnosed in former smokers. Five-year survival of lung cancer has marginally improved over decades and significantly lags behind that of colon, breast and prostate cancer. Over the past one decade, lung cancer screening trials have shown promising results. Results from National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), have shown a significant 20% reduction in mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Based on these results, annual LDCT testing has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high risk population. However, development and acceptance of lung cancer screening as a public health policy is still in the nascent stages. Major concerns relate to risk of radiation, overdiagnosis bias, proportion of false positives and cost benefit analysis. This article reviews the literature pertaining to lung cancer screening guidelines and above mentioned concerns. PMID:25806292

  7. Management of Lung Cancer in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Rao, Archana; Sharma, Namita; Gajra, Ajeet

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the USA. The median age at diagnosis of lung cancer is 70 years, and thus, about one-half of patients with lung cancer fall into the elderly subgroup. There is dearth of high level of evidence regarding the management of lung cancer in the elderly in the three broad stages of the disease including early-stage, locally advanced, and metastatic disease. A major reason for the lack of evidence is the underrepresentation of elderly in prospective randomized clinical trials. Due to the typical decline in physical and physiologic function associated with aging, most elderly do not meet the stringent eligibility criteria set forth in age-unselected clinical trials. In addition to performance status, ideally, comorbidity, cognitive, and psychological function, polypharmacy, social support, and patient preferences should be taken into account before applying prevailing treatment paradigms often derived in younger, healthier patients to the care of the elderly patient with lung cancer. The purpose of this chapter was to review the existing evidence of management of early-stage, locally advanced disease, and metastatic lung cancer in the elderly. PMID:27535398

  8. A case-control study of air pollution and tobacco smoking in lung cancer among women in Athens

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulos, D.; Kalandidi, A.; Tomos, P.; Riboli, E. )

    1991-03-01

    A case-control study exploring the role of smoking and outdoor air pollution in the causation of lung cancer, by histologic type, in nonsmoking women, was undertaken in Athens between 1987 and 1989. One hundred one women with lung cancer and 89 comparison women with fractures or other orthopedic conditions, all permanent residents of Greater Athens, were included in the study. Smoking habits were ascertained through interviews, whereas lifetime exposure to air pollution was assessed by linking blindly lifelong residential and employment addresses of all subjects with objectively estimated or presumed air pollution levels. The age-adjusted relative risk and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer among current smokers compared with nonsmokers was 3.40 (1.75-6.61); it was 7.43 (2.88-19.13) among those smoking for more than 30 years and 7.46 (2.40-23.17) among those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. The age-adjusted relative risk was 1.70 (0.75-3.89) for adenocarcinoma and 6.45 (2.73-15.25) for other histologic types of lung cancer; statistically significant dose-response trends were evident for both histologic groups. Air pollution levels were associated with increased risk for lung cancer but the relative risk was small and statistically not significant. However, when both air pollution and duration (or quantity) of tobacco smoking, as well as their interaction, were introduced in a multiple logistic regression model, the interaction term was significant at the suggestive level of 0.10. Whereas there is no effect of air pollution among nonsmokers, the relative risk contrasting extreme quartiles of air pollution among smokers of 30 years duration was 2.23. The interaction was almost exclusively accounted for by the nonadenocarcinoma lung tumors.

  9. Lung cancer in the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Vanita; Pinninti, Rakesh; Patil, Vijay M.; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Smoking tobacco, both cigarettes and beedis, is the principal risk factor for causation of lung cancer in Indian men; however, among Indian women, the association with smoking is not strong, suggesting that there could be other risk factors besides smoking. Despite numerous advances in recent years in terms of diagnostic methods, molecular changes, and therapeutic interventions, the outcomes of the lung cancer patients remain poor; hence, a better understanding of the risk factors may impact the preventive measures to be implemented at the community level. There is a lack of comprehensive data on lung cancer in India. In this review, we attempt to collate the available data on lung cancer from India. PMID:27606290

  10. Lung cancer in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Vanita; Pinninti, Rakesh; Patil, Vijay M; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Smoking tobacco, both cigarettes and beedis, is the principal risk factor for causation of lung cancer in Indian men; however, among Indian women, the association with smoking is not strong, suggesting that there could be other risk factors besides smoking. Despite numerous advances in recent years in terms of diagnostic methods, molecular changes, and therapeutic interventions, the outcomes of the lung cancer patients remain poor; hence, a better understanding of the risk factors may impact the preventive measures to be implemented at the community level. There is a lack of comprehensive data on lung cancer in India. In this review, we attempt to collate the available data on lung cancer from India. PMID:27606290

  11. Immunotherapy for lung cancer: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To date, surgery is the first choice treatment, but most clinically diagnosed cases are inoperable. While chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are the next considered options for such cases, these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients. Thus, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy provides either active or passive immunity to target tumors. Multiple immunotherapy agents have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against lung cancer, and some pose fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, we discuss studies focusing on interactions between lung cancer and the immune system, and we place an emphasis on outcome evidence in order to create a knowledge base well-grounded in clinical reality. Overall, this review highlights the need for new lung cancer treatment options, with much ground to be paved for future advances in the field. We believe that immunotherapy agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment. PMID:27168951

  12. Immunotherapy for lung cancer: advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To date, surgery is the first choice treatment, but most clinically diagnosed cases are inoperable. While chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are the next considered options for such cases, these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients. Thus, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy provides either active or passive immunity to target tumors. Multiple immunotherapy agents have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against lung cancer, and some pose fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, we discuss studies focusing on interactions between lung cancer and the immune system, and we place an emphasis on outcome evidence in order to create a knowledge base well-grounded in clinical reality. Overall, this review highlights the need for new lung cancer treatment options, with much ground to be paved for future advances in the field. We believe that immunotherapy agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment. PMID:27168951

  13. Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S S

    1999-07-21

    The complexity of tobacco smoke leads to some confusion about the mechanisms by which it causes lung cancer. Among the multiple components of tobacco smoke, 20 carcinogens convincingly cause lung tumors in laboratory animals or humans and are, therefore, likely to be involved in lung cancer induction. Of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone are likely to play major roles. This review focuses on carcinogens in tobacco smoke as a means of simplifying and clarifying the relevant information that provides a mechanistic framework linking nicotine addiction with lung cancer through exposure to such compounds. Included is a discussion of the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke carcinogens interact with DNA and cause genetic changes--mechanisms that are reasonably well understood--and the less well defined relationship between exposure to specific tobacco smoke carcinogens and mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Molecular epidemiologic studies of gene-carcinogen interactions and lung cancer--an approach that has not yet reached its full potential--are also discussed, as are inhalation studies of tobacco smoke in laboratory animals and the potential role of free radicals and oxidative damage in tobacco-associated carcinogenesis. By focusing in this review on several important carcinogens in tobacco smoke, the complexities in understanding tobacco-induced cancer can be reduced, and new approaches for lung cancer prevention can be envisioned. PMID:10413421

  14. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  15. Lung cancer screening: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine D; Aberle, Denise R; Wood, Douglas E

    2012-01-01

    The results of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) have provided the medical community and American public with considerable optimism about the potential to reduce lung cancer mortality with imaging-based screening. Designed as a randomized trial, the NLST has provided the first evidence of screening benefit by showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6.7% reduction in all-cause mortality with low dose helical computed tomography (LDCT) screening relative to chest X-ray. The major harms of LDCT screening include the potential for radiation-induced carcinogenesis; high false-positivity rates in individuals without lung cancer, and overdiagnosis. Following the results of the NLST, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) published the first of multiple lung cancer screening guidelines under development by major medical organizations. These recommendations amalgamated screening cohorts, practices, interpretations, and diagnostic follow-up based on the NLST and other published studies to provide guidance for the implementation of LDCT screening. There are major areas of opportunity to optimize implementation. These include standardizing practices in the screening setting, optimizing risk profiles for screening and for managing diagnostic evaluation in individuals with indeterminate nodules, developing interdisciplinary screening programs in conjunction with smoking cessation, and approaching all stakeholders systematically to ensure the broadest education and dissemination of screening benefits relative to risks. The incorporation of validated biomarkers of risk and preclinical lung cancer can substantially enhance the effectiveness screening programs. PMID:24451779

  16. Human Lung Cancer Cells Grown on Acellular Rat Lung Matrix Create Perfusable Tumor Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Dhruva K.; Thrall, Michael J.; Baird, Brandi N.; Ott, Harald C.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Kim, Min P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix allows lung cancer to form its shape and grow. Recent studies on organ reengineering for orthotopic transplantation have provided a new avenue for isolating purified native matrix to use for growing cells. Whether human lung cancer cells grown in a decellularized rat lung matrix would create perfusable human lung cancer nodules was tested. Methods Rat lungs were harvested and native cells were removed using sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100 in a decellularization chamber to create a decellularized rat lung matrix. Human A549, H460, or H1299 lung cancer cells were placed into the decellularized rat lung matrix and grown in a customized bioreactor with perfusion of oxygenated media for 7 to 14 days. Results Decellularized rat lung matrix showed preservation of matrix architecture devoid of all rat cells. All three human lung cancer cell lines grown in the bioreactor developed tumor nodules with intact vasculature. Moreover, the lung cancer cells developed a pattern of growth similar to the original human lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, this study shows that human lung cancer cells form perfusable tumor nodules in a customized bioreactor on a decellularized rat lung matrix created by a customized decellularization chamber. The lung cancer cells grown in the matrix had features similar to the original human lung cancer. This ex vivo model can be used potentially to gain a deeper understanding of the biologic processes involved in human lung cancer. PMID:22385822

  17. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    PubMed

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated.

  18. Role of STAT3 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Pranabananda; Sabri, Nafiseh; Li, Jinghong; Li, Willis X

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease. It is responsible for the high cancer mortality rates in the US and worldwide. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operative in lung cancer is an important first step in developing effective therapies. Accumulating evidence over the last 2 decades suggests a critical role for Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) as a point of convergence for various signaling pathways that are dysregulated in the disease. In this review, we discuss possible molecular mechanisms involving STAT3 in lung tumorigenesis based on recent literature. We consider possible roles of STAT3 in cancer cell proliferation and survival, in the tumor immune environment, and in epigenetic regulation and interaction of STAT3 with other transcription factors. We also discuss the potential role of STAT3 in tumor suppression, which complicates strategies of targeting STAT3 in cancer therapy. PMID:26413424

  19. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    PubMed

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  20. Sirolimus and Auranofin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Treatment options for small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Todd; Gillenwater, Heidi H

    2004-07-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises 15% to 25% of all lung cancers. The leading cause of lung cancer remains smoking, and rates of smoking continue to rise in women, whereas rates in other subgroups have slowed. In this article we review recent advances in the treatment of limited-stage as well as extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. In limited-stage disease, the best survival results are observed when patients are treated with twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy given concurrently with chemotherapy. Patients who have been successful in smoking cessation during therapy for limited-stage disease may have a survival benefit over those who are unable to quit smoking during treatment. In extensive-stage disease, the most significant trial is one comparing irinotecan plus cisplatin and etoposide plus cisplatin, showing a survival advantage for the irinotecan arm. This trial may change the standard of care for patients with extensive-stage disease. A similar ongoing trial in the United States is attempting to confirm these results.

  2. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Bandoh, Shuji; Tadokoro, Akira; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are signs or symptoms that occur as a result of organ or tissue damage at locations remote from the site of the primary tumor or metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer can impair various organ functions and include neurologic, endocrine, dermatologic, rheumatologic, hematologic, and ophthalmological syndromes, as well as glomerulopathy and coagulopathy (Trousseau’s syndrome). The histological type of lung cancer is generally dependent on the associated syndrome, the two most common of which are humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy in squamous cell carcinoma and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in small cell lung cancer. The symptoms often precede the diagnosis of the associated lung cancer, especially when the symptoms are neurologic or dermatologic. The proposed mechanisms of paraneoplastic processes include the aberrant release of humoral mediators, such as hormones and hormone-like peptides, cytokines, and antibodies. Treating the underlying cancer is generally the most effective therapy for paraneoplastic syndromes, and treatment soon after symptom onset appears to offer the best potential for symptom improvement. In this article, we review the diagnosis, potential mechanisms, and treatments of a wide variety of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer. PMID:25114839

  3. Lung cancer screening: the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    European studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of lung cancer screening. Smoking within screening, quality of life, nodule management, minimally invasive treatments, cancer prevention programs, and risk models have been extensively investigated by European groups. Mortality data from European screening studies have not been encouraging so far, but long-term results of the NELSON study are eagerly awaited. Investigations on molecular markers of lung cancer are ongoing in Europe; preliminary results suggest they may become an important screening tool in the future.

  4. Molecular understanding of lung cancers-A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chinnappan Ravinder; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is considered to be the most common cancer in the world. The purpose of this paper is to review scientific evidence, particularly epidemiologic evidence of overall lung cancer burden in the world. And molecular understanding of lung cancer at various levels by dominant and suppressor oncogenes. PMID:25183110

  5. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  6. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  7. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  8. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  9. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  10. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  11. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  12. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  13. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  14. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  15. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  16. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  17. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  18. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  19. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  20. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Intermediate endpoint biomarkers for lung cancer chemoprevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Klein-Parker, Helga; Gazdar, Adi; Guillaud, Martial; Payne, Peter W.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Band, Pierre; Palcic, Branko

    1998-04-01

    Given the demographics of current and ex-smoking populations in North America, lung cancer will be a major problem in the foreseeable future. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer holds great promise for the management of this disease. Unlike cervical cancer, the physical, complete removal/destruction of all dysplastic lesions in the bronchial tree is not possible; however, treatment of the lesions using a chemopreventive agent is. Intermediate biomarkers have been used to screen promising chemopreventive agents for larger population studies. We have examined the natural history of lung cancer development by following a group of subjects at high risk of developing lung cancer using fluorescence endoscopy to identify the areas of abnormality for biopsy. Approximately 900 biopsies have been collected in this fashion and graded by at least two experienced, expert pathologists. Using an interactive version of the Cyto-Savant (Oncometrics Imaging Corp.), cytometric and tissue architectural data were collected from these biopsies. Using only the data from the normal and invasive cancer biopsies, quantitative morphometric and architectural indices were generated and calculated for all the collected biopsies. These indices were compared with Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) of ten sites commonly associated with cancer. These results and the application of these quantitative measures to two small chemoprevention studies will be reported.

  2. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. Results of Lung Cancer Surgery for Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Haruaki; Ichinose, Junji; Nagayama, Kazuhiro; Nitadori, Junichi; Anraku, Masaki; Nakajima, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing number of elderly lung cancer patients reflecting a lengthening life span has become a serious problem. Purpose of this study was to elucidate the short and long-term outcome of the surgery for octogenarians, and to evaluate the role of lung cancer surgery for this high age group. Methods: The patients with lung cancer aged 80 years or more who underwent the surgery at our institute from January 1998 through December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed by chart review, and the operative mortality, morbidity and the long-term survival were assessed. Results: Out of a total of 1107 patients with primary lung cancer who received surgery during the study period, 94 were octogenarians (8.5%). Sixty-nine patients (73.4%) had preoperative co-morbidity including hypertension in 50 (53.2%), coincidence of other malignancy in 35 (37.2%), anti-coagulant therapy in 29 (30.9%). Twenty-six patients (27.7%) had major or minor postoperative morbidity, and one (1.1%) died due to bronchopleural fistula. Overall-5-year survival rate was 57.5%. Univariative and multivariative analysis using Cox proportional hazard model revealed that male gender and non-adenocarcinoma histology were significant risk factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: Gender and histology should be taken into account in preoperative evaluation of indication for lung cancer in octogenarians. PMID:25740447

  4. Lung Cancer Gene Signatures and Clinical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuner, Ruprecht

    2013-01-01

    Microarrays have been used for more than two decades in preclinical research. The tumor transcriptional profiles were analyzed to select cancer-associated genes for in-deep functional characterization, to stratify tumor subgroups according to the histopathology or diverse clinical courses, and to assess biological and cellular functions behind these gene sets. In lung cancer-the main type of cancer causing mortality worldwide-biomarker research focuses on different objectives: the early diagnosis of curable tumor diseases, the stratification of patients with prognostic unfavorable operable tumors to assess the need for further therapy regimens, or the selection of patients for the most efficient therapies at early and late stages. In non-small cell lung cancer, gene and miRNA signatures are valuable to differentiate between the two main subtypes' squamous and non-squamous tumors, a discrimination which has further implications for therapeutic schemes. Further subclassification within adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma has been done to correlate histopathological phenotype with disease outcome. Those tumor subgroups were assigned by diverse transcriptional patterns including potential biomarkers and therapy targets for future diagnostic and clinical applications. In lung cancer, none of these signatures have entered clinical routine for testing so far. In this review, the status quo of lung cancer gene signatures in preclinical and clinical research will be presented in the context of future clinical perspectives.

  5. Biomarkers and transcriptome profiling of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Yu, Sung-Liang; Li, Ker-Chau; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2012-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. High-throughput technologies such as microarrays provide an opportunity to explore biomarkers for cancer prevention, prognosis and treatment guidance. Recent studies have revealed many biomarkers with the potential for clinical application. However, major limitations still exist. Although useful data on cancer genomics has accumulated rapidly, there has also been a simultaneous tendency for amplification of the complex relationships among the enormous number of variables that need to be considered. Disentangling these complex gene-gene interactions requires new approaches to data analysis to reveal information that has been obscured by traditional methods. Here, we review the current findings on biomarker identification in lung cancer, address their limitations and discuss some future directions for improvements in this area of research.

  6. Nanomedicine for Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the primary cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States and rest of the world. Due to diagnosis at an advanced stage, it is associated with a high mortality in a majority of patients. In recent years, enormous advances have occurred in the development and application of nanotechnology in the detection, diagnosis, and therapy of cancer. This progress has led to the development of the emerging field of "cancer nanomedicine." Nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems have gained immense popularity due to their bioavailability, in vivo stability, intestinal absorption, solubility, sustained and targeted delivery, and therapeutic effectiveness of several anticancer agents. Currently, a plethora of nanocarrier formulations are utilized including lipid-based, polymeric and branched polymeric, metal-based, magnetic, and mesoporous silica. In lung cancer, nanoparticle-based therapeutics is paving the way in the diagnosis, imaging, screening, and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. The application and expansion of novel nanocarriers for drug delivery is an exciting and challenging research filed, in particular for the delivery of emerging cancer therapies. Some of the current progress and challenges in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for lung cancer treatment are discussed.

  7. Nanomedicine for Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the primary cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States and rest of the world. Due to diagnosis at an advanced stage, it is associated with a high mortality in a majority of patients. In recent years, enormous advances have occurred in the development and application of nanotechnology in the detection, diagnosis, and therapy of cancer. This progress has led to the development of the emerging field of "cancer nanomedicine." Nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems have gained immense popularity due to their bioavailability, in vivo stability, intestinal absorption, solubility, sustained and targeted delivery, and therapeutic effectiveness of several anticancer agents. Currently, a plethora of nanocarrier formulations are utilized including lipid-based, polymeric and branched polymeric, metal-based, magnetic, and mesoporous silica. In lung cancer, nanoparticle-based therapeutics is paving the way in the diagnosis, imaging, screening, and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. The application and expansion of novel nanocarriers for drug delivery is an exciting and challenging research filed, in particular for the delivery of emerging cancer therapies. Some of the current progress and challenges in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for lung cancer treatment are discussed. PMID:26703803

  8. Contemplating Genetic Feedback Regarding Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Shepperd, James A.; Novell, Corinne A.; O'Neill, Suzanne C.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; McBride, Colleen M.; Lipkus, Isaac M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examined three theoretical models (self-enhancement theory, consistency theory, and combined model) for understanding how expectations and test result favorability influence smokers' desire for a retest following hypothetical genetic test results. Method College smokers (N = 128) read a brochure describing a biomarker for lung cancer (the GSTM1 gene) then reported whether they thought they had the gene (indicating lower lung cancer risk) or were missing the gene (indicating higher lung cancer risk). Participants then reported whether they would get retested if they received favorable GSTM1 results versus unfavorable GSTM1 results. Results Participants were most likely to want a retest, suggesting rejection of the results, if they expected favorable news yet received unfavorable news. Conclusion The findings supported the combined model such that smokers expressed greatest interest in a retest when they imagined genetic risk feedback that challenges both enhancement and consistency motives. PMID:24222509

  9. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated part of future lung cancer screening trials. PMID:27195275

  10. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-04-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated part of future lung cancer screening trials. PMID:27195275

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath. Sometimes lung cancer ... discomfort or pain. A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time. Trouble breathing. ...

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath. Sometimes lung cancer ... discomfort or pain. A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time. Trouble breathing. ...

  13. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath. Sometimes lung cancer ... discomfort or pain. A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time. Trouble breathing. ...

  14. Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159289.html Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That Study ... HealthDay News) -- A new smartphone app may help lung cancer patients live longer and better by monitoring ...

  15. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... most patients with non-small cell lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer. If lung ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  16. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Cancer.gov

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  17. Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Palcic, Branko

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected State I nonsmall cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for twenty-five years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect more than twice as many moderate-severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ sites than conventional white-light bronchoscopy. The use of fluorescence imaging to detect small peripheral lung nodules was investigated in a micro metastatic lung model of mice implanted with Lewis lung tumor cells. Fluorescence imaging was found to be able to detect small malignant lung lesions. The use of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to enhance fluorescence detection of CIS was investigated in a patient after oral administration of 60 mg/kg of ALA four hours prior to bronchoscopy, although ALA enhanced the tumor's visibility, multiple sites of false positive fluorescence were observed in areas of inflammation or metaplasia.

  18. Survivorship Care Planning in Patients With Colorectal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-16

    Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  19. Small RNA combination therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wen; Dahlman, James E.; Tammela, Tuomas; Khan, Omar F.; Sood, Sabina; Dave, Apeksha; Cai, Wenxin; Chirino, Leilani M.; Yang, Gillian R.; Bronson, Roderick; Crowley, Denise G.; Sahay, Gaurav; Schroeder, Avi; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs have enormous potential as cancer therapeutics, but their effective delivery to most solid tumors has been difficult. Here, we show that a new lung-targeting nanoparticle is capable of delivering miRNA mimics and siRNAs to lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and to tumors in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer based on activation of oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) and loss of p53 function. Therapeutic delivery of miR-34a, a p53-regulated tumor suppressor miRNA, restored miR-34a levels in lung tumors, specifically down-regulated miR-34a target genes, and slowed tumor growth. The delivery of siRNAs targeting Kras reduced Kras gene expression and MAPK signaling, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth. The combination of miR-34a and siRNA targeting Kras improved therapeutic responses over those observed with either small RNA alone, leading to tumor regression. Furthermore, nanoparticle-mediated small RNA delivery plus conventional, cisplatin-based chemotherapy prolonged survival in this model compared with chemotherapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RNA combination therapy is possible in an autochthonous model of lung cancer and provide preclinical support for the use of small RNA therapies in patients who have cancer. PMID:25114235

  20. The lung cancer nurse role in the management of paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) associated with lung cancer are well recognised, are often complex to diagnose, and have minimal evidence to promote nursing and medical management. This paper aims to help guide lung cancer nurses to identify the most common and rarer PNS together with basic clinical management advice to help develop nursing assessments and interventions. The issues regarding the pathway of care at diagnosis together with palliative and supportive care requirements will be addressed and will aim to promote best practice in patients diagnosed with PNS and lung cancer. PMID:27413699

  1. Variation in lung cancer resources and workload: results from the first national lung cancer organisational audit.

    PubMed

    Cusworth, K; O'Dowd, E; Hubbard, R; Beckett, P; Peake, M D; Woolhouse, I

    2015-10-01

    We report the findings of the first national lung cancer organisational audit. The results demonstrate marked variation in service provision and workload of some lung cancer specialists. For example, over half of the clinical nurse specialists report case volumes over recommended numbers. Some trusts have no access to key treatments such as video assisted thoracoscopy (VAT) lobectomy and stereotactic radiotherapy. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated an association between higher surgical resection rates and the on-site availability of advanced staging and therapeutic modalities, for example, PET scan and VAT lobectomy. We conclude by making a number of recommendations to address the variation in lung cancer care. PMID:26043732

  2. [Lung cancer, smoking and genetic modifications].

    PubMed

    Popescu, Iulian

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer represents a heterogeneity entity consisting of different histopathologic, clinic and therapeutic subtypes. Smoking is the most well-known risk factor, but the mechanisms of occurrence of lung cancer are not completely understood yet. The effects of smoking are related to the young age of beginning of smoking, the daily dose and the length of smoking, but they also depend of the individual heredity due to the gene polymorphism. Smoking induces several deleterious mechanisms: inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes, activation of proto-oncogenes, increase in telomerase's activity.

  3. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. PMID:23207444

  4. The relationship between COPD and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Durham, A.L.; Adcock, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Both COPD and lung cancer are major worldwide health concerns owing to cigarette smoking, and represent a huge, worldwide, preventable disease burden. Whilst the majority of smokers will not develop either COPD or lung cancer, they are closely related diseases, occurring as co-morbidities at a higher rate than if they were independently triggered by smoking. Lung cancer and COPD may be different aspects of the same disease, with the same underlying predispositions, whether this is an underlying genetic predisposition, telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction or premature aging. In the majority of smokers, the burden of smoking may be dealt with by the body’s defense mechanisms: anti-oxidants such as superoxide dismutases, anti-proteases and DNA repair mechanisms. However, in the case of both diseases these fail, leading to cancer if mutations occur or COPD if damage to the cell and proteins becomes too great. Alternatively COPD could be a driving factor in lung cancer, by increasing oxidative stress and the resulting DNA damage, chronic exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, repression of the DNA repair mechanisms and increased cellular proliferation. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these processes in primary cells from patients with these diseases along with better disease models is essential for the development of new treatments. PMID:26363803

  5. Lung Cancer Gene Signatures and Clinical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuner, Ruprecht

    2013-01-01

    Microarrays have been used for more than two decades in preclinical research. The tumor transcriptional profiles were analyzed to select cancer-associated genes for in-deep functional characterization, to stratify tumor subgroups according to the histopathology or diverse clinical courses, and to assess biological and cellular functions behind these gene sets. In lung cancer—the main type of cancer causing mortality worldwide—biomarker research focuses on different objectives: the early diagnosis of curable tumor diseases, the stratification of patients with prognostic unfavorable operable tumors to assess the need for further therapy regimens, or the selection of patients for the most efficient therapies at early and late stages. In non-small cell lung cancer, gene and miRNA signatures are valuable to differentiate between the two main subtypes’ squamous and non-squamous tumors, a discrimination which has further implications for therapeutic schemes. Further subclassification within adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma has been done to correlate histopathological phenotype with disease outcome. Those tumor subgroups were assigned by diverse transcriptional patterns including potential biomarkers and therapy targets for future diagnostic and clinical applications. In lung cancer, none of these signatures have entered clinical routine for testing so far. In this review, the status quo of lung cancer gene signatures in preclinical and clinical research will be presented in the context of future clinical perspectives.

  6. Transthyretin as a potential biomarker for the differential diagnosis between lung cancer and lung infection

    PubMed Central

    DING, HONGMEI; LIU, JIANHUA; XUE, RONG; ZHAO, PENG; QIN, YI; ZHENG, FANG; SUN, XUGUO

    2014-01-01

    Satisfactory biomarkers for screening and early diagnosis of lung cancer remain scarce and require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes of the biochemical and protein composition in the serum and pleural effusion from lung cancer and lung infection (bacterial pneumonia) patients. A total of 92 patients with lung cancer, 38 with bacterial pneumonia and 42 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The serum levels of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A and transthyretin (TTR) in the lung cancer patients were higher than that of the lung infection patients (P<0.05). The levels of TTR were higher, whereas the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) was lower in the pleural effusion from the lung cancer patients compared to the lung infection patients (P<0.05). Furthermore, the pleural effusion/serum TTR ratios in the lung cancer patients were higher, whereas the ratios of ADA were lower (P<0.05). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, four major peaks corresponding to native TTR, Sul-TTR, Cys-TTR and Cysgly-TTR were observed in the serum of the lung cancer and lung infection patients. A significant increase was found in the proportion of Cysgly-TTR in the pleural effusion from the patients with lung cancer. The data indicated that a combination of pleural effusion/serum TTR ratios and modified TTR may be beneficial for the differential diagnosis between lung cancer and lung infection. PMID:25054025

  7. Targeting Lung Cancer Stem Cells with Antipsychological Drug Thioridazine

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Haiying; Huang, Dongning; Qin, Li; Zheng, Zhiyong; Hua, Li; Wang, Guodong; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cells critical for lung cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Thioridazine, a classical neurological drug, has been reported with anticancer ability. However, whether thioridazine could inhibit lung cancer stem cells has never been studied. In our current work, we used different dosage of thioridazine to test its effect on lung cancer stem cells sphere formation. The response of lung cancer stem cells to chemotherapy drug with thioridazine treatment was measured. The cell cycle distribution of lung cancer stem cells after thioridazine treatment was detected. The in vivo inhibitory effect of thioridazine was also measured. We found that thioridazine could dramatically inhibit sphere formation of lung cancer stem cells. It sensitized the LCSCs to chemotherapeutic drugs 5-FU and cisplatin. Thioridazine altered the cell cycle distribution of LCSCs and decreased the proportion of G0 phase cells in lung cancer stem cells. Thioridazine inhibited lung cancer stem cells initiated tumors growth in vivo. This study showed that thioridazine could inhibit lung cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. It provides a potential drug for lung cancer therapy through targeting lung cancer stem cells. PMID:27556038

  8. S0536: Cetuximab, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-08

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Respiratory tract cancers: lung and mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, Paolo; Piffer, Silvano

    2004-01-01

    The trend analysis of lung cancer in the database of the Italian Network of Cancer Registries (pool AIRT), showed, among males (52,267 incident cases and 46, 726 deaths included in the study) a statistically significant decrease of incidence and mortality in the period 1986-1997; incidence rates decreased by about 1.4%/year and mortality rates by about 1.6%/year. Among females, lung cancer trends are rather different from that of males, according to diverging trends in tobacco smoking exposures; in fact, both incidence (+1.2%/year) and mortality (+0.9%/year) are increasing. Incidence of mesothelioma (1594 cases), showed for the period 1986-1997, a statistically significant increase among both males and females; standardised rates increased, more than 4% every year. As regards to deaths due to pleural malignant cancers (1393 among males and 664 among females) their trend was stable in the analysed period.

  12. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care.

    PubMed

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David; Beckett, Paul; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gaga, Mina; Gamarra, Fernando; Grigoriu, Bogdan; Hansen, Niels C G; Hubbard, Richard; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Jakobsen, Erik; Jovanovic, Dragana; Konsoulova, Assia; Kollmeier, Jens; Massard, Gilbert; McPhelim, John; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Milroy, Robert; Paesmans, Marianne; Peake, Mick; Putora, Paul-Martin; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Sitter, Helmut; Skaug, Knut; Spiro, Stephen; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Taright, Samya; Thomas, Michael; van Schil, Paul E; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related death worldwide and poses a significant respiratory disease burden. Little is known about the provision of lung cancer care across Europe. The overall aim of the Task Force was to investigate current practice in lung cancer care across Europe. The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide variation in content and scope, as well as methodological quality but at the same time there was relevant duplication. The feasibility study demonstrated that it is, in principle, feasible to collect prospective demographic and clinical data on patients with lung cancer. Legal obligations vary among countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe.

  13. Expression of pleiotrophin in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Q; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a kind of heparin binding growth factor closely related to tumor progression. This study aimed to discuss the significance of the expression of PTN in benign and malignant lung cancer tissues, especially small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer samples were collected for study and lung tissue samples with benign lesions were taken as controls. The expression of PTN was detected using tissue chip combined with the immunohistochemical method, and the differences of small cell lung cancer with non-small cell lung cancer and benign lesion tissue were compared. It was found that PTN expression was mainly located in the cytoplasm and membrane of cells; PTN expression in the lung cancer group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01), and PTN expression in the small cell cancer group was higher than that in the squamous carcinoma group and glandular cancer group (p < 0.05). In addition, PTN expression quantity in patients with lung cancer were in close correlation with TNM staging, pathological type and tumor differentiation degree (p < 0.05). PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PTN is most likely to be a new tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer. PMID:25864755

  14. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc.

  15. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc. PMID:24823631

  16. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  17. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, R; Lebrón, J; Guerrero-León, M; Del Arco, A; Colmenero, J; Márquez, M; Santos, J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012) were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%), and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2), with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9) years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7%) patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5%) had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232), the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397), and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0%) and 23 (38.3%) cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3%) cases with advanced stages (III and IV) at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%), chemotherapy 14 (24.1%), surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%), radiotherapy 7 (12.1%), surgery 4 (6.9%), and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%). Forty-six (76.7%) patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%). Conclusions The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma

  18. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  19. Eczema as the first manifestation of a lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangjiao; Wang, Renben; Huang, Zhaoqin; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer combined with eczema is a rare disease. We report a case of 58-year-old man with eczema as the first manifestation of a lung cancer. Skin examination revealed diffuse erythema, dander, itchy rash, and scratch. Chest contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhanced irregular mass in the right lung. Punch biopsy of the tumor confirms squamous cell lung cancer. Eczema vanished nearly completely after one cycle of chemotherapy.

  20. Role of acetylcholinesterase in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Hui-Jun; Wu, Ren-Pei; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ling-Juan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in catalytic hydrolysis of cholinergic neurotransmitters. Intensive research has proven the involvement of this protein in novel functions, such as cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. In addition, several recent studies have indicated that acetylcholinesterase is potentially a marker and regulator of apoptosis. Importantly, AChE is also a promising tumor suppressor. In this review, we briefly summarize the involvement of AChE in apoptosis and cancer, focusing on the role of AChE in lung cancer, as well as the therapeutic consideration of AChE for cancer therapy. PMID:26273392

  1. Deaths in Canada from lung cancer due to involuntary smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, D T; Collishaw, N E; Kirkbride, J; Mao, Y

    1987-01-01

    Recently published evidence indicates that involuntary smoking causes an increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Information was compiled on the proportion of people who had never smoked among victims of lung cancer, the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers married to smokers and the prevalence of such exposure. On the basis of these data we estimate that 50 to 60 of the deaths from lung cancer in Canada in 1985 among people who had never smoked were caused by spousal smoking; about 90% occurred in women. The total number of deaths from lung cancer attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke from spouses and other sources (mainly the workplace) was derived by applying estimated age- and sex-specific rates of death from lung cancer attributable to such exposure to the population of Canadians who have never smoked; about 330 deaths from lung cancer annually are attributable to such exposure. PMID:3567810

  2. Breath sensors for lung cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Yekbun; Kulah, Haluk

    2015-03-15

    The scope of the applications of breath sensors is abundant in disease diagnosis. Lung cancer diagnosis is a well-fitting health-related application of this technology, which is of utmost importance in the health sector, because lung cancer has the highest death rate among all cancer types, and it brings a high yearly global burden. The aim of this review is first to provide a rational basis for the development of breath sensors for lung cancer diagnostics from a historical perspective, which will facilitate the transfer of the idea into the rapidly evolving sensors field. Following examples with diagnostic applications include colorimetric, composite, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticle-based, and surface acoustic wave sensor arrays. These select sensor applications are widened by the state-of-the-art developments in the sensors field. Coping with sampling sourced artifacts and cancer staging are among the debated topics, along with the other concerns like proteomics approaches and biomimetic media utilization, feature selection for data classification, and commercialization.

  3. Targeting angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matikas, Alexios; Voutsina, Alexandra; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from clinical trials in SCLC have been disappointing, and no anti-angiogenic agent has received regulatory approval due to lack of clinical efficacy. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms responsible for tumor resistance to angiogenic therapy and the simultaneous blockade of multiple elements that play a role in angiogenesis need to be further explored. PMID:27652203

  4. Targeting angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matikas, Alexios; Voutsina, Alexandra; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from clinical trials in SCLC have been disappointing, and no anti-angiogenic agent has received regulatory approval due to lack of clinical efficacy. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms responsible for tumor resistance to angiogenic therapy and the simultaneous blockade of multiple elements that play a role in angiogenesis need to be further explored.

  5. Targeting angiogenesis in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratigos, Michalis; Matikas, Alexios; Voutsina, Alexandra; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; Georgoulias, Vassilis

    2016-08-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive and lethal malignancy. Despite high initial response rates to systemic chemotherapy, the disease eventually relapses; further treatment only modestly improves outcomes and overall survival (OS) for patients with extensive stage disease is less than one year. Little progress has been made during the past decades, with no new drugs approved. Consequently, the development of novel strategies is an unmet need. The inhibition of angiogenesis, a defining characteristic of cancer, has demonstrated modest efficacy in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from clinical trials in SCLC have been disappointing, and no anti-angiogenic agent has received regulatory approval due to lack of clinical efficacy. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms responsible for tumor resistance to angiogenic therapy and the simultaneous blockade of multiple elements that play a role in angiogenesis need to be further explored. PMID:27652203

  6. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. PMID:27178690

  7. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass.

    PubMed

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral. PMID:27683028

  8. [Minimally Invasive Open Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuo; Watanabe, Shunichi

    2016-07-01

    Significant efforts have been made to reduce the invasiveness of surgical procedures by surgeons for a long time. Surgeons always keep it in mind that the basic principle performing less invasive surgical procedures for malignant tumors is to decrease the invasiveness for patients without compromising oncological curability and surgical safety. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been used increasingly as a minimally invasive approach to lung cancer surgery. Whereas, whether VATS lobectomy is a less invasive procedure and has equivalent or better clinical effect compared with open lobectomy for patients with lung cancer remains controversial because of the absence of randomized prospective studies. The degree of difficulty for anatomical lung resection depends on the degree of the fissure development, mobility of hilar lymph nodes, and the degree of pleural adhesions. During pulmonary surgery, thoracic surgeons always have to deal with not only these difficulties but other unexpected events such as intraoperative bleeding. Recently, we perform pulmonary resection for lung cancer with minimally invasive open surgery (MIOS) approach. In this article, we introduce the surgical procedure of MIOS and demonstrate short-term results. Off course, the efficacy of MIOS needs to be further evaluated with long-term results. PMID:27440030

  9. The Utility of Exercise Testing in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Duc; Mazzone, Peter J; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul; Fuster, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The harm associated with lung cancer treatment include perioperative morbidity and mortality and therapy-induced toxicities in various organs, including the heart and lungs. Optimal treatment therefore entails a need for risk assessment to weigh the probabilities of benefits versus harm. Exercise testing offers an opportunity to evaluate a patient's physical fitness/exercise capacity objectively. In lung cancer, it is most often used to risk-stratify patients undergoing evaluation for lung cancer resection. In recent years, its use outside this context has been described, including in nonsurgical candidates and lung cancer survivors. In this article we review the physiology of exercise testing and lung cancer. Then, we assess the utility of exercise testing in patients with lung cancer in four contexts (preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection, after lung cancer resection, lung cancer prognosis, and assessment of efficiency of exercise training programs) after systematically identifying original studies involving the most common forms of exercise tests in this patient population: laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise testing and simple field testing with the 6-minute walk test, shuttle walk test, and/or stair-climbing test. Lastly, we propose a conceptual framework for risk assessment of patients with lung cancer who are being considered for therapy and identify areas for further studies in this patient population. PMID:27156441

  10. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether surgery will be helpful for you EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THER APY External beam radiation therapy is the safe delivery of high- ... your cancer. A linear accelerator focuses the radiation beam to a precise location in your body for ...

  11. Cancer stem cells: progress and challenges in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Amanda K; Miyamoto, Shinya; Babu, Anish; Munshi, Anupama; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like characteristics first in hematological malignancies and later in solid tumors has emerged into a novel field of cancer research. It has been proposed that this aberrant population of cells now called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) drives tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. CSCs have been shown to have the capacity of self-renewal and multipotency. Adopting strategies from the field of stem cell research has aided in identification, localization, and targeting of CSCs in many tumors. Despite the huge progress in other solid tumors such as brain, breast, and colon cancers no substantial advancements have been made in lung cancer. This is most likely due to the current rudimentary understanding of lung stem cell hierarchy and heterogeneous nature of lung disease. In this review, we will discuss the most recent findings related to identification of normal lung stem cells and CSCs, pathways involved in regulating the development of CSCs, and the importance of the stem cell niche in development and maintenance of CSCs. Additionally, we will examine the development and feasibility of novel CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating lung CSCs. PMID:27358855

  12. Cancer stem cells: progress and challenges in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Amanda K.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Babu, Anish; Munshi, Anupama

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like characteristics first in hematological malignancies and later in solid tumors has emerged into a novel field of cancer research. It has been proposed that this aberrant population of cells now called “cancer stem cells” (CSCs) drives tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. CSCs have been shown to have the capacity of self-renewal and multipotency. Adopting strategies from the field of stem cell research has aided in identification, localization, and targeting of CSCs in many tumors. Despite the huge progress in other solid tumors such as brain, breast, and colon cancers no substantial advancements have been made in lung cancer. This is most likely due to the current rudimentary understanding of lung stem cell hierarchy and heterogeneous nature of lung disease. In this review, we will discuss the most recent findings related to identification of normal lung stem cells and CSCs, pathways involved in regulating the development of CSCs, and the importance of the stem cell niche in development and maintenance of CSCs. Additionally, we will examine the development and feasibility of novel CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating lung CSCs. PMID:27358855

  13. Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5, 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may shorten the lives of lung cancer patients, ... the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies air pollution as a cancer-causing agent. "This study, along ...

  14. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M. Dawn; Woll, Penella J.; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66–1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63–1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67–1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75–4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85–3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded. PMID:24947688

  15. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Rita; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Chang, Shen-Chih; Lazarus, Philip; Teare, M Dawn; Woll, Penella J; Orlow, Irene; Cox, Brian; Brhane, Yonathan; Liu, Geoffrey; Hung, Rayjean J

    2015-02-15

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled using random effects models. Subgroup analyses were done for sex, histology and tobacco smoking status. The shapes of dose-response associations were examined using restricted cubic spline regression. The overall pooled OR for habitual versus nonhabitual or never users was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.66-1.38). Compared to nonhabitual or never users, the summary OR was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63-1.24) for individuals who smoked 1 or more joint-equivalents of cannabis per day and 0.94 (95%CI: 0.67-1.32) for those consumed at least 10 joint-years. For adenocarcinoma cases the ORs were 1.73 (95%CI: 0.75-4.00) and 1.74 (95%CI: 0.85-3.55), respectively. However, no association was found for the squamous cell carcinoma based on small numbers. Weak associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were observed in never tobacco smokers. Spline modeling indicated a weak positive monotonic association between cumulative cannabis use and lung cancer, but precision was low at high exposure levels. Results from our pooled analyses provide little evidence for an increased risk of lung cancer among habitual or long-term cannabis smokers, although the possibility of potential adverse effect for heavy consumption cannot be excluded.

  16. Curcumin and lung cancer--a review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hiren J; Patel, Vipul; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2014-12-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the most important component of the spice turmeric and is derived from the rhizome of the East Indian plant Curcuma longa. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, as it is nontoxic and has a variety of therapeutic properties including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic activities. Recently, curcumin has been widely studied for its anticancer properties via its effects on a variety of biological pathways involved in apoptosis, tumor proliferation, chemo- and radiotherapy sensitization, tumor invasion, and metastases. Curcumin can be an effective adjunct in treating solid organ tumors due to its properties of regulating oncogenes like p53, egr-1, c-myc, bcl-XL, etc.; transcription factors like NF-kB, STAT-3, and AP-1; protein kinases like MAPK; and enzymes like COX and LOX. Lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Seventy-five percent of lung cancer presents at an advanced stage where the existing treatment is not very effective and may result in tremendous patient morbidity. As a result, there is a significant interest in developing adjunctive chemotherapies to augment currently available treatment protocols, which may allow decreased side effects and toxicity without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Curcumin is one such potential candidate, and this review presents an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo studies of curcumin in lung cancer.

  17. Palliative care in patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farbicka, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for 12% of all cancers and has the highest annual rate of mortality in men and women. The overall aim is cure or prolongation of life without evidence of disease. Almost 60% of patients at the moment of diagnosis are not eligible for radical treatment. Therefore soothing and supportive treatment is the only treatment of choice. Patients with lung cancer who have symptoms of dyspnea, chronic cough, severe pain, exhaustion and cachexia syndrome, fear and depression and significantly reduced physical and intellectual activities are qualified for inpatient or home palliative care. Knowledge about various methods used in palliative treatment allows one to alleviate symptoms that occur in an advanced stage of disease with an expected short survival period. Methods of oncological treatment that are often used in patients with advanced lung cancer include radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Drawing attention to the earlier implementation of palliative care is an objective of research carried out during recent years. Advances in surgical and conservative treatment of these patients have contributed to better outcomes and longer survival time. PMID:24596508

  18. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  19. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer.

  20. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  1. Does living near heavy industry cause lung cancer in women? A case‐control study using life grid interviews

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, R; Pless‐Mulloli, T; Howel, D; Chadwick, T; Bhopal, R; Harrison, R; Gribbin, H

    2006-01-01

    Background The incidence of lung cancer among women is high in the highly industrialised area of Teesside in north‐east England. Previous research has implicated industrial pollution as a possible cause. A study was undertaken to investigate whether prolonged residence close to heavy industry is associated with lung cancer among women in Teesside. Methods Two hundred and four women aged <80 years with incident primary lung cancer and 339 age matched community controls were recruited to a population based case‐control study. Life course residential, occupational, and active and passive smoking histories were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Results The age adjusted odds ratio (OR) for lung cancer among people living >25 years v 0 years near (within 0–5 km) heavy industry in Teesside was 2.13 (95% CI 1.34 to 3.38). After adjustment for confounding factors the OR was 1.83 (95% CI 0.82 to 4.08) for >25 years or 1.10 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.26) for an additional 10 years living near industry. ORs were similar after residence near heavy industry outside Teesside was also included, and when latency was allowed for by disregarding residential exposures within the last 20 years. Adjustment for active smoking had the greatest effect on the OR. Conclusions This population based study using life grid interviews for life course exposure assessment has addressed many deficiencies in the design of previous studies. The findings support those in most of the international literature of a modestly raised risk of lung cancer with prolonged residence close to heavy industry, although the confidence intervals were wide. The effect of air pollution on the incidence of lung cancer merits continued study. PMID:17040935

  2. Risk of lung cancer and consumption of vegetables and fruit in Japanese: A pooled analysis of cohort studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2015-01-01

    International reviews have concluded that consumption of fruit and vegetables might decrease the risk of lung cancer. However, the relevant epidemiological evidence still remains insufficient in Japan. Therefore, we performed a pooled analysis of data from four population-based cohort studies in Japan with >200 000 participants and >1700 lung cancer cases. We computed study-specific hazard ratios by quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption as assessed by food frequency questionnaires. Summary hazard ratios were estimated by pooling the study-specific hazard ratios with a fixed-effect model. In men, we found inverse associations between fruit consumption and the age-adjusted and area-adjusted risk of mortality or incidence of lung cancer. However, the associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for smoking and energy intake. The significant decrease in risk among men remained only for a moderate level of fruit consumption; the lowest summary hazard ratios were found in the third quintile of intake (mortality: 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.84; incidence: 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70–0.98). This decrease in risk was mainly detected in ever smokers. Conversely, vegetable intake was positively correlated with the risk of incidence of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and energy intake in men (trend P, 0.024); the summary hazard ratio for the highest quintile was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.05–1.50). However, a similar association was not detected for mortality from lung cancer. In conclusion, a moderate level of fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in men among the Japanese population. PMID:26033436

  3. Risk of lung cancer and consumption of vegetables and fruit in Japanese: A pooled analysis of cohort studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Nagata, Chisato; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Keitaro; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Sasazuki, Shizuka

    2015-08-01

    International reviews have concluded that consumption of fruit and vegetables might decrease the risk of lung cancer. However, the relevant epidemiological evidence still remains insufficient in Japan. Therefore, we performed a pooled analysis of data from four population-based cohort studies in Japan with >200 000 participants and >1700 lung cancer cases. We computed study-specific hazard ratios by quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption as assessed by food frequency questionnaires. Summary hazard ratios were estimated by pooling the study-specific hazard ratios with a fixed-effect model. In men, we found inverse associations between fruit consumption and the age-adjusted and area-adjusted risk of mortality or incidence of lung cancer. However, the associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for smoking and energy intake. The significant decrease in risk among men remained only for a moderate level of fruit consumption; the lowest summary hazard ratios were found in the third quintile of intake (mortality: 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.84; incidence: 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.98). This decrease in risk was mainly detected in ever smokers. Conversely, vegetable intake was positively correlated with the risk of incidence of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and energy intake in men (trend P, 0.024); the summary hazard ratio for the highest quintile was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.50). However, a similar association was not detected for mortality from lung cancer. In conclusion, a moderate level of fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in men among the Japanese population.

  4. Silicosis and lung cancer among Chinese granite workers.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Chia, K S; Phoon, W H; Lee, H P

    1991-06-01

    Of the 184 cases of silicosis registered between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1984 in Singapore, all the relevant information was available for 159, which were linked to the population-based National Cancer Register for lung cancer. Nine cases of lung cancer were found. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was computed with the age- and calendar-specific incidence of lung cancer rates of Chinese males in Singapore as a basis. Excess risk of lung cancer was found (SIR 2.01, 95% confidence interval 0.92-3.81). Adjustment for smoking showed that it alone could not account for the excess lung cancer risk. There was an increasing, but not significant, trend with increasing severity of silicosis and exposure duration. The results suggest that the severity of silicosis and possibly exposure to free silica may have contributed to the excess of lung cancer among the cases of silicosis studied.

  5. DIETARY AGENTS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF LUNG CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a prominent cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The main reason for high mortality due to lung cancer is attributable to the fact that the diagnosis is generally made when it has spread beyond a curable stage and cannot be treated surgically or with radiation therapy. Therefore, new approaches like dietary modifications could be extremely useful in reducing lung cancer incidences. Several fruits and vegetables offer a variety of bioactive compounds to afford protection against several diseases, including lung cancer. A number of research studies involving dietary agents provide strong evidence for their role in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, and have identified their molecular mechanisms of action and potential targets. In this review article, we summarize data from in-vitro and in-vivo studies and where available, in clinical trials, on the effects of some of the most promising dietary agents against lung cancer. PMID:25644088

  6. Prevention and management of lung cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qun-Ying; Wu, Guo-Ming; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Chen, Liang-An; Li, Wei-Min; Li, Shi-Yue; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Jing; Gong, Xin; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In China, the incidence of lung cancer has grown rapidly, resulting in a large social and economic burden. Several researchers have devoted their studies to lung cancer and have demonstrated that there are many risk factors for lung cancer in China, including tobacco use, environmental pollution, food, genetics, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the lung cancer incidence is still growing rapidly in China, and there is an even higher incidence among the younger generation. One explanation may be the triple-neglect situation, in which medical policies that neglect prevention, diagnosis, and supportive care have increased patients' mortality and reduced their quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the efficiency of prevention and early diagnosis not only by focusing more attention on treatment but also by drawing more attention to supportive care for patients with lung cancer.

  7. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  8. Exploring targeted pulmonary delivery for treatment of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Amit; Baboota, Sanjula; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most malignant cancer today. The treatment of lung cancer continues to be a challenge for oncologists. The direct delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the lungs could represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with pulmonary metastases. The large alveolar surface area, the low thickness of the epithelial barrier, and an extensive vascularization make the pulmonary route an ideal route for administration of oncolytics. This paper reviews the research performed over the last and current decades on the delivery of various oncolytics for pulmonary delivery for the treatment of lung cancer. Inhaled drug delivery devices in cancer therapy are also discussed in the present manuscript. PMID:23799201

  9. Genetic Testing for Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Theodore W; Stefanek, Michael; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2002-01-01

    Advances in genetics have increased our ability to assess an individual's genetic risk for disease. There is a hypothesis that genetic test results will motivate high-risk individuals to reduce harmful exposures, to increase their surveillance for disease, or to seek preventive treatments. However, genetic testing for genes associated with an increased risk of lung cancer would not change physicians' recommendations regarding smoking cessation. Limited studies suggest that test results that demonstrate an increased risk of lung cancer do not improve smoking cessation success. These test results may even distort an individual's risk perceptions. Before recommending genetic testing to assess risk for disease, physicians need to consider whether knowledge about genetic susceptibility will alter patient management. PMID:12472931

  10. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiological studies of underground uranium and hard-rock miners, as well as animal experiments, indicate that the decay products of radon gas are a contributory cause of lung cancer. While one might expect that residential radon (progeny) exposure might be linked to an increase in lung cancer rates, sufficient evidence from residential studies is required to support this assumption. To date this evidence has not been definitive enough. There are differences in age, sex, dust exposure, and smoking between groups exposed in mines and in homes. A number of published studies have addressed this question; a number of studies are under way. The composite results from these studies may be useful in reducing the uncertainty. This paper summarizes and critiques results and discusses several methodological issues related to the studies.

  11. Spectral characteristic analysis of lung cancer serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Zhou; Jin, Huiqiang; Liu, Huasheng; Ding, Jianhua; Lin, Junxiu

    2001-10-01

    Spectral changes of lung cancer serum in the process of tumor evolution were investigated in this study. We kept close watch on the tumor progression of a group of patients, and measured their serum spectra using 488.0nm and 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser once a week. There was no apparent change observed in fluorescence spectrum in different period. However, the relative intensity of three Raman peaks (mode A, B and C) decreased every week later. For quantitative analysis of such changes, a parameter Ir (relative intensity of C Raman peak) was introduced and Ir-value was calculated. Calculation showed that Ir-value was degressive with tumor evolution, but (beta) (Ir5145 /Ir4880) varied irregularly. To the end, no Raman peak was observed. We assumed that three Raman peaks were derived from beta carotene. It indicated that the content of beta carotene decreased with the aggravation of lung cancer.

  12. Lung Cancer Ablation: Technologies and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Erica S.; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancers in 2012 is estimated to reach 226,160 new cases, with only a third of patients suitable surgical candidates. Tumor ablation has emerged as an important and efficacious treatment option for nonsurgical lung cancer patients. This localized minimally invasive therapy is best suited for small oligonodular lesions or favorably located metastatic tumors. Radiofrequency ablation has been in use for over a decade, and newer modalities including microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation have emerged as additional treatment options for patients. Ablation therapies can offer patients and clinicians a repeatable and effective therapy for palliation and, in some cases, cure of thoracic malignancies. This article discusses the available technologies and techniques available for tumor ablation of thoracic malignancies including patient selection, basic aspects of procedure technique, imaging follow-up, treatment outcomes, and comparisons between various therapies. PMID:24436530

  13. Lung cancer-a fractal viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Frances E; Cianci, Gianguido C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Hensing, Thomas A; Zhang, Hannah J; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D; Vokes, Everett E; Vannier, Michael W; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed.

  14. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. PMID:27512930

  15. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  16. Docetaxel, Cisplatin, Pegfilgrastim, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-13

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  18. Dietary factors in lung cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, M T; Kolonel, L N; Wilkens, L R; Yoshizawa, C N; Le Marchand, L; Hankin, J H

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis-generating analysis of the role of diet on survival was conducted among a sample of 463 men and 212 women with histologically-confirmed lung cancer. Interview information was obtained from two population-based case-control studies of lung cancer conducted on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, between 1979 and 1985. The interview consisted of a quantitative dietary history to assess the usual intake of foods 1 year prior to diagnosis, a complete tobacco history, and other demographic and lifestyle information. Records from the Hawaii Tumor Registry were reviewed for data on stage, histology, and follow-up status of these patients. A food group analysis showed a significant reduction in the risk of death with increasing consumption of all vegetables combined among women (P for trend = 0.03), but not among men. The covariate-adjusted median survival times for women from the highest to the lowest quartiles of vegetable intake were 33, 21, 15, and 18 months, respectively. The results also suggested an association of fruit intake and survival among women (P for trend = 0.02), although a similar effect was not found among men. Increased consumption of certain foods, such as tomatoes and oranges among men, and broccoli and, perhaps, tomatoes among women, appeared to improve survival. This exploratory analysis provides mixed indications that certain components of vegetables and fruits may prolong survival in lung cancer patients. PMID:1591072

  19. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  20. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  1. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M; Le Péchoux, C; Postmus, P E; Sorensen, J B; Felip, E

    2011-09-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through discussion at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement in SCLC is reported in this article. The recommendations detailed here are based on an expert consensus after careful review of published data. All participants have approved this final update.

  2. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    PubMed

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors.

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%–56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%. PMID:27064578

  4. Lung cancer in chromate-exposed aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B H; Checkoway, H; Wechsler, L; Heyer, N J; Muhm, J M; O'Keeffe, T P

    1996-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study evaluated the risk of lung cancer in aerospace workers with minimum of 6 months' employment in jobs with chromium [VI] exposure (n = 2429). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) estimated the risk of lung cancer by duration of employment in chromate-exposure jobs and cumulative exposure based on industrial hygiene and work-history data. The overall SIR for lung cancer was 0.8 (observed [Obs] = 15). Lung cancer risk was inversely related to estimates of cumulative chromate exposure and duration of employment as a painter. Although based on few cases, an elevated lung cancer risk was found in subjects who had worked for 5 or more years as a chrome plater or surface processor tank tender (Obs = 2, SIR = 1.9) and sander/masker or polisher (Obs = 3, SIR = 2.7). A clear association was not observed between chromate exposure and the risk of lung cancer in this population of workers.

  5. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY OF LUNG CANCER: THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Austin Huy; Berim, Ilya G; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-01-01

    Though incidence is declining, the prognosis of lung cancer remains poor. This is likely due to lack of early detection and only recent developments in selective cancer therapies. Key immune cells involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer include CD4+ T-lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. The growing understanding of these cells indicates a highly complex and intertwined network of their involvement in each stage of lung cancer. Immune cell types and numbers affect prognosis and could offer an opportunity for clinical therapeutic applications. However, an incomplete understanding of immune cell involvement and the underlying processes in lung cancer still remain. More investigation focusing on the role of the immune cells will further the understanding of lung carcinogenesis and develop novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment and management of patients with more specialized and selective lung cancer. PMID:25351434

  6. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disparities in incidence and mortality for lung cancer in African Americans are well documented; however, the extent to which disparities reflect differences in patient perceptions of tobacco and lung cancer treatment is unclear. The objective of this study was to explore African Americans’ knowledge of lung cancer, perceived risk, interest in smoking cessation, attitudes toward lung cancer treatment, and lung cancer diagnosis and treatment experiences. Patients and Methods. The cohort comprised 32 African-American current and former smokers without a cancer diagnosis who participated in focus groups and 10 African Americans with lung cancer who participated in in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results. Participants without a cancer diagnosis were aware of the link between smoking and lung cancer, the common symptoms of the disease, and its poor prognosis. They desired specific, personalized smoking-cessation information. If diagnosed, the majority reported, they would seek medical care. Most believed that insurance and socioeconomic factors were more likely to affect treatment access than racial discrimination. Participants with a cancer diagnosis were also aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. They felt their treatment plans were appropriate and trusted their physicians. Most did not believe that race affected their care. Conclusion. This qualitative study suggests that African-American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment. PMID:25795634

  7. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment. PMID:27195278

  8. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:27790115

  9. Lung cancer molecular epidemiology in China: recent trends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is both the most common diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in China. During the past three decades, the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China are increasing rapidly. According to data from National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) in 2010, the crude incidence of lung cancer in China was 46.08 per 100,000 population (61.86 per 100,000 men and 29.54 per 100,000 women), with an estimated over 600,000 new diagnosed lung cancer patients (416,333 males and 189,613 females). Meanwhile, the crude mortality of lung cancer in China was 37.00 per 100,000 population (50.04 per 100,000 men and 23.33 per 100,000 women). Consistent with the change in developed countries, adenocarcinoma has become the most predominant histological subtype of lung cancer in China. For the majority advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, especially patients with adenocarcinoma, targeted therapy became increasing important in the treatment. Chinese researcher have done a lot work in terms of lung cancer molecular epidemiology, therefore, in this review, we further summarized the epidemiology of driver genes in NSCLC, hoping to help clinicians to better screen certain driver genes in China for treatment decisions. PMID:25806311

  10. A case of three synchronous primary lung cancers within the same lung lobe

    PubMed Central

    Misiak, Piotr; Brocki, Marian

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 74-year-old patient with three synchronous primary lung cancers within the same lung lobe. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography investigations revealed two suspicious nodular lesions in the upper lobe of the left lung. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy confirmed that one of the lesions was non-small cell lung cancer. The patient was qualified for surgical treatment, and left upper lobectomy plus lymphadenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of three primary cancers in the left lung: keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and acinar adenocarcinoma, localized within the same lung lobe. The patient was classified as having stage T3N1M0 lung cancer (stage IIIA) according to the latest, 7th edition of the TNM classification. PMID:27516792

  11. QUANTITATIVE CT ANALYSIS, AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION AND LUNG CANCER IN THE PITTSBURGH LUNG SCREENING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O; Leader, Joseph K; Fuhrman, Carl R; Reilly, John J; Sciurba, Frank C.; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the relationship between emphysema, airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high risk population we performed quantitative analysis of screening computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry and low-dose helical chest CT. Analyses compared cases and controls according to automated quantitative analysis of lung parenchyma and airways measures. Results Our case-control study of 117 matched pairs of lung cancer cases and controls did not reveal any airway or lung parenchymal findings on quantitative analysis of screening CT scans that were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Airway measures including wall area %, lumen perimeter, lumen area and average wall HU, and parenchymal measures including lung fraction < −910 Hounsfield Units (HU), were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions The relationship between visual assessment of emphysema and increased lung cancer risk could not be verified by quantitative analysis of low-dose screening CT scans in a high risk tobacco exposed population. PMID:21610523

  12. Squamous cell lung cancer: from tumor genomics to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gandara, David R; Hammerman, Peter S; Sos, Martin L; Lara, Primo N; Hirsch, Fred R

    2015-05-15

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the past several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common non-small cell lung cancer histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new, potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review, we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC.

  13. Association of Radiographic Emphysema and Airflow Obstruction with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David O.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Balkan, Arzu; Schragin, Jeffrey G.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Fisher, Stephen N.; Wilson, Jonathan; Leader, Joseph K.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: To study the relationship between emphysema and/or airflow obstruction and lung cancer in a high-risk population. Objective: We studied lung cancer related to radiographic emphysema and spirometric airflow obstruction in tobacco-exposed persons who were screened for lung cancer using chest computed tomography (CT). Methods: Subjects completed questionnaires, spirometry, and low-dose helical chest CT. CT scans were scored for emphysema based on National Emphysema Treatment Trial criteria. Multiple logistic regressions estimated the independent associations between various factors, including radiographic emphysema and airflow obstruction, and subsequent lung cancer diagnosis. Measurements and Main Results: Among 3,638 subjects, 57.5, 18.8, 14.6, and 9.1% had no, trace, mild, and moderate–severe emphysema, and 57.3, 13.6, 22.8, and 6.4% had no, mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] I), moderate (GOLD II), and severe (GOLD III–IV) airflow obstruction. Of 3,638 subjects, 99 (2.7%) received a lung cancer diagnosis. Adjusting for sex, age, years of cigarette smoking, and number of cigarettes smoked daily, logistic regression showed the expected lung cancer association with the presence of airflow obstruction (GOLD I–IV, odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–3.27). A second logistic regression showed lung cancer related to emphysema (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.21–5.73). After additional adjustments for GOLD class, emphysema remained a strong and statistically significant factor related to lung cancer (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.91–5.15). Conclusions: Emphysema on CT scan and airflow obstruction on spirometry are related to lung cancer in a high-risk population. Emphysema is independently related to lung cancer. Both radiographic emphysema and airflow obstruction should be considered when assessing lung cancer risk. PMID:18565949

  14. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  15. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Peters, Rachel M.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading killer among all cancers for both men and women in the US, and is associated with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current diagnostic techniques, such as histopathological assessment of tissue obtained by computed tomography guided biopsies, have limited accuracy, especially for small lesions. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can be improved by introducing a real-time, optical guidance method based on the in vivo application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM). In particular, we hypothesize that MPM imaging of living lung tissue based on twophoton excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation can provide sufficient morphologic and spectroscopic information to distinguish between normal and diseased lung tissue. Here, we used an experimental approach based on MPM with multichannel fluorescence detection for initial discovery that MPM spectral imaging could differentiate between normal and neoplastic lung in ex vivo samples from a murine model of lung cancer. Current results indicate that MPM imaging can directly distinguish normal and neoplastic lung tissues based on their distinct morphologies and fluorescence emission properties in non-processed lung tissue. Moreover, we found initial indication that MPM imaging differentiates between normal alveolar tissue, inflammatory foci, and lung neoplasms. Our long-term goal is to apply results from ex vivo lung specimens to aid in the development of multiphoton endoscopy for in vivo imaging of lung abnormalities in various animal models, and ultimately for the diagnosis of human lung cancer.

  16. Radiation-induced heart disease in lung cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which affects the patients’ prognosis with both acute and late side effects, has been published extensively in the radiotherapy of breast cancer, lymphoma and other benign diseases. Studies on RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy, however, are less extensive and clear even though the patients with lung cancer are delivered with higher doses to the heart during radiation treatment. Methods: In this article, after extensive literature search and analysis, we reviewed the current evidence on RIHD in lung cancer patients after their radiation treatments and investigated the potential risk factors for RIHD as compared to other types of cancers. Result: Cardiac toxicity has been found highly relevant in lung cancer radiotherapy. So far, the crude incidence of cardiac complications in the lung cancer patients after radiotherapy has been up to 33%. Conclusion: The dose to the heart, the lobar location of tumor, the treatment modality, the history of heart and pulmonary disease and smoking were considered as potential risk factors for RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy. As treatment techniques improve over the time with better prognosis for lung cancer survivors, an improved prediction model can be established to further reduce the cardiac toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27741117

  17. Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late To Quit | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late to Quit Past ... Table of Contents Because most people who get lung cancer were smokers, you may feel that doctors ...

  18. MDT lung cancer care: input from the Surgical Oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Toyooka, Shinichi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the multidisciplinary management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), surgery remains the primary modality of choice for resectable lung cancer when the patient is able to tolerate lung resection physiologically. There have been recent advances in surgical diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Increasing use of low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer has resulted in increased detection of small peripheral nodules or semi-solid ground glass opacities. Here, we review different modalities of localization techniques that have been used to aid surgical excisional biopsy when needle biopsy has failed to provide tissue diagnosis. We also report on the current debates regarding the use of sublobar resections for Stage I NSCLC as well as the surgical management of locally advanced NSCLC. Finally, we discuss the complex surgical management of T4 NSCLC lung cancers.

  19. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT screening methods is described and discussed with focus on the great potential to further improve this method in the future for the benefit of patients and society. PMID:27195270

  20. Urothelial bladder cancer with cavitary lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Anil; Lee, Jason; Born, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tends to remain superficial; however, in 5% to 20% of cases, it progresses to muscle invasion and, more rarely, can metastasize. TCC of the bladder primarily spreads via regional lymphatics. The most common sites of distant metastases of TCC are the liver, lung, mediastinum and bone. Longterm survival of patients with metastatic bladder cancer is rare. Patterns of pulmonary metastasis include multiple nodules, a solitary mass or interstitial micronodule. When multiple nodules are present, they are round and well-circumscribed, without calcification or cavitation. An unusual case of rapidly metastatic TCC to the lung causing large cavitary masses and nodules is presented. Imaging performed after the patient began chemotherapy revealed widespread necrosis of the metastatic cavitary masses causing moderate volume hemoptysis. PMID:21766082

  1. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer. PMID:27509656

  2. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  3. Interpretation of lung cancer study outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Marida; Bidoli, Paolo; Pelizzoni, Davide; Canova, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. However, in the last few years we observed an important acceleration in drug development due to oncogenic driver tumors discovery. Sharing and putting together preclinical data from benchmark and data from clinical research is the scientific paradigm that allows real breakthrough in clinical practice in this field, but only a few targeted agents are worthy and practice changing. The clinical research and proper use of statistical methodology are the pillars to continue to achieve important goals like improvement of overall survival. A good medical oncologist should be able to critically read a scientific paper and move from the observed outcomes into clinical perspective. Despite clinical improvements, sometimes the union of promising targeted agents and optimistic expectations misrepresent the reality and the value of clinical research. In this article, we try to analyze the meaning of statistical assumptions from clinical trials, especially in lung cancer, through a critical review of the concept of value-based medicine. We also attempt to give the reader some practical tools to weigh scientific value of literature reports. PMID:26716052

  4. Lung cancer biology: a genetic and genomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, M

    2009-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer in most western countries and, as tobacco consumption is not significantly decreasing worldwide, will remain so in the coming decades. Thus, in addition to preventing uptake and encouraging cessation of the smoking habit, it is important to invest in understanding the biology of this type of cancer. Of particular interest are the recent efforts directed towards characterising the entire set of gene alterations in lung cancer. The present review describes the catalogue of known genetic alterations in lung cancer, their biological role and their use in clinical management.

  5. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  6. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    PubMed Central

    Syljuåsen, Randi G.; Hasvold, Grete; Hauge, Sissel; Helland, Åslaug

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin, or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1, and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways. PMID:25774168

  7. Trends of lung cancer mortality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lazcano Ponce, E C; Tovar Guzman, V; Meneses Gonzalez, F; Rascon Pacheco, R A; Hernandez Avila, M

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most important public health problems in the world; 1,035,000 annual deaths are estimated each year and more than 80% of these are attributed to tobacco. The trend of lung cancer mortality in Mexico City from 1979 - 1993 was determined, as was the rate ratio of lung cancer mortality in 31 states in Mexico, taking Mexico City as a reference by means of a Poisson model. A strong linear regression model was used to evaluate the rate, where the dependent variable was LC mortality rate and the independent variable the year observed. In 15 years, 73,807 deaths from LC were reported, with an increase in mortality from 5.01 - 7.25 per 100,000 inhabitants. Mortality increases significantly after 60 years of age (B not equal to 0), p<.05) in men and in women. Mortality from LC was 70% in men, and more than 60% of deaths were reported after 65 years of age. Mortality risk is higher in the northern states of the country (e.g., Sonora, RR=2.40) than in the southern region (e.g., Oaxaca RR=0.40). In Mexico, almost 10,000 deaths by LC are estimated for the year 2010. Therefore, changes in lifestyle should be encouraged in order to decrease the smoking habit. The governmental tax on cigarettes should be increased, smoking restricted in squares and public spaces, and the risks should be announced on cigarette packages, among other measures. With respect to other emergent risk factors, the sources of industrial pollution and toxic emissions should be regulated.

  8. Estrogen Plus Progestin and Lung Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Wakelee, Heather; Anderson, Garnet L.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Chien, Jason W.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Gass, Margery; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Johnson, Karen C.; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Ockene, Judith K.; Chen, Chu; Hubbell, F. Allan

    2010-01-01

    Background In the post intervention period of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, estrogen plus progestin increased total cancer incidence and an adverse influence on lung cancer mortality was suggested. Methods We conducted post hoc analyses over the full follow-up period of the WHI randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating daily conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg) influence on lung cancer incidence and mortality in 16,608 postmenopausal women. Findings After 5.6 years intervention and 2.4 years additional follow-up (mean), there were 109 lung cancers in the hormone group and 85 in the placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92, 1.63, P=0.16). While the difference was not statistically significant, for non-small cell lung cancer a possible divergence emerged over time, with more diagnoses in the CEE plus MPA group (96 vs 72 cases, respectively, HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.94, 1.73, P=0.12) and these cancers were more commonly poorly differentiated and more commonly had distant metastasis. Deaths from lung cancer were significantly increased in the CEE plus MPA group (73 vs 40 deaths, respectively, HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.16, 2.52, P=0.01) as were deaths from non-small cell lung cancer (62 vs 31 deaths, respectively, HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.22, 2.88, P=0.004). Small cell lung cancer incidence and mortality was comparable between randomization groups. Interpretation Use of estrogen plus progestin did not increase lung cancer incidence but significantly increased deaths from lung cancer. The effect may primarily be through influence on non-small cell lung cancer outcome. PMID:19767090

  9. Selective expression of transthyretin in subtypes of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuai; Sun, Suozhu; Xiao, Xueyuan; He, Dacheng; Liu, Liyun

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is expressed primarily in liver, choroid plexus of brain and pancreatic islet A and B cells. It is also synthesized in some endocrine tumors. In the present study, the protein expression of TTR in lung cancer tissues and cell lines was investigated by western blot. The mRNA expression of TTR in 24 pairs of frozen lung cancer tissues was examined by RT-PCR. The specific expression and cellular distribution of TTR were also evaluated in 104 paraffin-embedded lung cancer samples and 3 normal lung tissues by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, the subcellular localization and expression of TTR were further analyzed in lung cancer cell lines. With the exception of mucinous adenocarcinoma, the expression of TTR protein was observed in all tested subtypes of lung carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma displayed the highest positive expression rate of TTR, accounting for 84.4 %, and the positive expression rate of TTR was up to 85.7 % at stages III and IV. The secretory bubbles with strong TTR staining were observed in luminal cells of lung cancer. Furthermore, the localization of TTR in the cytoplasm of lung cancer cells and the secretion of TTR into extracellular milieu were also confirmed. Taken together, TTR is selectively synthesized in lung cancer cells and can be secreted extracellularly. PMID:26943652

  10. Lung Cancer Assistant: a hybrid clinical decision support application for lung cancer care

    PubMed Central

    Sesen, M. Berkan; Peake, Michael D.; Banares-Alcantara, Rene; Tse, Donald; Kadir, Timor; Stanley, Roz; Gleeson, Fergus; Brady, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are becoming the model of care for cancer patients worldwide. While MDTs have improved the quality of cancer care, the meetings impose substantial time pressure on the members, who generally attend several such MDTs. We describe Lung Cancer Assistant (LCA), a clinical decision support (CDS) prototype designed to assist the experts in the treatment selection decisions in the lung cancer MDTs. A novel feature of LCA is its ability to provide rule-based and probabilistic decision support within a single platform. The guideline-based CDS is based on clinical guideline rules, while the probabilistic CDS is based on a Bayesian network trained on the English Lung Cancer Audit Database (LUCADA). We assess rule-based and probabilistic recommendations based on their concordances with the treatments recorded in LUCADA. Our results reveal that the guideline rule-based recommendations perform well in simulating the recorded treatments with exact and partial concordance rates of 0.57 and 0.79, respectively. On the other hand, the exact and partial concordance rates achieved with probabilistic results are relatively poorer with 0.27 and 0.76. However, probabilistic decision support fulfils a complementary role in providing accurate survival estimations. Compared to recorded treatments, both CDS approaches promote higher resection rates and multimodality treatments. PMID:24990290

  11. Semaphorins and their receptors in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Potiron, Vincent A.; Roche, Joëlle; Drabkin, Harry A.

    2009-01-01

    Semaphorins are a large family of secreted, transmembrane and GPI-linked proteins initially characterized in the development of the nervous system and axonal guidance. Semaphorins are expressed in many tissues where they regulate normal development, organ morphogenesis, immunity and angiogenesis. They affect the cytoskeleton, actin filament organization, microtubules and cell adhesion. Semaphorin signaling is transduced by plexins, which in the case of most class-3 semaphorins requires high affinity neuropilin receptors. The neuropilins also function as receptors for VEGF and other growth factors, and their expression is often abnormal in tumors. In cancer, semaphorins have both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting functions. We review here the current status of semaphorins and their receptors in tumor development with a focus on lung cancer. PMID:18625544

  12. Lung cancer in Japanese chromate workers.

    PubMed Central

    Ohsaki, Y; Abe, S; Kimura, K; Tsuneta, Y; Mikami, H; Murao, M

    1978-01-01

    We have treated ten patients with lung cancer among workers in a chromate factory between 1972 and 1976. Four further cases were also found through death certificates and medical records. Most were smokers and all were men. The average duration of exposure to chromate was 24 years (range 10 to 36). The cell type in our ten patients was squamous in seven and small anaplastic type in three. The primary sites were all in large bronchi. The incidence (person per year) calculated from the number of employees, duration of factory activity, number of cancer patients, and shortest duration of labour period among the patients was 657.9 per 100,000 compared to 13.3 per 100,000 in Japan as a whole. PMID:684674

  13. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  14. Radon and lung cancer: assessing and mitigating the risk.

    PubMed

    Choi, Humberto; Mazzone, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. Its progenies emit alpha particles capable of causing tissue damage. Radon exposure is estimated to be the second most common cause of lung cancer in the United States. Management of patients with a history of radon exposure should involve a lung cancer specialist.

  15. Analysis of intratumor heterogeneity unravels lung cancer evolution.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Elza C; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with dismal outcome. We recently reported a detailed intratumor heterogeneity analysis in 7 non-small cell lung cancer samples, revealing spatially separated driver events as well as the temporal dynamics of mutational processes and demonstrating an important role for APOBEC-mediated heterogeneity later in disease evolution. PMID:27308463

  16. Malnutrition in lung cancer: incidence, prognostic implications, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, D L

    1982-01-01

    Malnutrition and weight loss are common in patients with lung cancer. Weight loss is an independent prognostic factor for survival in lung cancer treatment studies. Metabolic disturbances probably play a dominant role in weight loss in these patients rather than reduced food intake. The identification of the pertinent etiologic metabolic abnormalities and development of specific therapeutic intervention should be goals for future research.

  17. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  18. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Ablative Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Danish, Adnan; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    The treatment paradigm for early stage lung cancer and oligometastatic disease to the lung is rapidly changing. Ablative therapies, especially stereotactic body radiation therapy, are challenging the surgical gold standard and have the potential to be the standard for operable patients with early stage lung cancer who are high risk due to co- morbidities. The most commonly used ablative modalities include stereotactic body radiation therapy, microwave ablation, and radiofrequency ablation. PMID:27261915

  19. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Ablative Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Danish, Adnan; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    The treatment paradigm for early stage lung cancer and oligometastatic disease to the lung is rapidly changing. Ablative therapies, especially stereotactic body radiation therapy, are challenging the surgical gold standard and have the potential to be the standard for operable patients with early stage lung cancer who are high risk due to co- morbidities. The most commonly used ablative modalities include stereotactic body radiation therapy, microwave ablation, and radiofrequency ablation.

  20. Low-Dose CT Screening for Lung Cancer: Computer-aided Detection of Missed Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mingzhu; Tang, Wei; Xu, Dong Ming; Jirapatnakul, Artit C; Reeves, Anthony P; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To update information regarding the usefulness of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems with a focus on the most critical category, that of missed cancers at earlier imaging, for cancers that manifest as a solid nodule. Materials and Methods By using a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved protocol where informed consent was obtained, 50 lung cancers that manifested as a solid nodule on computed tomographic (CT) scans in annual rounds of screening (time 1) were retrospectively identified that could, in retrospect, be identified on the previous CT scans (time 0). Four CAD systems were compared, which were referred to as CAD 1, CAD 2, CAD 3, and CAD 4. The total number of accepted CAD-system-detected nodules at time 0 was determined by consensus of two radiologists and the number of CAD-system-detected nodules that were rejected by the radiologists was also documented. Results At time 0 when all the cancers had been missed, CAD system detection rates for the cancers were 56%, 70%, 68%, and 60% (κ = 0.45) for CAD systems 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. At time 1, the rates were 74%, 82%, 82%, and 78% (κ = 0.32), respectively. The average diameter of the 50 cancers at time 0 and time 1 was 4.8 mm and 11.4 mm, respectively. The number of CAD-system-detected nodules that were rejected per CT scan for CAD systems 1-4 at time 0 was 7.4, 1.7, 0.6, and 4.5 respectively. Conclusion CAD systems detected up to 70% of lung cancers that were not detected by the radiologist but failed to detect about 20% of the lung cancers when they were identified by the radiologist, which suggests that CAD may be useful in the role of second reader. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  1. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer.

  2. [Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Wenzhao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn't quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment. PMID:27335306

  3. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  4. [Epidemiology, prevention and risk morbidity factors for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, Aneta; Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Grądalska-Lampart, Monika; Filip, Agata A

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer incidence kept increasing dynamically in male population until the late 90s and then there was a sudden drop in the cases and this tendency has been maintained up till now. What seems upsetting, however, is the fact that for female population there is a constant growth in the lung cancer morbidity. Needless to say, Poland still belongs to the countries with high lung cancer incidence and lung cancer mortality. In 2011 the standardized morbidity rate in Poland accounted for 50,0/100 000 in male population and 17,3/100 000 in female population. In Podkarpacie Voivodeship it was 43,6/100 000 for males and 11,8/100 000 for females respectively. Lung cancer incidence and lung cancer mortality seem to increase together with age, and for people 65 and more this type of cancer accounts for approximately 50% of all cancer cases and cancer caused deaths. In spite of various research conducted and great medical progress little can be done to cure lung cancer. The percentage of 5-year survivals increased for males from 10,8% in years 2000-2002 to 11,9% in years 2003-2005, and for females from 15,7% to 16,9%. The main cause of lung cancer is certainly active and passive smoking. It is highly possible that environmental factors are also responsible for lung cancer cases. Among the most devastating are such factors as asbestos, arsenic, aromatic hydrocarbons, individual lifestyle and nutrition, genetic predisposition and finally the pollution, particularly of the air.

  5. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure. PMID:3943919

  6. The value of proteomics in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hiltermann, Thijo J. N.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have identified the prognostic and predictive value of proteins or peptides in lung cancer but most failed to provide strong evidence for their clinical applicability. The strongest predictive proteins seem to be fatty acid-binding protein heart (H-FABP), and the 8-peak mass spectrography signature of VeriStrat. When focusing on VeriStrat, a ‘VeriStrat good’ profile did not discriminate between chemotherapy and erlotinib. The ‘VeriStrat poor’ profile showed a better outcome to chemotherapy than to erlotinib. VeriStrat is a prognostic test and only the “poor profile” discriminates for the type of therapy that should be chosen. Whether it adds useful information in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and wild type EGFR mutations is still doubtful. The position of the VeriStrat test in clinical practice is still not clear and we are waiting for prospective studies where biomarker test are involved in clinical decision. PMID:25815290

  7. Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Volkan I; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Larsson, Erik; Nilsson, Jonas A; Lindahl, Per; Bergo, Martin O

    2014-01-29

    Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production. PMID:24477002

  8. Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Volkan I; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Larsson, Erik; Nilsson, Jonas A; Lindahl, Per; Bergo, Martin O

    2014-01-29

    Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production.

  9. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure.

  10. Personalized Radiation Therapy (PRT) for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Yue; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses approaches and strategies of personalized radiation therapy (PRT) for lung cancers at four different levels: (1) clinically established PRT based on a patient's histology, stage, tumor volume and tumor locations; (2) personalized adaptive radiation therapy (RT) based on image response during treatment; (3) PRT based on biomarkers; (4) personalized fractionation schedule. The current RT practice for lung cancer is partially individualized according to tumor histology, stage, size/location, and combination with use of systemic therapy. During-RT PET-CT image guided adaptive treatment is being tested in a multicenter trial. Treatment response detected by the during-RT images may also provide a strategy to further personalize the remaining treatment. Research on biomarker-guided PRT is ongoing. The biomarkers include genomics, proteomics, microRNA, cytokines, metabolomics from tumor and blood samples, and radiomics from PET, CT, SPECT images. Finally, RT fractionation schedule may also be personalized to each individual patient to maximize therapeutic gain. Future PRT should be based on comprehensive considerations of knowledge acquired from all these levels, as well as consideration of the societal value such as cost and effectiveness.

  11. Personalized Radiation Therapy (PRT) for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Yue; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses approaches and strategies of personalized radiation therapy (PRT) for lung cancers at four different levels: (1) clinically established PRT based on a patient's histology, stage, tumor volume and tumor locations; (2) personalized adaptive radiation therapy (RT) based on image response during treatment; (3) PRT based on biomarkers; (4) personalized fractionation schedule. The current RT practice for lung cancer is partially individualized according to tumor histology, stage, size/location, and combination with use of systemic therapy. During-RT PET-CT image guided adaptive treatment is being tested in a multicenter trial. Treatment response detected by the during-RT images may also provide a strategy to further personalize the remaining treatment. Research on biomarker-guided PRT is ongoing. The biomarkers include genomics, proteomics, microRNA, cytokines, metabolomics from tumor and blood samples, and radiomics from PET, CT, SPECT images. Finally, RT fractionation schedule may also be personalized to each individual patient to maximize therapeutic gain. Future PRT should be based on comprehensive considerations of knowledge acquired from all these levels, as well as consideration of the societal value such as cost and effectiveness. PMID:26703805

  12. Treatment of small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zöchbauer-Müller, S; Pirker, R; Huber, H

    1999-01-01

    Small cell lung cancers, comprising approximately 20% of lung cancers, are rapidly growing and disseminating carcinomas which are initially chemosensitive but acquire drug resistance during the course of disease. Thus, outcome is poor with median survival of 10-16 months for patients with limited and 7-11 months for patients with extensive disease. Polychemotherapy with established drugs (platins, etoposide, anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and Vinca alkaloids) plays the major role in the treatment of this disease and results in overall response rates between 80%-95% for limited disease and 60%-80% for extensive disease. Dose-intensified chemotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell support were tested in several trials but their exact impact on outcome remains to be determined. New drugs including the taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel), the topoisomerase I inhibitors (topotecan, irinotecan), vinorelbine and gemcitabine are currently evaluated in clinical trials. In limited disease, thoracic radiotherapy improves survival and prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered to those with a reasonable chance of cure. PMID:10676558

  13. Practical use of advanced mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Meuwissen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    To date a variety of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) mouse models have been developed that mimic human lung cancer. Chemically induced or spontaneous lung cancer in susceptible inbred strains has been widely used, but the more recent genetically engineered somatic mouse models recapitulate much better the genotype-phenotype correlations found in human lung cancer. Additionally, improved orthotopic transplantation of primary human cancer tissue fragments or cells into lungs of immune-compromised mice can be valuable tools for preclinical research such as antitumor drug tests. Here we give a short overview of most somatic mouse models for lung cancer that are currently in use. We accompany each different model with a description of its practical use and application for all major lung tumor types, as well as the intratracheal injection or direct injection of fresh or freeze-thawed tumor cells or tumor cell lines into lung parenchyma of recipient mice. All here presented somatic mouse models are based on the ability to (in) activate specific alleles at a time, and in a tissue-specific cell type, of choice. This spatial-temporal controlled induction of genetic lesions allows the selective introduction of main genetic lesions in an adult mouse lung as found in human lung cancer. The resulting conditional somatic mouse models can be used as versatile powerful tools in basic lung cancer research and preclinical translational studies alike. These distinctively advanced lung cancer models permit us to investigate initiation (cell of origin) and progression of lung cancer, along with response and resistance to drug therapy. Cre/lox or FLP/frt recombinase-mediated methods are now well-used techniques to develop tissue-restricted lung cancer in mice with tumor-suppressor gene and/or oncogene (in)activation. Intranasal or intratracheal administration of engineered adenovirus-Cre or lentivirus-Cre has been optimized for introducing Cre

  14. Analysis of Lung Flute–collected Sputum for Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian; Anjuman, Nigar; Guarnera, Maria A; Zhang, Howard; Stass, Sanford A; Jiang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of sputum can help diagnose lung cancer. We have demonstrated that Lung Flute can be used to collect sputum from individuals who cannot spontaneously expectorate sputum. The objective of this study is to further evaluate the performance of the Lung Flute by comparing the characteristics of parallel samples collected with and without the Lung Flute and the usefulness for diagnosis of lung cancer. Fifty-six early-stage lung cancer patients (40 current smokers and 16 former smokers) and 73 cancer-free individuals (52 current smokers and 21 former smokers) were instructed to spontaneously cough and use Lung Flute for sputum sampling. Sputum cytology and polymerase chain reaction analysis of three miRNAs (miRs-21, 31, and 210) were performed in the specimens. All 92 current smokers and 11 (28.7%) of 37 former smokers spontaneously expectorated sputum and also produced sputum when using the Lung Flute. Twenty-seven former smokers (70.3%) who could not spontaneously expectorate sputum, however, were able to produce sputum when using the Lung Flute. The specimens were of low respiratory origin without contamination from other sources, eg, saliva. There was no difference of sputum volume and cell populations, diagnostic efficiency of cytology, and analysis of the miRNAs in the specimens collected by the two approaches. Analysis of the sputum miRNAs produced 83.93% sensitivity and 87.67% specificity for identifying lung cancer. Therefore, sputum collected by the Lung Flute has comparable features as spontaneously expectorated sputum. Using the Lung Flute enables former smokers who cannot spontaneously expectorate to provide adequate sputum to improve sputum collection for lung cancer diagnosis. PMID:26309391

  15. Analysis of Lung Flute-collected Sputum for Lung Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian; Anjuman, Nigar; Guarnera, Maria A; Zhang, Howard; Stass, Sanford A; Jiang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of sputum can help diagnose lung cancer. We have demonstrated that Lung Flute can be used to collect sputum from individuals who cannot spontaneously expectorate sputum. The objective of this study is to further evaluate the performance of the Lung Flute by comparing the characteristics of parallel samples collected with and without the Lung Flute and the usefulness for diagnosis of lung cancer. Fifty-six early-stage lung cancer patients (40 current smokers and 16 former smokers) and 73 cancer-free individuals (52 current smokers and 21 former smokers) were instructed to spontaneously cough and use Lung Flute for sputum sampling. Sputum cytology and polymerase chain reaction analysis of three miRNAs (miRs-21, 31, and 210) were performed in the specimens. All 92 current smokers and 11 (28.7%) of 37 former smokers spontaneously expectorated sputum and also produced sputum when using the Lung Flute. Twenty-seven former smokers (70.3%) who could not spontaneously expectorate sputum, however, were able to produce sputum when using the Lung Flute. The specimens were of low respiratory origin without contamination from other sources, eg, saliva. There was no difference of sputum volume and cell populations, diagnostic efficiency of cytology, and analysis of the miRNAs in the specimens collected by the two approaches. Analysis of the sputum miRNAs produced 83.93% sensitivity and 87.67% specificity for identifying lung cancer. Therefore, sputum collected by the Lung Flute has comparable features as spontaneously expectorated sputum. Using the Lung Flute enables former smokers who cannot spontaneously expectorate to provide adequate sputum to improve sputum collection for lung cancer diagnosis. PMID:26309391

  16. Analysis of Lung Flute-collected Sputum for Lung Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian; Anjuman, Nigar; Guarnera, Maria A; Zhang, Howard; Stass, Sanford A; Jiang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of sputum can help diagnose lung cancer. We have demonstrated that Lung Flute can be used to collect sputum from individuals who cannot spontaneously expectorate sputum. The objective of this study is to further evaluate the performance of the Lung Flute by comparing the characteristics of parallel samples collected with and without the Lung Flute and the usefulness for diagnosis of lung cancer. Fifty-six early-stage lung cancer patients (40 current smokers and 16 former smokers) and 73 cancer-free individuals (52 current smokers and 21 former smokers) were instructed to spontaneously cough and use Lung Flute for sputum sampling. Sputum cytology and polymerase chain reaction analysis of three miRNAs (miRs-21, 31, and 210) were performed in the specimens. All 92 current smokers and 11 (28.7%) of 37 former smokers spontaneously expectorated sputum and also produced sputum when using the Lung Flute. Twenty-seven former smokers (70.3%) who could not spontaneously expectorate sputum, however, were able to produce sputum when using the Lung Flute. The specimens were of low respiratory origin without contamination from other sources, eg, saliva. There was no difference of sputum volume and cell populations, diagnostic efficiency of cytology, and analysis of the miRNAs in the specimens collected by the two approaches. Analysis of the sputum miRNAs produced 83.93% sensitivity and 87.67% specificity for identifying lung cancer. Therefore, sputum collected by the Lung Flute has comparable features as spontaneously expectorated sputum. Using the Lung Flute enables former smokers who cannot spontaneously expectorate to provide adequate sputum to improve sputum collection for lung cancer diagnosis.

  17. Immunoproteasomes and immunotherapy-a smoking gun for lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Spits, Menno; Neefjes, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in both women and men with some 221,200 new cases and 158,040 deaths reported in 2015. Almost 90% of these are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and these patients have a very poor prognosis. Recently a new treatment option for NSCLC appeared that strongly improved treatment responses-immunotherapy. Here we review the various forms of immunotherapy and how immune modification of proteasomes in lung cancer may support the immune system in controlling NSCLC. These immunoproteasomes then support recognition of NSCLC and may act as a biomarker for selecting responding patients to immunotherapy. PMID:27501321

  18. Lung cancer and exposure to radon in women - New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, J.B.; Klotz, J.B.; Wilcox, H.B.; Gel-del-Real, M.; Stemhagen, A. ); Nicholls, G.P. )

    1989-11-17

    In 1985, the New Jersey State Department of Health (NJDOH) initiated an epidemiologic study of lung cancer and exposure to radon in New Jersey women. In collaboration with the New Jersey State Department of Environmental Protection and the National Cancer Institute, NJDOH examined whether exposure to radon in homes is associated with increased lung cancer risk. This study was based on a previous statewide case-control study of risk for lung cancer. The data indicated that year-round exposures in living areas were two to five times lower than basement measurements taken during heating season. The difference increased with higher concentrations.

  19. Immunoproteasomes and immunotherapy—a smoking gun for lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Spits, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in both women and men with some 221,200 new cases and 158,040 deaths reported in 2015. Almost 90% of these are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and these patients have a very poor prognosis. Recently a new treatment option for NSCLC appeared that strongly improved treatment responses—immunotherapy. Here we review the various forms of immunotherapy and how immune modification of proteasomes in lung cancer may support the immune system in controlling NSCLC. These immunoproteasomes then support recognition of NSCLC and may act as a biomarker for selecting responding patients to immunotherapy. PMID:27501321

  20. Lung Cancer in Railroad Workers Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Smith, Thomas J.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Speizer, Frank E.

    2004-01-01

    Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from coal-fired to diesel-powered locomotives. We obtained work histories from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, and ascertained mortality using Railroad Retirement Board, Social Security, and Health Care Financing Administration records. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index and death certificates. There were 43,593 total deaths including 4,351 lung cancer deaths. Adjusting for a healthy worker survivor effect and age, railroad workers in jobs associated with operating trains had a relative risk of lung cancer mortality of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.51). Lung cancer mortality did not increase with increasing years of work in these jobs. Lung cancer mortality was elevated in jobs associated with work on trains powered by diesel locomotives. Although a contribution from exposure to coal combustion products before 1959 cannot be excluded, these results suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust contributed to lung cancer mortality in this cohort. PMID:15531439

  1. Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking Illinois residents.

    PubMed

    Keller, J E; Howe, H L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmokers. The Illinois State Cancer Registry was used to identify all nonsmoking lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 1987. Subjects were classified as nonsmokers only if their medical record specifically stated that they had never smoked during their lifetime. These cases were compared with nonsmoking colon cancer cases. White male nonsmoking lung cancer cases were more likely to have worked in the construction industry than controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3] and to have worked in the bus service and urban transit industry (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9), in the trucking service industry (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and in blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling and finishing mills (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.6). White female cases were more likely to have worked as registered nurses than were the controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5). Negative associations between lung cancer and farming were found in both white males (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5-0.7) and white females (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.01-0.6). Several other less plausible associations between employment and lung cancer were also found. To determine whether urban residence and associated air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers, rates among nonsmokers in Cook County were compared with those in the remainder of Illinois. Cook County rates of nonsmoking lung cancer were elevated among white females and nonwhite females, but not among males. Residences of the white female and nonwhite female lung cancer cases were mapped to determine whether clustering within Chicago had occurred. The absence of observable clustering suggests that the excess of female lung cancer cases in Cook County is not attributable to pollution. PMID:8432260

  2. Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking Illinois residents.

    PubMed

    Keller, J E; Howe, H L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmokers. The Illinois State Cancer Registry was used to identify all nonsmoking lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 1987. Subjects were classified as nonsmokers only if their medical record specifically stated that they had never smoked during their lifetime. These cases were compared with nonsmoking colon cancer cases. White male nonsmoking lung cancer cases were more likely to have worked in the construction industry than controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3] and to have worked in the bus service and urban transit industry (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9), in the trucking service industry (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and in blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling and finishing mills (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.6). White female cases were more likely to have worked as registered nurses than were the controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5). Negative associations between lung cancer and farming were found in both white males (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5-0.7) and white females (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.01-0.6). Several other less plausible associations between employment and lung cancer were also found. To determine whether urban residence and associated air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers, rates among nonsmokers in Cook County were compared with those in the remainder of Illinois. Cook County rates of nonsmoking lung cancer were elevated among white females and nonwhite females, but not among males. Residences of the white female and nonwhite female lung cancer cases were mapped to determine whether clustering within Chicago had occurred. The absence of observable clustering suggests that the excess of female lung cancer cases in Cook County is not attributable to pollution.

  3. Ubc9 promotes invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Niu, Huiyan; Peng, Yang; Wang, Jiahe; He, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The mortality is high mainly due to the lack of known effective screening procedures; there is a high tendency for early spread and systemic therapies do not cure metastatic disease. Thus, it is important to investigate the molecular mechanism(s) of lung cancer development and, specifically, to identify an effective method by which to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9), the sole conjugating enzyme for sumoylation, regulates protein function and plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Whether Ubc9 is involved in the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer remains unknown. Herein, we report that Ubc9 exhibits an important role in lung cancer invasion and metastasis. We first investigated the biological effect of Ubc9 on lung cancer by cloning the Ubc9 gene into a eukaryotic expression plasmid and stably expressing it in the human small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 in order to observe any biological changes. We further analyzed the effect of Ubc9 in an in vivo experiment, injecting NCI-H446 cells stably overexpressing Ubc9 into nude mice and analyzing their metastatic ability. Our results demonstrated that Ubc9 is expressed at higher levels in primary lung cancer tissue and metastatic nodules as compared to premalignant and/or normal tissue. Furthermore, we demonstrated that upregulation of Ubc9 expression promotes migration and invasion. Ubc9 likely plays an important role in cancer progression by promoting invasion and metastasis in lung cancer. PMID:23381475

  4. Stem cells and lung cancer: future therapeutic targets?

    PubMed

    Alison, Malcolm R; Lebrenne, Arielle C; Islam, Shahriar

    2009-09-01

    In both the UK and USA more people die of lung cancer than any other type of cancer. Lung cancer's high mortality rate is also reflected on a global scale, with lung cancer accounting for more than 1 million deaths per year. In tissues with ordered structure such a lung epithelia, it is likely that the cancers have their origins in normal adult stem cells, and then the tumours themselves are maintained by a population of malignant stem cells - so-called cancer stem cells. This review examines both these postulates in animal models and in the clinical setting, noting that stem cell niches appear to foster tumour development, and that drug resistance can often be attributed to malignant cells with stem cell properties. PMID:19653862

  5. Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullapudi, Nandita; Ye, Bin; Suzuki, Masako; Fazzari, Melissa; Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao K; Marquardt, Gaby; Lin, Juan; Wang, Tao; Keller, Steven; Zhu, Changcheng; Locker, Joseph D; Spivack, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)-non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents. PMID:26683690

  6. Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masako; Fazzari, Melissa; Han, Weiguo; Shi, Miao K.; Marquardt, Gaby; Lin, Juan; Wang, Tao; Keller, Steven; Zhu, Changcheng; Locker, Joseph D.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)–non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents. PMID:26683690

  7. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. Methods A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940–2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Results Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure–response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m3 Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20–25 years. Conclusions These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m3 Cd. PMID:22271639

  8. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  9. Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: From Tumor Genomics to Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gandara, David R.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Sos, Martin L.; Lara, Primo N.; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the last several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common NSCLC histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC. PMID:25979930

  10. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Jianqi; Gu, Xiang; Xiao, Tiqiao; Liu, Ping; Xu, Lisa X.

    2010-04-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  11. Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma Prevents Lung Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhengwang; Li, Lei; Lin, Zaijun; Xu, Wei; Han, Shuai; Cao, Wenjiao; Xu, Yunfei; Song, Dianwen; Yang, Xinghai; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. The poor survival rate is largely due to the extensive local invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells remain largely elusive. In this study, we examined the role of preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) in lung cancer metastasis. Our results show that PRAME is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma and lung bone metastasis compared with normal human lung. Knockdown of PRAME decreases the expression of E-Cadherin and promotes the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of lung cancer cells by regulating multiple critical genes, most of which are related to cell migration, including MMP1, CCL2, CTGF, and PLAU. Clinical data analysis reveals that the expression of MMP1 correlates with the clinical features and outcome of lung adenocarcinoma. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PRAME plays a role in preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and novel diagnostic or therapeutic strategies can be developed by targeting PRAME. PMID:27391090

  12. A 30-year perspective on psychosocial issues in lung cancer: how lung cancer "Came out of the Closet".

    PubMed

    Weiss, Talia; Weinberger, Mark; Schwerd, Arielle M; Holland, Jimmie

    2012-11-01

    Psychological responses to lung cancer have changed over the past 30 years as perceptions of the disease have changed. Previously seen as a fatal diagnosis, it is now regarded as a cancer whose treatment is increasingly effective as the science of the disease advances. The stigma of smoking is diminishing as more is learned about genetic factors and as more nonsmokers are diagnosed. Support groups are now widely available. The increasing social support and greater knowledge of lung cancer provide a more supportive environment in which patients cope with lung cancer today compared with 30 years ago.

  13. Pulmonary Endogenous Fluorescence Allows the Distinction of Primary Lung Cancer from the Perilesional Lung Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Charlotte; Farcy, René; Garcia, Stéphane; Secq, Veronique; Gaubert, Jean-Yves; Trousse, Delphine; Orsini, Bastien; Doddoli, Christophe; Moniz-Koum, Helene; Thomas, Pascal Alexandre; D’journo, Xavier Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Background Pre-therapeutic pathological diagnosis is a crucial step of the management of pulmonary nodules suspected of being non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in the frame of currently implemented lung cancer screening programs in high-risk patients. Based on a human ex vivo model, we hypothesized that an embedded device measuring endogenous fluorescence would be able to distinguish pulmonary malignant lesions from the perilesional lung tissue. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection of pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective and observational study over an 8-month period. Measurements were performed back table on surgical specimens in the operative room, both on suspicious lesions and the perilesional healthy parenchyma. Endogenous fluorescence signal was characterized according to three criteria: maximal intensity (Imax), wavelength, and shape of the signal (missing, stable, instable, photobleaching). Results Ninety-six patients with 111 suspicious lesions were included. Final pathological diagnoses were: primary lung cancers (n = 60), lung metastases of extra-thoracic malignancies (n = 27) and non-tumoral lesions (n = 24). Mean Imax was significantly higher in NSCLC targeted lesions when compared to the perilesional lung parenchyma (p<0,0001) or non-tumoral lesions (p<0,0001). Similarly, photobleaching was more frequently found in NSCLC than in perilesional lung (p<0,0001), or in non-tumoral lesions (p<0,001). Respective associated wavelengths were not statistically different between perilesional lung and either primary lung cancers or non-tumoral lesions. Considering lung metastases, both mean Imax and wavelength of the targeted lesions were not different from those of the perilesional lung tissue. In contrast, photobleaching was significantly more frequently observed in the targeted lesions than in the perilesional lung (p≤0,01). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that endogenous fluorescence applied to the

  14. Epidemiologic characteristics of compensated occupational lung cancers among Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung Sook

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of the characteristics of occupational lung cancer is important to establish policies that prevent carcinogen exposure and to compensate workers exposed to lung carcinogens. This study analyzed the characteristics of occupational lung cancers in workers who were compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Law between 1994 and 2011. A total of 179 occupational lung cancers were compensated. The main carcinogenic exposure was asbestos, followed by crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium. The mean exposure duration and latency were 19.8 and 23.2 yr. The most common industry was manufacturing, followed by construction and transportation. The most common occupation was maintenance and repair, followed by foundry work, welding, painting, and spinning or weaving. Although asbestos was predominant carcinogen, the proportion of these cases was relatively low compared to other developed countries. Proper surveillance system is needed to monitor occupational lung cancer and improve prevention measures. PMID:25408577

  15. Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wu, Ruei-Jr; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Lin, Wei-Chou; Lin, Sung-Jan; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we utilized multiphoton microscopy for the label-free diagnosis of non-cancerous, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from human. Our results show that the combination of second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton excited autofluorescence (MAF) signals may be used to acquire morphological and quantitative information in discriminating cancerous from non-cancerous lung tissues. Specifically, non-cancerous lung tissues are largely fibrotic in structure while cancerous specimens are composed primarily of tumor masses. Quantitative ratiometric analysis using MAF to SHG index (MAFSI or SAAID) shows that the average MAFSI for noncancerous and LAC lung tissue pairs are 0.55 +/-0.23 and 0.87+/-0.15 respectively. In comparison, the MAFSIs for the noncancerous and SCC tissue pairs are 0.50+/-0.12 and 0.72+/-0.13 respectively. Intrinsic fluorescence ratio (FAD/NADH) of SCC and non-cancerous tissues are 0.40+/-0.05 and 0.53+/-0.05 respectively, the redox ratio of SCC diminishes significantly, indicating that increased cellular metabolic activity. Our study shows that nonlinear optical microscopy can assist in differentiating and diagnosing pulmonary cancer from non-cancerous tissues. With additional development, multiphoton microscopy may be used for the clinical diagnosis of lung cancers.

  16. Non-coding RNAs in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Mecca, Carmen; Crinò, Lucio; Baglivo, Sara; Cenci, Matteo; Metro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of all human genome, and the evidence that more than 90% of it is actively transcribed, changed the classical point of view of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was always based on the assumption that RNA functions mainly as an intermediate bridge between DNA sequences and protein synthesis machinery. Accumulating data indicates that non-coding RNAs are involved in different physiological processes, providing for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are important regulators of gene expression, cellular differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Alterations and disruptions of their expression or activity have increasingly been associated with pathological changes of cancer cells, this evidence and the prospect of using these molecules as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, make currently non-coding RNAs among the most relevant molecules in cancer research. In this paper we will provide an overview of non-coding RNA function and disruption in lung cancer biology, also focusing on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

  17. Gene expression profiles of small-cell lung cancers: molecular signatures of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Masaya; Daigo, Yataro; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Takano, Atsushi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Yasui, Wataru; Inai, Kouki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2006-09-01

    To characterize the molecular mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and identify molecules to be applied as novel diagnostic markers and/or for development of molecular-targeted drugs, we applied cDNA microarray profile analysis coupled with purification of cancer cells by laser-microbeam microdissection (LMM). Expression profiles of 32,256 genes in 15 SCLCs identified 252 genes that were commonly up-regulated and 851 transcripts that were down-regulated in SCLC cells compared with non-cancerous lung tissue cells. An unsupervised clustering algorithm applied to the expression data easily distinguished SCLC from the other major histological type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identified 475 genes that may represent distinct molecular features of each of the two histological types. In particular, SCLC was characterized by altered expression of genes related to neuroendocrine cell differentiation and/or growth such as ASCL1, NRCAM, and INSM1. We also identified 68 genes that were abundantly expressed both in advanced SCLCs and advanced adenocarcinomas (ADCs), both of which had been obtained from patients with extensive chemotherapy treatment. Some of them are known to be transcription factors and/or gene expression regulators such as TAF5L, TFCP2L4, PHF20, LMO4, TCF20, RFX2, and DKFZp547I048 as well as those encoding nucleotide-binding proteins such as C9orf76, EHD3, and GIMAP4. Our data provide valuable information for better understanding of lung carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. PMID:16865272

  18. Lung cancer stem cells and implications for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Ze-hong; White, James; Zhang, Lin-bo

    2014-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most dreaded of all cancers because of the higher mortality rates associated with it worldwide. The various subtypes of lung cancer respond differently to a particular treatment regime, which makes the therapeutic interventions all the more complicated. The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is based primarily on the clinical and experimental observations that indicate the existence of a subpopulation of cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate as well as show increased resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. They are considered as the factors responsible for the cases of tumor relapse. The CSCs may have significant role in the development of lung tumorigenesis based on the identification of the CSCs which respond during injury. The properties of multi-potency and self-renewal are shared in common by the lung CSCs with the normal pluripotent stem cells which can be isolated using the similar markers. This review deals with the origin and characteristics of the lung cancer stem cells. The role of different markers used to isolate lung CSCs like CD44, ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase), CD133 and ABCG2 (ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2) have been discussed in detail. Analysis of the developmental signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, hedgehog in the regulation and maintenance of the lung CSCs have been done. Finally, before targeting the lung CSC biomarkers for potential therapeutics, challenges faced in lung cancer stem cell research need to be taken into account. With the accepted notion that the CSCs are to blame for cancer relapse and drug resistance, targeting them can be an important aspect of lung cancer therapy in the future.

  19. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    PubMed

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  20. [Why screen for lung cancer in patients with arterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Lederlin, M; Trédaniel, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in France. Such a prognosis is explained by late diagnosis at a metastatic stage for half of the patients. Tobacco is the main risk factor for lung cancer, as it is for peripheral arterial disease. A review of literature shows that between 2.3% and 19% of patients with arterial disease also have lung cancer. When lung cancer is detected after treatment of arterial disease, it is at an advanced stage. But it can be diagnosed at an early stage when it is searched simultaneously with arterial disease treatment. There is no recommendation for lung cancer screening specifically for patients with arterial disease. However individual screening based on an annual low-dose chest scan is proposed for smokers meeting the criteria defined by the study of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Such screening has two disadvantages : the high number of false positives and the irradiation induced by the accumulation of examinations. The ISET method would alternatively help to identify circulating tumor cells on a simple blood test for subjects not yet at solid tumor stage, provided this method be subject to multicentric validation. Thus one could consider that the management of a patient with arterial disease meeting NLST criteria should be accompanied with screening for lung cancer by searching for tumor cells associated with low-dose scanner.

  1. Occupational exposures and lung cancer in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Luce, D; Fevotte, J; Bugel, I; Salomon, C; Goldberg, P; Billon-Galland, M; Goldberg, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the associations between occupational exposures and the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. Methods: All cases diagnosed between January 1993 and December 1995 (228 lung cancers) and 305 population controls were included. Detailed information on lifetime job history, smoking, and other potential risk factors was collected by interview. Occupational exposures were assessed from the questionnaires by an industrial hygienist, without knowledge of case-control status. Results: No significant association was found with exposures related to nickel mining and refining, the main industrial activity in the territory. Among men, an excess risk of lung cancer was found for bus and truck drivers. Increased risks were also observed in men with the highest level of cumulative exposure to cleaning products and inorganic fertilisers. Exposure to field dust was associated with lung cancer risk in both sexes, and risk increased with cumulative exposure level. In some areas tremolite asbestos derived from local outcroppings was used as a whitewash. The association between exposure to field dust and lung cancer was limited to men and women exposed to this whitewash—that is, living in areas where the soil may contain tremolite. Conclusion: This study shows several associations between occupational exposures and lung cancer. The findings suggest that exposure to tremolite fibres from cultivated fields may increase the risk of lung cancer in New Caledonia. PMID:12883019

  2. Cancer stem cells in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Codony-Servat, Jordi; Verlicchi, Alberto; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors, with poor survival rates. Although patients may initially respond to treatment, this is followed by rapid development of drug resistance and disease progression. SCLC patients often present with metastasis at time of diagnosis, ruling out surgery as a treatment option. Currently, treatment options for this disease remain limited and platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. A better understanding of the biology of SCLC could allow us to identify new therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is currently crucial in cancer research and could provide a viable explanation for the heterogeneity, drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis of several types of tumors. Some characteristics of SCLC, such as aggressiveness, suggest that this kind of tumor could be enriched in CSCs, and drug resistance in SCLC could be attributable to the existence of a CSC subpopulation in SCLC. Herein we summarize current understanding of CSC in SCLC, including the evidence for CSC markers and signaling pathways involved in stemness. We also discuss potential ongoing strategies and areas of active research in SCLC, such as immunotherapy, that focus on inhibition of signaling pathways and targeting molecules driving stemness. Understanding of signaling pathways and the discovery of new therapeutic markers specific to CSCs will lead to new advances in therapy and improvements in prognosis of SCLC patients. Therefore, evaluation of these CSC-specific molecules and pathways may become a routine part of SCLC diagnosis and therapy.

  3. Cancer stem cells in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Verlicchi, Alberto; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive lung tumors, with poor survival rates. Although patients may initially respond to treatment, this is followed by rapid development of drug resistance and disease progression. SCLC patients often present with metastasis at time of diagnosis, ruling out surgery as a treatment option. Currently, treatment options for this disease remain limited and platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. A better understanding of the biology of SCLC could allow us to identify new therapeutic targets. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is currently crucial in cancer research and could provide a viable explanation for the heterogeneity, drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis of several types of tumors. Some characteristics of SCLC, such as aggressiveness, suggest that this kind of tumor could be enriched in CSCs, and drug resistance in SCLC could be attributable to the existence of a CSC subpopulation in SCLC. Herein we summarize current understanding of CSC in SCLC, including the evidence for CSC markers and signaling pathways involved in stemness. We also discuss potential ongoing strategies and areas of active research in SCLC, such as immunotherapy, that focus on inhibition of signaling pathways and targeting molecules driving stemness. Understanding of signaling pathways and the discovery of new therapeutic markers specific to CSCs will lead to new advances in therapy and improvements in prognosis of SCLC patients. Therefore, evaluation of these CSC-specific molecules and pathways may become a routine part of SCLC diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26958490

  4. Lung cancer treatment rates and the role of the lung cancer nurse specialist: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Judy; McDonnell, Ann; Borthwick, Diana; White, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study examines how the Lung Cancer Nurse Specialist (LCNS) role operates and why they may be able to increase access to treatment. Setting 4 Hospital NHS Foundation Trusts in England. Design A multiple case study design using semistructured interviews, observation and Framework Analysis techniques. Participants Four LCNSs, comprised the ‘cases’. Twenty four clinicians who worked with the LCNS participated in individual interviews. Six LCNSs took part in a group interview and 60 lung cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) members and co-ordinators were observed in the MDT meeting. Results The LCNS is crucial within the MDT and can act as a catalyst to patient access to treatment. The study identified the clinical activity (assessment, managing symptoms, psychological support and information provision) and role characteristics that can facilitate treatment access. These characteristics are the LCNS's presence across the patient pathway, acting as the ‘hub’ of the MDT, maintaining a holistic patient focus and working to an advanced level of practice. The findings indicate how factors may have a cumulative impact on treatment access. Conclusions If UK patient with lung cancer survival rates are to improve in line with comparable countries, we need to employ every advantage. This study demonstrates how the LCNS role may open doors to positive patient outcomes, including treatment. Further research is required to explore patients’ experiences, decision-making and attitudes to treatment. PMID:26685023

  5. Understanding and Preventing Lung Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Understanding and Preventing Lung Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents ... Winslow, U.S. Govt. has certain rights What is Lung Cancer Lung cancer forms in tissues of the ...

  6. Smoking Behavior and Lung Cancer in a Biracial Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prizment, Anna E.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Woodward, Mark; Folsom, Aaron R.; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the U.S., the incidence of lung cancer varies by race, with rates being highest among black men. There are marked differences in smoking behavior between blacks and whites, but little is known regarding how these differences contribute to the racial disparities in lung cancer. Purpose To compare the lung cancer risk associated with smoking in 14,610 blacks and whites in the prospective cohort Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Methods Smoking characteristics were ascertained at baseline and three follow-up visits in 1990–1992, 1993–1995, and 1996–1998 (response rates were 93%, 86%, and 80%, respectively), as well as from annual telephone interviews. Data were analyzed in the fall of 2012. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for lung cancer. Results Over 20 years of follow-up (1987–2006), 470 incident cases of lung cancer occurred. Lung cancer incident rates were highest in black men and lowest in black women. However, there was no evidence to support racial differences in the associations of smoking status, intensity, or age at initiation with lung cancer risk (all pinteraction≥0.25). The hazard ratio for those who started smoking at age ≤12 versus >22 years was 3.03 (95% CI=1.62, 5.67). Prolonged smoking cessation (≥10 years) was associated with a decrease in lung cancer risk, with equivalent benefits in whites and blacks, 84% and 74%, respectively (pinteraction=0.25). Conclusions Smoking confers similar lung cancer risk in blacks and whites. PMID:24842739

  7. Silica, compensated silicosis, and lung cancer in Western Australian goldminers

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, N. H.; Musk, A. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Silica has recently been reclassified as carcinogenic to humans based largely on the observed increase in rates of lung cancer in subjects with silicosis. Other recent reviews have arrived at different conclusions as to whether silicosis or silica itself is carcinogenic. This study aims to examine exposure-response relations between exposure to silica and subsequent silicosis and lung cancer in a cohort of goldminers. METHODS: 2,297 goldminers from Kalgoorlie in Western Australia were examined in 1961, 1974, and 1975. Data were collected on respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and employment history. Subjects were followed up to the end of 1993. Survival analyses for lung cancer mortality and incidence of compensated silicosis were performed with age and year matched conditional logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: 89% of the cohort were traced to the end of 1993. 84% of the men had smoked at some time and 66% were current smokers. 1386 deaths occurred during the follow up period, 138 from lung cancer, and 631 subjects were compensated for silicosis. A strong effect of smoking on mortality from lung cancer, and a smaller effect on the incidence of compensated silicosis was found. There was a strong effect of duration and intensity of exposure on the incidence of silicosis. The risk of mortality from lung cancer increased after compensation for silicosis. Of all direct measures of exposure to silica, only log cumulative exposure was significantly related to incidence of lung cancer, but this effect disappeared once the onset of silicosis was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of silicosis was clearly related to exposure to silica and the onset of silicosis conferred a significant increase in risk for subsequent lung cancer, but there was no evidence that exposure to silica caused lung cancer in the absence of silicosis.   PMID:9624278

  8. Pneumonia, lung cancer or Medlar's core?

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Filippo; Fedele, Flavio; Corsonello, Andrea; Florio, Michele; De Santis, Salvatore; Guzzo, Elena; Perri, Mariarita; Caroleo, Maria Cristina; Cannataro, Roberto; Cione, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a case of 57-year-old previously healthy man with six-months medical history of significant chronic cough and recurring episodes of fever. Cytology, bacteria, fungi and acid fast bacilli in the sputum were negative. CT scan, initially interpreted as suspected lung cancer, detected by chest x-ray, revealed pneumonia. Bronchoscopy is frequently necessary for the diagnosis as well as the treatment as a routine practice and in this case was applied. Our patient underwent to fiberoptic rigid bronchoscopy in the right upper lobe in general anaesthesia. Unexpectedly, a vegetal FB, Medlar's core instead a tumor, was removed. After two-months follow-up the patient was found healthy without any old or other symptoms. PMID:26744666

  9. Progression and metastasis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Popper, Helmut H

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis in lung cancer is a multifaceted process. In this review, we will dissect the process in several isolated steps such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, circulation, and establishment of a metastatic focus. In reality, several of these processes overlap and occur even simultaneously, but such a presentation would be unreadable. Metastasis requires cell migration toward higher oxygen tension, which is based on changing the structure of the cell (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), orientation within the stroma and stroma interaction, and communication with the immune system to avoid attack. Once in the blood stream, cells have to survive trapping by the coagulation system, to survive shear stress in small blood vessels, and to find the right location for extravasation. Once outside in the metastatic locus, tumor cells have to learn the communication with the "foreign" stroma cells to establish vascular supply and again express molecules, which induce immune tolerance.

  10. The dynamic histopathologic spectrum of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yesner, R

    1981-01-01

    The APUD concept has postulated that pulmonary carcinoids and small cell carcinomas arise from the neural crest. In development from hypothesis to tautology is traced, and evidence is presented that all pulmonary epithelial tumors arise from the primitive endoderm. Morphologic studies show that a dynamic spectrum exists. Not only do various cell types appear within a single section, but cell types may change from biopsy to autopsy with or without chemotherapy. The spectrum is sustained at the ultramicroscopic level in regard to organelles such as desmosomes, tonofibrils, and dense core granules. Secretory products such as ACTH and L-dopa decarboxylase also show that all lung cancers are related. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that small cell carcinomas in uranium miners occur after prolonged squamous cell dysplasia, and that carcinoids occur independently of external carcinogens, but show transitions to other tumors. Finally, experimental evidence indicates that the K cells, to which carcinoids are most closely related, are of local origin.

  11. [Crizotinib - molecular therapy for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Gröschel, A; Warth, A; Reinmuth, N

    2013-04-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can act as a key oncogenic driver after activation by means of processes such as gene rearrangement. In approximately 5 % of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), an oncogenic fusion gene of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and ALK has been detected using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Moreover, various methods including immunohistochemistry and PCR-based assays can be used for analysing ALK expression. Clinical data have been generated for crizotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase, demonstrating a substantial improvement of objective response rate and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared to standard chemotherapy in pretreated NSCLC patients harbouring EML4-ALK fusion genes. In the current review, recent data on the detection and inhibition of ALK in advanced NSCLC are summarised. PMID:23576200

  12. Urinary volatile compounds as biomarkers for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Yosuke; Shimono, Ken; Matsumura, Koichi; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K; Oka, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of deaths in cancer. Hence, developing early-stage diagnostic tests that are non-invasive, highly sensitive, and specific is crucial. In this study, we investigated to determine whether biomarkers derived from urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be used to discriminate between lung cancer patients and normal control patients. The VOCs were extracted from the headspace by solid-phase microextraction and were analyzed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nine putative volatile biomarkers were identified as elevated in the lung cancer group. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was also performed, and the markers were found to be highly sensitive and specific. Next we used principal component analysis (PCA) modeling to make comparisons compare within the lung cancer group, and found that 2-pentanone may have utility in differentiating between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:22484930

  13. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. Patients and methods. Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. Results. We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. Conclusion. Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF. PMID:23412843

  14. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed. Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6–7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens. NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  15. Human sweat metabolomics for lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Turck, Natacha; Robin, Xavier; Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Sanchez, Jean C; Luque de Castro, María D

    2015-07-01

    Sweat is one of the less employed biofluids for discovery of markers in spite of its increased application in medicine for detection of drugs or for diagnostic of cystic fibrosis. In this research, human sweat was used as clinical sample to develop a screening tool for lung cancer, which is the carcinogenic disease with the highest mortality rate owing to the advanced stage at which it is usually detected. In this context, a method based on the metabolite analysis of sweat to discriminate between patients with lung cancer versus smokers as control individuals is proposed. The capability of the metabolites identified in sweat to discriminate between both groups of individuals was studied and, among them, a trisaccharide phosphate presented the best independent performance in terms of the specificity/sensitivity pair (80 and 72.7%, respectively). Additionally, two panels of metabolites were configured using the PanelomiX tool as an attempt to reduce false negatives (at least 80% specificity) and false positives (at least 80% sensitivity). The first panel (80% specificity and 69% sensitivity) was composed by suberic acid, a tetrahexose, and a trihexose, while the second panel (69% specificity and 80% sensitivity) included nonanedioic acid, a trihexose, and the monoglyceride MG(22:2). Thus, the combination of the five metabolites led to a single panel providing 80% specificity and 79% sensitivity, reducing the false positive and negative rates to almost 20%. The method was validated by estimation of within-day and between-days variability of the quantitative analysis of the five metabolites.

  16. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  17. The association between human papillomavirus infection and female lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tsai, Stella Ching-Shao; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Chou, Ming-Chih; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lee, Chun-Te; Jan, Cheng-Feng; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Taiwanese women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in lung cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and lung cancer among the Taiwanese women. The analytical data were collected from the longitudinal health insurance databases (LHID 2005 and 2010) of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The study participants were 30 years and older and included 24,162 individuals who were identified with HPV infection from 2001 to 2004 and 1,026,986 uninfected individuals. Lung cancer incidence among infected and uninfected individuals was compared using the univariate and multivariate regression models. Among the total participants, 24,162 individuals were diagnosed with HPV. After adjusting for age, gender, low income, residential area, and comorbidity, the risk of lung cancer was higher in women (hazard ratio [HR] 1.263, 95% CI 1.015–1.571), while all cancer risks were high in both men and women with corresponding hazard ratios (HR) of 1.161 (95% CI 1.083–1.245) and HR 1.240 (95% CI 1.154–1.331), respectively. This study showed a significant increase in lung cancer risk among Taiwanese women who were exposed to HPV infection. PMID:27281096

  18. Lineage factors and differentiation states in lung cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, W K C; Nguyen, D X

    2015-11-19

    Lung cancer encompasses a heterogeneous group of malignancies. Here we discuss how the remarkable diversity of major lung cancer subtypes is manifested in their transforming cell of origin, oncogenic dependencies, phenotypic plasticity, metastatic competence and response to therapy. More specifically, we review the increasing evidence that links this biological heterogeneity to the deregulation of cell lineage-specific pathways and the transcription factors that ultimately control them. As determinants of pulmonary epithelial differentiation, these poorly characterized transcriptional networks may underlie the etiology and biological progression of distinct lung cancers, while providing insight into innovative therapeutic strategies.

  19. Occurrence of lung cancer in workers producing chromium pigments.

    PubMed Central

    Langård, S; Vigander, T

    1983-01-01

    The results of a follow-up study on the incidence of lung cancer in 133 workers producing zinc chromate pigments are presented. By the end of 1972 three cases of lung cancer had occurred in a sub-cohort of 24 workers who had been employed for over three years. The same group of workers has now been followed up to December 1980 and three further cases of lung cancer were found. The observed/expected ratio was 44 in this group, virtually the same as at the end of 1972. Five of the six patients smoked. Only one had been exposed to chromates other than zinc chromates. PMID:6824603

  20. Serum copper levels in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huhti, E; Poukkula, A; Uksila, E

    1980-01-01

    An increased mean serum copper level was found in 149 patients with lung cancer when compared with 19 healthy people and 23 patients with non-malignant lung diseases. The level seemed to reflect the stage of disease, with asymptomatic patients showing the lowest values, and patients with metastatic symptoms the highest. In spite of significant differences between the groups of subjects the scatter in the values was large. Hence serum copper determinations can be of only limited importance for differential diagnosis or in assessing the clinical stage of cancer. No differences in copper levels were found between the groups of patients with different histological types of lung cancer.

  1. Cavitary lung cancer lined with normal bronchial epithelium and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Maeshima, Arafumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    Reports of cavitary lung cancer are not uncommon, and the cavity generally contains either dilated bronchi or cancer cells. Recently, we encountered a surgical case of cavitary lung cancer whose cavity tended to enlarge during long-term follow-up, and was found to be lined with normal bronchial epithelium and adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:21980325

  2. Relevance of particle-induced rat lung tumors for assessing lung carcinogenic hazard and human lung cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rats and other rodents are exposed by inhalation to identify agents that might present hazards for lung cancer in humans exposed by inhalation. In some cases, the results are used in attempts to develop quantitative estimates of human lung cancer risk. This report reviews evidence for the usefulness of the rat for evaluation of lung cancer hazards from inhaled particles. With the exception of nickel sulfate, particulate agents thought to be human lung carcinogens cause lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation. The rat is more sensitive to carcinogenesis from nonfibrous particles than mice or Syrian hamsters, which have both produced false negatives. However, rats differ from mice and nonhuman primates in both the pattern of particle retention in the lung and alveolar epithelial hyperplastic responses to chronic particle exposure. Present evidence warrants caution in extrapolation from the lung tumor response of rats to inhaled particles to human lung cancer hazard, and there is considerable uncertainty in estimating unit risks for humans from rat data. It seems appropriate to continue using rats in inhalation carcinogenesis assays of inhaled particles, but the upper limit of exposure concentrations must be set carefully to avoid false-positive results. A positive finding in both rats and mice would give greater confidence that an agent presents a carcinogenic hazard to man, and both rats and mice should be used if the agent is a gas or vapor. There is little justification for including Syrian hamsters in assays of the intrapulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled agents. PMID:9400748

  3. Inhibition of rhotekin exhibits antitumor effects in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIZHEN; LIANG, ZHENYU; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause for cancer-related death, however, the pathogenesis mechanism is poorly understood. Although the rhotekin (RTKN) gene has been reported to encode an effector for the Rho protein that has critical roles in regulating cell growth, the role of RTKN in lung cancer has not been investigated. In clinical lung cancer patient tumor samples, we identified that the RTKN gene expression level was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to that of the adjacent normal tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of RTKN in lung cancer, we established RTKN stable knock-down A549 and SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines using lentiviral transfection of RTKN shRNA and evaluated the antitumor effects. The results showed that RTKN knock-down inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell viability, induced S phase arrest and increased cell apoptosis. In addition, RTKN knock-down inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Further analysis showed that the S phase promoting factors cyclindependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 levels were decreased in RTKN knock-down cells, and that the DNA replication initiation complex proteins Minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM)2 and MCM6 were decreased as well in RTKN knock-down cells. These results indicated that the RTKN protein was associated with lung cancer in clinic samples and exerted anticancer activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibiting cell cycle progression and the DNA replication machinery. These findings suggest that RTKN inhibition may be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26935528

  4. Lung cancer tissue diagnosis in poor lung function: addressing the ongoing percutaneous lung biopsy FEV1 paradox using Heimlich valve.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, R; Tavare, A N; Creamer, A; Creer, D; Vancheeswaran, R; Hare, S S

    2016-08-01

    Many centres continue to decline percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) in patients with poor lung function (particularly FEV1 <1 L) due to the theoretically increased risk of pneumothorax. This practice limits access to novel lung cancer therapies and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Our retrospective single-centre analysis of 212 patients undergoing PLB, all performed prospectively and blinded to lung function, demonstrates that using ambulatory Heimlich valve chest drain (HVCD) to treat significant postbiopsy pneumothorax facilitates safe, diagnostic, early discharge lung biopsy irrespective of lung function with neither FEV1 <1 L nor transfer coefficient for carbon monoxide (TLCO) <40% predicted shown to be independent predictors of HVCD insertion or pneumothorax outcomes. Incorporating ambulatory HVCD into standard PLB practice thereby elegantly bridges the gap that currently exists between tissue diagnosis in patients with poor lung function and the advanced therapeutic options available for this cohort.

  5. Chinese food cooking and lung cancer in women nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y C; Cheng, L S; Lee, C H; Huang, J J; Huang, M S; Kao, E L; Wang, H Z; Lin, H J

    2000-01-15

    Cigarette smoking cannot fully explain the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer in Taiwanese women, who smoke rarely but have lung cancer relatively often. In a previous study, the authors suspected that exposure to fumes from cooking oils was an important risk factor for lung cancer in Taiwanese women nonsmokers in the Republic of China. In a new case-control study conducted in 1993-1996, they further explored the association of oil fumes with lung cancer in women. Two sets of controls were used concurrently. The subjects were 131 nonsmoking incident cases with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed primary carcinoma of the lung, 252 hospital controls hospitalized for causes unrelated to diseases of smoking, and 262 community controls; all controls were women nonsmokers matched by age and date of interview. Details on cooking conditions and habits were collected, in addition to other epidemiologic data. Lung cancer risk increased with the number of meals per day to about threefold for women who cooked these meals each day. The risk was also greater if women usually waited until fumes were emitted from the cooking oil before they began cooking (adjusted odds ratios = 2.0-2.6) and if they did not use a fume extractor (adjusted odds ratios = 3.2-12.2). These results suggest that a proportion of lung cancer may be attributable to the habit of waiting until the cooking oil has been heated to a high temperature before cooking the food.

  6. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  7. Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Eric A.; Shen, Min; Chapman, Robert S.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Yu, Ying-Ying; He, Xingzhou; Lan, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjects (0.6%), and 2459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first five years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios [HRs] ranging 6.7–13) but remained strong 5–9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95%CI 1.3–9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95%CI 1.3–7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women, and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease, and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis. PMID:19058197

  8. Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, E.A.; Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Pfeiffer, R.M.; Yu, Y.Y.; He, X.Z.; Lan, Q.

    2009-03-15

    Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjects (0.6%), and 2,459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1,000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first 5 years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios (HRs) ranging 6.7-13) but remained strong 5-9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of ANKRD18B in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Bin; Han, Fei; Jiang, Xiao; Yin, Li; Chen, Hong-Qiang; Li, Yong-Hong; Liu, Yong; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2015-04-01

    The identification of the key genetic and epigenetic changes underlying lung carcinogenesis would aid effective early diagnosis and targeted therapies for lung cancer. In this study, we screened a novel hypermethylated gene ankyrin repeat domain 18B (ANKRD18B), to determine whether it is regulated by DNA methylation and clarify its biological and clinical implications in lung cancer. Methylation status and expression level were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite genomic sequencing, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We detected ANKRD18B hypermethylation in 52 of 98 (53.1%) primary lung cancer tissues and in nine of 10 (90%) cell lines, whereas no methylation was seen in 10 normal lung tissue samples. ANKRD18B methylation was more frequently observed in patients with poor differentiation (P < 0.05). Notably, 62 pairs of samples from patients whose tumor tissue showed hypermethylation of ANKRD18B exhibited the same aberrant methylation in 72.7% and 69.7% of their corresponding plasma and sputum samples, respectively; whereas no hypermethylation of ANKRD18B was detected in the sputum and plasma from patients whose tumor sample lacked this alteration. In addition, ANKRD18B mRNA expression was significantly decreased or silenced in lung cancer tissues and cell lines associated with hypermethylation of the ANKRD18B region. Demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly increased ANKRD18B mRNA expression in lung cancer cell lines. Furthermore, overexpression of ANKRD18B suppressed lung cancer cell growth. These results suggest that the expression of ANKRD18B is regulated by CpG island hypermethylation in lung cancer. Our findings confirm the importance of the identification of new markers of epigenetic dysregulation in cancer.

  10. Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P; Karamanos, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects. PMID:22619512

  11. Differentiation of normal and cancerous lung tissues by multiphoton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Wu, Ruei-Jhih; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Lin, Wei-Chou; Lin, Sung-Jan; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2009-07-01

    We utilize multiphoton microscopy for the label-free diagnosis of noncancerous, lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from humans. Our results show that the combination of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton excited autofluorescence (MAF) signals may be used to acquire morphological and quantitative information in discriminating cancerous from noncancerous lung tissues. Specifically, noncancerous lung tissues are largely fibrotic in structure, while cancerous specimens are composed primarily of tumor masses. Quantitative ratiometric analysis using MAF to SHG index (MAFSI) shows that the average MAFSI for noncancerous and LAC lung tissue pairs are 0.55+/-0.23 and 0.87+/-0.15, respectively. In comparison, the MAFSIs for the noncancerous and SCC tissue pairs are 0.50+/-0.12 and 0.72+/-0.13, respectively. Our study shows that nonlinear optical microscopy can assist in differentiating and diagnosing pulmonary cancer from noncancerous tissues.

  12. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, K.; Dixon, Kate

    2005-11-01

    The Yorkshire Laser Centre has been engaged in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) since 1990. In this article we present our experience highlighting the lesson learnt. 280 bronchoscopic PDT treatments have been carried out in 160 patients divided in 2 groups. Group A: (Nr 144) with advanced inoperable disease and Group E (Nr 16) with early stage cancer. PDT method was intravenous administration of 2mg/kg bw of Photofrin followed by bronchoscopic illumination of 630nm laser light. There was no procedure-related mortality. A total of 9 cases of photosensitivity (skin burn) occurred in the series (5.6% of patients). Every patient in both groups expressed their total satisfaction to treatment. Group A: Symptom relief was achieved in all. This was matched by improvement in significant bronchial opening (58.1%). Survival was 9.6 months (mean).This was greater in patients with better performance status and lower stage of disease. Group E: Every patient had a complete response to treatment. Survival in this group was 75.4 months (mean). We conclude that bronchoscopic PDT is indicated in both advanced and early stage lung cancer. In the former it provides symptomatic relief in all and survival benefit in some; in the latter it achieves long survival and potential cure.

  13. Personalized Therapy of Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Bryan J; Kalemkerian, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with distinct clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics. Despite robust responses to initial chemotherapy and radiation, the prognosis of patients with SCLC remains poor with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 10 %. Despite the fact that numerous molecularly targeted approaches have thus far failed to demonstrate clinical utility in SCLC, further advances will rely on better definition of the biological pathways that drive survival, proliferation and metastasis. Recent next-generation, molecular profiling studies have identified many new therapeutic targets in SCLC, as well as extreme genomic instability which explains the high degree of resistance. A wide variety of anti-angiogenic agents, growth factor inhibitors, pro-apoptotic agents, and epigenetic modulators have been evaluated in SCLC and many studies of these strategies are on-going. Perhaps the most promising approaches involve agents targeting cancer stem cell pathways and immunomodulatory drugs that interfere with the PD1 and CTLA-4 pathways. SCLC offers many barriers to the development of successful therapy, including limited tumor samples, inadequate preclinical models, high mutational burden, and aggressive tumor growth which impairs functional status and hampers enrollment on clinical trials. PMID:26703804

  14. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Bernheim, Adam; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lennes, Inga T; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Gilman, Matthew D; Sharma, Amita; Flores, Efren J; Muse, Victorine V; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the National Lung Screening Trial data released in 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force made lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography (CT) a public health recommendation in 2013. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) currently reimburse LCS for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-77 years who have a tobacco smoking history of at least 30 pack-years and who are either currently smoking or had quit less than 15 years earlier. Commercial insurers reimburse the cost of LCS for individuals aged 55-80 years with the same smoking history. Effective care for the millions of Americans who qualify for LCS requires an organized step-wise approach. The 10-pillar model reflects the elements required to support a successful LCS program: eligibility, education, examination ordering, image acquisition, image review, communication, referral network, quality improvement, reimbursement, and research frontiers. Examination ordering can be coupled with decision support to ensure that only eligible individuals undergo LCS. Communication of results revolves around the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) from the American College of Radiology. Lung-RADS is a structured decision-oriented reporting system designed to minimize the rate of false-positive screening examination results. With nodule size and morphology as discriminators, Lung-RADS links nodule management pathways to the variety of nodules present on LCS CT studies. Tracking of patient outcomes is facilitated by a CMS-approved national registry maintained by the American College of Radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26495797

  15. The 10 Pillars of Lung Cancer Screening: Rationale and Logistics of a Lung Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Bernheim, Adam; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lennes, Inga T; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Gilman, Matthew D; Sharma, Amita; Flores, Efren J; Muse, Victorine V; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the National Lung Screening Trial data released in 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force made lung cancer screening (LCS) with low-dose computed tomography (CT) a public health recommendation in 2013. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) currently reimburse LCS for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-77 years who have a tobacco smoking history of at least 30 pack-years and who are either currently smoking or had quit less than 15 years earlier. Commercial insurers reimburse the cost of LCS for individuals aged 55-80 years with the same smoking history. Effective care for the millions of Americans who qualify for LCS requires an organized step-wise approach. The 10-pillar model reflects the elements required to support a successful LCS program: eligibility, education, examination ordering, image acquisition, image review, communication, referral network, quality improvement, reimbursement, and research frontiers. Examination ordering can be coupled with decision support to ensure that only eligible individuals undergo LCS. Communication of results revolves around the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) from the American College of Radiology. Lung-RADS is a structured decision-oriented reporting system designed to minimize the rate of false-positive screening examination results. With nodule size and morphology as discriminators, Lung-RADS links nodule management pathways to the variety of nodules present on LCS CT studies. Tracking of patient outcomes is facilitated by a CMS-approved national registry maintained by the American College of Radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide.

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic.

  17. Telomere length and the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jin Sung; Choi, Yi Young; Lee, Won Kee; Choi, Jin Eun; Cha, Sung Ick; Kim, Yeon Jae; Kim, Chang Ho; Kam, Sin; Jung, Tae Hoon; Park, Jae Yong

    2008-07-01

    Telomeres play a key role in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and stability. There is growing evidence that short telomeres induce chromosome instability and thereby promote the development of cancer. We investigated the association of telomere length and the risk of lung cancer. Relative telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 243 lung cancer patients and 243 healthy controls that were frequency-matched for age, sex and smoking status. Telomere length was significantly shorter in lung cancer patients than in controls (mean +/- standard deviation: 1.59 +/- 0.75 versus 2.16 +/- 1.10, P < 0.0001). When the subjects were categorized into quartiles based on telomere length, the risk of lung cancer was found to increase as telomere length shortened (P(trend) < 0.0001). In addition, when the median of telomere length was used as the cutoff between long and short telomeres, individuals with short telomeres were at a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those with long telomeres (adjusted odds ratio = 3.15, 95% confidence interval = 2.12-4.67, P < 0.0001). When the cases were categorized by tumor histology, the effect of short telomere length on the risk of lung cancer was more pronounced in patients with small cell carcinoma than in those with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001, test for homogeneity). These findings suggest that shortening of the telomeres may be a risk factor for lung cancer, and therefore, the presence of shortened telomeres may be used as a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer.

  18. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Urszula; Mańczuk, Marta; Łobaszewski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Over the last century, lung cancer from the rarest of diseases became the biggest cancer killer of men worldwide and in some parts of the world also of women (North America, East Asia, Northern Europe, Australia and New Zealand). In 2012 over 1.6 million of people died due to lung cancer. The cause-effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer occurrence has been proven in many studies, both ecological and clinical. In global perspective one can see the increasing tobacco consumption trend followed by ascending trends of lung cancer mortality, especially in developing countries. In some more developed countries, where the tobacco epidemics was on the rise since the beginning of the 20th century and peaked in its mid, in male population lung cancer incidence trend reversed or leveled off. Despite predicted further decline of incidence rates, the absolute number of deaths will continue to grow in these countries. In the remaining parts of the world the tobacco epidemics is still evolving what brings rapid increase of the number of new lung cancer cases and deaths. Number of lung cancer deaths worldwide is expected to grow up to 3 million until 2035. The figures will double both in men (from 1.1 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2035) and women (from 0.5 million in 2012 to 0.9 million in 2035) and the two-fold difference between sexes will persist. The most rapid increase is expected in Africa region (AFRO) and East Mediterranean region (EMRO). The increase of the absolute number of lung cancer deaths in more developed countries is caused mostly by population aging and in less developed countries predominantly by the evolving tobacco epidemic. PMID:27195268

  19. The role of carotenoids on the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Kenneth R

    2003-02-01

    Smoking prevention and cessation remain the primary methods of reducing the incidence of lung cancer. The limited success of efforts towards smoking cessation have led to increasing interest in the role of nutrition in lung cancer prevention. One class of nutrients that has attracted attention as potential chemopreventive agents is the carotenoids, especially beta-carotene, due to their antioxidant properties. In vitro, carotenoids exert antioxidant functions and inhibit carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation, inhibit plasma membrane lipid oxidation, and cause upregulated expression of connexin 43. These in vitro results suggest that carotenoids have intrinsic cancer chemopreventive action in humans. Many cohort and case-control study data have shown an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer, although several more recent studies have cast doubt on these findings. Different effects of various dietary nutrients on lung cancer risk have been observed. Several prospective intervention trials were undertaken to examine the effect of supplementation on the risk of lung cancer. Some of these studies demonstrated an increased incidence and mortality from lung cancer in those receiving supplementation. Many hypotheses have emerged as to the reasons for these findings.

  20. Silicosis, radon, and lung cancer risk in Ontario miners

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The presence of radiographic silicosis was assessed as a risk factor for lung cancer in a cohort and case-control study of miners in the Ontario Silicosis Surveillance Database. Subjects were 328 miners with silicosis matched on age to 970 miners with normal radiographs. In a cancer incidence follow-up, there was a significant excess of lung cancer among miners with silicosis (Standardized Incidence Ration 2.55; 95% Confidence Interval 1.43-8.28). Miners with normal radiographs had lung cancer incidence about the same as the Ontario average (Standardized Incidence Ratio 0.90; 95% Confidence Interval 0.51-1.47). In a matched case-control analysis of lung cancer, cumulative radon exposure was associated with lung cancer risk (increase in odds ratio 0.4% per WLM; 95% Confidence Interval -0.3% to 1.1%). When the pressure of silicosis was added to the model, silicosis was a highly significant risk factor for lung cancer (Odds Ratio 6.99 95% confidence Interval -1.4% to 0.4%). This finding suggests that additional study is warranted before concluding that radon risk factors derived from mining populations do not need to be modified for application to the general population. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. PMID:27370791

  2. Increased risk of cancer among relatives of patients with lung cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yongtang; Xu, Yingchun; Xu, Ming; Xue, Saoli

    2005-01-01

    Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression analysis model. Results The data revealed a significantly greater overall risk of cancer (OR = 1.82, P < 0.01) in the proband group. The relatives of lung cancer probands maintained an increased risk of non-lung cancer (P < 0.05) after adjusting for confounder factors. The crude odds ratio of a proband family having one family member with cancer was 1.67 compared with control families. Proband families were 2.56 times more likely to have two other family members with cancer. For three cancers and four or more cancers, the risk increased to 3.50 and 5.91, respectively. The most striking differences in cancer prevalence between proband and control families were noted for cancer risk among female relatives. The strongest effects were for not only lung cancer in any female relatives (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.60–3.64) and mothers (OR 2.78, 95%CI 1.23–5.12) and sisters (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.26–3.97), but also non-lung cancer in females and mothers (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.26–3.01, and OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.28–4.40, respectively). Conclusion These data support the hypothesis of a genetic susceptibility to cancer in families with lung cancer, and the female genetic susceptibility to cancer might be greater than male. PMID:16281985

  3. Minimal requirements for the molecular testing of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Popper, Helmut H; Tímár, József; Ryska, Ales; Olszewski, Wlodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    From the aspect of the contemporary pathologic diagnostics of lung cancer, it is a key issue of the tissue obtained since small biopsies and cytology still play a major role. In the non-small cell lung cancer era, cytology considered equal to biopsy. However, in recent years it is unable to provide quality diagnosis and must be replaced by biopsy. Various molecular techniques can handle various different tissue samples which must be considered during molecular pathology diagnosis. Besides, tumor cell-normal cell ratio in the obtained tissue as well as the absolute tumor cell number have great significance whose information must be provided in the primary lung cancer diagnosis. Last but not least, for continuous sustainable molecular diagnostics of lung cancer rational algorythms, affordable technology and appropriate reimbursement are equally necessary.

  4. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    This investigation assesses the health effects of radon progeny exposure in New Mexico uranium miners. Cumulative exposures sustained by most New Mexico miners are well below those received earlier in the Colorado Plateau. This project utilizes the research opportunity offered by New Mexico miners to address unresolved issues related to radon progeny exposure: (1) the lung cancer risk of lower levels of exposure, (2) interaction between radon progeny exposure and cigarette smoking in the causation of lung cancer, (3) the relationship between lung cancer histologic type and radon progeny exposure, and (4) possible effects of radon progeny exposure other than lung cancer. A cohort study of 3800 men with at least one year of underground uranium mining experience in New Mexico is in progress. Results are discussed.

  5. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U.; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed. PMID:26380181

  6. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  7. Trial Yields Positive Data on Pembrolizumab for Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from an early phase clinical trial may point to a biomarker that identifies patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer most likely to respond to the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda®).

  8. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenzi; Zhang, Chunfang; Duan, Chaojun

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as an important set of molecules because of their roles in various key pathophysiological pathways, including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. We review the current knowledge of the lncRNAs in lung cancer. In-depth analyses of lncRNAs in lung cancer have increased the number of potential effective biomarkers, thus providing options to increase the therapeutic benefit. In this review, we summarize the functions, mechanisms, and regulatory networks of lncRNAs in lung cancer, providing a basis for further research in this field. PMID:27499635

  9. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Cancer.gov

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  10. ALCHEMIST: Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials

    Cancer.gov

    ALCHEMIST represents three integrated, precision medicine trials that are designed to identify people with early-stage lung cancer who have tumors that harbor certain uncommon genetic changes and evaluate whether drug treatments targeted against those mol

  11. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  12. Exhaled volatile organic compounds as lung cancer biomarkers during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changsong; Dong, Ran; Wang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Ailing; Chi, Chunjie; Ke, Chaofu; Guo, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    In this study, single-lung ventilation was used to detect differences in the volatile organic compound (VOCs) profiles between lung tissues in healthy and affected lungs. In addition, changes that occurred after lung cancer resection in both the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath from ipsilateral and contralateral lungs and the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath and blood sample headspaces were also determined. Eighteen patients with non-small cell carcinoma were enrolled. Alveolar breath samples were taken separately from healthy and diseased lungs before and after the tumor resection. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs before surgery, the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs after surgery, the ipsilateral lungs before and after surgery, and the blood samples from before and after surgery; 12, 19, 12 and 5 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. 2,2-Dimethyldecane, tetradecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, 2,3,4-trimethyldecane, nonane, 3,4,5,6-tetramethyloctane, and hexadecane may be generated from lipid peroxidation during surgery. Caprolactam and propanoic acid may be more promising exhaled breath biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:25482491

  13. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past ... 2013 Table of Contents Tests What type of lung cancer do I have? Has the cancer spread ...

  14. Tobacco as a cause of lung cancer: some reflections.

    PubMed

    Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    This is a historical review of the long effort to establish the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. The author examines why it was so difficult to attract attention to the vital scientific and public health issues inherent in this linkage, focusing on the apathy of the health professionals concerned and their reasons for not accepting or promoting the evidence relating lung cancer to smoking.

  15. Lung Cancer Mutations and Use of Targeted Agents in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Cress, W. Douglas; Chiappori, Alberto; Santiago, Pedro; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are expected to grow to over 24% of the USA population by 2050 and lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death among H/L men. Due to the information that is becoming available via genetic testing, lung cancer molecular profiling is allowing for increasing application of personalized lung cancer therapies. However, to benefit the most people, development of these therapies and genetic tests must include research on as many racial and ethnic groups as possible. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the fact that the mutations driving lung cancer in H/Ls differ in frequency and nature relative to the non-Hispanic White (WNH) majority that dominate current databases and participate in clinical trials that test new therapies. Clinical trials using new agents targeting genetic alterations (driver mutations) in lung cancer have demonstrated significant improvements in patient outcomes (for example, gefitinib, erlotinib or crizotinib for lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusions, respectively). The nature and frequencies of some lung cancer driver mutations have been shown to be considerably different among racial and ethnic groups. This is particularly true for H/Ls. For example, several reports suggest a dramatic shift in the mutation pattern from predominantly KRAS in a WNH population to predominantly EGFR in multiple H/L populations. However, these studies are limited, and the effects of racial and ethnic differences on the incidence of mutations in lung cancer remain incompletely understood. This review serves as a call to address this problem. PMID:25626064

  16. Lung cancer mutations and use of targeted agents in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Cress, W Douglas; Chiappori, Alberto; Santiago, Pedro; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are expected to grow to over 24% of the USA population by 2050 and lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death among H/L men. Due to the information that is becoming available via genetic testing, lung cancer molecular profiling is allowing for increasing application of personalized lung cancer therapies. However, to benefit the most people, development of these therapies and genetic tests must include research on as many racial and ethnic groups as possible. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the fact that the mutations driving lung cancer in H/Ls differ in frequency and nature relative to the non-Hispanic White (WNH) majority that dominate current databases and participate in clinical trials that test new therapies. Clinical trials using new agents targeting genetic alterations (driver mutations) in lung cancer have demonstrated significant improvements in patient outcomes (for example, gefitinib, erlotinib or crizotinib for lung adenocarcinomas harboring EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusions, respectively). The nature and frequencies of some lung cancer driver mutations have been shown to be considerably different among racial and ethnic groups. This is particularly true for H/Ls. For example, several reports suggest a dramatic shift in the mutation pattern from predominantly KRAS in a WNH population to predominantly EGFR in multiple H/L populations. However, these studies are limited, and the effects of racial and ethnic differences on the incidence of mutations in lung cancer remain incompletely understood. This review serves as a call to address this problem.

  17. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  18. Two Cases of Lung Cancer in Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron and steel foundry workers are exposed to various toxic and carcinogenic substances including crystalline silica, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Studies have been conducted on lung cancer in iron and steel founding workers and the concentration of crystalline silica in foundries; however, the concentration of crystalline silica and cases of lung cancer in a single foundry has never been reported in Korea. Therefore, the authors report two cases of lung cancer and concentration of crystalline silica by the X-ray diffraction method. Case presentation A 55-year-old blasting and grinding worker who worked in a foundry for 33 years was diagnosed with lung cancer. Another 64-year-old forklift driver who worked in foundries for 39 years was also diagnosed with lung cancer. Shot blast operatives were exposed to the highest level of respirable quartz (0.412 mg/m3), and a forklift driver was exposed to 0.223 mg/m3. Conclusions The lung cancer of the two workers is very likely due to occupationally related exposure given their occupational history, the level of exposure to crystalline silica, and epidemiologic evidence. Further studies on the concentration of crystalline silica in foundries and techniques to reduce the crystalline silica concentration are required. PMID:24472520

  19. The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw, A. K.; Law, M. R.; Wald, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of lung cancer in lifelong non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. DESIGN: Analysis of 37 published epidemiological studies of the risk of lung cancer (4626 cases) in non-smokers who did and did not live with a smoker. The risk estimate was compared with that from linear extrapolation of the risk in smokers using seven studies of biochemical markers of tobacco smoke intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of lung cancer in lifelong non-smokers according to whether the spouse currently smoked or had never smoked. RESULTS: The excess risk of lung cancer was 24% (95% confidence interval 13% to 36%) in non-smokers who lived with a smoker (P < 0.001). Adjustment for the effects of bias (positive and negative) and dietary confounding had little overall effect; the adjusted excess risk was 26% (7% to 47%). The dose-response relation of the risk of lung cancer with both the number of cigarettes smoked by the spouse and the duration of exposure was significant. The excess risk derived by linear extrapolation from that in smokers was 19%, similar to the direct estimate of 26%. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological and biochemical evidence on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, with the supporting evidence of tobacco specific carcinogens in the blood and urine of non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, provides compelling confirmation that breathing other people's tobacco smoke is a cause of lung cancer. PMID:9365295

  20. Pleiotropic Analysis of Lung Cancer and Blood Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Verena; Marconett, Crystal N; Shi, Jianxin; Hua, Xing; Wheeler, William; Yang, Chenchen; Song, Lei; Dale, Anders M; Laplana, Marina; Risch, Angela; Witoelar, Aree; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Wang, Yunpeng; Djurovic, Srdjan; Zhou, Beiyun; Borok, Zea; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Swinkels, Dorine; Aben, Katja K; McKay, James; Hung, Rayjean J; Bikeböller, Heike; Stevens, Victoria L; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Han, Younghun; Wei, Yongyue; Panadero, Maria Angeles; Mayordomo, Jose I; Christiani, David C; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Andreassen, Ole A; Houlston, Richard; Amos, Christopher I; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Mills, Ian G; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologically related traits may share genetic risk factors, and pleiotropic analysis could identify individual loci associated with these traits. Because of their shared epidemiological associations, we conducted pleiotropic analysis of genome-wide association studies of lung cancer (12 160 lung cancer case patients and 16 838 control subjects) and cardiovascular disease risk factors (blood lipids from 188 577 subjects, type 2 diabetes from 148 821 subjects, body mass index from 123 865 subjects, and smoking phenotypes from 74 053 subjects). We found that 6p22.1 (rs6904596, ZNF184) was associated with both lung cancer (P = 5.50x10(-6)) and blood triglycerides (P = 1.39x10(-5)). We replicated the association in 6097 lung cancer case patients and 204 657 control subjects (P = 2.40 × 10(-4)) and in 71 113 subjects with triglycerides data (P = .01). rs6904596 reached genome-wide significance in lung cancer meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.21 ,: Pcombined = 5.20x10(-9)). The large sample size provided by the lipid GWAS data and the shared genetic risk factors between the two traits contributed to the uncovering of a hitherto unidentified genetic locus for lung cancer. PMID:27565901

  1. Lung cancer screening: history, current perspectives, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divakar; Newman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has remained the leading cause of death worldwide among all cancers. The dismal 5-year survival rate of 16% is in part due to the lack of symptoms during early stages and lack of an effective screening test until recently. Chest X-ray and sputum cytology were studied extensively as potential screening tests for lung cancer and were conclusively proven to be of no value. Subsequently, a number of studies compared computed tomography (CT) with the chest X-ray. These studies did identify lung cancer in earlier stages. However, they were not designed to prove a reduction in mortality. Later trials have focused on low-dose CT (LDCT) as a screening tool. The largest US trial – the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) – enrolled approximately 54,000 patients and revealed a 20% reduction in mortality. While a role for LDCT in lung cancer screening has been established, the issues of high false positive rates, radiation risk, and cost effectiveness still need to be addressed. The guidelines of the international organizations that now include LDCT in lung cancer screening are reviewed. Other methods that may improve earlier detection such as positron emission tomography, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and molecular biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:26528348

  2. Association Between COX-2 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Fan, Xinyun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yi; Yang, Siyuan; Li, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple relevant risk factors for lung cancer have been reported in different populations, but results of previous studies were not consistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is necessary to summarize these outcomes and reach a relatively comprehensive conclusion. Material/Methods STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical of the relationship between COX-2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. Inter-study heterogeneity was examined with the Q statistic (significance level at P<0.1). The publication bias among studies in the meta-analysis was analyzed with Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in all controls of the studies. Results COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism had a significant association with reduced risk of lung cancer under homozygous and recessive models, and similar results were observed in white and population-based subgroups under 2 and 3 contrasts, respectively. Additionally, rs2066826 polymorphism manifested a strong correlation with increased risk of lung cancer under 5 genetic models. Conclusions In COX-2 gene, rs20417 may have a certain relationship with reduced risk of lung cancer, while rs2066826 may increase the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26624903

  3. The relationship between lung cancer and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Okada, K

    1988-09-01

    This study supports the theory that asbestos exposure may be implicated in a recent upsurge of terminal lung cancer cases in Kure, Japan. The number of asbestos bodies found in the lung during autopsy of 158 subjects from 1984 to 1986 suggests that 70.4 percent of the 51 diagnosed lung cancer cases could be attributed to asbestos exposure. Of the 107 subjects in whom death was not caused by cancer, 38.4 percent had significant asbestos exposure. Types of asbestos bodies found in diagnosed lung cancer cases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analyzer. Chrysotile was the most widely found component, but amphiboles such as crocidolite and amosite also were detected. Residents of Kure had high exposure to the inhalation of asbestos bodies, possibly related to the upsurge in lung cancer deaths. In our earlier report, asbestos exposure was implicated in the increased incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Kure, an active Japanese ship-building port since the 1920s. Our current findings indicate that asbestos exposure may be a pathogenic factor in lung cancer in world seaports where asbestos exposure has been prevalent.

  4. Telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Choi, Jin Eun; Jung, Deuk Kju; Choi, Yi Young; Kang, Hyo Gyoung; Lee, Won-Kee; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lim, Jeong-Ok; Park, Jae Yong

    2012-02-01

    Telomerase play a key role in the maintenance of telomere length and chromosome integrity. We have evaluated the association between telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer in peripheral blood. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by a PCR-designed telomeric repeat amplification protocol in 63 lung cancer patients and 190 healthy controls that were matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Telomerase activity was significantly lower in the lung cancer patients than in controls (mean ± standard deviation; 1.32 ± 1.65 vs 2.60 ± 3.09, P < 1 × 10(-4)). When telomerase activity was categorized into quartiles based on telomerase activity in the controls, the risk of lung cancer increased as telomerase activity reduced (P(trend) = 1 × 10(-4)). Moreover, when the subjects were categorized based on the median value of telomerase activity, subjects with low telomerase activity were at a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared to subjects with high telomerase activity (adjusted odds ratio = 3.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.60-5.82, P = 7 × 10(-4)). These findings suggest that telomerase activity may affect telomere maintenance, thereby contributing to susceptibility to lung cancer.

  5. Interstitial Fluid Pressure Correlates Clinicopathological Factors of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Takamasa; Shibata, Hidekatsu; Ikeda, Koei; Shiraishi, Kenji; Suzuki, Makoto; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Solid tumors show increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which correlates to a number of pathophysiological features of tumors. There have been no reports on the usefulness of measuring IFP in lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IFP and the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer. Methods: IFP was measured prospectively in 215 patients with 219 lesions showing solid or part-solid appearance. Four patients with double lung cancer were excluded from the analysis, resulting in 211 patients with lung cancer being analyzed for the correlation between IFP and computed tomography (CT) appearance, size, Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), histological type, tumor grade, pleural and vessel invasion, Ki-67 index, and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: The mean IFP was 8.5 mmHg; IFP was significantly correlated with the tumor size, SUVmax, TNM, vessel and pleural invasion, and Ki-67 index. Low IFP was associated with a better RFS compared to high IFP. Multivariate analysis did not select IFP as independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analysis of patients with adenocarcinoma, IFP was selected as independent one. Conclusions: IFP correlates clinicopathological factors of lung cancer. IFP might be used as a prognostic factor for lung cancer. PMID:25641031

  6. Room for a role for radon in lung cancer causation?

    PubMed

    Axelson, O

    1984-01-01

    Reduced ventilation due to energy saving has focussed interest on a potential lung cancer risk from increased indoor concentrations of alpha-emitting radon and radon daughters, escaping from building materials and from the ground. Some preliminary studies now also indicate a hazard to be present as related to radon daughter exposure in homes. However, the indoor radon daughter levels have probably been continuously increasing for half a century, especially in colder climates, due to the introduction of central heating instead of stoves and open fire places, reducing thermal ventilation. Furthermore, in our time, many people have got additional exposure through extended indoor work time instead of earlier outdoor activities in farming etc. The steeply increasing lung cancer rates over the past decades as well as the various oddities affecting the relationship between smoking and lung cancer, e.g. the urban-rural difference in lung cancer risk, also after standardization for smoking, the influence of immigration on lung cancer morbidity as well as the varying rates over the world and other observations, would obtain simple explanations by taking radon daughter exposure into account in addition to smoking. Then, also some curious and hitherto unexplained "inverse" relationships between lung cancer and inhalation of cigarette smoke or bronchitis in air-polluted areas, respectively, would become understandable.

  7. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Beliefs About Lung Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Lin, Jenny J.; Nelson, Judith E.; Powell, Charles A.; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Berman, Andrew R.; Keller, Steven M.; Smith, Cardinale B.; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Disparities in lung cancer treatment and palliative care are well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying these disparities are not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated racial and ethnic differences in beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer treatment and palliative care among patients receiving a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Patients were recruited from four medical centers in New York City and surveyed about their beliefs regarding lung cancer care, including disease-directed treatments, palliative and end-of-life care, and fatalistic and spiritual beliefs. We used univariate and multiple regression analyses to compare the distribution of beliefs among minority (black and Hispanic) and nonminority patients. Results: Of the 335 patients, 21% were black, 20% were Hispanic, and 59% were nonminority. Beliefs about chemotherapy and radiotherapy were similar across the three groups (P > .05), whereas black patients were more likely to believe that surgery might cause lung cancer to spread (P = .008). Fatalistic beliefs potentially affecting cancer treatment were more common among both minority groups (P ≤ .02). No significant differences were found in attitudes toward clinician communication about cancer prognosis (P > .05). However, both blacks and Hispanics were more likely to have misconceptions about advance directives and hospice care (P ≤ .02). Conclusions: Similarities and differences in beliefs about disease-directed treatment were observed between minority and nonminority patients with lung cancer. Minority patients hold more fatalistic views about the disease and misperceptions about advance care planning and hospice care. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these beliefs on decisions about lung cancer care and patient outcomes. PMID:22700777

  9. GTI-2040 and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Metastatic, or Unresectable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Other Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  10. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. KLF4 regulates adult lung tumor-initiating cells and represses K-Ras-mediated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Zhang, W; Liu, J; Avdiushko, R; Napier, D L; Liu, A X; Neltner, J M; Wang, C; Cohen, D; Liu, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. To identify novel factors that contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis, we analyzed a lung cancer database from The Cancer Genome Atlas and found that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) expression is significantly lower in patients' lung cancer tissue than in normal lung tissue. In addition, we identified seven missense mutations in the KLF4 gene. KLF4 is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the self-renewal of stem cells. To understand the role of KLF4 in the lung, we generated a tamoxifen-induced Klf4 knockout mouse model. We found that KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell growth and that depletion of Klf4 altered the differentiation pattern in the developing lung. To understand how KLF4 functions during lung tumorigenesis, we generated the K-ras(LSL-G12D/+);Klf4(fl/fl) mouse model, and we used adenovirus-expressed Cre to induce K-ras activation and Klf4 depletion in the lung. Although Klf4 deletion alone or K-ras mutation alone can trigger lung tumor formation, Klf4 deletion combined with K-ras mutation significantly enhanced lung tumor formation. We also found that Klf4 deletion in conjunction with K-ras activation caused lung inflammation. To understand the mechanism whereby KLF4 is regulated during lung tumorigenesis, we analyzed KLF4 promoter methylation and the profiles of epigenetic factors. We found that Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and that HDAC inhibitors induced expression of KLF4 and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, suggesting that KLF4 is probably repressed by histone acetylation and that HDACs are valuable drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

  12. Drug Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery of mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has dramatically changed the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

  13. The evidence for low-dose CT screening of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen; Gutierrez, Antonio; Genshaft, Scott; Abtin, Fereidoun; Suh, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. An effective screening tool for early lung cancer detection has long been sought. Early chest radiograph and low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening trials were promising and demonstrated increased cancer detection. However, these studies were not able to improve lung cancer mortality. The National Lung Screening Trial resulted in decreased lung cancer mortality with LDCT screening in a high-risk population. Similar trials are currently underway in Europe. With LDCT now being widely implemented, it is paramount for radiologists to understand the evidence for lung cancer screening.

  14. MicroRNA as tools and therapeutics in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Barger, Jennifer F; Nana-Sinkam, S Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer related deaths. The lack of specific and accurate tools for early diagnosis and minimal targeted therapeutics both contribute to poor outcomes. The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) revealed a novel mechanism for post-transcriptional regulation in cancer and has created new opportunities for the development of diagnostics, prognostics and targeted therapeutics. In lung cancer, miRNA expression profiles distinguish histological subtypes, predict chemotherapeutic response and are associated with prognosis, metastasis and survival. Furthermore, miRNAs circulate in body fluids and hence may serve as important biomarkers for early diagnosis or stratify patients for personalized therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of the miRNAs implicated in lung cancer, with an emphasis on their clinical utility.

  15. Lung Cancer Care Before and After Medicare Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Huesch, Marco D; Ong, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Uninsured and underinsured near-elderly may not have timely investigation, diagnosis, or care of cancer. Prior studies suggest Medicare eligibility confers significant and substantial reductions in mortality and increases in health service utilization. We compared 2245 patients diagnosed with lung cancer at ages 64.5 to 65 years and 2512 patients aged 65 to 65.5 years, with 2492 patients aged 65.5 to 66 years (controls) in 2000 to 2005. Compared with controls, patients diagnosed with lung cancer before Medicare eligibility had no statistically significant differences in cancer stage, time to treatment, type of treatment, and survival. Study power was sufficient to exclude mortality reductions and health service utilization changes of the magnitude found in prior work, suggesting that typically, appropriate lung cancer care may be sought and delivered regardless of insurance status. PMID:27166413

  16. Lung Cancer Care Before and After Medicare Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Huesch, Marco D; Ong, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Uninsured and underinsured near-elderly may not have timely investigation, diagnosis, or care of cancer. Prior studies suggest Medicare eligibility confers significant and substantial reductions in mortality and increases in health service utilization. We compared 2245 patients diagnosed with lung cancer at ages 64.5 to 65 years and 2512 patients aged 65 to 65.5 years, with 2492 patients aged 65.5 to 66 years (controls) in 2000 to 2005. Compared with controls, patients diagnosed with lung cancer before Medicare eligibility had no statistically significant differences in cancer stage, time to treatment, type of treatment, and survival. Study power was sufficient to exclude mortality reductions and health service utilization changes of the magnitude found in prior work, suggesting that typically, appropriate lung cancer care may be sought and delivered regardless of insurance status.

  17. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  18. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Massion 4-marker FISH panel for lung cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The combination of these 4 probes, TP63, MYC, CEP3, and CEP6, offered a sensitivity of 82% for lung cancer and a specificity of 58%. These results indicate that specific cytogenetic alterations present in preinvasive lung lesions are closely associated with the diagnosis of lung cancer and may therefore have value in assessing lung cancer risk.

  20. Beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer screening among smokers.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Bergamo, Cara; Lin, Jenny J; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Diefenbach, Michael; Smith, Cardinale; Nelson, Judith E; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2012-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently reported that annual computed tomography (CT) screening is associated with decreased lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. Beliefs about lung cancer and screening, particularly across race and ethnicity, and their influence on CT screening utilization are largely unexamined. Our study recruited asymptomatic, high-risk smokers, 55-74 years of age from primary care clinics in an academic urban hospital. Guided by the self-regulation theory, we evaluated cognitive and affective beliefs about lung cancer. Intention to screen for lung cancer with a CT scan was assessed by self-report. We used univariate and logistic regression analyses to compare beliefs about screening and intention to screen among minority (Blacks and Hispanics) and non-minority participants. Overall, we enrolled 108 participants, of which 40% were Black and 34% were Hispanic; the mean age was 62.3 years, and median pack-years of smoking was 26. We found that intention to screen was similar among minorities and non-minorities (p=0.19); however, Hispanics were less likely to report intention to screen if they had to pay for the test (p=0.02). Fatalistic beliefs, fear of radiation exposure, and anxiety related to CT scans were significantly associated with decreased intention to screen (p<0.05). Several differences were observed in minority versus non-minority participants' beliefs toward lung cancer and screening. In conclusion, we found that concerns about cost, which were particularly prominent among Hispanics, as well as fatalism and radiation exposure fears may constitute barriers to lung cancer screening. Lung cancer screening programs should address these factors to ensure broad participation, particularly among minorities.

  1. Lung cancer. Radiotherapy in lung cancer: Actual methods and future trends.

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, Adam; Skrzypczyńska, Iga; Janiszewska, Marzena

    2014-11-01

    This survey is performed to update knowledge about methods and trends in lung cancer radiotherapy. A significant development has been noticed in radiotherapeutic techniques, but also in the identification of clinical prognostic factors. The improvement in the therapeutic line includes: application of the four-dimensional computer tomography (4DCT), taking advantage of positron emission tomography (PET-CT), designing of new computational algorithms, allowing more precise irradiation planning, development of treatment precision verification systems and introducing IMRT techniques in chest radiotherapy. The treatment outcomes have improved with high dose radiotherapy, but other fractionation alternations have been investigated as well.

  2. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, G; Giovinco, G; Morawska, L; Stabile, L

    2015-10-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter.

  3. Novel therapeutic targets on the horizon for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wan-Ling; Jain, Amit; Takano, Angela; Newell, Evan W; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Lim, Wan-Teck; Tan, Eng-Huat; Zhai, Weiwei; Hillmer, Axel M; Tam, Wai-Leong; Tan, Daniel S W

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and is classically divided into two major histological subtypes: non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Although NSCLC and SCLC are considered distinct entities with different genomic landscapes, emerging evidence highlights a convergence in therapeutically relevant targets for both histologies. In adenocarcinomas with defined alterations such as EGFR mutations and ALK translocations, targeted therapies are now first-line standard of care. By contrast, many experimental and targeted agents remain largely unsuccessful for SCLC. Intense preclinical research and clinical trials are underway to exploit unique traits of lung cancer, such as oncogene dependency, DNA damage response, angiogenesis, and cellular plasticity arising from presence of cancer stem cell lineages. In addition, the promising clinical activity observed in NSCLC in response to immune checkpoint blockade has spurred great interest in the field of immunooncology, with the scope to develop a diverse repertoire of synergistic and personalised immunotherapeutics. In this Review, we discuss novel therapeutic agents for lung cancer that are in early-stage development, and how prospective clinical trials and drug development may be shaped by a deeper understanding of this heterogeneous disease. PMID:27511159

  4. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy of gene delivery, various carriers have been engineered and developed to provide protection to the genetic materials and efficient delivery to targeted cancer cells. Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been widely applied in cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. Nanoparticles composed of artificial polymers, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids have been developed for the delivery of therapeutic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences to target cancer. In addition, the effectiveness of cancer targeting has been enhanced by surface modification or conjugation with biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. In this review article we provide an overview on the latest developments in nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancers. Firstly, we outline the conventional therapies and discuss strategies for targeted gene therapy using nanoparticles. Secondly, we provide the most representative and recent researches in lung cancers including malignant pleural mesothelioma, mainly focusing on the application of Polymeric, Lipid-based, and Metal-based nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss current achievements and future challenges. PMID:27294004

  5. Lung cancer in patients diagnosed with silicosis should be investigated.

    PubMed

    Güngen, Adil Can; Aydemir, Yusuf; Çoban, Hikmet; Düzenli, Hasan; Tasdemir, Canantan

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an interstitial lung disease developing as a result of inhalation of inorganic silica particles. In silicosis cases developing as a result of environmental and occupational exposure, an increase is observed in Turkey especially depending upon denim sandblasting. We present a 35-year-old female case who was applied to our hospital due to complaint of progressive dyspnea, had a history of working in denim sandblasting for 18 months, were diagnosed with silicosis as a result of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma as a result of transbronchial lung biopsy made due to clinical deterioration and radiological progression within three months. The purpose of this report was to point out that lung cancer can develop in patients followed up with diagnosis of silicosis or radiologic findings in silicosis can be confused with lung cancer. PMID:27330963

  6. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  7. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model. Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells. PMID:26396176

  8. The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Lung Cancer Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linhai; Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Tiehong; Shen, Hongchang; Dong, Wei; Wang, Liguang; Du, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with risk and mortality of cancer, but studies investigating the correlation between DM and lung cancer prognosis remain controversial. Herein, a meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimate of the prognostic role of DM in lung cancer. Medline and Embase were searched for eligible articles from inception to October 25, 2015. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to evaluate the correlation between DM and lung cancer prognosis. Subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the histology and the treatment methods. A total of 20 cohort studies from 12 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Also, 16 studies investigated the overall survival (OS) and 4 studies investigated the progression-free survival (PFS). DM was significantly associated with the inferior OS of lung cancer with the pooled HR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10–1.49, P = 0.001). The association was prominent in the nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subgroup (HR 1.35, 95%CI: 1.14–1.60, P = 0.002), whereas the association was not significant in the small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subgroup (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.87–2.03, P = 0.18). When NSCLC patients were further stratified by treatment methods, DM had more influence on the surgically treated subgroup than the nonsurgically treated subgroup. There was no obvious evidence for publication bias by Begg's and Egger's test. The results of this meta-analysis exhibit an association of DM with inferior prognosis amongst lung cancer patients, especially the surgically treated NSCLC patients. Given the small number of studies included in this meta-analysis, the present conclusion should be consolidated with more high-quality prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials. PMID:27124062

  9. Overview of KRAS-Driven Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Clare; Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    KRAS, the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer, has been utilized extensively to model human lung adenocarcinomas. The results from such studies have enhanced considerably an understanding of the relationship between KRAS and the development of lung cancer. Detailed in this overview are the features of various KRAS-driven genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of non-small cell lung cancer, their utilization, and the potential of these models for the study of lung cancer biology.

  10. SEPAR guidelines for lung cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Cos, Julio; Hernández, Jesús Hernández; López, Marcelo F Jiménez; Sánchez, Susana Padrones; Gratacós, Antoni Rosell; Porta, Ramón Rami

    2011-09-01

    The latest tumour, lymph node and metastasis (TNM) classification by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), based on the analysis of patients from all over the world, has incorporated changes in the descriptors, especially those regarding tumor size, while proposing new group staging. A new lymph node map has also been developed with the intention of facilitating the classification of the "N" component. SEPAR recommends using this new classification. As for the procedures recommended for staging, in addition to the generalized use of computed tomography (CT), it points to the role of positron emission tomography (PET) or image fusion methods (PET/CT), which provide a better evaluation of the mediastinum and extrathoracic metastases. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and esophageal ultrasound (EUS) for obtaining cytohistological samples have been incorporated in the staging algorithm, and it emphasizes the importance of precise re-staging after induction treatment in order to make new therapeutic decisions. Comment is made on the foreseeable incorporation in the near future of molecular staging, and systematic lymph node dissection is recommended with the intention of making a more exact surgical-pathological classification.

  11. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.01 for isoprene and acetone, p = 0.011 for methanol; PTR

  12. CT screening for lung cancer: countdown to implementation.

    PubMed

    Field, John K; Hansell, David M; Duffy, Stephen W; Baldwin, David R

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of lung cancer CT screening is currently the subject of a major policy decision within the USA. Findings of the US National Lung Screening Trial showed a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality and a 6·7% decrease in all-cause mortality; subsequently, five US professional and clinical organisations and the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended that screening should be implemented. Should national health services in Europe follow suit? The European community awaits mortality and cost-effectiveness data from the NELSON trial in 2015-16 and pooled findings of European trials. In the intervening years, a recommendation is proposed that a demonstration trial is done in the UK. In this Review, we summarise the existing evidence and identify questions that remain to be answered before the implementation of international lung cancer screening programmes.

  13. Tobacco and lung cancer: risks, trends, and outcomes in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham W; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily associated with cigarette smoking, is the largest preventable cause of cancer mortality, responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. Approximately 85% of lung cancers result from smoking, with an additional fraction caused by secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmokers. The risk of lung cancer is dose dependent, but can be dramatically reduced with tobacco cessation, especially if the person discontinues smoking early in life. The increase in lung cancer incidence in different countries around in the world parallels changes in cigarette consumption. Lung cancer risks are not reduced by switching to filters or low-tar/low-nicotine cigarettes. In patients with cancer, continued tobacco use after diagnosis is associated with poor therapeutic outcomes including increased treatment-related toxicity, increased risk of second primary cancer, decreased quality of life, and decreased survival. Tobacco cessation in patients with cancer may improve cancer treatment outcomes, but cessation support is often not provided by oncologists. Reducing the health related effects of tobacco requires coordinated efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco, accurately assess tobacco use in clinical settings, and increase access to tobacco cessation support. Lung cancer screening and coordinated international tobacco control efforts offer the promise to dramatically reduce lung cancer mortality in the coming decades.

  14. Lung cancer screening: latest developments and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Ten Haaf, Kevin; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-09-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial showed that individuals randomly assigned to screening with low-dose CT scans had 20% lower lung cancer mortality than did those screened with conventional chest radiography. On the basis of a review of the literature and a modelling study, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual screening for lung cancer for individuals aged 55-80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and either currently smoke or quit smoking within the past 15 years. However, the balance between benefits and harms of lung cancer screening is still greatly debated. The large number of false-positive results and the potential for overdiagnosis are causes for concern. Some investigators suggest the ratio between benefits and harms could be improved through various means. Nevertheless, many questions remain with regard to the implementation of lung cancer screening. This paper highlights the latest developments in CT lung cancer screening and provides an overview of the main unanswered questions. PMID:27599248

  15. [Lung cancer screening - risk stratification : Who should undergo screening?].

    PubMed

    Beer, L; Prosch, H

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in Europa and the USA. In approximately 75 % of lung cancer patients, bronchogenic carcinoma is detected at an advanced tumor stage; therefore, therapeutic options which aim at curing the disease in these patients are limited and treatment is mostly palliative. A relatively good prognosis is reserved for the minority of patients where the tumor is detected at an early stage and treatment is potentially curative. For this reason, early diagnosis of lung cancer could save lives. Retrospective analyses of the US national lung screening trial (NLST) showed that especially high-risk populations (e. g. higher age, positive smoking history, overweight and a positive family history for lung cancer) benefit most from lung cancer screening. Thus, the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) screening can be improved by focusing on high-risk populations. This review article summarizes the risk stratification models of the large European and American screening studies and discusses possible future biomarkers for risk stratification. PMID:27495786

  16. Proton beam therapy for locally advanced lung cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Steven E; Rule, William G; Ashman, Jonathan B; Vora, Sujay A; Keole, Sameer; Anand, Aman; Liu, Wei; Bues, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Protons interact with human tissue differently than do photons and these differences can be exploited in an attempt to improve the care of lung cancer patients. This review examines proton beam therapy (PBT) as a component of a combined modality program for locally advanced lung cancers. It was specifically written for the non-radiation oncologist who desires greater understanding of this newer treatment modality. This review describes and compares photon (X-ray) radiotherapy (XRT) to PBT. The physical differences of these beams are described and the clinical literature is reviewed. Protons can be used to create treatment plans delivering significantly lower doses of radiation to the adjacent organs at risk (lungs, esophagus, and bone marrow) than photons. Clinically, PBT combined with chemotherapy has resulted in low rates of toxicity compared to XRT. Early results suggest a possible improvement in survival. The clinical results of proton therapy in lung cancer patients reveal relatively low rates of toxicity and possible survival benefits. One randomized study is being performed and another is planned to clarify the clinical differences in patient outcome for PBT compared to XRT. Along with the development of better systemic therapy, newer forms of radiotherapy such as PBT should positively impact the care of lung cancer patients. This review provides the reader with the current status of this new technology in treating locally advanced lung cancer. PMID:25302161

  17. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Lung Metastasis from Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Julian A.; Lee, Paul C.; Port, Jeffrey L.; Altorki, Nasser K.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2008-01-01

    Background While extensive research has explored the impact of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. Methods We performed a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. Results We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39/53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144/301) of patients without lung metastases (p=0.001) (summary OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology). Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR 1.89, 95%CI 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR 4.71, 95%CI 1.20-18.5) but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95%CI 0.27-1.60) was associated with lung metastasis. Compared to the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR 2.35, 95%CI 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.42-1.83) Conclusions Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship appears to be site-specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome. PMID:18843013

  18. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 vs control group). Paeoniflorin could decrease the cell populations at S phases (paeoniflorin 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and increase the cell populations at G0-G1 phases of Lewis lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and reduce the numbers of M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages induced by IL-4 (paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 vs Control group). Paeoniflorin could reduce lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P < 0.01 vs control group). These results suggest that paeoniflorin could reduce

  19. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 vs control group). Paeoniflorin could decrease the cell populations at S phases (paeoniflorin 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and increase the cell populations at G0-G1 phases of Lewis lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.05 vs control group) and reduce the numbers of M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages induced by IL-4 (paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P < 0.01 vs Control group). Paeoniflorin could reduce lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P < 0.01 vs control group). These results suggest that paeoniflorin could reduce

  20. Veliparib With or Without Radiation Therapy, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma, Mixed Subtype; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Second hand smoke, age of exposure and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Asomaning, Kofi; Miller, David P.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wain, John C.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Su, Li; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer for three decades. It is also known that the lung continues to grow from birth to adulthood, when lung growth stops. We hypothesize that after adjusting for active cigarette smoking, if SHS exposure took place during the period of growth i.e. in the earlier part of life (0 to 25 years of age) the risk of lung cancer is greater compared to an exposure occurring after age 25. Method Second hand smoke exposure was self-reported for three different activities (leisure, work and at home) for this study population of 1669 cases and 1263 controls. We created variables that captured location of exposure and timing of first exposure with respect to a study participant's age (0 - 25, >25 years of age). Multiple logistic regressions were used to study the association between SHS exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for age, gender and active smoking variables. Result For study participants that were exposed to SHS at both activities (work and leisure) and compared to one or no activity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for lung cancer was 1.30(1.08-1.57) when exposure occurred between birth and age 25 and 0.66(0.21-1.57) if exposure occurred after age 25 years. Respective results for nonsmokers were: 1.29 (0.82-2.02) and 0.87 (0.22-3.38), and current and ex smokers combined 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 0.66 (0.15-2.85). Conclusion All individuals exposed to SHS have a higher risk of risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, this study suggests that subjects first exposed before age 25 have a higher lung cancer risk compared to those for whom first exposure occurred after age 25 years. PMID:18191495

  2. Silicosis and risk of lung cancer or lung tuberculosis: a cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Westerholm, P.; Ahlmark, A.; Maasing, R.; Segelberg, I.

    1986-10-01

    This is a study of cancer mortality, cancer incidence, and incidence of lung tuberculosis among cases of silicosis reported to the National Swedish Pneumoconiosis Register during 1959-1977. Two occupational categories were extracted - mining, tunneling, and quarrying (n = 284) and iron and steel foundries (n = 428), respectively. Control groups were drawn from a national register of persons undergoing periodic health examinations with regard to silicosis risk. The controls were matched for occupation, age, and time of first exposure. In cases drawn from mining, quarrying, and tunneling workers seven deaths in lung cancer were observed and two among the controls. Among iron and steel foundry workers the corresponding numbers were 10 and 6. The values for expected numbers, based on general population statistics, were 1.3 and 2.6, respectively, for these two occupational groups. When cancer incidence statistics were used, the case/control ratio for lung cancer was 2.1 for mining, quarrying, and tunneling and 0.6 for iron and steel foundries. There were 29 cases of lung tuberculosis registered among the silicosis cases during the follow-up period. Only one tuberculosis case was observed among the controls. The results demonstrate that persons with silicosis contracted in the mining, quarrying, and tunneling occupations are subject to an increased risk of lung cancer.

  3. Silica dust and lung cancer: results from the Nordic occupational mortality and cancer incidence registers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynge, E.; Kurppa, K.; Kristofersen, L.; Malker, H.; Sauli, H.

    1986-10-01

    Autopsy studies of the relationship between silicosis and lung cancer have been mainly negative; but recent epidemiologic studies have indicated a positive association, and an excess lung cancer risk has been observed in some occupational groups with exposure to silica dust. For the further shedding of light on the possible association between silica dust and lung cancer, analysis was made on mortality and cancer incidence data available in census-based record linkage studies from the Nordic countries for males in occupational groups with potential exposure to silica dust. The study showed an excess lung cancer risk for foundry workers in all the Nordic countries and for miners in Sweden. These results were consistent with findings from previous in-depth epidemiologic studies. The lung cancer risk did not differ significantly from that of the respective national populations for males working in excavation; stone quarries; sand and gravel pits; and glass, porcelain, ceramic, and tile manufacture. Stonecutters, who are probably not exposed to known lung carcinogens at the workplace but in some places to high concentrations of silica dust, showed a significant excess lung cancer risk in both Finland and Denmark. Excess lung cancer risks furthermore were seen for Finish miners, for Finnish males in excavation work, and for Danish glassworkers.

  4. Adherence to Survivorship Care Guidelines in Health Care Providers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Survivor Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  5. Passive smoking and lung cancer in nonsmoking women.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Alavanja, M C; Hock, E T; Loy, T S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The causes of lung cancer among nonsmokers are not clearly understood. To further evaluate the relation between passive smoke exposure and lung cancer in nonsmoking women, we conducted a population-based, case-control study. METHODS. Case patients (n = 618), identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1986 through 1991, included 432 lifetime nonsmokers and 186 ex-smokers who had stopped at least 15 years before diagnosis or who had smoked for less than 1 pack-year. Control subjects (n = 1402) were selected from driver's license and Medicare files. RESULTS. No increased risk of lung cancer was associated with childhood passive smoke exposure. Adulthood analyses showed an increased lung cancer risk for lifetime nonsmokers with exposure of more than 40 pack-years from all household members (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.8) or from spouses only (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.7). When the time-weighted product of pack-years and average hours exposed per day was considered, a 30% excess risk was shown at the highest quartile of exposure among lifetime nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Ours and other recent studies suggest a small but consistent increased risk of lung cancer from passive smoking. Comprehensive actions to limit smoking in public places and worksites are well-advised. PMID:1443304

  6. Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seri; Mok, Yejin; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    Among the exposures associated with risk for lung cancer, a history of tuberculosis (TB) is one potentially important factor, given the high prevalence of TB worldwide. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the associations of preexisting pulmonary TB with lung cancer incidence and mortality. The cohort consisted of 1,607,710 Korean adults covered by the National Health Insurance System who had a biennial national medical examination during 1997-2000. During up to 16 years of follow-up, there were 12,819 incident cases of lung cancer and 9,562 lung cancer deaths. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age, cigarette smoking and other covariates, the presence of underlying TB was significantly associated with increased risk for lung cancer incidence (HR 1.37 in men with 95% CI 1.29-1.45; HR 1.49 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.74) and mortality (HR 1.43 in men with 95% CI 1.34-1.52; HR 1.53 in women with 95% CI 1.28-1.83). We also observed a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked daily and lung cancer risk. There was no evidence for synergism between a history of TB and smoking. The elevation in risk is relatively modest, particularly in comparison to that from smoking, and a prior history of TB is not likely to be useful risk indicator for clinical purposes. In populations with high prevalence of TB, it can be considered for incorporation into models for lung cancer risk prediction. PMID:27521774

  7. Metformin use and lung cancer risk in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sakoda, Lori C.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Achacoso, Ninah S.; Peng, Tiffany; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Habel, Laurel A.

    2015-01-01

    Methodologic biases may explain why observational studies examining metformin use in relation to lung cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We conducted a cohort study to further investigate this relationship, accounting for potential biases. For 47,351 patients with diabetes aged ≥40 years, who completed a health-related survey administered between 1994 and 1996, data on prescribed diabetes medications were obtained from electronic pharmacy records. Follow-up for incident lung cancer occurred from January 1, 1997, until June 30, 2012. Using Cox regression, we estimated lung cancer risk associated with new use of metformin, along with total duration, recency, and cumulative dose (all modeled as time-dependent covariates), adjusting for potential confounding factors. During 428,557 person-years of follow-up, 747 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer. No association was found with duration, dose, or recency of metformin use and overall lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, however, ever use was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.99), and risk appeared to decrease monotonically with longer use (≥5 years: HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.21-1.09). Among current smokers, corresponding risk estimates were >1.0, although not statistically significant. Consistent with this variation in effect by smoking history, longer use was suggestively associated with lower adenocarcinoma risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40-1.17), but higher small cell carcinoma risk (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.85-3.91). In this population, we found no evidence that metformin use affects overall lung cancer risk. The observed variation in association by smoking history and histology requires further confirmation. PMID:25644512

  8. A systemic review of PET and biology in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaira, Kyoichi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Sunaga, Noriaki; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography imaging with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) has been established as a significant molecular imaging technique in the management of lung cancer. However, 18F-FDG accumulation is not specific, therefore several other radiotracers targeting hypoxia, cell proliferation and amino acid metabolism have been developed for the imaging of human cancers. This review summarizes the current data on the correlation between the underlying molecular biology and tumor PET accumulation in lung cancer. PMID:21904658

  9. Vaccine therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Albright, Carol; Garst, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. First-line therapy is based on stage at diagnosis and can include chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Despite advances, the prognosis for advanced-stage lung cancer is very poor. Vaccines with the capability to activate the host immune system may have a role in second-line therapy. Advances in the understanding of cellular and molecular immunology are forming the basis for improving vaccine therapy. Most trials to date have demonstrated safety but inconsistent efficacy. Further research is needed to enhance this potential. PMID:17588347

  10. [Central cancer of the lung in MR image].

    PubMed

    Gamova, E V; Nudnov, N V

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the authors' own material based on the data of chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 48 patients with verified central cancer of the lung. The algorithm of chest MRI optimized by the authors is presented. The MRI signs of lung cancer in exo- and peribronchial forms of cancer are systematized. The MRI semiotics of chest structural damages are given in the extent of a tumor when progressing, and a metastatic lesion. The MRI signs of complications of this disease are specified.

  11. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-13

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Lung cancer care: the impact of facilities and area measures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the US, and while treatment disparities by race and class have been well described in the literature, the impact of social determinates of health, and specific characteristics of the treatment centers have been less well characterized. As the treatment of lung cancer relies more upon a precision and personalized medicine approach, where patients obtain treatment has an impact on outcomes and could be a major factor in treatment disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the manner in which lung cancer care can be impacted by poor access to high quality treatment centers, and how the built environment can be a mitigating factor in the pursuit of treatment equity. PMID:26380179

  13. Uranium mining and lung cancer in Navajo men

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Kutvirt, D.M.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Key, C.R.

    1984-06-07

    We performed a population-based case-control study to examine the association between uranium mining and lung cancer in Navajo men, a predominantly nonsmoking population. The 32 cases included all those occurring among Navajo men between 1969 and 1982, as ascertained by the New Mexico Tumor Registry. For each case in a Navajo man, two controls with nonrespiratory cancer were selected. Of the 32 Navajo patients, 72 per cent had been employed as uranium miners, whereas no controls had documented experience in this industry. The lower 95 per cent confidence limit for the relative risk of lung cancer associated with uranium mining was 14.4. Information on cigarette smoking was available for 21 of the 23 affected uranium miners; eight were nonsmokers and median consumption by the remainder was one to three cigarettes daily. These results demonstrate that in a rural nonsmoking population most of the lung cancer may be attributable to one hazardous occupation.

  14. Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer in Swedish iron miners

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, S.C.; Whitley, E.; Radford, E.P.

    1995-03-01

    Data are presented on the risks of cancers other than lung cancer in a cohort of iron miners from northern Sweden occupationally exposed to elevated levels of the radioactive gas radon. Compared with rates for the four northernmost counties of Sweden, mortality was increased for all cancers other than lung cancer (ratio of observed to expected deaths 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.41), stomach cancer (ratio of observed to expect- ed deaths 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.98), and rectal cancer (ratio of observed to expected deaths 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.31). Despite these overall increases, mortality was not significantly associated with cumulative exposure to radon, either for all cancers other than lung cancer or for any site of cancer other than lung cancer individually. However, the data from this cohort on its own have limited power; and for several sites of cancer the data in this study would be consistent with a radon-related increase. Further study of cancers other than lung cancer in populations exposed to radon is required. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Interleukin-6 Prevents the Initiation but Enhances the Progression of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhaoxia; Sun, Fan; Zhou, Jingjiao; Li, Liwen; Shapiro, Steven D; Xiao, Gutian

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies suggest that high expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL6 is associated with poor survival of lung cancer patients. Accordingly, IL6 has been a target of great interest for lung cancer therapy. However, the role of IL6 in lung cancer has not been determined yet. Here, we demonstrate that IL6 plays opposite roles in the initiation and growth of lung cancer in a mouse model of lung cancer induced by the K-Ras oncogene. We find that compared with wild-type mice, IL6-deficient mice developed much more lung tumors after an activating mutant of K-Ras was induced in the lungs. However, lung tumors developed in IL6-deficient mice were significantly smaller. Notably, both the lung tumor-suppressing and -promoting functions of IL6 involve its ability in activating the transcription factor STAT3. IL6/STAT3 signaling suppressed lung cancer initiation through maintaining lung homeostasis, regulating lung macrophages, and activating cytotoxic CD8 T cells under K-Ras oncogenic stress, whereas it promoted lung cancer cell growth through inducing the cell proliferation regulator cyclin D1. These studies reveal a previously unexplored role of IL6/STAT3 signaling in maintaining lung homeostasis and suppressing lung cancer induction. These studies also significantly improve our understanding of lung cancer and provide a molecular basis for designing IL6/STAT3-targeted therapies for this deadliest human cancer.

  16. Involvement of MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer Biology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F.; Guo, Yongli; Korc, Murray; Kauppinen, Sakari; Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression. Expression profiles of specific miRNAs have improved cancer diagnosis and classification and even provided prognostic information in many human cancers, including lung cancer. Tumor suppressive and oncogenic miRNAs were uncovered in lung carcinogenesis. The biological functions of these miRNAs in lung cancer were recently validated in well characterized cellular, murine transgenic as well as transplantable lung cancer models and in human paired normal-malignant lung tissue banks and tissue arrays. Tumor suppressive and oncogenic miRNAs that were identified in lung cancer will be reviewed here. Emphasis is placed on highlighting those functionally validated miRNAs that are not only biomarkers of lung carcinogenesis, but also candidate pharmacologic targets. How these miRNA findings advance an understanding of lung cancer biology and could improve lung cancer therapy are discussed in this article. PMID:21420030

  17. Early Palliative Care With Standard Care or Standard Care Alone in Improving Quality of Life of Patients With Incurable Lung or Non-colorectal Gastrointestinal Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Liver Cancer; Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Malignant Mesothelioma; Pancreatic Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  19. Occupational associations with lung cancer in two Ontario cities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    A death certificate based case-control study of lung cancer in two Ontario cities was performed to estimate the risk of lung cancer attributable to occupation in Ontario, and to estimate the proportion of occupational lung cancers receiving compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Occupation and industry were identified from the death certificate. A priori occupations for analysis were those whose members had received compensation for occupational cancer from the Ontario Workers' Compensation Board. Population attributable risks were computed using the relative risks observed in this study and employment data from the 1986 Census of Canada. Subjects were all men (N = 967) between the ages of 45 and 75 years resident in the cities of Hamilton and Sault Ste-Marie who died of lung cancer from 1979 to 1988. Controls (2,821) were matched on age, year of death, and city of residence. In agreement with other studies, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for workers in the construction sector, for miners, and for truck drivers. It was estimated that only a small proportion of lung cancers attributable to occupation are compensated in Ontario. It is believed that many occupational cancers go uncompensated because of the failure to file claims, rather than because claims are rejected by Compensation Boards. Physicians are in a position to advise patients about the possibility of compensable disease and to act as advocates for them. By recognizing compensable illness, physicians have the opportunity to ease the financial burden of patients and their families. The challenge is a difficult one, but it is well worth pursuing.

  20. Occupational associations with lung cancer in two Ontario cities.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    A death certificate based case-control study of lung cancer in two Ontario cities was performed to estimate the risk of lung cancer attributable to occupation in Ontario, and to estimate the proportion of occupational lung cancers receiving compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Occupation and industry were identified from the death certificate. A priori occupations for analysis were those whose members had received compensation for occupational cancer from the Ontario Workers' Compensation Board. Population attributable risks were computed using the relative risks observed in this study and employment data from the 1986 Census of Canada. Subjects were all men (N = 967) between the ages of 45 and 75 years resident in the cities of Hamilton and Sault Ste-Marie who died of lung cancer from 1979 to 1988. Controls (2,821) were matched on age, year of death, and city of residence. In agreement with other studies, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for workers in the construction sector, for miners, and for truck drivers. It was estimated that only a small proportion of lung cancers attributable to occupation are compensated in Ontario. It is believed that many occupational cancers go uncompensated because of the failure to file claims, rather than because claims are rejected by Compensation Boards. Physicians are in a position to advise patients about the possibility of compensable disease and to act as advocates for them. By recognizing compensable illness, physicians have the opportunity to ease the financial burden of patients and their families. The challenge is a difficult one, but it is well worth pursuing. PMID:7900730

  1. Mortality from lung cancer among Sardinian patients with silicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Carta, P; Cocco, P L; Casula, D

    1991-01-01

    The mortality of 724 subjects with silicosis, first diagnosed in 1964-70 in the Sardinia region of Italy, was followed up through to 31 December 1987. Smoking, occupational history, chest x ray films, and data on lung function were available from clinical records for each member of the cohort. The overall cohort accounted for 10,956.5 person-years. The standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for selected causes of death (International Classification of Diseases (ICD) eighth revision) were based on the age specific regional death rates for each calendar year. An excess of deaths for all causes (SMR = 1.40) was found, mainly due to chronic obstructive lung disease, silicosis, and tuberculosis with an upward trend of the SMR with increasing severity of the International Labour Office (ILO) radiological categories. Twenty two subjects died from lung cancer (SMR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.8-2.0). The risk increased after a 10 and 15 year latency but the SMR never reached statistical significance. No correlation was found between lung cancer and severity of the radiological category, the type of silica (coal or metalliferous mines, quarries etc), or the degree of exposure to silica dust. A significant excess of deaths from lung cancer was found among heavy smokers (SMR = 4.11) and subjects with airflow obstruction (SMR = 2.83). A nested case-control study was planned to investigate whether the association between lung cancer and airway obstruction was due to confounding by smoking. No association was found with the ILO categories of silicosis or the estimated cumulative exposure to silica. The risk estimate for lung cancer by airflow obstruction after adjusting by cigarette consumption was 2.86 for a mild impairment and 7.23 for a severe obstruction. The results do not show any clear association between exposure to silica, severity of silicosis, and mortality from lung cancer. Other environmental or individual factors may act as confounders in the

  2. Instillation and Fixation Methods Useful in Mouse Lung Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Mock, Jason; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The ability to instill live agents, cells, or chemicals directly into the lung without injuring or killing the mice is an important tool in lung cancer research. Although there are a number of methods that have been published showing how to intubate mice for pulmonary function measurements, none are without potential problems for rapid tracheal instillation in large cohorts of mice. In the present paper, a simple and quick method is described that enables an investigator to carry out such instillations in an efficient manner. The method does not require any special tools or lighting and can be learned with very little practice. It involves anesthetizing a mouse, making a small incision in the neck to visualize the trachea, and then inserting an intravenous catheter directly. The small incision is quickly closed with tissue adhesive, and the mice are allowed to recover. A skilled student or technician can do instillations at an average rate of 2 min/mouse. Once the cancer is established, there is frequently a need for quantitative histologic analysis of the lungs. Traditionally pathologists usually do not bother to standardize lung inflation during fixation, and analyses are often based on a scoring system that can be quite subjective. While this may sometime be sufficiently adequate for gross estimates of the size of a lung tumor, any proper stereological quantification of lung structure or cells requires a reproducible fixation procedure and subsequent lung volume measurement. Here we describe simple reliable procedures for both fixing the lungs under pressure and then accurately measuring the fixed lung volume. The only requirement is a laboratory balance that is accurate over a range of 1 mg-300 g. The procedures presented here thus could greatly improve the ability to create, treat, and analyze lung cancers in mice. PMID:26381993

  3. LLPi: Liverpool Lung Project Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer Incidence.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Michael W; Chen, Ying; Raji, Olaide Y; Duffy, Stephen W; Field, John K

    2015-06-01

    Identification of high-risk individuals will facilitate early diagnosis, reduce overall costs, and also improve the current poor survival from lung cancer. The Liverpool Lung Project prospective cohort of 8,760 participants ages 45 to 79 years, recruited between 1998 and 2008, was followed annually through the hospital episode statistics until January 31, 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk predictors of lung cancer incidence. C-statistic was used to assess the discriminatory accuracy of the models. Models were internally validated using the bootstrap method. During mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 237 participants developed lung cancer. Age [hazard ratio (HR), 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.06], male gender (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-1.98), smoking duration (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.79-3.30), prior diagnosis of malignant tumor (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.08-3.89), and early onset of family history of lung cancer (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.04-2.72) were associated with the incidence of lung cancer. The LLPi risk model had a good calibration (goodness-of-fit χ(2) 7.58, P = 0.371). The apparent C-statistic was 0.852 (95% CI, 0.831-0.873) and the optimism-corrected bootstrap resampling C-statistic was 0.849 (95% CI, 0.829-0.873). The LLPi risk model may assist in identifying individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer in population-based screening programs.

  4. Lung carcinogenesis from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: characteristics of lung cancer from COPD and contribution of signal transducers and lung stem cells in the inflammatory microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yasuo; Hata, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Hiroshima, Kenzo

    2014-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are closely related. The annual incidence of lung cancer arising from COPD has been reported to be 0.8-1.7 %. Treatment of lung cancer from COPD is very difficult due to low cardiopulmonary function, rapid tumor growth, and resistance to molecularly targeted therapies. Chronic inflammation caused by toxic gases can induce COPD and lung cancer. Carcinogenesis in the inflammatory microenvironment occurs during cycles of tissue injury and repair. Cellular damage can induce induction of necrotic cell death and loss of tissue integrity. Quiescent normal stem cells or differentiated progenitor cells are introduced to repair injured tissues. However, inflammatory mediators may promote the growth of bronchioalveolar stem cells, and activation of NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play crucial roles in the development of lung cancer from COPD. Many of the protumorgenic effects of NF-κB and STAT3 activation in immune cells are mediated through paracrine signaling. NF-κB and STAT3 also contribute to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To improve lung cancer treatment outcomes, lung cancer from COPD must be overcome. In this article, we review the characteristics of lung cancer from COPD and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the inflammatory microenvironment. We also propose the necessity of identifying the mechanisms underlying progression of COPD to lung cancer, and comment on the clinical implications with respect to lung cancer prevention, screening, and therapy.

  5. The role of LKB1 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2011-09-01

    In humans, the LKB1 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 19, which is frequently deleted in lung tumors. Unlike most cancers of sporadic origin, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nearly half of the tumors harbor somatic and homozygous inactivating mutations in LKB1. In NSCLC, LKB1 inactivation strongly predominates in adenocarcinomas from smokers and coexists with mutations at other important cancer genes, including KRAS and TP53. Remarkably, LKB1 alterations frequently occur simultaneously with inactivation at another important tumor suppressor gene, BRG1 (also called SMARCA4), which is also located on chromosome 19p. The present review considers the frequency and pattern of LKB1 mutations in lung cancer and the distinct biological pathways in which the LKB1 protein is involved in the development of this type of cancer. Finally, the possible clinical applications in cancer management, especially in lung cancer treatment, associated with the presence of absence of LKB1 are discussed.

  6. How to target small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara; Ulsperger, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with dismal prognosis. Although great progress has been made in investigating genetic aberrations and putative drivers of this tumor entity, the mechanisms of rapid dissemination and acquisition of drug resistance are not clear. The majority of SCLC cases are characterized by inactivation of the tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) and, therefore, interchangeable drivers will be difficult to target successfully. Access to pure cultures of SCLC circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and study of their tumor biology has revealed a number of new potential targets. Most important, expression of chitinase-3-like-1/YKL-40 (CHI3L1) which controls expression of vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was newly described in these cells. The process switching CHI3L1-negative SCLC cells to CHI3L1-positive CTCs seems to be associated with cytokines released by inflammatory immune cells. Furthermore, these CTCs were found to promote monocyte-macrophage differentiation, most likely of the M2 tumor-promoting type, recently described to express PD-1 immune checkpoint antigen in SCLC. In conclusion, dissemination of SCLC seems to be linked to conversion of regular tumor cells to highly invasive CHI3L1-positive CTCs, which are protected by immune system suppression. Besides the classical targets VEGF, MMP-9 and PD-1, CHI3L1 constitutes a new possibly drugable molecule to retard down dissemination of SCLC cells, which may be similarly relevant for glioblastoma and other tumor entities. PMID:26425658

  7. Methoxyamine, Pemetrexed Disodium, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-05

    Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Stage IIIA Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  8. Information seeking regarding tobacco and lung cancer: effects of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducted one of the first comprehensive international Internet analyses of seasonal patterns in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer. Search query data for the terms "tobacco" and "lung cancer" from January 2004 to January 2014 was collected from Google Trends. The relevant countries included the USA, Canada, the UK, Australia, and China. Two statistical approaches including periodogram and cross-correlation were applied to analyze seasonal patterns in the collected search trends and their associations. For these countries except China, four out of six cross-correlations of seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco were above 0.600. For these English-speaking countries, similar patterns existed in the data concerning lung cancer, and all cross-correlations between seasonal components of the search trends regarding tobacco and that regarding lung cancer were also above 0.700. Seasonal patterns widely exist in information seeking concerning tobacco and lung cancer on an international scale. The findings provide a piece of novel Internet-based evidence for the seasonality and health effects of tobacco use.

  9. Bisphosphonates in lung cancer: more than a palliative therapy?

    PubMed

    Jahanzeb, Mohammad; Hirsh, Vera

    2010-06-01

    Bone metastases are a common complication in patients with advanced lung cancer, and most patients with bone metastases from lung cancer develop skeletal-related events (SREs). Skeletal-related events adversely impact patient quality of life and clinical outcome and are associated with increased costs of clinical management, underscoring the need for SRE prevention. Because current practice guidelines do not recommend pretreatment bone scans for all patients at initial presentation, skeletal involvement is not detected in a proportion of patients with early stage asymptomatic bone metastases. In addition, there are no uniform guidelines outlining treatment for patients with bone metastases. Although many bisphosphonates have not been investigated in this setting, zoledronic acid has proven efficacy in delaying the onset and reducing the risk of SREs in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. Further, recent exploratory analyses in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors suggest that, in addition to normalizing biochemical markers of bone metabolism, zoledronic acid may improve survival in specific patient subsets, including those with lung cancer. Accordingly, several prospectively designed clinical trials assessing anticancer activity of zoledronic acid in the adjuvant setting are ongoing. New insights into the clinical relevance of bone-conserving therapy in patients with lung cancer are discussed.

  10. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-06-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.

  11. Assessment of lifetime lung cancer risks induced by environmental radon

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, G.T.; Schutz, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Radon and its progeny in air (/sup 218/Po, /sup 214/Pb, /sup 214/Bi, and /sup 214/Po) may enter the human body by inhalation and cause radiation damage to the respiratory tract to induce lung cancer. Among uranium miners, lung cancer induced by long term exposure to elevated levels of radon progeny is well established. The epidemiological evidence provided by such miners is the principal basis for determining the numerical relationship between environmental levels of radon exposure and lung cancer incidence. A number of lung cancer risk models have been published. All of these models are based on an intensity of radon or radon progeny exposure, referring to an average exposure over time, and on an assumed percentage of occupancy. However, the differences in life-styles among individuals or the seasonal variation in radon levels found in a home, which may influence the level of radon exposure, have not been considered in the published risk models. An assessment of the possible lifetime lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon is presented.

  12. Lung cancer staging now and in the future.

    PubMed

    Liam, Chong-Kin; Andarini, Sita; Lee, Pyng; Ho, James Chung-Man; Chau, Ngo Quy; Tscheikuna, Jamsak

    2015-05-01

    For a long time lung cancer was associated with a fatalistic approach by healthcare professionals. In recent years, advances in imaging, improved diagnostic techniques and more effective treatment modalities are reasons for optimism. Accurate lung cancer staging is vitally important because treatment options and prognosis differ significantly by stage. The staging algorithm should include a contrast computed tomography (CT) of the chest and the upper abdomen including adrenals, positron emission tomography/CT for staging the mediastinum and to rule out extrathoracic metastasis in patients considered for surgical resection, endosonography-guided needle sampling procedure replacing mediastinoscopy for near complete mediastinal staging, and brain imaging as clinically indicated. Applicability of evidence-based guidelines for staging of lung cancer depends on the available expertise and level of resources and is directly impacted by financial issues. Considering the diversity of healthcare infrastructure and economic performance of Asian countries, optimal and cost-effective use of staging methods appropriate to the available resources is prudent. The pulmonologist plays a central role in the multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer diagnosis, staging and management. Regional respiratory societies such as the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology should work with national respiratory societies to strive for uniform standards of care. For developing countries, a minimum set of care standards should be formulated. Cost-effective delivery of optimal care for lung cancer patients, including staging within the various healthcare systems, should be encouraged and most importantly, tobacco control implementation should receive an absolute priority status in all countries in Asia.

  13. Silicosis and risk of lung cancer or lung tuberculosis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, P; Ahlmark, A; Maasing, R; Segelberg, I

    1986-10-01

    This is a study of cancer mortality, cancer incidence, and incidence of lung tuberculosis among cases of silicosis reported to the National Swedish Pneumoconiosis Register during 1959-1977. Two occupational categories were extracted--"mining, tunneling, and quarrying" (n = 284) and "iron and steel foundries" (n = 428), respectively. Control groups were drawn from a national register of persons undergoing periodic health examinations with regard to silicosis risk. The controls were matched for occupation, age, and time of first exposure. The follow-up was performed through record-linkage operations to computerized information in Swedish Death Statistics, Swedish Cancer Register, and the Swedish Tuberculosis Index. End of follow-up was set at December 31, 1980. In cases drawn from mining, quarrying, and tunneling workers seven deaths in lung cancer were observed and two among the controls. Among iron and steel foundry workers the corresponding numbers were 10 and 6. The values for expected numbers, based on general population statistics, were 1.3 and 2.6, respectively, for these two occupational groups. When cancer incidence statistics were used, the case/control ratio for lung cancer was 2.1 for "mining, quarrying, and tunneling" and 0.6 for "iron and steel foundries." There were 29 cases of lung tuberculosis registered among the silicosis cases during the follow-up period. Only one tuberculosis case was observed among the controls. The results demonstrate that persons with silicosis contracted in the mining, quarrying, and tunneling occupations are subject to an increased risk of lung cancer. The risk is observed when both the general population and a closely matched control population from the same occupations are used for values of reference. The results also demonstrate the high risk of persons with silicosis to contract lung tuberculosis. PMID:3757978

  14. Silicosis and risk of lung cancer or lung tuberculosis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, P; Ahlmark, A; Maasing, R; Segelberg, I

    1986-10-01

    This is a study of cancer mortality, cancer incidence, and incidence of lung tuberculosis among cases of silicosis reported to the National Swedish Pneumoconiosis Register during 1959-1977. Two occupational categories were extracted--"mining, tunneling, and quarrying" (n = 284) and "iron and steel foundries" (n = 428), respectively. Control groups were drawn from a national register of persons undergoing periodic health examinations with regard to silicosis risk. The controls were matched for occupation, age, and time of first exposure. The follow-up was performed through record-linkage operations to computerized information in Swedish Death Statistics, Swedish Cancer Register, and the Swedish Tuberculosis Index. End of follow-up was set at December 31, 1980. In cases drawn from mining, quarrying, and tunneling workers seven deaths in lung cancer were observed and two among the controls. Among iron and steel foundry workers the corresponding numbers were 10 and 6. The values for expected numbers, based on general population statistics, were 1.3 and 2.6, respectively, for these two occupational groups. When cancer incidence statistics were used, the case/control ratio for lung cancer was 2.1 for "mining, quarrying, and tunneling" and 0.6 for "iron and steel foundries." There were 29 cases of lung tuberculosis registered among the silicosis cases during the follow-up period. Only one tuberculosis case was observed among the controls. The results demonstrate that persons with silicosis contracted in the mining, quarrying, and tunneling occupations are subject to an increased risk of lung cancer. The risk is observed when both the general population and a closely matched control population from the same occupations are used for values of reference. The results also demonstrate the high risk of persons with silicosis to contract lung tuberculosis.

  15. Lung abscess mimicking lung cancer developed around staples in a patient with permanent tracheostoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Aoki, Masaya; Suzuki, Soichi; Umehara, Tadashi; Harada, Aya; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old male with a tracheostoma due to hypopharyngeal cancer was admitted because his chest computed tomography (CT) showed a small nodule in the right middle lobe. Following a partial resection of the right middle lobe, histopathological diagnosis of the resected sample was that of organizing pneumonia. Eleven months later, chest CT showed a mass with pleural indentation and spiculation in the right middle lobe. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed significant accumulation in the middle lobe tumor mass shadow. The abnormal chest shadow that had developed around surgical staples suggested inadequate resection and tumor recurrence. As the abnormal radiological shadow was enlarging, middle lobectomy was carried out. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a lung abscess without malignant features. This is a unique case of lung abscess mimicking lung cancer which developed around staples used during partial resection of the lung.

  16. Cancers of the Lung and Nasal Sinuses in Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Morgan, L. G.; Speizer, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    Men employed in a nickel refinery in South Wales were investigated to determine whether the specific risks of developing carcinoma of the bronchi and nasal sinuses, which had been associated with the refining of nickel, are still present. The data obtained were also used to compare the effect of age at exposure on susceptibility to cancer induction and to determine the rate of change of mortality after exposure to a carcinogenic agent had ceased. Eight hundred and forty five men were studied who had been employed in the industry for at least 5 years and whose first employment was in or before April 1994. All but 27 (3.2 per cent) were traced until death or January 1, 1967. Altogether 482 of the men had died: 113 from lung cancer and 39 from nasal cancer. In men employed before 1925, deaths from lung cancer varied from about 5 to 10 times the numbers that would have been expected from the corresponding national mortality rates, while the deaths from nasal cancer varied from about 100 to 900 times the expected numbers. Among men first employed in 1925 or after there were 8 deaths from lung cancer against 6.2 expected and no deaths from nasal cancer. The death rate from causes other than cancer was similar to that experienced by men in the same geographical area irrespective of their date of first employment. Susceptibility to the induction of nasal cancer increased with age at first exposure, but susceptibility to the induction of lung cancer varied irregularly. The trends in susceptibility showed some similarity to the trends in the national mortality among men employed at similar ages. It is suggested that susceptibility to cancer induction is determined by the amount of previous exposure to other agents. The risk of developing nasal cancer persisted with little change 15 to 42 years after the carcinogen was eliminated whereas the risk of developing lung cancer decreased. If the effects of cigarette smoking and the specific occupational hazard interact, the

  17. Cancers of the lung and nasal sinuses in nickel workers.

    PubMed

    Doll, R; Morgan, L G; Speizer, F E

    1970-12-01

    Men employed in a nickel refinery in South Wales were investigated to determine whether the specific risks of developing carcinoma of the bronchi and nasal sinuses, which had been associated with the refining of nickel, are still present. The data obtained were also used to compare the effect of age at exposure on susceptibility to cancer induction and to determine the rate of change of mortality after exposure to a carcinogenic agent had ceased.Eight hundred and forty five men were studied who had been employed in the industry for at least 5 years and whose first employment was in or before April 1994. All but 27 (3.2 per cent) were traced until death or January 1, 1967.Altogether 482 of the men had died: 113 from lung cancer and 39 from nasal cancer. In men employed before 1925, deaths from lung cancer varied from about 5 to 10 times the numbers that would have been expected from the corresponding national mortality rates, while the deaths from nasal cancer varied from about 100 to 900 times the expected numbers. Among men first employed in 1925 or after there were 8 deaths from lung cancer against 6.2 expected and no deaths from nasal cancer. The death rate from causes other than cancer was similar to that experienced by men in the same geographical area irrespective of their date of first employment.Susceptibility to the induction of nasal cancer increased with age at first exposure, but susceptibility to the induction of lung cancer varied irregularly. The trends in susceptibility showed some similarity to the trends in the national mortality among men employed at similar ages. It is suggested that susceptibility to cancer induction is determined by the amount of previous exposure to other agents.The risk of developing nasal cancer persisted with little change 15 to 42 years after the carcinogen was eliminated whereas the risk of developing lung cancer decreased. If the effects of cigarette smoking and the specific occupational hazard interact, the reduction

  18. Phase 3 Study of Bavituximab Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel Alone in Patients With Late-stage Non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-01

    Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB; Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Stage IV; Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Metastatic; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma; Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

  19. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  20. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Andersen, Claus E; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m(3). The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m(3) higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  1. Lung Cancer Risk Following Detection of Pulmonary Scarring by Chest Radiography in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Pinsky, Paul F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Baumgarten, Mona; Langenberg, Patricia; Furuno, Jon P.; Lan, Qing; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibrotic scars are frequently found in proximity to lung cancer at the time of cancer diagnosis. However, the nature of the relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer remains uncertain. Our objective was to test whether localized pulmonary scarring is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods Cohort analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We included 66 863 cancer-free trial participants aged 55 to 74 years, who received a baseline chest radiographic examination and were followed up subsequently for up to 12 years. We used proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer associated with scarring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking, and in relation to laterality of scarring. The main outcome measure was incident lung cancer. Results Scarring was present on the baseline chest radiograph for 5041 subjects (7.5%). Scarring was associated with elevated lung cancer risk (809 lung cancer cases [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-1.8]). This association was specific for cancer in the lung ipsilateral to the scar (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.4) and absent for contralateral cancer (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.2). Ipsilateral lung cancer risk was elevated throughout the follow-up period (interval-specific HRs, 1.6, 2.0, 2.1, and 1.7 during 0.01-2.00, 2.01-4.00, 4.01-6.00, and 6.01-12.00 years after baseline chest radiography, respectively). Conclusions The relationship between pulmonary scarring and lung cancer was specific to the same lung and extended over time. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that localized inflammatory processes associated with scarring promote the subsequent development of lung cancer. PMID:19029496

  2. Pollutional haze as a potential cause of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuefei; Liu, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Along with fast economic growth over the past few decades, the world is faced with cumulatively serious environmental pollution and now is paying increased attention to pollutional haze. In the last few years, multiple epidemiological studies and animal models have provided compelling evidences that inhalation of pollutional haze could be linked to several adverse health effects. Since the respiratory tract is the crucial passageway of entry of pollutional haze, the lung is the main affected organ. Therefore, here, we reviewed some of the important information around long-term exposure to pollutional haze and lung cancer, as well as highlight important roles of pollutional haze in human lung carcinogenesis, providing evidence for pollutional haze acting as another risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:26623118

  3. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala-Kukuś , A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banaś , D.; Majewska, U.; Góź Dź , S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-04-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described.

  4. Pollutional haze as a potential cause of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuefei; Liu, Hongbing; Song, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Along with fast economic growth over the past few decades, the world is faced with cumulatively serious environmental pollution and now is paying increased attention to pollutional haze. In the last few years, multiple epidemiological studies and animal models have provided compelling evidences that inhalation of pollutional haze could be linked to several adverse health effects. Since the respiratory tract is the crucial passageway of entry of pollutional haze, the lung is the main affected organ. Therefore, here, we reviewed some of the important information around long-term exposure to pollutional haze and lung cancer, as well as highlight important roles of pollutional haze in human lung carcinogenesis, providing evidence for pollutional haze acting as another risk factor for lung cancer.

  5. High concentrations of chromium in lung tissue from lung cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Anttila, S.; Kokkonen, P.; Paeaekkoe PRai; Rainio, P.; Kalliomaeki, P.L.P.; Pallon, J.; Malmqvist, K.; Pakarinen, P.; Naentoe, V.Su.; Sutinen, S.

    1989-02-01

    The pulmonary chromium content was determined by plasma atomic emission spectrometer (DCP-AES) from 53 lung cancer and 43 control patients, and compared with smoking habits, severity of emphysema and occupational history. The chromium content from the lung cancer patients was higher than that from the smoking (P less than 0.025) or nonsmoking control patients (6.4 +/- 4.3, 4.0 +/- 4.0, and 2.2 +/- 0.6 microgram/g dry weight, respectively). A positive correlation between the pulmonary chromium and smoking time (P less than 0.025) and the severity of emphysema (P less than 0.001) was found in the control but not in the cancer patients. The difference in the pulmonary chromium content was greatest between those lung cancer and control patients who were light smokers or had mild emphysema. This group of lung cancer patients included subjects with occupational exposure to chromium. The possibility of occupational cancer should be considered especially with light smokers. The grade of emphysema and metals such as chromium accumulating from tobacco could serve as objective indicators of smoking.

  6. Elevated expression of CDK4 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in lung cancer and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Furthermore, the involvement of CDK4-mediated cell cycle progression and its molecular basis were investigated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Methods Using immunohistochemistry analysis, we analyzed CDK4 protein expression in 89 clinicopathologically characterized lung cancer patients (59 males and 30 females) with ages ranging from 36 to 78 years and compared them to 23 normal lung tissues. Cases with cytoplasmic and nuclear CDK4 immunostaining score values greater than or equal to 7 were regarded as high expression while scores less than 7 were considered low expression. The correlation between the expression level of CDK4 and clinical features was analyzed. Furthermore, we used lentiviral-mediated shRNA to suppress the expression of CDK4 and investigate its function and molecular mechanism for mediating cell cycle progression. Results The expression level of CDK4 protein was significantly increased in lung cancer tissues compared to normal tissues (P < 0.001). In addition, high levels of CDK4 protein were positively correlated with the status of pathology classification (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), and clinical stage (P = 0.004) of lung cancer patients. Patients with higher CDK4 expression had a markedly shorter overall survival time than patients with low CDK4 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested the level of CDK4 expression was an independent prognostic indicator (P < 0.001) for the survival of patients with lung cancer. Use of lentiviral-mediated shRNA to inhibit the expression of CDK4 in lung cancer cell line A549 not only inhibited cell cycle progression, but also dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration. Furthermore, suppressing CDK4 expression also significantly elevated the expression of cell cycle regulator p21

  7. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  8. Microdosimetric considerations of lung cancer risks from plutonium.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jack A

    2015-03-01

    New data from the workers at the Mayak nuclear facility near Chelyabinsk, Russia, apparently show a linear increase in the risk of lung cancer with increasing dose. Furthermore, this increase occurs without a threshold. However, these conclusions are at variance with the results reported by other investigators. A possible cause of these inconsistencies could be the lack of application of microdosimetric considerations when discussing "dose" to the lung.

  9. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps of the treatment chain are explained, including imaging techniques and beam delivery techniques. Clinical studies using different motion management techniques are reviewed, and finally future directions for image guidance and motion management are outlined. PMID:25955231

  10. Explorations of lung cancer stigma for female long term survivors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Cati; Cataldo, Janine

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, accompanied by greater psychological distress than other cancers. There is minimal but increasing awareness of the impact of lung cancer stigma (LCS) on patient outcomes. LCS is associated with increased symptom burden and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of female long term lung cancer survivors in the context of LCS and examine how participants discursively adhere to or reject stigmatizing beliefs. Findings situated within Cataldo et al.’s theoretical model include: 1) addiction and tobacco marketing as possible precursors for LCS, 2) the possible role of expert providers as LCS enhancers, 3) response of overlapping complicated identity shifts, 4) simultaneous rejection and assumption of LCS, and 5) information control via advocacy activities as a LCS mitigation response. These findings expand the current understanding of LCS, and call for future conceptual exploration and theoretical revision, particularly with respect to the possibility of interaction between relevant related stigma(s) and LCS. As the number of women living with lung cancer increases, with longer survival times, the effect of LCS and other experiences of discrimination on patient outcomes could be substantial. PMID:23414179

  11. [Minimal-invasive surgery for lung cancer - strategies and limits].

    PubMed

    Schneiter, D; Weder, W

    2012-07-01

    Minimal invasive surgical procedures, also known as keyhole surgery, have gained in importance in the last years and have become the standard of care in experienced hands for most surgical procedures. Despite initial concerns with respect to the radicalness of the approach it is nowadays also established in oncologic surgery. Minimal invasive procedures aim at minimizing the operative trauma and associated inflammatory reactions to achieve faster convalescence after surgery. In addition to obvious cosmetic advantages minimal invasive surgery has been shown to be associated with fewer postoperative pain and shorter postoperative rehabilitation and faster reintegration into everyday as well as working life. With 15% of all cancer diagnoses and 29% of all cancer-associated causes of death, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in the general public and hence the treatment of lung cancer is a main focus of thoracic surgery. Within the scope of modern multimodal treatment concepts radical surgical resection of lung cancer is essential and the main pillar of curative treatment. In early stage lung cancer the current standard of care is a thoracoscopic lobectomy with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The expertise of specialized centers allows for curative minimal-invasive treatment in a large number of patients, particularly of patients of advanced age or with limited pulmonary function.

  12. Differentially expressed protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNA in early-stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Youtao; Mao, Qixing; Wang, Jie; Dong, Gaochao; Xia, Wenjia; Yin, Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Due to the application of low-dose computed tomography screening, more and more early-stage lung cancers have been diagnosed. Thus, it is essential to characterize the gene expression profile of early-stage lung cancer to develop potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. Here, we analyzed microarray data of 181 early-stage lung cancer patients. By comparing gene expression between different tumor and lymph node metastasis stages, we identified various differentially expressed protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in the comparisons of T2 vs. T2 and N1- vs. N0-stage lung cancer. Functional analyses revealed that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in various tumorigenesis or metastasis-related pathways. Survival analysis indicated that two protein-coding genes, C7 and SCN7A, were significantly associated survival of lung cancer. Notably, a novel lncRNA, LINC00313, was highly expressed in both T2- and N1-stage lung cancers. On the other hand, LINC00313 was also upregulated in lung cancer and metastasized lung cancer tissues, compared with adjacent lung tissues and primary lung cancer tissues. Additionally, higher expression level of LINC00313 indicated poor prognosis of lung cancer (hazard ratio = 0.658). Overall, we characterized the expression profiles of protein-coding genes and lncRNA in early-stage lung cancer and found that LINC00313 could be a biomarker for lung cancer.

  13. [Clinical study of double primary cancer involving the lung in resected cases].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Hai, E; Ito, Y; Matsunaga, Y; Kawahara, K; Sato, M

    2002-03-01

    Among all cases of surgically resected lung cancer, there were 56 cases (16.1%) of double primary cancer. The common sites of the other primary cancer was the stomach (19 cases), followed by large intestine (9 cases), urinary bladder (7 cases) and pharinx-larynx (7 cases). One patient had triple cancers. In all cases of double primary cancer, 46 cases were metachronous, 10 of which were cases of initial lung cancer. The 5-year survival rate of double primary cancer was 39.7%. Good result was obtained in metachronous cases with initial lung cancer. Most of prognosis of double primary cancer was determined by that of lung cancer. In more than half of initial cancer, the second primary cancer was detected by symptoms. So, special attention to the possibility of double primary cancer in patients with resected lung cancer is necessary for improvement of prognosis. PMID:11889804

  14. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer: risk in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Gesell, Thomas F

    2002-07-01

    Lung cancer is a disease that is almost entirely caused by smoking; hence, it is almost totally preventable. Yet there are a small percentage of cases, perhaps as many as 5 to 15%, where there are other causes. Risk factors identified for this other group include passive smoking, occupational exposure to certain chemicals and ionizing radiation, diet, and family history of cancer. In the United States cigarette smoking is on the decline among adults, occupational exposures are being reduced, and people are being made more aware of appropriate diets. These changes are gradually resulting in a reduced risk for this disease. Lung cancer in the U.S. may, therefore, eventually become largely a disease of the past. It remains important, however, to continue to study the cause(s) of lung cancer in non-smokers, particularly never smokers. Because of our interest in the effects of residential radon exposure on the development of lung cancer in non-smokers, we conducted a critical review of the scientific literature to evaluate this issue in detail. Strict criteria were utilized in selecting studies, which included being published in a peer reviewed journal, including non-smokers in the studied populations, having at least 100 cases, and being of case-control design. A total of 12 individual studies were found that met the criteria, with 10 providing some information on non-smokers. Most of these studies did not find any significant association between radon and lung cancer in non-smokers. Furthermore, data were not presented in sufficient detail for non-smokers in a number of studies. Based on the most recent findings, there is some evidence that radon may contribute to lung cancer risk in current smokers in high residential radon environments. The situation regarding the risk of lung cancer from radon in non-smokers (ex and never) is unclear, possibly because of both the relatively limited sample size of non-smokers and methodological limitations in most of the individual

  15. Wood Dust Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Parveen; Newcomer, Laura; Onstad, Lynn; Teschke, Kay; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Despite the compelling association between wood dust and sinonasal cancer, there has been little systematic and rigorous study of the relationship between wood dust and lung cancer. We investigated whether a history of exposure to wood dust through occupational and hobby-related activities was associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study, with 440 cases, identified from 1993 to 1996 through the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Cancer Surveillance System for western Washington State, and 845 age-matched controls, identified by random-digit dialing. Using detailed work and personal histories, quantitative estimates of cumulative exposure to wood dust (thought to be primarily from softwood) were calculated for each participant. Using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and smoking status, risk of lung cancer was examined in relation to employment in wood-related occupations, working with wood as a hobby, as well as cumulative wood dust exposure that took into account both occupational and hobby-related sources. Results While we observed an increased risk of lung cancer associated with working in a sawmill (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1), we found no evidence of increased risks with other occupations, working with wood as a hobby or with estimated cumulative exposure to wood dust (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.3, for highest compared to lowest quartile of exposure). Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed modest non-significant decreased risks with exposure to wood dust, although no dose-response relationship was apparent. Conclusions This study provided somewhat reassuring evidence that softwood dust does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but future studies should closely evaluate exposure to hardwood dusts. Suggestive evidence for an inverse association may be attributable to the presence of endotoxin in the wood dust, but the lack of a dose-response relationship suggests a non

  16. Studies on quantitative analysis and automatic recognition of cell types of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Hu, Kuang-Hu; Li, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Yu; Su, Wan-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Ying; Hu, Ying-Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of lung cancer cells is very important to the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper we present a novel method to extract the structure characteristics of lung cancer cells and automatically recognize their types. Firstly soft mathematical morphology methods are used to enhance the grayscale image, to improve the definition of images, and to eliminate most of disturbance, noise and information of subordinate images, so the contour of target lung cancer cell and biological shape characteristic parameters can be extracted accurately. Then the minimum distance classifier is introduced to realize the automatic recognition of different types of lung cancer cells. A software system named "CANCER.LUNG" is established to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. The clinical experiments show that this method can accurately and objectively recognize the type of lung cancer cells, which can significantly improve the pathology research on the pathological changes of lung cancer and clinical assistant diagnoses.

  17. HOUSEHOLD STOVE IMPROVEMENTS AND REDUCTION OF LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUANWEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In rural Xuanwei County, lung cancer rates are among China's highest. For household heating and cooking, residents traditionally used unvented indoor firepits, which generate very high indoor air pollution concentrations. Unvented "smoky" coal burning is a major lung cancer ris...

  18. Crizotinib Improves Progression-Free Survival in Some Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Crizotinib Improves Progression-Free Survival in Some Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer ( ... starting treatment without their disease getting worse (progression-free survival), as assessed by radiologic review. Results Progression- ...

  19. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  20. Second-hand smoke and human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been growing concern about potential health consequences of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). Despite SHS being established as a risk factor for lung cancer development, the estimated risk has remained small yet somehow debatable. Human exposure to SHS is complicated because of temporal variabilities in source, composition, and concentration of SHS. The temporality of exposure to SHS is important for human lung carcinogenesis with a latency of many years. To explore the causal effect of SHS in lung carcinogenesis, exposure assessments should estimate chronic exposure to SHS on an individual basis. However, conventional exposure assessment for SHS relies on one-off or short-term measurements of SHS indices. A more reliable approach would be to use biological markers that are specific for SHS exposure and pertinent to lung cancer. This approach requires an understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which SHS could contribute to lung carcinogenesis. This Review is a synopsis of research on SHS and lung cancer, with special focus on hypothetical modes of action of SHS for carcinogenesis, including genotoxic and epigenetic effects. PMID:18598930