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Sample records for age-adjusted mortality rate

  1. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  2. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S; Sacks, S T; Merrill, D W

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  3. Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Psota, Marek; Pekarciková, Jarmila; O'Mullane, Monica; Rusnák, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.

  4. Gradual decline in the age-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate from STEMI-related cardiogenic shock irrespective of cause, race or gender with persistent higher mortality rates in women despite multivariate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammad Reza; Khan, Muhammad F; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Recent improvements in the care of critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) should be associated with improved outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the trends of age-adjusted mortality rates for all-cause and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-related CS in the United States. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was utilized to calculate the age-adjusted mortality rate of all-cause and STEMI-related CS from 1996 to 2006. We used specific ICD- 9 codes for CS and STEMI based on race and gender. We found a gradual decrease in mortality over the 10-year period in patients suffering from all causes or STEMI-related CS irrespective of gender and race with a persistently higher mortality rates in women and African Americans. However, after multivariate adjustment, only female gender remains associated with persistently higher mortality. The age-adjusted mortality rate from STEMI-related CS in women was 2.2% in 1996, with a gradual reduction to the lowest level of 1.7% in 2006 (P<.01). Likewise, the age-adjusted mortality rate from STEMI-related CS in men was 1.7% in 1996, which declined to the lowest level of 1.4% in 2006 (P<.01). Regardless of gender and race, age-adjusted in-hospital mortality is gradually declining in patients presenting with all causes or STEMI-related CS. However, as compared to men, women suffer from persistently higher mortality rates in the setting of STEMI-related CS despite multivariate adjustment.

  5. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  6. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  7. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  8. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  9. Age-adjusted mortality and its association to variations in urban conditions in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito; Fu, Jia; Nakamura, Keiko; Uji, Kazuyuki; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Masafumi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between health and urbanization in a megacity, Shanghai, by calculating the age-adjusted mortality ratio by ward-unit of Shanghai and by examining relationships between mortalities and urban indicators. Crude mortality rates and age-adjusted mortality ratios by ward-unit were calculated. Demographic, residential environment, healthcare, and socioeconomic indicators were formulated for each of the ward-units between 1995 and 1998. Correlation and Poisson regression analyses were performed to examine the association between urban indicators and mortalities. The crude mortality rate by ward-unit in 1997 varied from 6.3 to 9.4 deaths per 1000 population. The age-adjusted mortality ratio in 1997 by ward-units as reference to the average mortality of urban China varied from 57.8 to 113.3 within Shanghai. Age-adjusted mortalities were inversely related with indicators of a larger floor space of dwellings per population, a larger proportion of parks, gardens, and green areas to total land area; a greater number of health professionals per population; and a greater number of employees in retail business per population. Spacious living showed independent association to a higher standard of community health in Shanghai (P < 0.05). Consequences of health policy and the developments of urban infrastructural resources from the viewpoint of the Healthy Cities concept were discussed.

  10. Age-adjusted rates of suicide and homicide and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen

    2004-02-01

    Using state data from 1992 and 2000 instead of 1975, the author both confirmed and extended Lester's 1987 study. Like Lester's study, the present replication showed for 1992 (but not 2000) that the more people drinking fluoridated water, the lower the rates of crude and age-adjusted suicide (partial rs: -.25 and -.25, respectively). Crude and age-adjusted rates of homicide in 1992 and 2000 did not change with the fluoridation of public water. Effective interpretation requires more study.

  11. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  12. An age adjustment of very young children of India, 1981 and reappraisal of fertility and mortality rates--A model approach.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, B K

    1986-01-01

    Several approaches were made by actuaries and demographers to correct and smooth the Indian age distribution with special emphasis on population in age group 0-4 at different points of time. The present analysis conceives the life table stationary population (using the West Model) as 'reference standard'. 2 parameters were estimated from a regression equation using the proportion of population in age groups 5-14 and 60-plus as independent variables and that in 0-4 as the dependent variable. The corrected census proportions in age group 0-4 obtained from the regression model under certain assumptions for the 14 major states and India seem to be consistent and to have slightly lower values than those of the 1971 adjusted data. Moreover, unadjusted and adjusted proportions in 5-14 and 60 plus do not show any significant difference between the predicted values. Using the corrected population aged 0-4 years, the average annual birth and death rates during the 5 year period preceeding the 1981 census have been estimated for those 14 states and India as well. The estimated birth rates so obtained were further adjusted using an appropriate factor from the West Model and Indian life table survival ratios. The final estimates seem to be consistent, except for a few, and to have slightly higher values than those of earlier estimates. As the present analysis is based on a 5% sample and confined to only 14 states, it is proposed to study the same for all the states and India in greater detail using full count data on age distribution and actul life tables as and when available.

  13. Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, C.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A significant dose-response relation between ingested arsenic and several cancers has recently been reported in four townships of the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral artery disease related to the chronic arsenic exposure in southwestern Taiwan. This study was carried out to examine ecological correlations between arsenic level of well water and mortality from various malignant neoplasms in 314 precincts and townships of Taiwan. The arsenic content in water of 83,656 wells was determined by a standard mercuric bromide stain method from 1974 to 1976, while mortality rates of 21 malignant neoplasms among residents in study precincts and townships from 1972 to 1983 were standardized to the world population in 1976. A significant association with the arsenic level in well water was observed for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney in both males and females as well as for the prostate cancer in males. These associations remained significant after adjusting for indices of urbanization and industrialization through multiple regression analyses. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient indicating an increase in age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 person-years for every 0.1 ppm increase in arsenic level of well water was 6.8 and 2.0, 0.7 and 0.4, 5.3 and 5.3, 0.9 and 1.0, 3.9 and 4.2, as well as 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, in males and females for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient for the prostate cancer was 0.5. These weighted regression coefficients were found to increase or remain unchanged in further analyses in which only 170 southwestern townships were included.

  14. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  15. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  16. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  17. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom.

  18. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  19. Age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fractures between 2006 and 2009 in Rabat, Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Maghraoui, A; Ngbanda, A R; Bensaoud, N; Bensaoud, M; Rezqi, A; Tazi, M A

    2013-04-01

    This study, characterizing the incidence of hip fracture in the province of Rabat, showed that age- and sex-specific rates remained stable between 2006 and 2009. The demographic projections estimated for Morocco indicate that between 2010 and 2030, the expected annual number of hip fractures would increase about twofold. No data on hip fracture incidence trends exist from Africa. The aim of the study was to determine time trends in hip fracture rates for the province of Rabat and to forecast the number of hip fractures expected in Morocco up to 2030. All hip fracture cases registered during the years 2006-2009 were collected at all the public hospitals and private clinics with a trauma unit and/or a permanent orthopedic surgeon across the province. Over the 4-year period, 723 (54.3%) hip fractures were recorded in women and 607 (45.6%) in men. The age- and gender-specific incidence of hip fracture rose steeply with advancing age. Hip fractures occurred later in women 75.0 (10.7) years than in men 73.3 (11.0) years (p=0.014), and its incidence was higher in women than in men [85.9 (95% CI 79.7-92.2) per 100,000 person-years vs. 72.7 (95% CI 66.9-78.5)]. The incidence remained globally stable over the period study, and the linear regression analysis showed no significant statistical difference. For the year 2010, there were 4,327 hip fractures estimated in Morocco (53.3% in women). Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence of hip fracture from 2010 to 2030, the number of hip fractures in men is expected to increase progressively from 2,019 to 3,961 and from 2,308 to 4,259 in women. The age-specific incidence of hip fracture between the years 2006 and 2009 remained stable in Morocco, and the number of expected hip fractures would double between 2010 and 2030.

  20. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  2. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Rate* for Suicide,(†) by Sex - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1975-2015.

    PubMed

    2017-03-17

    There was an overall decline of 24% in the age-adjusted suicide rate from 1977 (13.7 per 100,000) to 2000 (10.4). The rate increased in most years from 2000 to 2015. The 2015  suicide rate (13.3) was 28% higher than in 2000. The rates for males and females  followed the overall pattern; however, the rate for males was approximately 3-5 times higher than the rate for females throughout the study period.

  3. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group.

  4. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-08-12

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase).

  5. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism mortality rate.

    PubMed

    Benson, Michael D

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) using population-based studies and case series. A literature search was conducted using the two key words: 'amniotic fluid embolism (AFE)' AND 'mortality rate'. Thirteen population-based studies were evaluated, as well as 36 case series including at least two patients. The mortality rate from population-based studies varied from 11% to 44%. When nine population-based studies with over 17 000 000 live births were aggregated, the maternal mortality rate was 20.4%. In contrast, the mortality rate of AFE in case series varies from 0% to 100% with numerous rates in between. The AFE mortality rate in population-based studies varied from 11% to 44% with the best available evidence supporting an overall mortality rate of 20.4%. Data from case series should no longer be used as a basis for describing the lethality of AFE. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. All-cancers mortality rates approaching diseases of the heart mortality rates as leading cause of death in Texas.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Stephen W; Maynard, William Ryan; Risser, David R; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Williams, Melanie A; Garcia, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms (all-cancers) are the leading causes of death in the United States. The gap between the two has been closing in recent years. To assess the gap status in Texas and to establish a baseline to support evaluation efforts for the Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Texas, mortality data from 2006 to 2009 were analyzed. Immediate cause of death data in Texas for the years 2006-2009 were analyzed and rates developed by sex, race/ethnicity, and four metropolitan counties. Overall, for the years 2006-2009, the age-adjusted mortality rates (AARs) among Texas residents for both diseases of the heart and all-cancers decreased; however, during this time frame, there was greater improvement in diseases of the heart AARs as compared with all-cancers AARs. For the four large metropolitan counties of Bexar, Dallas, Harris, and Travis, data were analyzed by sex and race/ethnicity, and 11 of the 12 largest percent mortality rate decreases were for diseases of the heart. Age-adjusted mortality rates among Texas residents from diseases of the heart are showing improvement as compared with the rates for all-cancers.

  8. Investigation Of Obesity-Related Mortality Rates In Delaware

    PubMed Central

    Wentzien, Derald E.; Bautista, Riza C.; Gross, Catherine C.

    2017-01-01

    As Delaware’s adult obesity crisis continues to be a leading public health concern, we evaluated Delaware’s 1999–2014 vital records to examine the association between obesity and mortality. We used the Delaware population death records from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database and the Delaware Health Statistics Center (DHSC). Together with the vital records, we incorporated Microsoft Excel, SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and GIS (geographic information system) tools to analyze obesity influences from county residence, economic status, education, gender, and race. Using the 15-year (1999–2014) time span with the CDC WONDER database, we observed a statistically significant 28.7% increase in the age-adjusted Delaware obesity-related mortality rates (where obesity was a contributory factor). Furthermore, obesity influenced death counts in all three Delaware counties (New Castle, Kent, and Sussex). Kent County experienced the largest increase (66.0%), followed by New Castle County (47.4%), and Sussex County (25.2%). The DHSC mortality rates for all leading causes of death from 2000 to 2011 indicated relatively stable mortality rates for Delaware. However, using CDC WONDER data, the Delaware mortality rate for obesity as a single underlying cause in 2011 was 56.9% higher than mortality rate in 2000. PMID:28690914

  9. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Boesch, C; Goodall, J; Pusey, A; Williams, J; Wrangham, R

    2001-05-01

    In order to compare evolved human and chimpanzees' life histories we present a synthetic life table for free-living chimpanzees, derived from data collected in five study populations (Gombe, Taï, Kibale, Mahale, Bossou). The combined data from all populations represent 3711 chimpanzee years at risk and 278 deaths. Males show higher mortality than females and data suggest some inter-site variation in mortality. Despite this variation, however, wild chimpanzees generally have a life expectancy at birth of less than 15 years and mean adult lifespan (after sexual maturity) is only about 15 years. This is considerably lower survival than that reported for chimpanzees in zoos or captive breeding colonies, or that measured among modern human hunter-gatherers. The low mortality rate of human foragers relative to chimpanzees in the early adult years may partially explain why humans have evolved to senesce later than chimpanzees, and have a longer juvenile period.

  10. Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict.

    PubMed

    Degomme, Olivier; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2010-01-23

    Several mortality estimates for the Darfur conflict have been reported since 2004, but few accounted for conflict dynamics such as changing displacement and causes of deaths. We analyse changes over time for crude and cause-specific mortality rates, and assess the effect of displacement on mortality rates. Retrospective mortality surveys were gathered from an online database. Quasi-Poisson models were used to assess mortality rates with place and period in which the survey was done, and the proportions of displaced people in the samples were the explanatory variables. Predicted mortality rates for five periods were computed and applied to population data taken from the UN's series about Darfur to obtain the number of deaths. 63 of 107 mortality surveys met all criteria for analysis. Our results show significant reductions in mortality rates from early 2004 to the end of 2008, although rates were higher during deployment of fewer humanitarian aid workers. In general, the reduction in rate was more important for violence-related than for diarrhoea-related mortality. Displacement correlated with increased rates of deaths associated with diarrhoea, but also with reduction in violent deaths. We estimated the excess number of deaths to be 298 271 (95% CI 178 258-461 520). Although violence was the main cause of death during 2004, diseases have been the cause of most deaths since 2005, with displaced populations being the most susceptible. Any reduction in humanitarian assistance could lead to worsening mortality rates, as was the case between mid 2006 and mid 2007. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Correlation of mutagenic assessment of Houston air particulate extracts in relation to lung cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.D.; Connor, T.H.; MacDonald, E.J.; Trieff, N.M.; Legator, M.S.; MacKenzie, K.W. Jr.; Dobbins, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    Air particulate extracts from a series of solvents were tested in the Ames mutagen detection system and were found to be mutagenic in varying degrees as a function of the particulate collection site in Houston, Texas. The mutagenicity level at seven sites was compared with age-adjusted mortality rates in the same areas. Significant correlation was found with the lung cancer mortality rates but not with mortality rates for other causes. These findings support the hypothesis of a contribution of urban air particulate to the lung cancer rates. Furthermore, these findings suggest that an index of the mutagenicity of air particulate is a more powerful measure of the human health hazard of air pollution than the traditional indices of particulate concentration.

  13. Geographic Disparity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Mortality Rates among the Taiwan Population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999–2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran’s I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males’ COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females’. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran’s I of the GWR’s residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas. PMID:24845852

  14. Geographic disparity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality rates among the Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999-2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran's I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males' COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females'. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran's I of the GWR's residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas.

  15. [Maternal mortality rates in the IMSS].

    PubMed

    Mojarro, O; Hernandez, D

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on maternal mortality in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) system. World Health Organization recommendations for the definition and measurement of maternal mortality were followed. Death certificates were used to estimate mortality levels, data on the number of live births were used to calculate death rates, and reports of the Study Committees on Maternal Mortality were used to analyze causes of death. Maternal mortality rates declined during the 1980s from 59.9/100,000 live births in 1982-84 to 42.4 in 1987-89, a reduction of 29%. The overall maternal mortality rate in Mexico was estimated at 65/100,000 in 1986. The declining maternal mortality rate, in the context of deteriorating living conditions of the population, appears to be due primarily to the effect of greater coverage of prenatal care, prevention of pregnancies, and a greater relative number of pregnancies at younger ages. Maternal mortality in 1982-84 formed a J-shaped curve in which mortality of younger mothers was higher than that of mothers in intermediate age groups but not as high as that of mothers in the oldest groups. The J-shaped curve was no longer observed in 1987-89, probably because of application of the risk focus in obstetric services and the reproductive risk focus in family planning services. The 5 principal causes of maternal deaths, according to the Study Committees on Maternal Mortality, were toxemia, hemorrhages of pregnancy or delivery, puerperal sepsis, abortion complications, and other complications in the puerperium. These causes accounted for almost 80% of maternal deaths in 1984-86. The decline in the maternal mortality rate does not appear to be associated with reduction in any of the 5 main causes of death except abortion. Greater availability of family planning services contributed to a reduction in the rate of complications of abortion attended by IMSS facilities from 13.7 to 8.0 per 1000 fertile-aged women during the 1980's. Improved

  16. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Shira; Bristow, Benjamin; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection endemic to parts of North America. We used national multiple-cause-of-death data and census population estimates for 1990–2010 to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios (RRs). We modeled trends over time using Poisson regression. Death occurred more often among older persons (RR 2.11, 95% confidence limit [CL] 1.76, 2.53 for those 75–84 years of age vs. 55–64 years), men (RR 2.43, 95% CL 2.19, 2.70), Native Americans (RR 4.13, 95% CL 3.86, 4.42 vs. whites), and blacks (RR 1.86, 95% CL 1.73, 2.01 vs. whites), in notably younger persons of Asian origin (mean = 41.6 years vs. 64.2 years for whites); and in the South (RR 18.15, 95% CL 11.63, 28.34 vs. West) and Midwest (RR 23.10, 95% CL14.78, 36.12 vs. West). In regions where blastomycosis is endemic, we recommend that the diagnosis be considered in patients with pulmonary disease and that it be a reportable disease. PMID:25339251

  17. Blastomycosis mortality rates, United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Diana; Shafir, Shira; Bristow, Benjamin; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection endemic to parts of North America. We used national multiple-cause-of-death data and census population estimates for 1990-2010 to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios (RRs). We modeled trends over time using Poisson regression. Death occurred more often among older persons (RR 2.11, 95% confidence limit [CL] 1.76, 2.53 for those 75-84 years of age vs. 55-64 years), men (RR 2.43, 95% CL 2.19, 2.70), Native Americans (RR 4.13, 95% CL 3.86, 4.42 vs. whites), and blacks (RR 1.86, 95% CL 1.73, 2.01 vs. whites), in notably younger persons of Asian origin (mean = 41.6 years vs. 64.2 years for whites); and in the South (RR 18.15, 95% CL 11.63, 28.34 vs. West) and Midwest (RR 23.10, 95% CL14.78, 36.12 vs. West). In regions where blastomycosis is endemic, we recommend that the diagnosis be considered in patients with pulmonary disease and that it be a reportable disease.

  18. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in U.S. states are associated with well water use

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gary G.; Klug, Marilyn G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown cause and invariably fatal outcome. We sought to evaluate a correlation between motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates and residential radon levels that was previously reported for counties in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationships between age-adjusted MND mortality rates in U.S. states with residential radon levels, well water use, and other variables using structural equation modeling. We observed a significant correlation between MND mortality rates and radon levels. However, in structural equation models, radon did not have a significant, direct effect on MND mortality rates. Conversely, MND mortality rates were significantly and directly predicted by race and by the percentage of the population of each state using well water (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022). We observed similar, significant effects for well water use and MND mortality for males and females separately (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we hypothesize that the association of MND mortality rates with well water use reflects contamination of wells with Legionella, a bacterium common in well water that is known to cause neurologic disease. A Legionella hypothesis is a biologically plausible cause of ALS and suggests new avenues for etiologic research. PMID:27324739

  19. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in U.S. states are associated with well water use.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G; Klug, Marilyn G

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown cause and invariably fatal outcome. We sought to evaluate a correlation between motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates and residential radon levels that was previously reported for counties in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationships between age-adjusted MND mortality rates in U.S. states with residential radon levels, well water use, and other variables using structural equation modeling. We observed a significant correlation between MND mortality rates and radon levels. However, in structural equation models, radon did not have a significant, direct effect on MND mortality rates. Conversely, MND mortality rates were significantly and directly predicted by race and by the percentage of the population of each state using well water (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022). We observed similar, significant effects for well water use and MND mortality for males and females separately (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we hypothesize that the association of MND mortality rates with well water use reflects contamination of wells with Legionella, a bacterium common in well water that is known to cause neurologic disease. A Legionella hypothesis is a biologically plausible cause of ALS and suggests new avenues for etiologic research.

  20. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  1. The relationship between toxics release inventory discharges and mortality rates in rural and urban areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban populations. We used the TRI database, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age-adjusted mortality data, and additional county-level covariate data to conduct a national study at (N = 3,142) of the association between amounts of on-site TRI air and water releases for the years 1988-2006 and total age-adjusted mortality rates for the years 1999-2006, after controlling for the effects of other risk variables. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated significantly higher adjusted mortality rates associated with greater water and air releases in both rural and urban counties. The strongest associations between TRI releases and rural mortality rates were found when 8 or more prior years of TRI release data were used to study subsequent mortality. The results support the use of the TRI as a public reporting tool and a research tool, and demonstrate that greater amounts of air and water TRI releases are related to mortality outcomes for both rural and urban populations. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Biplot models applied to cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Osmond, C

    1985-01-01

    "A graphical method developed by Gabriel to display the rows and columns of a matrix is applied to tables of age- and period-specific cancer mortality rates. It is particularly useful when the pattern of age-specific rates changes with time. Trends in age-specific rates and changes in the age distribution are identified as projections. Three examples [from England and Wales] are given."

  3. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: a comparison of county and state cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, L.D.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tietjen, G.L.; Acquavella, J.F.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. This report considers cancer mortality rates in the region surrounding the Pantex nuclear weapons facility. The working hypothesis was that increased cancer mortality rates would exist in counties proximal to the Pantex Plant. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared age-adjusted cancer mortality rates for the six surrounding counties with Texas state rates for three time periods: 150 to 1959, 1960 to 1969, and 1970 to 1978. These comparisons showed that cancer mortality rates for Carson County (where the plant is located) and the five adjacent and downwind counties were not significantly different from rates for the State of Texas.

  4. Maryland's high cancer mortality rate: a review of contributing demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D M

    1999-01-01

    For many years, Maryland has ranked among the top states in cancer mortality. This study analyzed mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (CDC-Wonder) to help explain Maryland's cancer rate and rank. Age-adjusted rates are based on deaths per 100,000 population from 1991 through 1995. Rates and ranks overall, and stratified by age, are calculated for total cancer mortality, as well as for four major sites: lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal. Because states differ in their racial/gender mix, race/gender rates among states are also compared. Although Maryland ranks seventh in overall cancer mortality, its rates and rank by race and gender subpopulation are less high. For those under 75, white men ranked 26th, black men ranked 20th, and black and white women ranked 12th and 10th, respectively. Maryland's overall rank, as with any state, is a function of the rates of its racial and gender subpopulations and the relative size of these groups in the state. Many of the disparities between Maryland's overall high cancer rank and its lower rank by subpopulation also characterize the major cancer sites. Although a stratified presentation of cancer rates and ranks may be more favorable to Maryland, it should not be used to downplay the attention cancer mortality in Maryland deserves.

  5. Age-period-cohort analysis of suicide mortality rates in Spain, 1959-1991.

    PubMed

    Granizo, J J; Guallar, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    1996-08-01

    Although there is evidence that suicide rates may be increasing in Spain, formal epidemiological studies have been limited to specific cities or counties. The objective of this study was to investigate nationwide trends in suicide mortality from 1959 to 1991 in Spain, with emphasis on age, period, and cohort effects. Age- and sex-specific suicide mortality rates from 1959 until 1991 were obtained from official vital statistics tables from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, the official registry of vital statistics in Spain. Poisson regression and graphical methods were used to model and estimate age, period and cohort effects. Suicide mortality rates increased with age, with a proportional increment for each decade of life of 45% (95% confidence interval: 45-46%). In both males and females, age-adjusted suicide mortality rates decreased from 1959 until the late 1970s and early 1980s. In 1982, trends started to increase, returning to the levels of 1959 in less than 6 years. Cohort effects were small for cohorts born prior to 1940. For cohorts born after 1950, suicide rates increased markedly. The increase in suicide mortality in younger cohorts and the high rates of suicide in the elderly demand further investigation to establish causal mechanisms and preventive strategies.

  6. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  7. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    PubMed

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  8. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity. PMID:17444423

  9. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

  10. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates

  11. Increased Fall-Related Mortality Rates in New Mexico, 1999–2005

    PubMed Central

    Wendelboe, Aaron M.; Landen, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective In 2000, fall injuries affected 30% of U.S. residents aged ≥65 years and cost $19 billion. In 2005, New Mexico (NM) had the highest fall-related mortality rate in the United States. We described factors associated with these elevated fall-related mortality rates. Methods To better understand the epidemiology of fatal falls in NM, we used state and national (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) vital records data for 1999–2005 to identify unintentional falls that were the underlying cause of death. We calculated age-adjusted mortality rates, rate ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by sex, ethnicity, race, and year. Results For 1999–2005 combined, NM's fall-related mortality rate (11.7 per 100,000 population) was 2.1 times higher than the U.S. rate (5.6 per 100,000 population). Elevated RRs persisted when stratified by sex (male RR=2.0, female RR=2.2), ethnicity (Hispanic RR=2.5, non-Hispanic RR=2.1), race (white RR=2.0, black RR=1.7, American Indian RR=2.3, and Asian American/Pacific Islander RR=3.1), and age (≥50 years RR=2.0, <50 years RR=1.2). Fall-related mortality rates began to increase exponentially at age 50 years, which was 15 years younger than the national trend. NM non-Hispanic individuals had the highest demographic-specific fall-related mortality rate (11.8 per 100,000 population, 95% CI 11.0, 12.5). NM's 69.5% increase in fall-related mortality rate was approximately twice the U.S. increase (31.9%); the increase among non-Hispanic people (86.2%) was twice that among Hispanic people (43.5%). Conclusions NM's fall-related mortality rate was twice the U.S. rate; exhibited a greater increase than the U.S. rate; and persisted across sex, ethnicity, and race. Fall-related mortality disproportionately affects a relatively younger population in NM. Characterizing fall etiology will assist in the development of effective prevention measures. PMID:22043102

  12. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part III. Prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Rosen, Barry; Giannakeas, Vasily; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 40 years, the age-adjusted ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA declined by 23%. The decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence, which was largely due to changes in reproductive risk factors. There was no reduction in ovarian cancer case-fatality at 12 years, indicating that improvements in early detection or in treatment did not contribute to the decline in mortality. Here, we discuss potential strategies to further reduce ovarian cancer mortality through prevention, early detection and treatment. The first approach is to increase genetic testing, in order to identify women who are at a high risk of developing ovarian cancer and offer them preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. At present, up to 17% of ovarian cancers are potentially preventable through population-based genetic testing of known ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. The second approach is to increase the proportion of ovarian cancer patients who achieve a status of no residual disease through primary debulking surgery and subsequently receive adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy. We believe that through a combination of screening to better identify low-volume advanced stage ovarian cancer, aggressive surgery to leave no residual disease and adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy, the cure rate of ovarian cancer might be improved significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal use of cigarettes, pipes, and smokeless tobacco associated with higher infant mortality rates in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Eng, Carlin; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S; Kanal, Koum

    2013-09-01

    In the Western Pacific Region, rural women use loose tobacco in betel quid chewing and pipe smoking. We examined the relation between maternal use of tobacco and infant mortality (IM) in a national sample of 24 296 birth outcomes in adult women (n = 6013) in Cambodia. We found that (1) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for maternal use of any tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.26); (2) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for cigarette use (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.54- 4.1), use of pipes (OR = 3.09; [95% CI = 1.86-5.11]), and betel quid chewing (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.10-2.17); and (3) these associations remained after multivariable adjustment for environmental tobacco smoke, malnutrition, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, income, occupation, and urban/rural dwelling. In addition to finding the established association with cigarettes, we also found that maternal use of smokeless tobacco and pipes was associated with higher rates of infant death in Cambodia.

  14. Past and Present ARDS Mortality Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Máca, Jan; Jor, Ondřej; Holub, Michal; Sklienka, Peter; Burša, Filip; Burda, Michal; Janout, Vladimír; Ševčík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    ARDS is severe form of respiratory failure with significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of critical care patients. Epidemiological data are crucial for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, designing studies, and optimizing resource distribution. The goal of this review is to present general aspects of mortality data published over the past decades. A systematic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed was performed. The articles were divided according to their methodology, type of reported mortality, and time. The main outcome was mortality. Extracted data included study duration, number of patients, and number of centers. The mortality trends and current mortality were calculated for subgroups consisting of in-hospital, ICU, 28/30-d, and 60-d mortality over 3 time periods (A, before 1995; B, 1995-2000; C, after 2000). The retrospectivity and prospectivity were also taken into account. Moreover, we present the most recent mortality rates since 2010. One hundred seventy-seven articles were included in the final analysis. General mortality rates ranged from 11 to 87% in studies including subjects with ARDS of all etiologies (mixed group). Linear regression revealed that the study design (28/30-d or 60-d) significantly influenced the mortality rate. Reported mortality rates were higher in prospective studies, such as randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies compared with retrospective observational studies. Mortality rates exhibited a linear decrease in relation to time period (P < .001). The number of centers showed a significant negative correlation with mortality rates. The prospective observational studies did not have consistently higher mortality rates compared with randomized controlled trials. The mortality trends over 3 time periods (before 1995, 1995-2000, and after 2000) yielded variable results in general ARDS populations. However, a mortality decrease was present mostly in prospective studies. Since 2010, the

  15. Quality of HIV Care and Mortality Rates in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, Philip Todd; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Gordon, Adam J.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Rimland, David; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Gaither, Julie R.; Wang, Karen; Asch, Steven M.; McInnes, Donald Keith; Ohl, Michael E.; Bryant, Kendall; Tate, Janet P.; Duggal, Mona; Fiellin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act encourages healthcare systems to track quality-of-care measures; little is known about their impact on mortality rates. The objective of this study was to assess associations between HIV quality of care and mortality rates. Methods. A longitudinal survival analysis of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study included 3038 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients enrolled between June 2002 and July 2008. The independent variable was receipt of ≥80% of 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) abstracted from medical records in the 12 months after enrollment. Overall mortality rates through 2014 were assessed from the Veterans Health Administration, Medicare, and Social Security National Death Index records. We assessed associations between receiving ≥80% of HIV QIs and mortality rates using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results were stratified by unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Results. The majority of participants were male (97.5%) and black (66.8%), with a mean (standard deviation) age of 49.0 (8.8) years. Overall, 25.9% reported past-year unhealthy alcohol use and 28.4% reported past-year illicit drug use. During 24 805 person-years of follow-up (mean [standard deviation], 8.2 [3.3] years), those who received ≥80% of QIs experienced lower age-adjusted mortality rates (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, .65–.86). Adjustment for disease severity attenuated the association. Conclusions. Receipt of ≥80% of select HIV QIs is associated with improved survival in a sample of predominantly male, black, HIV-infected patients but was insufficient to overcome adjustment for disease severity. Interventions to ensure high-quality care and address underlying chronic illness may improve survival in HIV-infected patients. PMID:26338783

  16. [Assessment of the Possibility of Comparing Mortality Rates from Diseases of the Circulatory System in the United States and Russia].

    PubMed

    Boytsov, S A; Andreev, E M; Samorodskaya, I V

    2017-01-01

    to compare and discuss causes of differences between standardized mortality rates (SMR) from diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) among men and women older than 50 years in Russia and USA. Data on mortality rate in the USA were taken from WHO mortality database (WHO MD), those on the USA population by 5-years age bands from Human Mortality Database (HMD). Information on mortality rates in Russia was obtained from Rosstat. In analysis we used age-adjusted death rates and SMR for DCS or ages more or equal 50 years. For standardization of mortality rates we used data of the European Standard Population 2013. By 23 3-digit codes mortality rates among men in USA were higher than in Russia (in the structure of mortality among women there were 28 such codes). Portion of such deaths in Russia in total number of DCS deaths was 6.5% both for men and women, while figures for USA were 36.8 and 40%, respectively. About 99% of differences in SMR from DCS between countries were determined by 8 and 6 groups of causes in men and women, respectively. Analysis of 4-digit ICD codes showed that almost 40% of DSC class deaths both in Russia and USA had the forth digit of ICD-10 code 8 or 9 and were accompanied by wording "other" or "unspecified" or formulation of diseases which were not used in clinical practice and were absent in both guidelines issued by Russian or American professional societies. Despite existence of ICD rules the conducted analysis allows to state that those rules could be interpreted differently in various countries. This resulted in obtaining noncomparable data. Comparison of mortality rates in USA and Russia based on existing ICD coding rules cannot be correctly performed. Therefore, this comparison does not allow to assess contribution of financing and organization of medical service in differences in mortality rates between two countries.

  17. Zinc compound air releases from Toxics Release Inventory facilities and cardiovascular disease mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-chiuan; Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Inhaled zinc has been found in association with cardiopulmonary toxicity. However, limited human epidemiologic studies are available. This study analyzed the association between covariate-adjusted cardiovascular (CVD) mortality rates and zinc compound air releases in the United States. We conducted an ecological analysis on the association between zinc compound air releases for 1991-2000 using the Toxics Release Inventory database and average age-adjusted CVD mortality for 2006-2010, adjusting for race/ethnicity composition and several health and socioeconomic factors. Models were estimated for males and females and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. Zinc compound air releases were positively associated with increased adjusted CVD mortality rates in all four models (β=0.0085, p<0.0001 for males in nonmetropolitan counties; β=0.0093, p<0.0001 for males in metropolitan counties; β=0.0145, p<0.0001 for females in nonmetropolitan counties; and β=0.0098, p<0.0001 for females in metropolitan counties). Results were largely robust to various sensitivity analyses. This study provides epidemiological evidence for possible CVD health impacts of inhaled zinc in the United States. Although the strongest effect was found for females in nonmetropolitan counties, the associations were consistent in nonmetropolitan or metropolitan counties for both genders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  19. The Asymptotic Distribution of Mortality Rates in Competing Risks Analyses,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    For a sample of individuals from an animal or human population under observation in a clinical trial or life test, mortality rates are defined for...model, these mortality rates are shown to have an asymptotic normal distribution. An expression for the asymptotic correlation between a pair of... mortality rates is thus obtained and a necessary and sufficient condition for their asymptotic independence is investigated in some general situations with

  20. Differences in trapping mortality rates of northern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    D.K. Rosenberg; R.G. Anthony

    1993-01-01

    We described trapping mortality rates of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) populations in western Oregon, U.S.A., and evaluated the effects of sex, age, body mass, and number of times an individual was recaptured on these rates. Although the overall trapping mortality rates were relatively low (7%) during 16-21 day trapping sessions, we...

  1. The effect of peer review on mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Krahwinkel, W; Schuler, E; Liebetrau, M; Meier-Hellmann, A; Zacher, J; Kuhlen, R

    2016-10-01

    Lowering of mortality rates in hospitals with mortality rates higher than accepted reference values for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), pneumonia, stroke, mechanical ventilation (MV) and colorectal surgery by using an external peer review process that identifies areas requiring rectification and implements protocols directed at improving these areas. Retrospective, observational, quality management study using administrative data to compare in-hospital mortality rates (pre and post an external peer review process that included adoption of improvement protocols) with reference values. German general hospitals of a large, private group. Hospitals with mortality rates higher than reference values. Peer review of medical records by experienced, outside physicians triggered by in-hospital mortality rates higher than expected. Inadequacies were identified, improvement protocols enforced and mortality rates subsequently re-examined. Mortality rates 1 year before and 1 year after peer review and protocol use. For AMI, CHF, pneumonia, stroke, MV and colorectal surgery, the mortality rates 1 year post-peer review were significantly decreased as compared to pre-peer review mortality rates. The standardized mortality ratio for all of the above diagnoses was 1.45, 1 year before peer review, and 0.97, 1 year after peer review. The absolute risk reduction of 7.3% translates into 710 deaths in this population which could have been prevented. Peer review triggered and conducted in the manner described here is associated with a significant lowering of in-hospital mortality rates in hospitals that previously had higher than expected mortality rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  2. Studies of the mortality rate of Culicoides imicola in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H

    1998-01-01

    Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic.

  3. Shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) is more accurate than age-adjusted hypotension for trauma team activation.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Bredbeck, Brooke; Partrick, David A; Kulungowski, Ann M; Barnett, Carlton C; Bensard, Denis D

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrated previously that shock index, pediatric age-adjusted identifies severely injured children accurately after blunt trauma. We hypothesized that an increased shock index, pediatric age-adjusted would identify more accurately injured children requiring the highest trauma team activation than age-adjusted hypotension. We reviewed all children age 4-16 admitted after blunt trauma with an injury severity score ≥15 from January 2007-June 2013. Criteria used as indicators of need for activation of the trauma team included blood transfusion, emergency operation, or endotracheal intubation within 24 hours of admission. Shock index, pediatric age-adjusted represents maximum normal shock index based on age. Cutoffs included shock index >1.22 (ages 4-6), >1.0 (7-12), and >0.9 (13-16). Age-adjusted cutoffs for hypotension were as follows: systolic blood pressure <90 (ages 4-6), systolic blood pressure <100 (7-16). A total of 559 children were included; 21% underwent operation, 37% endotracheal intubation, and 14% transfusion. Hypotension alone predicted poorly the need for operation (13%), endotracheal intubation (17%), or transfusion (22%). Operation (30%), endotracheal intubation (40%), and blood transfusion (53%) were more likely in children with an increased shock index, pediatric age-adjusted; 25 children required all three interventions, 3 (12%) were hypotensive at presentation, 15 (60%) had an increased shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (P < .001). An increased shock index, pediatric age-adjusted is superior to age-adjusted hypotension to identify injured children likely to require emergency operation, endotracheal intubation, or early blood transfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of mortality rates in the presence of missing values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2015-12-01

    A time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied in the past literature on the United States (US) mortality data from the years 1933 to 2000 to forecast the future age-specific mortality rates of the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, we show that the method based on multivariate power-normal distribution can still be used for an incomplete US mortality dataset that contains some missing values. The prediction intervals based on this incomplete training data are found to still have good ability of covering the observed future mortality rates although the interval lengths may become wider for long-range prediction.

  5. Exercise heart rate gradient: a novel index to predict all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carlos Vieira; Myers, Jonathan; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares

    2015-05-01

    Although substantial evidence relates reduced exercise heart rate (HR) reserve and recovery to a higher risk of all-cause mortality, a combined indicator of these variables has not been explored. Our aim was to combine HR reserve and recovery into a single index and to assess its utility to predict all-cause mortality. Retrospective cohort analysis. Participants were 1476 subjects (937 males) aged between 41 and 79 years who completed a maximal cycle cardiopulmonary exercise test while not using medication with negative chronotropic effects or having an implantable cardiac pacemaker. HR reserve (HR maximum - HR resting) and recovery (HR maximum - HR at 1-min post exercise) were calculated and divided into quintiles. Quintile rankings were summed yielding an exercise HR gradient (EHRG) ranging from 2 to 10, reflecting the magnitude of on- and off-HR transients to exercise. Survival analyses were undertaken using EHRG scores and HR reserve and recovery in the lowest quintiles (Q1). During a mean follow up of 7.3 years, 44 participants died (3.1%). There was an inverse trend for EHRG scores and death rate (p < 0.05) that increased from 1.2% to 13.5%, respectively, for scores 10 and 2. An EHRG score of 2 was a better predictor of all-cause mortality than either Q1 for HR reserve (<80 bpm) or HR recovery alone (<27 bpm): age-adjusted hazard ratios: 3.53 (p = 0.011), 2.52 (p < 0.05), and 2.57 (p < 0.05), respectively. EHRG, a novel index combining HR reserve and HR recovery, is a better indicator of mortality risk than either response alone. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Difficulties with Regression Analysis of Age-Adjusted Rates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    to biased estimates by analogy with standard arguments (e.g. Beber 1977, p.155; Johnston 1972, p.281). -13- 6. Summary We have considered the...compulsory inspection of vehicles. Journal of the American Medical Association, 201: 657-661. Johnston , J. (1977) Econometric Methods. New York: McGraw

  7. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Treesearch

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  8. Cross-National Trends in Mortality Rates among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, GeorgeC.

    1978-01-01

    An examination of death rates among the elderly and trends over the period 1950-1975 and 1970-1975 for selected developed nations provides evidence of continued strong mortality declines for females and somewhat mixed results for males. Implications of these trends for forecasting the mortality component of U.S. population projections are…

  9. Elevated overdose mortality rates among First Nations individuals in a Canadian setting: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Reading, Charlotte; Kane, Daniel; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    To determine the total burden of illicit drug overdose mortality over the study period in the province of British Columbia and investigate possible population-level determinants by estimating rates among subgroups including First Nations individuals. Review of coroner case files. The province of British Columbia, Canada. Individuals dying from an illicit drug overdose between 2001 and 2005. Age-adjusted mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and years of potential life lost (YPLL), stratified by major population groups. Over the study period, 909 individuals died from illicit drug overdoses, including 104 (11.4%) First Nations individuals. Compared to the general population, First Nations males and females suffered from substantially elevated SMR and YPLL. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, First Nations deaths were significantly more likely to be among women, related to injection drug use and to have occurred in the Downtown Eastside area of Vancouver, the local epicentre of human immunodeficiency virus infection and open drug use (all P< 0.05). This report found highly elevated overdose death rates and levels of premature mortality among First Nations Canadians in British Columbia compared to the general population. While previously unidentified, these findings are consistent with the poorer population health profile of First Nations Canadians. Although further research is needed to identify the causes of the elevated death rates, our findings support increased availability of evidence-based overdose prevention measures. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Trends in Gastrointestinal Cancer Mortality Rate in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Klaudia; Szűcs, Mónika; Nyári, Tibor András

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the annual death trends for gastrointestinal cancer in Hungary between 1963 and 2012. Data on the numbers of cancer deaths were obtained from the published nationwide population register. Numbers of deaths from esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer were available during the study period. However, the mortality data for hepatic, pancreatic and gallbladder cancer have been published only since 1979. Joinpoint regression was applied to investigate the annual trends in the rates of cancer mortality. The annual mortality rates of gastric and gallbladder cancer decreased throughout the study period. Furthermore, declines in mortality from esophageal and hepatic cancers have been observed since 1998 and 1995, respectively. However, the rates of colorectal and pancreatic cancer mortality have been increasing in the past few years. Nevertheless, the mortality rates of colorectal and pancreatic cancers have increased in males aged 40-59 years during the study period. Moreover, significantly higher risks of gastrointestinal cancer-related deaths have been observed in males as compared with females except for death related to cancer of the gallbladder. The presented data suggest that the Hungarian mortality rates are particularly high. The detection of gastrointestinal cancers at an early stage would significantly improves the outcome of these malignancies.

  11. Motor neuron disease mortality in Great Britain continues to rise: examination of mortality rates 1975 - 2004.

    PubMed

    Day, Thomas G; Scott, Martin; Perring, Roslyn; Doyle, Pat

    2007-12-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates are rising in Europe and the USA. The most comprehensive UK study was conducted more than 15 years ago. This study examines trends in mortality from MND in England & Wales, and Scotland, between 1975 and 2004. Age, gender, and cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for the period 1975-2004 using national data from England & Wales, and Scotland. Rates were directly age-standardized to the European standard population. Trends in mortality rates over time were examined for men and women separately, as well as by the age groups 0-59 years, and 60 or more years. MND mortality rates rose steadily over the 30-year period 1975-2004 in both sexes in England & Wales, and Scotland. There is a clear upward trend in all four groups (p for trend <0.001). All increases were largely restricted to the age group 60 years and above, with rates showing increases of 70-80%, and no evidence of a flattening of this trajectory. Rates for the 0-59 years age group remained stable over the period. There is evidence of a narrowing of the male-female gap in mortality rates for the age group over 60 years in England and Wales.

  12. Mortality rate and confidence interval estimation in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kevin; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2010-01-01

    Surveys are conducted frequently in humanitarian emergencies to assess the health status of the population. Most often, they employ complex sample designs, such as cluster sampling. Mortality is an indicator commonly estimated in such surveys. Confidence limits provide information on the precision of the estimate and it is important to ensure that confidence limits for a mortality rate account for the survey design and utilise an acceptable methodology. This paper describes the calculation of confidence limits for mortality rates from surveys using complex sampling designs and a variety of software programmes and methods. It contains an example that makes use of the SAS, SPSS, and Epi Info software programmes. Of the three confidence interval methods examined--the ratio command approach, the modified rate approach, and the modified proportion approach--the paper recommends the ratio command approach to estimate mortality rates with confidence limits.

  13. Cancer mortality in Yukon 1999–2013: elevated mortality rates and a unique cancer profile

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Jonathan; Woods, Ryan; Elliott, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada, cancer in the North has been incompletely described. Objective: To determine cancer mortality rates in the Yukon Territory, compare them with Canadian rates, and identify major causes of cancer mortality. Design: The Yukon Vital Statistics Registry provided all cancer deaths for Yukon residents between 1999-2013. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated using direct standardisation and compared with Canadian rates. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using indirect standardisation relative to age-specific rates from Canada, British Columbia (BC), and three sub-provincial BC administrative health regions : Interior Health (IH), Northern Health (NH) and Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH). Trends in smoothed ASMRs were examined with graphical methods. Results: Yukon’s all-cancer ASMRs were elevated compared with national and provincial rates for the entire period. Disparities were greatest compared with the urban VCH: prostate (SMRVCH=246.3, 95% CI 140.9–351.6), female lung (SMRVCH=221.2, 95% CI 154.3–288.1), female breast (SMRVCH=169.0 95% CI, 101.4–236.7), and total colorectal (SMRVCH=149.3, 95% CI 101.8–196.8) cancers were significantly elevated. Total stomach cancer mortality was significantly elevated compared with all comparators. Conclusions: Yukon cancer mortality rates were elevated compared with national, provincial, urban, and southern-rural jurisdictions. More research is required to elucidate these differences. PMID:28598269

  14. Prediction of mortality rates using a model with stochastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2016-10-01

    Prediction of future mortality rates is crucial to insurance companies because they face longevity risks while providing retirement benefits to a population whose life expectancy is increasing. In the past literature, a time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied on mortality data from the United States for the years 1933 till 2000 to forecast the future mortality rates for the years 2001 till 2010. In this paper, a more dynamic approach based on the multivariate time series will be proposed where the model uses stochastic parameters that vary with time. The resulting prediction intervals obtained using the model with stochastic parameters perform better because apart from having good ability in covering the observed future mortality rates, they also tend to have distinctly shorter interval lengths.

  15. Severe hypernatremia correction rate and mortality in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Alshayeb, Hala M; Showkat, Arif; Babar, Fatima; Mangold, Therese; Wall, Barry M

    2011-05-01

    Hypernatremia is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to evaluate whether physicians follow the recommended guidelines for the rate of correction of hypernatremia of ≤0.5 mEq/L/hr and to evaluate the effect of the rate of correction of severe hypernatremia on the mortality of hospitalized patients. A retrospective chart review of 131 consecutively hospitalized patients with severe hypernatremia (serum sodium ≥155 mEq/L) was performed. Primary outcomes were 30-day patient mortality and 72-hour hypernatremia correction. The first 24-hour serum sodium (Na(+)) correction rate was tested as a categorical variable; slow rate (<0.25 mEq/L/hr) and fast rate (≥0.25 mEq/L/hr). The mean admission serum Na level was 159 ± 3 mEq/L. Ninety percent of patients received the recommended <0.5 mEq/L/hr serum Na(+) correction rate; however, hypernatremia was corrected only in 27% of patients after 72 hours of treatment. Thirty-day patient mortality rate was 37%. In multivariable analysis, do not resuscitate status [hazards ratio (HR), 3.85; P < 0.0001], slower correction rate of hypernatremia (HR, 2.63; P = 0.02) and high heart rate (>100 beats/min; HR, 1.99; P = 0.03) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. In patients with severe hypernatremia, the rate of correction of hypernatremia was slow and resulted in inadequate correction in majority of the patients. Both slow rate of hypernatremia correction during the first 24 hours and do not resuscitate status were found to be significant predictors of 30-day patient mortality.

  16. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  17. Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality

    Treesearch

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Edward A. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    We use two rate-process models to describe cell mortality at elevated temperatures as a means of understanding vascular cambium cell death during surface fires. In the models, cell death is caused by irreversible damage to cellular molecules that occurs at rates that increase exponentially with temperature. The models differ in whether cells show cumulative effects of...

  18. [Global self-rated health and mortality in older people].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Huerta, Martín; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between global self-rated health and mortality in older people. A systematic review was performed. The inclusion criteria were longitudinal studies that assessed self-rated health with a single general question and samples of community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or more. Electronic databases were searched and references were reviewed. We selected 18 studies published between 1993 and 2011. Six out of seven studies that analyzed men and women found a higher risk of dying among persons who rated their health as poor; the most frequent covariables were age, gender, chronic diseases, and functional status. Half of the studies that analyzed only men or women found a significant association. The effect of self-reported health on mortality was observed among people younger than 75 years. Results were not dependent on the length of follow-up. The results confirm previous findings suggesting that a negative self-rating of general health predicts mortality. The mechanisms through which this indicator may predict mortality among older people could differ in men and women and need to be elucidated. The role of depression should be investigated, considering that the effect of self-rated health on mortality was not present when depression was included. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  20. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  1. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  2. Rate-control treatment and mortality in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Su-Jung; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiang, Chern-En; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-10-27

    Current American and European guidelines emphasize the importance of rate-control treatments in treating atrial fibrillation with a Class I recommendation, although data on the survival benefits of rate control are lacking. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether patients receiving rate-control drugs had a better prognosis compared with those without rate-control treatment. This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 43 879, 18 466, and 38 898 patients with atrial fibrillation enrolled in the groups receiving β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin, respectively. The reference group consisted of 168 678 subjects who did not receive any rate-control drug. The clinical end point was all-cause mortality. During a follow-up of 4.9±3.7 years, mortality occurred in 88 263 patients (32.7%). After adjustment for baseline differences, the risk of mortality was lower in patients receiving β-blockers (adjusted hazard ratio=0.76; 95% confidence interval=0.74-0.78) and calcium channel blockers (adjusted hazard ratio=0.93; 95% confidence interval=0.90-0.96) compared with those who did not receive rate-control medications. On the contrary, the digoxin group had a higher risk of mortality with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.12 (95% confidence interval=1.10-1.14). The results were observed consistently in subgroup analyses and among the cohorts after propensity matching. In this nationwide atrial fibrillation cohort, the risk of mortality was lower for patients receiving rate-control treatment with β-blockers or calcium channel blockers, and the use of β-blockers was associated with the largest risk reduction. Digoxin use was associated with greater mortality. Prospective, randomized trials are necessary to confirm these findings. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported.

  4. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  5. Female Literacy Rate is a Better Predictor of Birth Rate and Infant Mortality Rate in India.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Suman; Sarkar, Sonali; Pandey, Dhruv K

    2013-01-01

    Educated women are known to take informed reproductive and healthcare decisions. These result in population stabilization and better infant care reflected by lower birth rates and infant mortality rates (IMRs), respectively. Our objective was to study the relationship of male and female literacy rates with crude birth rates (CBRs) and IMRs of the states and union territories (UTs) of India. The data were analyzed using linear regression. CBR and IMR were taken as the dependent variables; while the overall literacy rates, male, and female literacy rates were the independent variables. CBRs were inversely related to literacy rates (slope parameter = -0.402, P < 0.001). On multiple linear regression with male and female literacy rates, a significant inverse relationship emerged between female literacy rate and CBR (slope = -0.363, P < 0.001), while male literacy rate was not significantly related to CBR (P = 0.674). IMR of the states were also inversely related to their literacy rates (slope = -1.254, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression revealed a significant inverse relationship between IMR and female literacy (slope = -0.816, P = 0.031), whereas male literacy rate was not significantly related (P = 0.630). Female literacy is relatively highly important for both population stabilization and better infant health.

  6. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  7. Benchmarking clinical practice in surgery: looking beyond traditional mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo A S; Oliveira, Pedro N; Silva Portela, Conceição; Camanho, Ana S; Queiroz e Melo, João

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes two new measures to assess performance of surgical practice based on observed mortality: reliability, measured as the area under the ROC curve and a living score, the sum of individual risk among surviving patients, divided by the total number of patients. A Monte Carlo simulation of surgeons' practice was used for conceptual validation and an analysis of a real-world hospital department was used for managerial validation. We modelled surgical practice as a bivariate distribution function of risk and final state. We sampled 250 distributions, varying the maximum risk each surgeon faced, the distribution of risk among dead patients, the mortality rate and the number of surgeries performed yearly. We applied the measures developed to a Portuguese cardiothoracic department. We found that the joint use of the reliability and living score measures overcomes the limitations of risk adjusted mortality rates, as it enables a different valuation of deaths, according to their risk levels. Reliability favours surgeons with casualties, predominantly, in high values of risk and penalizes surgeons with deaths in relatively low levels of risk. The living score is positively influenced by the maximum risk for which a surgeon yields surviving patients. These measures enable a deeper understanding of surgical practice and, as risk adjusted mortality rates, they rely only on mortality and risk scores data. The case study revealed that the performance of the department analysed could be improved with enhanced policies of risk management, involving the assignment of surgeries based on surgeon's reliability and living score.

  8. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  9. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate. PMID:26971697

  10. Alcohol availability and cirrhosis mortality rates by gender and race.

    PubMed Central

    Colón, I

    1981-01-01

    This study test whether the availability of alcoholic beverages is a simple integrated dimension as implied by certain policy models and in its treatment by researchers. Factor analysis reveals two independent availability factors: on-premise and retail availability. A correlation analysis found that on-premise availability was related to cirrhosis mortality rates for the total population, White males, non-White males, and White females. It was not related to non-White female cirrhosis mortality. In contrast, retail availability was not related to any of cirrhosis mortality rates. Examination of the states with extremes of high and low on-premise availability indicates that this type of availability is not a manipulable control variable but an index of extant norms toward drinking. It is recommended that differential prevention strategies be adopted rather than a uniform policy prevention model. PMID:7315996

  11. Fiscal decentralisation and infant mortality rate: the Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Farfan, Maria Isabel; Lorant, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of research analysing the influence of fiscal decentralisation on health outcomes. Colombia is an interesting case study, as health expenditure there has been decentralising since 1993, leading to an improvement in health care insurance. However, it is unclear whether fiscal decentralisation has improved population health. We assess the effect of fiscal decentralisation of health expenditure on infant mortality rates in Colombia. Infant mortality rates for 1080 municipalities over a 10-year period (1998-2007) were related to fiscal decentralisation by using an unbalanced fixed-effect regression model with robust errors. Fiscal decentralisation was measured as the locally controlled health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure. We also evaluated the effect of transfers from central government and municipal institutional capacity. In addition, we compared the effect of fiscal decentralisation at different levels of municipal poverty. Fiscal decentralisation decreased infant mortality rates (the elasticity was equal to -0.06). However, this effect was stronger in non-poor municipalities (-0.12) than poor ones (-0.081). We conclude that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to municipalities decreased infant mortality rates. However, this improved health outcome effect depended greatly on the socio-economic conditions of the localities. The policy instrument used by the Health Minister to evaluate municipal institutional capacity in the health sector needs to be revised. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mortality Rates Associated With Odontoid and Subaxial Cervical Spine Fractures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Brubacher, Jacob W; Bohl, Daniel D; Deng, Yanhong; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2015-06-01

    Cervical spine fractures can lead to many devastating consequences. However, mortality rates of older individuals with odontoid or subaxial spine fractures have not been definitively established. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computed tomography of the cervical spine in the emergency department of a level I trauma center over 9 years to compare mortality rates after odontoid and subaxial fractures in elderly persons with those of the general population. We searched the National Death Index for patient death records, and compared mortality rates at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years to sex- and age-matched data from the general population. Odontoid fracture survival was 84.4% at 3 months, 82.2% at 1 year, and 72.9% at 2 years. Male survival was significantly worse compared with age- and sex-matched counterparts (P < .001), but female survival was not (P = .568). In subaxial fractures, survival was 87.9% at 3 months and 85.7% at 1 and 2 years. Male survival was decreased compared with age- and sex-matched counterparts (P < .0001), whereas female survival was not (P = .554). In conclusion, the mortality of men with either fracture was greater compared with age-matched men initially, but this normalized. Female survival was not affected by either fracture.

  13. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution.

  14. Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality rates: effects of model calibration.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, Patricia; Liu, Vincent; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2014-04-01

    Risk-adjusted mortality rates are commonly used in quality report cards to compare hospital performance. The risk adjustment depends on models that are assessed for goodness-of-fit using various discrimination and calibration measures. However, the relationship between model fit and the accuracy of hospital comparisons is not well characterized. To evaluate the impact of imperfect model calibration (miscalibration) on the accuracy of hospital comparisons. We constructed Monte Carlo simulations where a risk-adjustment model is used in a population with a different mortality distribution than in the original model. We estimated the power of calibration metrics to detect miscalibration. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of a hospital comparisons method under different imperfect model calibration scenarios using an empirical method. The U-statistics showed the highest power to detect intercept and slope deviations in the calibration curve, followed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow, and the calibration intercept and slope tests. The specificity decreased with increased intercept and slope deviations and with hospital size. The effect of an imperfect model fit on sensitivity is a function of the true standardized mortality ratio, the underlying mortality rate, sample size, and observed intercept and slope deviations. Poorly performing hospitals can appear as good performers and vice versa, depending on the deviation magnitude and direction. Deviations from perfect model calibration have a direct impact on the accuracy of hospital comparisons. Publishing the calibration intercept and slope of risk-adjustment models would allow the users to monitor their performance against the true standard population.

  15. [Time-trend analysis of diabetes mellitus mortality in Argentina, 1990-2013].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Hernán; Macías, Guillermo

    2017-06-08

    To describe the time trend of mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM) in Argentina in the years 1990-2013, by age and sex. Crude, age-specific, and age-adjusted rates of DM mortality in Argentina were calculated for the period 1990-2013. Mortality data were obtained from the Statistical Report on Deaths issued by the Department of Statistics and Health Information. An analysis of this trend was carried out through joinpoint regression models. Analysis of the trend of crude and age-adjusted DM mortality rates yielded a statistically significant model in which mortality increased between 1990 and 2001 and declined thereafter. Furthermore, for age-adjusted rates, there was a significant downward trend of mortality in women (AAPC -1.10, 95%CI -1.70 to -0.50). Age-specific mortality rates multiplied with every 10-year increment in age. All age groups older than 50 years showed a growing mortality trend between 1990 and 2001. DM mortality mainly affects people over the age of 50 and men. A significant downward trend in age-adjusted DM mortality rates was observed for women. These findings highlight the importance of developing policies for prevention and early detection, as well as of proper coding of multiple causes of death.

  16. Discharge heart rate and mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Seronde, Marie France; Geha, Raghed; Puymirat, Etienne; Chaib, Aurès; Simon, Tabassome; Berard, Laurence; Drouet, Elodie; Bataille, Vincent; Danchin, Nicolas; Schiele, François

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to describe the determinants of discharge heart rate in acute coronary syndrome patients and assess the impact of discharge heart rate on 5-year mortality in hospital survivors. French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) 2005 is a nationwide French registry that included all consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction over 1 month in 223 institutions in 2005. Discharge heart rate was recorded in 3079 patients discharged alive; all had 5-year follow-up. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of high heart rate at discharge. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess the hazard ratio for mortality at 5 years. Heart rate was categorized into 4 groups by quartiles (<60, 61-67, 68-75, >75 beats per minute). High heart rate was defined as ≥75 beats per minute. Landmark analysis was performed at 1 year. Independent predictors of heart rate ≥75 beats per minute at discharge were female sex, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bleeding/transfusion during hospitalization, left ventricular dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and prescription (type, but not dose category) of beta-blockers at discharge. Discharge heart rate was significantly related to mortality at 1 year (hazard ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.24 per 10 beats per minute, P = .02); this was confirmed by landmark analysis, with a 39% increase (hazard ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.84) in the risk of 1-year death for discharge heart rate ≥75 beats per minute vs <75 beats per minute. This relationship was no longer significant between 2 and 5 years. After acute myocardial infarction, patients discharged with high heart rate (≥75 beats per minute) are at higher risk of death during the first year, but not later, irrespective of beta-blocker use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... very different infant mortality patterns. When assessing the relative contribution of the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates to racial and ethnic infant mortality differences, we found that for non-Hispanic black women, ...

  18. Does absorption of ultraviolet B by stratospheric ozone and urban aerosols influence colon and breast cancer mortality rates? Contributions from NASA and NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Frank C.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Grant, William B.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2005-08-01

    Although most ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is absorbed by stratospheric ozone, dense anthropogenic sulfate aerosols in the troposphere may further attenuate UVB in some regions. Mortality rates from colon and breast cancer tend to be much higher in areas with low levels of UVB radiation. These high rates may be due in part to inadequate cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. Satellite data on atmospheric aerosols, stratospheric ozone, and cloud cover were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These data were combined with age-adjusted mortality rates from 175 countries reporting to the World Health Organization. Regression was used to assess the relationship of stratospheric ozone thickness, aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, average skin exposure, and a dietary factor with colon and breast cancer mortality rates. Solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, total cloud cover, and atmospheric aerosols had the strongest associations with mortality rates, apart from a strong influence of diet. Since 95% of circulating vitamin D is derived from current or stored products of photosynthesis, which may be nonexistent or minimal much of the year above 37°N or below 37°S, attenuation of UVB by atmospheric aerosols and clouds may have a greater than expected adverse effect on human health.

  19. Agricultural Chemical Use and White Male Cancer Mortality in Selected Rural Farm Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, C. Shannon; Brace, Kathy D.

    A study of 1,497 nonmetropolitan counties was conducted to test the possible contribution of agricultural chemical use to cancer mortality rates in rural counties. The dependent variables were 20-year age-adjusted mortality rates for 1950 to 1969 for five categories of cancer: genital, urinary, lymphatic, respiratory, and digestive. Because sex…

  20. [Mortality rate associated to traffic accidents and registered motor vehicles].

    PubMed

    Kilsztajn, S; Silva, C R; Silva, D F; Michelin, A; Carvalho, A R; Ferraz, I L

    2001-06-01

    The mortality rate due to traffic accidents is an information often used while making public health policies. In order to measure traffic violence, a study was carried to analyze the number of death by traffic accidents per registered motor vehicle. Based on the number of registered vehicles, population and traffic accident deaths, obtained from the Statistical Yearbook (1999), Demographic Yearbook (1997), Denatran (1999), Ministério da Saúde (2000) and Fundação IBGE (2000) 61 countries and 51 areas in Brazil were studied. Traffic accident mortality rate was broken down into registered motor vehicles per capita and the number of deaths per motor vehicle. To assess this relationship, the samples (international and Brazilian) were subdivided into three groups according to the number of vehicles per capita. To test the statistical significance of this relationship, log-linear regression was used. The number of deaths per motor vehicles is associated to the number of registered motor vehicles per capita. The statistical relationship is -1.067 for international data and -0.515 for the Brazilian data. To prevent traffic accidents, there is a need of further studies to explain the high numbers of deaths due to motor vehicles associated with the low rate of registered motor vehicles per capita.

  1. Trends in United States ovarian cancer mortality, 1979-1995.

    PubMed

    Oriel, K A; Hartenbach, E M; Remington, P L

    1999-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of ovarian cancer mortality in the United States from 1979 to 1995. The mortality data of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were accessed using the Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER). We selected all deaths among women with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 183.0 (ovarian malignant neoplasm). Mortality data for the years 1979-1995 were age-adjusted to the United States 1990 female population, and mortality rates for each year were calculated for females of all ages by age category, by race, and by geographic location. Trends were obtained for the periods 1979-1983 to 1991-1995, and the impact on the number of ovarian cancer deaths was calculated. Age-adjusted ovarian cancer mortality rates have changed little in the United States from 1979 to 1995, but rates are increasing in older women (65 years and older) and decreasing in younger women. Age-adjusted mortality rates are higher among whites than in blacks. Ovarian cancer mortality rates are higher in northern compared with southern states. The trends in ovarian cancer mortality among younger and older women parallel published changes in incidence and may be due to changes in risk factors, such as the use of oral contraceptives. The reasons for the higher ovarian cancer death rates in northern states are unknown. Better understanding of how modifiable risk factors and treatment methods affect ovarian cancer mortality trends is needed.

  2. Disentangling Effects of Vector Birth Rate, Mortality Rate, and Abundance on Spread of Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-04-01

    Models on the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens often fix vector population size by assuming that deaths are offset by births. Although such mathematical simplifications are often justified, deemphasizing parameters that govern vector population size is problematic, as reproductive biology and mortality schedules of vectors of plant pathogens receive little empirical attention. Here, the importance of explicitly including parameters for vector birth and death rates was evaluated by comparing results from models with fixed vector population size with models with logistic vector population growth. In fixed vector population size models, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors, but had no effect on vector population size, as deaths were offset by births. In models with logistic vector population growth, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors and decreased vector population size. Consequently, vector mortality had a greater effect on pathogen spread in models with logistic vector population growth than in models with fixed vector population size. Further, in models with logistic vector population growth, magnitude of vector birth rate determined time required for vector populations to reach large size, thereby determining when pathogen spread occurred quickly. Assumptions regarding timing of vector mortality within a time step also affected model outcome. A greater emphasis of vector entomologists on studying reproductive biology and mortality schedules of insect species that transmit plant pathogens will facilitate identification of conditions associated with rapid growth of vector populations and could lead to development of novel control strategies.

  3. Trends in oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancer mortality rates in Spain, 1952-2006: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Aragonés, Nuria; Ferreras, Eva; García-Pérez, Javier; Cervantes-Amat, Marta; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2014-04-11

    Although oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors, no comparative analysis of mortality rate trends in these illnesses has been undertaken in Spain. This study aimed to evaluate the independent effects of age, death period and birth cohort on the mortality rates of these tumours. Specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by tumour and sex were analysed. Age-period-cohort log-linear models were fitted separately for each tumour and sex, and segmented regression models were used to detect changes in period- and cohort-effect curvatures. Among men, the period-effect curvatures for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers displayed a mortality trend that rose until 1995 and then declined. Among women, oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality increased throughout the study period whereas oesophageal cancer mortality decreased after 1970. Stomach cancer mortality decreased in both sexes from 1965 onwards. Lastly, the cohort-effect curvature showed a certain degree of similarity for all three tumours in both sexes, which was greater among oral cavity, pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers, with a change point in evidence, after which risk of death increased in cohorts born from the 1910-1920s onwards and decreased among the 1950-1960 cohorts and successive generations. This latter feature was likewise observed for stomach cancer. While the similarities of the cohort effects in oral cavity/pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric tumours support the implication of shared risk factors, the more marked changes in cohort-effect curvature for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancer could be due to the greater influence of some risk factors in their aetiology, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. The increase in oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality in women deserves further study.

  4. Mortality disparities in Appalachia: reassessment of major risk factors.

    PubMed

    Borak, Jonathan; Salipante-Zaidel, Catherine; Slade, Martin D; Fields, Cheryl A

    2012-02-01

    To determine the predictive value of coal mining and other risk factors for explaining disproportionately high mortality rates across Appalachia. Mortality and covariate data were obtained from publicly available databases for 2000 to 2004. Analysis employed ordinary least square multiple linear regression with age-adjusted mortality as the dependent variable. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality was independently related to Poverty Rate, Median Household Income, Percent High School Graduates, Rural-Urban Location, Obesity, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity, but not Unemployment Rate, Percent Uninsured, Percent College Graduates, Physician Supply, Smoking, Diabetes, or Coal Mining. Coal mining is not per se an independent risk factor for increased mortality in Appalachia. Nevertheless, our results underscore the substantial economic and cultural disadvantages that adversely impact health in Appalachia, especially in the coal-mining areas of Central Appalachia.

  5. Malignant mesothelioma mortality in the United States, 1999-2001.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ki Moon; Pinheiro, Germania A; Wood, John M; Syamlal, Girija

    2006-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. This paper describes demographic, geographic, and occupational distributions of mesothelioma mortality in the United States, 1999-2001. The data (n = 7,524) were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics multiple-cause-of-death records. Mortality rates (per million per year) were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population, and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated by occupation and industry, and adjusted for age, sex, and race. The overall age-adjusted mortality rate was 11.52, with males (22.34) showing a sixfold higher rate than females (3.94). Geographic distribution of mesothelioma mortality is predominantly coastal. Occupations with significantly elevated PMRs included plumbers/pipefitters and mechanical engineers. Industries with significantly elevated PMRs included ship and boat building and repairing, and industrial and miscellaneous chemicals. These surveillance findings can be useful in generating hypotheses and developing strategies to prevent mesothelioma.

  6. Are mortality rates for different operations related?: implications for measuring the quality of noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Dimick, Justin B; Staiger, Douglas O; Birkmeyer, John D

    2006-08-01

    Except in cardiac surgery, measuring quality with procedure-specific mortality rates is unreliable because of small sample sizes at individual hospitals. Statistical power can be improved by combining mortality data from multiple operations. We sought to determine whether this approach would still be useful in understanding performance with individual procedures. We studied 11 high-risk operations performed in the national Medicare population (1996-1999). For each operation, we calculated 1) the risk-adjusted mortality rate for the procedure and 2) the mortality rate with up to 10 other operations combined ("other" mortality). To test for an association between these mortality rates, we calculated the correlation coefficient adjusting for random variation. We then collapsed hospitals into quintiles of other mortality and calculated procedure-specific mortality rates within each of these quintiles. Mortality with specific operations was modestly correlated with other mortality: coefficients ranged from 0.14 for pneumonectomy to 0.35 for esophagectomy. Despite small to moderate correlations, other mortality was a good predictor of procedure-specific mortality for 10 of the 11 operations. Pancreatic resection had the strongest relationship, with procedure-specific mortality rates at hospitals in the worst quintile of other mortality 3-fold higher than those in the best quintile (15.2% vs. 6.3%, P < 0.001). Pneumonectomy had the weakest relationship with no significant relationship between other mortality and procedure-specific mortality. Hospitals with low mortality rates for 1 operation tend to have lower mortality rates for other operations. These relationships suggest that different operations share important structures and processes of care related to performance. Future efforts aimed at predicting procedure-specific performance should consider incorporating data from other operations at that hospital.

  7. First-year mortality rates for selected birth defects, Hawaii, 1986-1999.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B; Merz, Ruth D

    2003-06-15

    Birth defects have been the leading cause of infant death in the United States for over the last decade. However, there is little population-based data on the first-year mortality rates for many specific birth defects and the factors that may affect these mortality rates. This investigation examined the first-year mortality rates for 54 selected birth defects of various organ systems in Hawaii during 1986-1999 using data from a population-based birth defects registry and evaluated the impact of the presence of chromosomal abnormalities and other structural birth defects and the year of delivery on the mortality rates. Mortality rates varied widely by defect, being highest for anencephaly (100%), trisomy 13 (82%), and trisomy 18 (74%), while no first-year deaths were reported for glaucoma, bladder exstrophy, and persistent cloaca. The majority (36 of 54 or 67%) of the birth defects had a mortality rate of less than 25%. Among the 51 structural birth defects, 38 (75%) had higher first-year mortality rate for cases with chromosomal abnormalities and 42 (82%) had higher first-year mortality rates for cases with other major structural birth defects. The mortality rate among 1986-1992 deliveries was higher than the mortality rate among 1993-1999 deliveries for 37 (69%) of the 54 birth defects. This study indicates that first-year mortality rates vary widely by type of birth defect, although the mortality rate for the majority of birth defects is relatively low. The presence of a chromosomal abnormality or other structural birth defect increases the mortality rate, and mortality rates for the majority of birth defects have declined in Hawaii during the study period.

  8. Mortality Rates Among Relocated Extended-Care Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Gloria M.; Herbert, Carol P.

    1976-01-01

    Male extended-care patients (N=81) relocated due to planned demolition of the building in which their ward was located were followed for 21 months in an effort to examine the influence of relocation on mortality. Results show no increased mortality thus suggesting the degree of environmental change may be important. Paper presented at Canadian…

  9. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  10. Spatial analysis of perinatal mortality rates with geographic information systems in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, O; Çepni, M S; Etiler, N

    2013-04-01

    To determine the spatial patterns of perinatal mortality in Kocaeli, Turkey using geographic information systems (GIS); to examine whether regional differences exist for the period selected; and whether these differences are linked to regional risk factors. Ecological research. Data were obtained from the linked birth-death records data registry maintained by Kocaeli Provincial Health Directorate. Mortality data are added to the geodatabase on a monthly basis. Spatial patterns of mortality rates were determined with GIS by mapping the case differences in the districts, and spatial autocorrelation was used to examine the spatial pattern of mortality rates in the region. Various risk factors contributing to spatial variation of perinatal mortality were revealed in the region. Districts with high mortality rates were shown to be sensitive to these risk factors. The results of this study confirm the direct link between perinatal mortality and poor environmental conditions in the study region. The analyses applied in the study showed that some complex demographic and socio-economic factors should be associated with perinatal mortality rates to identify the geographic patterns of mortality. Implementation of spatial tools within GIS for mortality data showed the efficiency of GIS in perinatal mortality surveillance. This study also demonstrated the capability and utility of GIS to clarify the geographical distribution of perinatal mortality rates in the study area. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of type of ownership of skilled nursing facilities on residents' mortality rates in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; Krivich, M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ownership on the quality and cost of care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) was examined using unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates for such facilities in Illinois for the 1986-87 reporting year. Results indicated that when using unadjusted mortality rates, for-profit facilities had much lower rates than either government-owned or nonprofit SNFs. When mortality rates were adjusted, using available measures of intervening variables, differences by type of ownership disappeared. The higher percentage of discharges to general hospitals exhibited by for-profit facilities, compared with other types of facility ownership, appears to have the strongest effect on SNF mortality rates.

  12. Effects of type of ownership of skilled nursing facilities on residents' mortality rates in Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, R; Krivich, M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ownership on the quality and cost of care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) was examined using unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates for such facilities in Illinois for the 1986-87 reporting year. Results indicated that when using unadjusted mortality rates, for-profit facilities had much lower rates than either government-owned or nonprofit SNFs. When mortality rates were adjusted, using available measures of intervening variables, differences by type of ownership disappeared. The higher percentage of discharges to general hospitals exhibited by for-profit facilities, compared with other types of facility ownership, appears to have the strongest effect on SNF mortality rates. PMID:2120730

  13. Association of Changing Hospital Readmission Rates With Mortality Rates After Hospital Discharge.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Wang, Yongfei; Lin, Zhenqiu; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Ross, Joseph S; Horwitz, Leora I; Desai, Nihar R; Suter, Lisa G; Drye, Elizabeth E; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-07-18

    The Affordable Care Act has led to US national reductions in hospital 30-day readmission rates for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. Whether readmission reductions have had the unintended consequence of increasing mortality after hospitalization is unknown. To examine the correlation of paired trends in hospital 30-day readmission rates and hospital 30-day mortality rates after discharge. Retrospective study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older hospitalized with HF, AMI, or pneumonia from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014. Thirty-day risk-adjusted readmission rate (RARR). Thirty-day RARRs and 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) after discharge were calculated for each condition in each month at each hospital in 2008 through 2014. Monthly trends in each hospital's 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were examined for each condition. The weighted Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for hospitals' paired monthly trends in 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge for each condition. In 2008 through 2014, 2 962 554 hospitalizations for HF, 1 229 939 for AMI, and 2 544 530 for pneumonia were identified at 5016, 4772, and 5057 hospitals, respectively. In January 2008, mean hospital 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were 24.6% and 8.4% for HF, 19.3% and 7.6% for AMI, and 18.3% and 8.5% for pneumonia. Hospital 30-day RARRs declined in the aggregate across hospitals from 2008 through 2014; monthly changes in RARRs were -0.053% (95% CI, -0.055% to -0.051%) for HF, -0.044% (95% CI, -0.047% to -0.041%) for AMI, and -0.033% (95% CI, -0.035% to -0.031%) for pneumonia. In contrast, monthly aggregate changes across hospitals in hospital 30-day RAMRs after discharge varied by condition: HF, 0.008% (95% CI, 0.007% to 0.010%); AMI, -0.003% (95% CI, -0.005% to -0.001%); and pneumonia, 0.001% (95% CI, -0.001% to 0.003%). However, correlation coefficients in

  14. Factors associated with poor hospital mortality rates after the National Health Insurance program.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li

    2015-03-01

    The study examined whether hospital mortality rates have improved since National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan and what factors affect the hospital mortality rates. The related hospital data were collected from databases belonging to the NHI Annual Statistics Information. In addition, panel data analysis and stepwise regression are used to indicate the determinants of hospital mortality rates from 1995 to 2008. The evidence shows that mortality rates have not improved since the NHI; competition, the elderly, family income, the poor, the number of clinical departments, length of stay, new technology, public hospitals and family medical expenses-all affect mortality rates. Moreover, longer length of stay, increase in the number of elderly and low-income families, and inequality of resource allocation have led to high mortality rates. Policy makers first have to realize what drives them to change and then set the benchmarks for their improvement.

  15. Avian growth and development rates and age-specific mortality: the roles of nest predation and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Remes, V

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that avian growth and development covary with juvenile mortality. Juveniles of birds under strong nest predation pressure grow rapidly, have short incubation and nestling periods, and leave the nest at low body mass. Life-history theory predicts that parental investment increases with adult mortality rate. Thus, developmental traits that depend on the parental effort exerted (pre- and postnatal growth rate) should scale positively with adult mortality, in contrast to those that do not have a direct relationship with parental investment (timing of developmental events, e.g. nest leaving). I tested this prediction on a sample of 84 North American songbirds. Nestling growth rate scaled positively and incubation period duration negatively with annual adult mortality rates even when controlled for nest predation and other covariates, including phylogeny. On the contrary, neither the duration of the nestling period nor body mass at fledging showed any relationship. Proximate mechanisms generating the relationship of pre- and postnatal growth rates to adult mortality may include increased feeding, nest attentiveness during incubation and/or allocation of hormones, and deserve further attention.

  16. Long-term mortality rates and spatial patterns in an old-growth forest

    Treesearch

    Emily J. Silver; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Tuomas Aakala; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Understanding natural mortality patterns and processes of forest tree species is increasingly important given projected changes in mortality owing to global change. With this need in mind, the rate and spatial pattern of mortality was assessed over an 89-year period in a natural-origin Pinus resinosa (Aiton)-dominated system to assess these processes...

  17. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Bright, J.B.; Gillis, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the swift fox (Vulpes velox), a species being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but available information about swift fox mortality is inadequate. We used radiotelemetry techniques to examine the magnitude and causes of mortality of swift fox populations in 2 study areas in western Kansas. One study area was predominantly cropland, the other rangeland. Mortality rates, calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation techniques in a staggered entry design, were 0.55 ?? 0.08 (5 ?? SE) for adult and 0.67 ?? 0.08 for juvenile swift foxes. We did not detect differences between study areas in mortality rates for adults or juveniles. Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the major cause of mortality for adult and juvenile swift foxes in both study areas, and vehicle collision was an important mortality factor for juveniles in the cropland study area. No mortality was attributed to starvation or disease.

  18. Evolutionary genetics of lifespan and mortality rates in two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Fox, C W; Bush, M L; Roff, D A; Wallin, W G

    2004-03-01

    The age at which individuals die varies substantially within and between species, but we still have little understanding of why there is such variation in life expectancy. We examined sex-specific and genetic variation in adult lifespan and the shape of mortality curves both within and between two populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, that differ in a suite of life history characters associated with adaptation to different host species. Mean adult lifespan and the shape of the logistic mortality curves differed substantially between males and females (males had lower initial mortality rates, but a faster increase in the rate of mortality with increasing age) and between populations (they differed in the rate of increase in mortality with age). Larger individuals lived longer than smaller individuals, both because they had lower initial mortality rates and a slower increase in the rate of mortality with increasing age. However, differences in body size were not adequate to explain the differences in mortality between the sexes or populations. Both lifespan and mortality rates were genetically variable within populations and genetic variance/covariance matrices for lifespan differed between the populations and sexes. This study thus demonstrated substantial genetic variation in lifespan and mortality rates within and between populations of C. maculatus.

  19. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    For only one of these four mechanisms, competition, can high mortality rates be considered to be a relatively direct consequence of high NPP. The remaining mechanisms force us to adopt a different view of causality, in which tree growth rates and probability of mortality can vary with at least a degree of independence along productivity gradients. In many cases, rather than being a direct cause of high mortality rates, NPP may remain high in spite of high mortality rates. The independent influence of plant enemies and other factors helps explain why forest biomass can show little correlation, or even negative correlation, with forest NPP.

  20. Multiple Metazoan Life-span Interventions Exhibit a Sex-specific Strehler-Mildvan Inverse Relationship Between Initial Mortality Rate and Age-dependent Mortality Rate Acceleration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Landis, Gary N; Tower, John

    2017-01-01

    The Gompertz equation describes survival in terms of initial mortality rate (parameter a), indicative of health, and age-dependent acceleration in mortality rate (parameter b), indicative of aging. Gompertz parameters were analyzed for several published studies. In Drosophila females, mating increases egg production and decreases median life span, consistent with a trade-off between reproduction and longevity. Mating increased parameter a, causing decreased median life span, whereas time parameter b was decreased. The inverse correlation between parameters indicates the Strehler-Mildvan (S-M) relationship, where loss of low-vitality individuals yields a cohort with slower age-dependent mortality acceleration. The steroid hormone antagonist mifepristone/RU486 reversed these effects. Mating and mifepristone showed robust S-M relationships across genotypes, and dietary restriction showed robust S-M relationship across diets. Because nutrient optima differed between females and males, the same manipulation caused opposite effects on mortality rates in females versus males across a range of nutrient concentrations. Similarly, p53 mutation in Drosophila and mTOR mutation in mice caused increased median life span associated with opposite direction changes in mortality rate parameters in females versus males. The data demonstrate that dietary and genetic interventions have sex-specific and sometimes sexually opposite effects on mortality rates consistent with sexual antagonistic pleiotropy.

  1. Injury mortality in New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites, 1958 to 1982.

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, C M; Becker, T M; Wiggins, C L; Key, C R; Hull, H F; Samet, J M

    1989-01-01

    New Mexico has extraordinarily high injury mortality rates. To better characterize the injury problem in New Mexico, we calculated proportionate injury mortality and age-adjusted and age-specific injury mortality rates for the state's 3 major ethnic groups--American Indians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites. According to death certificate data collected from 1958 to 1982 and US population census figures, age-adjusted mortality rates for total external causes varied widely between the sexes and among the ethnic groups. Males in each ethnic group consistently had higher average annual age-adjusted external mortality rates than females. Injury mortality rates for American Indians of both sexes were 2 to 3 times higher than those for the other New Mexico ethnic groups. Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death from injury for all 3 groups. Homicide accounted for twice the proportion of injury death in Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic white males (12.5% and 6.1%, respectively), while the proportion of males dying of suicide was highest in non-Hispanic whites. Deaths from excessive cold and exposure were leading causes of injury mortality for American Indians, but these causes were not among the leading causes of injury mortality for Hispanics or non-Hispanic whites. We conclude that the minority populations in New Mexico are at high risk for injury-related death and that the major causes of injury mortality vary substantially in the state's predominant ethnic populations. Images PMID:2750163

  2. Socioeconomic factors and cervical cancer mortality in Spain during the period 1989-1997.

    PubMed

    Morales Suarez-Varela, M M; Jiménez-López, M C; Llópis-González, A

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of cervical cancer (CC) mortality trends in Spain during the period 1989-1997 at National, Autonomous Community and Provincial levels, in relation to different socioeconomic factors. Data were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The crude mortality rates were age-adjusted using the indirect method and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as socioeconomic status (SES) indicator. National CC age-adjusted mortality rates have increasing slightly, varying from 3.09 deaths/100000 women in 1989 to 3.42 in 1996. The highest age-adjusted mortality rates corresponded to Seville, Palencia and Orense, with 4.13, 4.06 and 3.98 cases/100000 women, respectively. The lowest mortality rates were found in Las Palmas, Cantabria and Alicante with 2.63, 2.77 and 2.80 deaths/100000 women, respectively. A relative risk (RR) of 1.14 (95%CI: 0.98-1.32) ( P=0.048) was observed between the provinces with the lowest SES and highest mortality rate, and those with the highest SES and lowest mortality rate. The results of our study show a slight increasing trend in CC mortality rates in Spain during the period 1989-1997, and suggest that the variations among provinces and Autonomous Communities could be due to CC risk factors (SES related to human papillomavirus, parity, diet, etc.) and differences in early diagnosis.

  3. Hospital closures had no measurable impact on local hospitalization rates or mortality rates, 2003-11.

    PubMed

    Joynt, Karen E; Chatterjee, Paula; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) set in motion payment changes that could put pressure on hospital finances and lead some hospitals to close. Understanding the impact of closures on patient care and outcomes is critically important. We identified 195 hospital closures in the United States between 2003 and 2011. We found no significant difference between the change in annual mortality rates for patients living in hospital service areas (HSAs) that experienced one or more closures and the change in rates in matched HSAs without a closure (5.5 percent to 5.2 percent versus 5.4 percent to 5.4 percent, respectively). Nor was there a significant difference in the change in all-cause mortality rates following hospitalization (9.1 percent to 8.2 percent in HSAs with a closure versus 9.0 percent to 8.4 percent in those without a closure). HSAs with a closure had a drop in readmission rates compared to controls (19.4 percent to 18.2 percent versus 18.8 percent to 18.3 percent). Overall, we found no evidence that hospital closures were associated with worse outcomes for patients living in those communities. These findings may offer reassurance to policy makers and clinical leaders concerned about the potential acceleration of hospital closures as a result of health care reform. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  5. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States.

    PubMed

    van Mantgem, Phillip J; Stephenson, Nathan L; Byrne, John C; Daniels, Lori D; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Harmon, Mark E; Larson, Andrew J; Smith, Jeremy M; Taylor, Alan H; Veblen, Thomas T

    2009-01-23

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  6. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  7. Individual surgeon mortality rates: can outliers be detected? A national utility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Thomas M; Shaw, Catherine A; Garden, O James; Wigmore, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is controversy on the proposed benefits of publishing mortality rates for individual surgeons. In some procedures, analysis at the level of an individual surgeon may lack statistical power. The aim was to determine the likelihood that variation in surgeon performance will be detected using published outcome data. Design A national analysis surgeon-level mortality rates to calculate the level of power for the reported mortality rate across multiple surgical procedures. Setting The UK from 2010 to 2014. Participants Surgeons who performed colon cancer resection, oesophagectomy or gastrectomy, elective aortic aneurysm repair, hip replacement, bariatric surgery or thyroidectomy. Outcomes The likelihood of detecting an individual with a 30-day, 90-day or in-patient mortality rate of up to 5 times the national mean or median (as available). This was represented using a novel heat-map approach. Results Overall mortality rates for the procedures ranged from 0.07% to 4.5% and mean/median surgeon volume was between 23 and 75 cases. The national median case volume for colorectal (n=55) and upper gastrointestinal (n=23) cancer resections provides around 20% power to detect a mortality rate of 3 times the national median, while, for hip replacement, this is a rate 5 times the national average. At the mortality rates reported for thyroid (0.08%) and bariatric (0.07%) procedures, it is unlikely a surgeon would perform a sufficient number of procedures in his/her entire career to stand a good chance of detecting a mortality rate 5 times the national average. Conclusions At present, surgeons with increased mortality rates are unlikely to be detected. Performance within an expected mortality rate range cannot be considered reliable evidence of acceptable performance. Alternative approaches should focus on commonly occurring meaningful outcome measures, with infrequent events analysed predominately at the hospital level. PMID:27799243

  8. Low income, unemployment, and suicide mortality rates for middle-age persons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Sakai, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Taro

    2005-04-01

    The relationships between age-specific suicide mortality rates and social life factors for all 47 Japanese prefectures in 1980, 1985, and 1990 were assessed by multiple regression analysis after factor analysis on 20 social life indicators. During this period, Japan experienced a secondary oil crisis in 1980-1983 and a bubble economy in 1986-1990. It was concluded that (1) low income was the major determinant which positively affected suicide mortality rate in middle-aged men during a previous 20-yr. period (1970-1990), (2) urbanization was negatively associated with male suicide mortality rates in most of the age classes in the 1980s, (3) unemployment was one of the major determinants of increased suicide mortality rate in middle-age men in the 1980s, and (4) unemployment was the major factor which was inversely associated with suicide mortality rate for elderly women from 1980 to 1990 in Japan.

  9. Hot spots in mortality from drug poisoning in the United States, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Khan, Diba; Warner, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several years, the death rate associated with drug poisoning has increased by over 300% in the U.S. Drug poisoning mortality varies widely by state, but geographic variation at the substate level has largely not been explored. National mortality data (2007-2009) and small area estimation methods were used to predict age-adjusted death rates due to drug poisoning at the county level, which were then mapped in order to explore: whether drug poisoning mortality clusters by county, and where hot and cold spots occur (i.e., groups of counties that evidence extremely high or low age-adjusted death rates due to drug poisoning). Results highlight several regions of the U.S. where the burden of drug poisoning mortality is especially high. Findings may help inform efforts to address the growing problem of drug poisoning mortality by indicating where the epidemic is concentrated geographically.

  10. Mortality rates of community-residing adults with and without dentures.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Kakuhiro; Takiguchi, Toru; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Youko; Ito, Gakuji; Inoue, Masakazu; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2008-09-01

    To prospectively study how dental status with and without dentures could become a predictor of overall mortality risk. Five thousand six hundred eighty-eight community residents over 40 years old in the Miyako Islands, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were followed up for 15 years from 1987-2002. We found that female subjects with less than 10 functional teeth and without dentures showed a significantly higher mortality rate than those with dentures. There was no significant difference of mortality rates in male subjects. There were no significant differences of mortality rates between subjects with 10 or more functional teeth with and without dentures. The present study suggests that dentures are one of the factors associated with mortality rates especially in female subjects with less than 10 functional teeth.

  11. Decelerating Mortality Rates in Older Ages and its Prospects through Lee-Carter Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Yadav, Suryakant; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempts to study the age pattern mortality and prospects through Lee-Carter approach. The objectives of the study are to examine the trend of mortality decline and life expectancy. Contemporaneously, we have projected life expectancy up to 2025, projecting ASDR using Lee-Carter method. Life table aging rate (LAR) used to estimate the rate of mortality deceleration. Overtime, LAR increased and during recent decade it remained more or less unchanged. By age, LAR significant increased in the oldest of old. The slope is steepest in the oldest of old in the recent decade. The rates of mortality increased in oldest of old as the age group is more vulnerable to chronic disease and vulnerable to identifiable risk factors for virtually every disease, marked by senility. The analysis revealed that the level of mortality is not declining but rate of acceleration is declining and is further expected to decline. By the year 2025, the age specific death rates for the age group 5–9 and 10–14 will go below one per thousand.Life expectancy will attained as high as 73 and 79 years for male and female and is further expected to increase linearly. 71 percent of total female birth and 57 percent of total male birth will survive up to age 70+. Also the findings revealed that mortality rate is declining with constant rate up to age 70 and thereafter, the mortality rate accelerates and this holds true for both sexes. PMID:23236414

  12. Understanding racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. infant mortality rates.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Marian F; Mathews, T J

    2011-09-01

    In the United States, different racial and ethnic groups have very different infant mortality patterns. When assessing the relative contribution of the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates to racial and ethnic infant mortality differences, we found that for non-Hispanic black women, 78 percent of their elevated infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was due to their higher percentage of preterm births, while 22 percent was due to higher gestational age-specific infant mortality rates (primarily at 34 weeks of gestation or more). For Puerto Rican women, their elevated infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was entirely due to their higher percentage of preterm births. However, AIAN women had a very different infant mortality pattern: 76 percent of their higher infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was due to their higher gestational age-specific infant mortality rates (primarily at 34 weeks or more), and only 24 percent was due to their higher percentage of preterm births.These findings are consistent with the cause-of-death analysis, which found that for bothnon-Hispanic black and Puerto Rican women, most of their higher infant mortality rate compared with non-Hispanic white women was due to preterm-related causes. In contrast, for AIAN women, the infant mortality rate from SIDS was 2.4 times, and the rate from unintentional injuries was 2.3 times, the non-Hispanic white rate. Infant mortality rates for non-Hispanic black women would be reduced by 71 percent, those for AIAN women by 64 percent, and those for Puerto Rican women by 67 percent if rates from preterm-related causes, congenital malformations, SIDS, and unintentional injuries could be reduced to non-Hispanic white levels.The different infant mortality patterns for non-Hispanic black, Puerto Rican, and AIAN women suggest different prevention strategies (6,7). In addition, because the percentage of

  13. Pollution sources and mortality rates across rural-urban areas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Census, and others. We described the types of pollution sources present in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties and examined the associations between these sources and rates of all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer mortality while controlling for age, race, and other covariates. Rural counties had 65,055 EPA-monitored pollution discharge sites. As expected, rural counties had significantly greater exposure to potential agriculture-related pollution. Regression models specific to rural counties indicated that greater density of water pollution sources was significantly associated with greater total and cancer mortality. Rural air pollution sources were associated with greater cancer mortality rates. Rural coal mining areas had higher total, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality rates. Agricultural production was generally associated with lower mortality rates. Greater levels of human development were significantly related to higher adjusted total and cancer mortality. The association between pollution sources and mortality risk is not a phenomenon limited to metropolitan areas. Results carry policy implications regarding the need for effective environmental standards and monitoring. Further research is needed to better understand the types and distributions of pollution in rural areas, and the health consequences that result. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Women Chemists Mortality Study Finds High Suicide Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A study of white women members (N=347) of the American Chemical Society who died between 1925 and 1979 finds five times the expected rate of suicide, a higher risk for some forms of cancer, and a lower rate of heart disease. These and other findings are discussed. (JN)

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mortality rates in Chile: A population based study (1994-2010).

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Daniel; Zitko, Pedro; Lillo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to describe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality rates in the Chilean population over a 17-year period. Chilean death records (1994-2010) were reviewed for the ICD-10 diagnosis G.12.2 (including motor neuron disease and similar conditions), and weighted with population data. Crude and standardized mortality rates by ALS were calculated at the nationwide level and by geographic zone. A risk analysis was performed in successive cohorts from 1910-1919 to 1960-1969, comparing mortality slopes. One thousand six hundred and seventy-one deaths were recorded during 1994-2010, with an average of 1.13 per 100,000, a 1.2:1 male/female ratio, and a statistically significant increase in mortality rate. According to geographical distribution, the Austral area, with a larger population of European origin, showed higher mortality rates compared to the national average. The cohort analysis showed an increasing risk of dying from ALS for all cohorts, and highest above 64 years of age, becoming a competitive cause of death in older ages. In conclusion, as expected, the mortality rate in Chile by ALS is higher than that reported previously in our country, and similar to other Latin American countries. ALS mortality rate has increased over time probably due to the aging of the population and decline in rates for competing causes of death.

  16. Contribution of climate and air pollution to variation in coronary heart disease mortality rates in England.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999-2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment--temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England.

  17. Contribution of Climate and Air Pollution to Variation in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates in England

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999–2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment - temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (p<0.05), suggesting that CHD mortality rates were higher in areas with lower average temperature and hours of sunshine. After adjustment for the unhealthy lifestyle of populations and deprivation, the climate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England. PMID:22427884

  18. Seasonal mortality rates of Oithona similis (Cyclopoida) in a large Arctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.

    2012-08-01

    Instantaneous mortality rates of the common planktonic copepod Oithona similis were investigated for the first time in Kola Bay, a region of the Barents Sea that is influenced by freshwater discharge. The rates were estimated in different seasons (December, May, September 2005 and July 2006). A vertical life table approach (VLT) was used to assess mortality. The total abundance of O. similis (copepodites IV and V, and adults) was highest in autumn and lowest in winter. The maximum mortality of O. similis for the stage pair copepodite IV-copepodite V (0.005 ± 0.001 day-1) occurred in December 2005, while the highest mortality rates for the pairs copepodite VM-adult male (0.453 ± 0.026 day-1) and copepodite VF-adult female (0.228 ± 0.006 day-1) occurred in summer 2006. Simple regression analyses showed that the total abundance of each stage and the mortality rates were positively significantly correlated with water temperature. The mortality rates for the stage pairs copepodite VM-adult male and copepodite VF-adult female were positively significantly correlated with chlorophyll a concentration. The abundance and mortality rate of O. similis in each season was determined by life cycle factors, and possibly by the dynamics of its food resources and potential predators.

  19. Integrating Self-Rated Health and Social Involvement for the Examination of Mortality among Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; Wilcox, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Integrated ratings of global health status and reports of social involvements into single, combined variable. Used variable to predict mortality over three time periods. Data from 6,053 self-respondents aged 70 and older at baseline in 1984 showed that combined variable produced substantial effects on mortality, particularly for 1984-86 and…

  20. What do hospital mortality rates tell us about quality of care?

    PubMed

    Goodacre, Steve; Campbell, Mike; Carter, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Hospital mortality rates could be useful indicators of quality of care, but careful statistical analysis is required to avoid erroneously attributing variation in mortality to differences in health care when it is actually due to differences in case mix. The summary hospital mortality indicator is currently used by the English National Health Service (NHS). It adjusts mortality rates up to 30 days after discharge for patient age, sex, type of admission, year of discharge, comorbidity, deprivation and diagnosis. Such risk-adjustment methods have been used to identify poor performance, most notably at mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, but their use is subject to a number of limitations. Studies exploring whether variation in risk-adjusted mortality can be explained by variation in healthcare have reached conflicting conclusions. Furthermore, concerns have been raised that the proportion of preventable deaths among hospital admissions is too small to produce a reliable 'signal' in risk-adjusted mortality rates. This provides hospital managers, regulators and clinicians with a considerable dilemma. Variation in mortality rates cannot be ignored, as they might indicate unacceptable variation in healthcare and avoidable mortality, but they also cannot be reliably used to judge the quality of healthcare, based on current evidence.

  1. Integrating Self-Rated Health and Social Involvement for the Examination of Mortality among Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; Wilcox, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Integrated ratings of global health status and reports of social involvements into single, combined variable. Used variable to predict mortality over three time periods. Data from 6,053 self-respondents aged 70 and older at baseline in 1984 showed that combined variable produced substantial effects on mortality, particularly for 1984-86 and…

  2. Effects of hospital closure on mortality rates of the over-65 long-stay psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G A; Whyte, J

    1998-12-01

    The closure of this 100-year-old hospital has allowed us to look at the effect on mortality of moving the whole over-65 long-stay population to other settings. Our results confirm that there is a slight excess of deaths during and immediately after these moves, but that there is no longer-term effect on mortality rates.

  3. Trends in mortality rates of cutaneous melanoma in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Jin, Shaofei

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has rapidly increased over the past four decades. CM is often overlooked in East Asian populations due to its low incidence, despite East Asia making up 22% of the world's population. Since the 1990s, Caucasian populations have seen a plateau in CM mortality rates; however, there is little data investigating the mortality rates of CM in East Asian populations. In this study, the World Health Organization Mortality Database with the joinpoint regression method, and a generalized additive model were used to investigate trends in age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of CM in four East Asia regions (Japan, Republic of Korea (Korea), China: Hong Kong (Hong Kong), and Singapore) over the past six decades. In addition, mortality rate ratios by different variables (i.e., sex, age group, and region) were analyzed. Our results showed ASMRs of CM in East Asia significantly increased non-linearly over the past six decades. The joinpoint regression method indicated women had greater annual percentage changes than men in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Men had significantly greater mortality rate ratio (1.51, 95% CI [1.48-1.54]) than women. Mortality rate ratios in 30-59 and 60+ years were significant greater than in the 0-29 years. Compared to Hong Kong, mortality rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI [0.70-0.74]) times, 0.73 (95% CI [0.70-0.75]) times, and 1.02 (95% CI [1.00-1.05]) times greater in Japan, Korea, and Singapore, respectively. Although there is limited research investigating CM mortality rates in East Asia, results from the present study indicate that there is a significant growth in the ASMRs of CM in East Asian populations, highlighting a need to raise awareness of CM in the general population.

  4. Trends in mortality rates of cutaneous melanoma in East Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has rapidly increased over the past four decades. CM is often overlooked in East Asian populations due to its low incidence, despite East Asia making up 22% of the world’s population. Since the 1990s, Caucasian populations have seen a plateau in CM mortality rates; however, there is little data investigating the mortality rates of CM in East Asian populations. In this study, the World Health Organization Mortality Database with the joinpoint regression method, and a generalized additive model were used to investigate trends in age standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) of CM in four East Asia regions (Japan, Republic of Korea (Korea), China: Hong Kong (Hong Kong), and Singapore) over the past six decades. In addition, mortality rate ratios by different variables (i.e., sex, age group, and region) were analyzed. Our results showed ASMRs of CM in East Asia significantly increased non-linearly over the past six decades. The joinpoint regression method indicated women had greater annual percentage changes than men in Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Men had significantly greater mortality rate ratio (1.51, 95% CI [1.48–1.54]) than women. Mortality rate ratios in 30−59 and 60+ years were significant greater than in the 0−29 years. Compared to Hong Kong, mortality rate ratio was 0.72 (95% CI [0.70–0.74]) times, 0.73 (95% CI [0.70–0.75]) times, and 1.02 (95% CI [1.00–1.05]) times greater in Japan, Korea, and Singapore, respectively. Although there is limited research investigating CM mortality rates in East Asia, results from the present study indicate that there is a significant growth in the ASMRs of CM in East Asian populations, highlighting a need to raise awareness of CM in the general population. PMID:28028475

  5. [Evolution of the infant mortality rate in la Rioja in Spain (1980-1998)].

    PubMed

    Llanos De La Torre Quiralte, M; Garijo Ayestarán, M; Poch Olivé, M L

    2001-11-01

    Before the 1990s, the infant mortality rate in the province of La Rioja was the highest in Spain and was 60 % higher than the Spanish average. This led to the implementation of several measures to lower this rate. To analyze infantile mortality rates and their components in La Rioja before and after the implementation of the measures and to compare these rates with those of the other autonomous communities and with the national average. The study period was from 1980 to 1998. Data were obtained from the National Statistics Institute, the official mortality register of La Rioja and the records of the San Millán-San Pedro Hospital in Logroño (La Rioja). The World Health Organization's definition of mortality was used. From 1980-1998 the infant mortality rate in La Rioja decreased from 15.4 to 5.9 per thousand (neonatal mortality: from 10.84 to 3.68; postneonatal mortality: from 4.56 to 2.21; perinatal mortality: from 20.54 to 5.1). In the same period, the national rate decreased from 12.34 to 4.85. Data from the autonomous communities were analyzed by comparing the last two 5-year periods: La Rioja showed a decrease of 40.41 % (from 10.71 to 6.06 per thousand), which was the greatest decrease in Spain. The decrease in the infant mortality rate in La Rioja during the last decade indicates that the measures adopted have been successful. Even so, these rates remain among the highest in Spain and continued efforts should be made to reduce them.

  6. Trends in infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio; Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Urrutia-Toro, Yohana; Castro-Mora, Cristian; Santander-Manríquez, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at <32 weeks and <1500g was calculated, establishing causes of death and evaluating its relation with specific interventions, such as the use of surfactant and antenatal corticoids. Since the year 2000, infant mortality rates have stopped their decrease in comparison to the preceding decade and the gap between national and local rates before 2000 was drastically reduced. Mortality at <32 weeks and <1500g varied between 88% and 200% of liveborns, emphasizing respiratory distress as the main cause of death. The use of corticoids and surfactant was in line with reductions in mortality rates.

  7. High infant mortality rate, high total fertility rate and very low female literacy in selected African countries.

    PubMed

    Susuman, A Sathiya; Chialepeh, Wilson N; Bado, Aristide; Lailulo, Yishak

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the top 10 selected African countries with key interventions such as high infant mortality rate, high total fertility rate and female literacy rate. The World Bank's 2013 data were used. Descriptive analyses were performed. Findings show that Sierra Leone (107.2), Angola (102) and Central Africa Republic (96.1) reported the highest infant mortality rate per 1000 live births. The total fertility rates in Niger (7.6), Mali (6.8) and Somalia (6.6) were higher than other comparable countries. Health care service providers need to pay more attention during pregnancy periods, improve number of field visits, identify pregnant women and promote 100% antenatal care if this is done practically, these countries will reduce and ultimately eliminate infant mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  9. Monitoring trends in under-5 mortality rates through national birth history surveys.

    PubMed

    Korenromp, E L; Arnold, F; Williams, B G; Nahlen, B L; Snow, R W

    2004-12-01

    We assessed whether Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a large and high-quality source of under-5 mortality estimates in developing countries, would be able to detect reductions in under-5 mortality as established in global child health goals. Mortality estimates from 41 DHS conducted in African countries between 1986 and 2002, for the interval of 0-4 years preceding each survey (with a mean time lag of 2.5 years), were reviewed. The median relative error on national mortality rates was 4.4%. In multivariate regression, the relative error decreased with increasing sample size, increasing fertility rates, and increasing mortality rates. The error increased with the magnitude of the survey design effect, which resulted from cluster sampling. With levels of precision observed in previous surveys, reductions in all-cause under-5 mortality rates between two subsequent surveys of 15% or more would be detectable. The detection of smaller mortality reductions would require increases in sample size, from a current median of 7060 to over 20,000 women. Across the actual surveys conducted between 1986 and 2002, varying mortality trends were apparent at a national scale, but only around half of these were statistically significant. The interpretation of changes in under-5 mortality rates between subsequent surveys needs to take into account statistical significance. DHS birth history surveys with their present sampling design would be able to statistically confirm under-5 mortality reductions in African countries if true reductions were 15% or larger, and are highly relevant to tracking progress towards existing international child health targets.

  10. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Janine E; St John, Freya A V; Griffiths, Richard A; Roberts, David L

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates.

  11. Forecasting the mortality rates using Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, R. I.; Ngataman, N.; Abrisam, W. N. A. Wan Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Improvement in life expectancies has driven further declines in mortality. The sustained reduction in mortality rates and its systematic underestimation has been attracting the significant interest of researchers in recent years because of its potential impact on population size and structure, social security systems, and (from an actuarial perspective) the life insurance and pensions industry worldwide. Among all forecasting methods, the Lee-Carter model has been widely accepted by the actuarial community and Heligman-Pollard model has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. Therefore, this paper only focuses on Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model. The main objective of this paper is to investigate how accurately these two models will perform using Malaysian data. Since these models involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 8.0 (MATLAB 8.0) software will be used to estimate the parameters of the models. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) procedure is applied to acquire the forecasted parameters for both models as the forecasted mortality rates are obtained by using all the values of forecasted parameters. To investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecasted results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The results indicate that both models provide better results for male population. However, for the elderly female population, Heligman-Pollard model seems to underestimate to the mortality rates while Lee-Carter model seems to overestimate to the mortality rates.

  12. Rate and time trend of perinatal, infant, maternal mortality, natality and natural population growth in kosovo.

    PubMed

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. THE DATA WERE TAKEN FROM: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality

  13. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  14. Contemporary 90-day mortality rates after radical cystectomy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, J; Gandaglia, G; Larcher, A; Sun, M; Tian, Z; Shariat, S F; McCormack, M; Valiquette, L; Montorsi, F; Graefen, M; Saad, F; Karakiewicz, P I

    2014-12-01

    Existing radical cystectomy (RC) perioperative mortality estimates may underestimate the contemporary rates due to more advanced age, more baseline comorbidities and potentially broader inclusion criteria for RC, relative to past criteria. Within the most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database we identified clinically non-metastatic, muscle-invasive (T2-T4a) urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) patients, who underwent RC between 1991 and 2009. Mortality at 30- and 90-day after RC was quantified. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested predictors of 90-day mortality. Within 5207 assessable RC patients 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 5.2 and 10.6%, respectively. According to age 65-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80 years, 90-day mortality rates were 6.4, 10.1 and 14.8% (p < 0.001). Additionally, 90-day mortality rates increased with increasing Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI, 0, 1, 2 and ≥ 3): 6.3, 10.3, 12.6 and 15.9% (p < 0.001). 90-day mortality rate in unmarried patients was 13.0 vs. 9.3% in married individuals (p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, advanced age, higher CCI, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status and non organ-confined stage were independent predictors of 90-day mortality (all p < 0.05). The contemporary SEER-Medicare derived 90-day mortality rates are substantially higher than previously reported estimates from centers of excellence, and even exceed previous SEER reports. More advanced age, higher CCI score, and other patient characteristics that distinguish the current population from others account for these differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Sepsis Mortality Clusters in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Wang, Henry E

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, sepsis is a major public health problem accounting for over 200,000 annual deaths. The aims of this study were to identify U.S. counties with high sepsis mortality and to assess the community characteristics associated with increased sepsis mortality. We performed a descriptive analysis of 2003 through 2012 Compressed Mortality File data. We defined sepsis deaths as deaths associated with an infection, classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Version. Three thousand one hundred and eight counties in the contiguous U.S. counties, excluding Hawaii and Alaska. Using geospatial autocorrelation methods, we defined county-level sepsis mortality as strongly clustered, moderately clustered, and nonclustered. We approximated the mean crude, age-adjusted, and community-adjusted sepsis mortality rates nationally and for clustering groups. We contrasted demographic and community characteristics between clustering groups. We performed logistic regression for the association between strongly clustered counties and community characteristics. Among 3,108 U.S. counties, the age-adjusted sepsis mortality rate was 59.6 deaths per 100,000 persons (95% CI, 58.9-60.4). Sepsis mortality was higher in the Southern U.S. and clustered in three major regions: Mississippi Valley, Middle Georgia, and Central Appalachia. Among 161 (5.2%) strongly clustered counties, age-adjusted sepsis mortality was 93.1 deaths per 100,000 persons (95% CI, 90.5-95.7). Strongly clustered sepsis counties were more likely to be located in the south (92.6%; p < 0.001), exhibit lower education, higher impoverished population, without medical insurance, higher medically uninsured rates, and had higher unemployment rates (p < 0.001). Sepsis mortality is higher in the Southern United States, with three regional clusters: "Mississippi Valley," "Middle Georgia," and "Central Appalachia": Regions of high sepsis mortality are characterized by lower education, income

  16. US County-Level Trends in Mortality Rates for Major Causes of Death, 1980–2014

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W.; Morozoff, Chloe; Kutz, Michael J.; Huynh, Chantal; Barber, Ryan M.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE County-level patterns in mortality rates by cause have not been systematically described but are potentially useful for public health officials, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve health and reduce geographic disparities. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the use of a novel method for county-level estimation and to estimate annual mortality rates by US county for 21 mutually exclusive causes of death from 1980 through 2014. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Redistribution methods for garbage codes (implausible or insufficiently specific cause of death codes) and small area estimation methods (statistical methods for estimating rates in small subpopulations) were applied to death registration data from the National Vital Statistics System to estimate annual county-level mortality rates for 21 causes of death. These estimates were raked (scaled along multiple dimensions) to ensure consistency between causes and with existing national-level estimates. Geographic patterns in the age-standardized mortality rates in 2014 and in the change in the age-standardized mortality rates between 1980 and 2014 for the 10 highest-burden causes were determined. EXPOSURE County of residence. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cause-specific age-standardized mortality rates. RESULTS A total of 80 412 524 deaths were recorded from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2014, in the United States. Of these, 19.4 million deaths were assigned garbage codes. Mortality rates were analyzed for 3110 counties or groups of counties. Large between-county disparities were evident for every cause, with the gap in age-standardized mortality rates between counties in the 90th and 10th percentiles varying from 14.0 deaths per 100 000 population (cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases) to 147.0 deaths per 100 000 population (cardiovascular diseases). Geographic regions with elevated mortality rates differed among causes: for example, cardiovascular disease mortality tended to be highest along the

  17. Age-Specific Morbidity and Mortality Rates Among U.S. Navy Enlisted Divers and Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare age-specific hospitalization, disability, and mortality rates for diving-related and stress- induced...actions for stress-related disorders were observed among controls than divers. For both groups, medical board, physical evaluation board, and mortality ... rates increased with age as did hospitalization for musculoskeletal disorders, stress-related disorders, and circulatory diseases. Subsequent research

  18. [Mortality for accident in Tuscany Region (Central Italy) in immigrants from countries at high migration rates].

    PubMed

    Indiani, Laura; Martini, Andrea; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    to examine the characteristics and mortality trends for specific type of accident in immigrants resident in Tuscany and to compare them to those observed in Italians resident in the same region. descriptive study using the data of the Regional Mortality Registry of Tuscany. 1997-2008 deaths for accidents by citizenship ("Italians" and "Immigrants" from Countries with strong migratory pressure or PFPM) in residents in Tuscany. number of deaths, proportional mortality and standardized (standard: European population) mortality 15-64 truncated rates per 100,000 for each specific accidental cause of death, by gender and population (PFPM and Italians), in 1997-2008, and confidence intervals at 95% (95%CI); trends in mortality standardized truncated rates for specific accidental cause in immigrants and Italians in 2002-2008. in the period 1997-2008, 315 deaths for accidents have been registered in immigrants. The comparison between immigrants and Italians did not reveal any significant difference in mortality for road and at work accidents. Suicides are significantly higher in Italian males (rate in Italians 9.3; 95%CI 8.7-10.0 vs. rate in PFPM 4.3; 95%CI 2.4-6.2), while homicides are higher in male immigrants (rate in Italians 0.6; IC95% 0.4-0.8 vs. rate in PFPM 3.2 95%CI 1.7-4.7). Deaths from other injuries are more frequent in Italians in both genders. Trends in mortality rates indicate a reducing gap between immigrants and Italians. in Tuscany, mortality rates for some specific accidental causes are significantly different between immigrants and Italians, nevertheless trends of the last evaluated period seem to reveal a reducing gap suggesting a progressive integration of immigrants.

  19. Tree mortality rates and tree population projections in Baltimore, Maryland, USA

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Miki Kuroda; Daniel E. Crane

    2004-01-01

    Based on re-measurements (1999 and 2001) of randomly-distributed permanent plots within the city boundaries of Baltimore, Maryland, trees are estimated to have an annual mortality rate of 6.6% with an overall annual net change in the number of live trees of -4.2%. Tree mortality rates were significantly different based on tree size, condition, species, and Land use....

  20. Effect of intradialytic parenteral nutrition on mortality rates in end-stage renal disease care.

    PubMed

    Capelli, J P; Kushner, H; Camiscioli, T C; Chen, S M; Torres, M A

    1994-06-01

    Several studies have now demonstrated that low serum albumin and/or low protein catabolic rates correlate with increased risk of death in the chronic hemodialysis patient. A study involving 81 patients receiving thrice-weekly hemodialysis treatments and who had either a low serum albumin and/or protein catabolic rate was conducted to compare the effect of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) on mortality rates. Fifty patients received IDPN and 31 patients did not. Thirty-eight of the patients were black (47%), 34 were white (42%), and 9 were Hispanic (11%). The study included 33 diabetic patients (41%), 20 of whom received IDPN. Nondiabetic patients received an average of 725 kcal/hemodialysis treatment and diabetic patients received an average of 670 kcal/hemodialysis treatment. The average length of treatment was 9 months. The results of the study revealed a better survival rate (64% v 52%) for patients treated with IDPN. Using Cox analysis, the IDPN-treated group had a significantly better survival rate (P < 0.01). Serum albumin increased by 12% in the survivors. There was no difference in survival when considered separately for diabetic and nondiabetic patients who received IDPN (mortality rate for diabetics: 50% for treated patients and 54% for untreated patients; mortality rate for nondiabetics: 26% for treated patients and 44% for untreated patients). However, the nondiabetic treated patients had the lowest mortality rates. In conclusion, correction of hypoalbuminemia by IDPN significantly reduced mortality rates overall.

  1. Body size and mortality rates in coral reef fishes: a three-phase relationship.

    PubMed

    Goatley, Christopher Harry Robert; Bellwood, David Roy

    2016-10-26

    Body size is closely linked to mortality rates in many animals, although the overarching patterns in this relationship have rarely been considered for multiple species. A meta-analysis of published size-specific mortality rates for coral reef fishes revealed an exponential decline in mortality rate with increasing body size, however, within this broad relationship there are three distinct phases. Phase one is characterized by naive fishes recruiting to reefs, which suffer extremely high mortality rates. In this well-studied phase, fishes must learn quickly to survive the many predation risks. After just a few days, the surviving fishes enter phase two, in which small increases in body size result in pronounced increases in lifespan (estimated 11 d mm(-1)). Remarkably, approximately 50% of reef fish individuals remain in phase two throughout their lives. Once fishes reach a size threshold of about 43 mm total length (TL) they enter phase three, where mortality rates are relatively low and the pressure to grow is presumably, significantly reduced. These phases provide a clearer understanding of the impact of body size on mortality rates in coral reef fishes and begin to reveal critical insights into the energetic and trophic dynamics of coral reefs.

  2. Economic impacts of the mortality rate for suckling pigs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-09-15

    To measure economic impacts attributable to the mortality rate for suckling pigs in the United States. Economic analysis that incorporated data from various sources. Suckling pigs on U.S. swine farms. Economic impacts associated with the mortality rate for suckling pigs during 1995 were estimated from supply-and-demand curves for pork and from an estimate of the elasticity of production for pigs entering the grower-finisher phase of production. A decrease in the mortality rate for suckling pigs would have caused an increase in pork production and a decrease in price and total value of production. Assuming no suckling pigs had died during 1995, consumer surplus would have increased by (mean +/- SE) 430 +/- 160 million dollars, whereas producer surplus would have decreased by 180 +/- 140 million dollars. The total gain to the US economy would have been 250 +/- 30 million dollars. Researchers who attempt to estimate the economic impact of mortality and morbidity rates of livestock should not ignore the influence of demand and the possibility of price adjustments. Consumers would stand to benefit from an increase in pork production associated with a reduction in the mortality rate for suckling pigs, whereas the swine industry would experience an economic loss. Individual producers need to compare the costs of measures intended to reduce the mortality rate for suckling pigs with the anticipated benefits.

  3. Mortality rates in OECD countries converged during the period 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Bremberg, Sven G

    2017-06-01

    Since the scientific revolution of the 18th century, human health has gradually improved, but there is no unifying theory that explains this improvement in health. Studies of macrodeterminants have produced conflicting results. Most studies have analysed health at a given point in time as the outcome; however, the rate of improvement in health might be a more appropriate outcome. Twenty-eight OECD member countries were selected for analysis in the period 1990-2010. The main outcomes studied, in six age groups, were the national rates of decrease in mortality in the period 1990-2010. The effects of seven potential determinants on the rates of decrease in mortality were analysed in linear multiple regression models using least squares, controlling for country-specific history constants, which represent the mortality rate in 1990. The multiple regression analyses started with models that only included mortality rates in 1990 as determinants. These models explained 87% of the intercountry variation in the children aged 1-4 years and 51% in adults aged 55-74 years. When added to the regression equations, the seven determinants did not seem to significantly increase the explanatory power of the equations. The analyses indicated a decrease in mortality in all nations and in all age groups. The development of mortality rates in the different nations demonstrated significant catch-up effects. Therefore an important objective of the national public health sector seems to be to reduce the delay between international research findings and the universal implementation of relevant innovations.

  4. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-09-15

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  5. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years.

  6. Exploring geographic variation in US mortality rates using a spatial Durbin approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Noah, Aggie; Shoff, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only, and have ignored the well-documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighboring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e., same direction effect) and social relativity (i.e., opposite direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modeling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modeling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbors beyond its own features. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighboring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non-Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighboring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modeling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates.

  7. Exploring geographic variation in US mortality rates using a spatial Durbin approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Noah, Aggie; Shoff, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only, and have ignored the well-documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighboring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e., same direction effect) and social relativity (i.e., opposite direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modeling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modeling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbors beyond its own features. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighboring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non-Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighboring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modeling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates. PMID:25642156

  8. Differences between Men and Women in Time Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality in Spain (1980-2013).

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Clèries, Ramon; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; González-de Paz, Luis; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2016-06-01

    The main risk factor for lung cancer is smoking, a habit that varies according to age and sex. The objective of this study was to explore trends in lung cancer mortality by sex and age from 1980 to 2013 in Spain. We used lung cancer mortality (International Classification of Diseases code 162 for the 9th edition, and codes C33 and C34 for 10th edition) and population data from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Crude, truncated, age-adjusted mortality and age-specific mortality rates were assessed through joinpoint regression to estimate the annual percent change (APC). Age-adjusted mortality rate significantly increased from 1980 to 1991 among men (APC=3.12%) and significantly decreased between 2001 and 2013 (APC=-1.53%), a similar pattern was observed in age-specific rates. Among women, age-adjusted mortality rate increased from 1989 (APC 1989-1997=1.82%), with the greatest increase observed from 1997 until the end of the study in 2013 (APC=4.41%). Diverging trends in the prevalence of smoking could explain the increase in the rate of lung cancer-related mortality among Spanish women since the early 1990s. Public health policies should be implemented to reduce tobacco consumption in women and halt the increase in lung cancer mortality. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The mortality rate of electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Tørring, N; Sanghani, S N; Petrides, G; Kellner, C H; Østergaard, S D

    2017-05-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains underutilized because of fears of cognitive and medical risks, including the risk of death. In this study, we aimed to assess the mortality rate of ECT by means of a systematic review and pooled analysis. The study was conducted in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The ECT-related mortality rate was calculated as the total number of ECT-related deaths reported in the included studies divided by the total number of ECT treatments. Fifteen studies with data from 32 countries reporting on a total of 766 180 ECT treatments met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen cases of ECT-related death were reported in the included studies yielding an ECT-related mortality rate of 2.1 per 100 000 treatments (95% CI: 1.2-3.4). In the nine studies that were published after 2001 (covering 414 747 treatments), there was only one reported ECT-related death. The ECT-related mortality rate was estimated at 2.1 per 100 000 treatments. In comparison, a recent analysis of the mortality of general anesthesia in relation to surgical procedures reported a mortality rate of 3.4 per 100 000. Our findings document that death caused by ECT is an extremely rare event. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Trend analysis of cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Chinese women during 1989-2008].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shang-ying; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhao, Fang-hui; Zhang, Si-wei; Chen, Wan-qing; Qiao, You-lin

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the trend of cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates during 1989-2008 in Chinese women, so as to inform the development of relevant policies and strategies in China. The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer during 1989-2008 in urban and rural areas were calculated based on the data from the National Cancer Registry Database. Age-standardized rates were calculated using the Chinese population of 1982 and World Segi's population of 1985. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to obtain annual percentage changes (APC) so as to assess the trend of incidence and mortality rates over the period from 1989 to 2008. The crude incidence rate of cervical cancer in Chinese women increased from 3.06/10(5) in 1989-1990 to 11.87/10(5) in 2007-2008 (from 4.96/10(5) to 11.98/10(5) in urban registration areas and from 2.39/10(5) to 11.77/10(5) in rural registration areas).The crude mortality rate slightly increased from 2.19/10(5) in 1989-1990 to 3.20/10(5) in 2007-2008 (from 3.21/10(5) to 2.56/10(5) in urban registration areas and from 1.82/10(5) to 3.75/10(5) in rural registration areas). Generally, the upward trends of crude incidence rates were shown over the year 1989-2008, with an APC of 14.4% after 1997 in urban areas and 22.5% after 1999 in rural areas.After age standardization of world population, the APC of incidence rates in recent decade in urban areas remained stable, and the one in rural areas slightly decreased.Although the overall crude and world age-standardized mortality rates had no significant changes during 1989-2008, the crude mortality rates increased by 8.1% annually after 1999.The upward trends were also shown for crude and world age-standardized mortality rates in urban areas after 2001 with an APC of 7.3%.The crude mortality rates in rural areas increased by 3.9% annually during 1989-2008, but no significant change was found after age standardization. Over the last decade, the cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates

  11. Trends in the modes of delivery and their impact on perinatal mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Geraldo; Coltro, Pedro S; Bedone, Rebeca V; Nogueira, Antonio A; Gelonezzi, Glauce M; Franco, Laércio J

    2004-06-01

    To determine changes in the incidence of vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and forceps deliveries and their potential association with fetal, early neonatal, and perinatal mortality rates over time. A retrospective study was carried out and the occurrence of deliveries supervised by university services between January 1991 and December 2000 was determined. Data regarding fetal, early neonatal, and perinatal deaths were assessed using obstetric and pediatric records and autopsy reports. Of a total of 33,360 deliveries, the incidence of vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and forceps deliveries was relatively steady (around 60, 30, and 10%, respectively) while, at the same time, there was a marked reduction in fetal mortality (from 33.3 to 13.0 per thousand), early neonatal mortality (from 30.6 to 9.0 per thousand), and perinatal mortality (from 56.4 to 19.3 per thousand). The marked reduction in perinatal mortality rates seen during the study period without an increase in cesarean sections indicates that the decrease in perinatal mortality was not impacted by cesarean section rates. The plausible hypothesis seems to be that the reduction in perinatal mortality of deliveries performed under the supervision of university services was more likely to be associated with better neonatal care rather than the mode of delivery.

  12. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  13. Body Mass Index and Mortality Rate in Korean Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyemin; Kim, Jong Hun; Choi, Seong Hye; Lee, Yunhwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Han, Hyun Jeong; Moon, So Young; Park, Kyung Won; Han, Seol-Hee; Park, Kee Hyung; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    A relationship between body weight, cognitive impairment, and the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was recently reported. However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between body weight and mortality in Asian AD patients. We evaluated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality rate in Korean AD cohorts. Participants were consecutively included from two Korean representative registries: 579 AD patients from Samsung Medical Center and 1911 AD patients from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea study. We combined these two AD cohorts to evaluate the association between BMI and mortality. BMI was used to categorize the participants into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obesity subgroups. All deaths were confirmed through the nationwide mortality database of Statistics Korea. 53 of 181 (29.3%), 208 of 1,127 (18.5%), 88 of 626 (14.1%), and 115 of 556 (20.7%) patients died in the underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese subgroups during 43.7 months of follow-up. The time-dependent cox proportional hazards model showed that, relative to the normal-weight subgroup, the underweight group had higher mortality (HR 1.82 (95% CI, 1.07-3.09)) while overweight group had lower mortality rate (HR 0.60 (95% CI, 0.38-0.95)) The effects of underweight and overweight were prominent in younger and older elderly group, respectively. However, there were no interactive effects of dementia severity or gender and BMI on survival rate. Relative to AD patients of normal weight, those who were underweight had an increased mortality rate, and overweight predicted decreased mortality in AD patients. Furthermore, our findings may help facilitate mortality stratification in AD patients by using baseline BMI.

  14. A comparison of determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) between countries with high and low IMR.

    PubMed

    Megawangi, R; Barnett, J B

    1993-06-01

    Weighted least squares regressions and pooled regression models were used to examine the determinants of infant mortality in developing countries. Data were obtained from the UNICEF's "State of the World's Children, 1987" for 87 countries with data on gross national product, percentage of literate females, percentage of low birth weight infants, daily caloric supply per capita as a percentage of the daily requirement, percentage of population with access to drinking water, total fertility rate, and the population to nurses ratio. Data was unavailable on breast feeding practices and government expenditures on health. Weighted procedures were used because of heteroscadascity problems: total fertility rate was associated with the variance in the error term. The results of pooled data showed that the female literacy rate had the strongest impact on infant mortality, followed by access to clean water and the number of population per nursing person. The impact of female literacy was still strong in high infant mortality countries when controls for gross national product were included. Puzzling findings were the negative sign of low birth weight and the insignificant effect of the total fertility rate. The suggestion was that low birth weight may be expressed already in the level of education and availability of health programs. Fertility's lack of wide variations may explain the insignificant effect. Findings showed that infant mortality was 22.19% higher in countries with gross national product under $500. In low infant mortality countries, none of the environmental variables significantly explained infant mortality. Low birth weight increased its impact on infant mortality among these countries but was still not significant. The findings suggested that infant mortality was most affected by low birth weight and amount of population per nurse in more affluent countries. Environmental factors were more important in explaining high levels of infant mortality in less

  15. Association of soil selenium, strontium, and magnesium concentrations with Parkinson's disease mortality rates in the USA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongbing

    2017-02-07

    Among the 41 soil elements analyzed from 4856 sites across the contiguous 48 states, average Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality rates between 1999 and 2014 have the most significant positive correlation with the average soil strontium (Sr) concentrations (correlation r = 0.47, significance level p = 0.00), and average PD mortality rates have the most significant inverse correlation with the average soil selenium (Se) concentrations (r = -0.44, p = 0.00). Multivariate regression models indicate that soil Sr and Se concentrations can explain 35.4% of spatial disparities of the state average PD mortality rates between 1999 and 2014 (R (2) = 0.354). When the five outlier states were removed from the model, concentrations of soil Sr and Se can explain 62.4% (R (2) = 0.624) of the spatial disparities of PD mortality rates of the 43 remaining states. The results also indicate that high soil magnesium (Mg) concentrations suppressed the growth rate of the PD mortality rates between 1999 and 2014 in the 48 states (r = -0.42, p = 0.000). While both Se and Sr have been reported to affect the nervous system, this study is the first study that reported the statistically significant association between the PD mortality rates and soil concentrations of Se, Sr, and Mg in the 48 states. Given that soil elemental concentration in a region is broad indicator of the trace element intake from food, water, and air by people, implications of the results are that high soil Se and Mg concentrations helped reduce the PD mortality rates and benefited the PD patients in the 48 states.

  16. Analysis of geographic differentials in infant mortality rates. The Or Yehuda community.

    PubMed

    Barell, V; Wax, Y; Ruder, A

    1988-07-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of matched infant death certificate data and livebirth certificate data for 1977-1980 was performed for two areas in Israel: Or Yehuda, a small, low socioeconomic status community which had an infant mortality rate of 19.1 per 1,000, and the rest of Ramat Gan district, which had an infant mortality rate of 10.3 per 1,000. A method is presented which illuminates the role of statistical models in analyzing small area data, in evaluating twofold observed differences in crude and factor-specific mortality rates in two areas, in assessing heterogeneity in population stratum-specific mortality rate ratios, and in identifying causes for inter-area differences in infant mortality rate. Identical logistic models were fitted to each of the areas independently, and these were used to investigate effects due to birth weight, sex, parity, maternal age and education, and parental occupation. The differences in the distribution of risk level (number of risk factors) present in each population (or the proportion of multi-problem families) were identified as a single factor that can explain most of the disparity between the areas. The direction and magnitude of the relation between risk level and infant mortality rate were similar in both communities: the greater the number of risk factors, the higher the rate. Identification of a target population for intervention through only one or two specific risk factors would be unprofitable in reducing the overall community infant mortality rate since too many families with multiple risk would be excluded, and too many with single risk factors would be included.

  17. Mortality rates by occupation in Korea: a nationwide, 13-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to identify inequalities in cause-specific mortality across different occupational groups in Korea. Methods The cohort included Korean workers enrolled in the national employment insurance programme between 1995 and 2000. Mortality was determined by matching death between 1995 and 2008 according to a nationwide registry of the Korea National Statistical Office. The cohort was divided into nine occupational groups according to the Korean Standard Occupational Classification (KSOC). Age-standardised mortality rates of each subcohort were calculated. Results The highest age-standardised mortality rate was identified in KSOC 6 (agricultural, forestry and fishery workers; male (M): 563.0 per 100 000, female (F): 206.0 per 100 000), followed by KSOC 9 (elementary occupations; M: 499.0, F: 163.4) and KSOC 8 (plant, machine operators and assemblers; M: 380.3, F: 157.8). The lowest rate occurred in KSOC 2 (professionals and related workers; M: 209.1, F: 93.3). Differences in mortality rates between KSOC 2 and KSOC 9 (M: 289.9, F: 70.1) and the rate ratio of KSCO9 to KSCO2 (M: 2.39, F: 1.75) were higher in men. The most prominent mortality rate difference was observed in external causes of death (M: 96.9, F: 21.6) and liver disease in men (38.3 per 100 000). Mental disease showed the highest rate ratio (M: 6.31, F: 13.00). Conclusions Substantial differences in mortality rates by occupation were identified. Main causes of death were injury, suicide and male liver disease. Development of policies to support occupations linked with a lower socioeconomic position should be prioritised. PMID:26920855

  18. High mortality rate of unintentional poisoning due to prescription opioids in adults enrolled in Medicaid compared to those not enrolled in Medicaid in Montana.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jessie C; Campana, David; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional death due to prescription drug-related poisoning has been a growing problem nationally. Some sub-populations have been shown to be at higher risk than others. In 2014, we matched death records to Medicaid eligibility files to determine enrollment status at the time of unintentional death from prescription opioid poisoning from 2003 to 2012 in Montana. Medicaid prescription claims for decedents were used to assess prescribing patterns and time between refills. The age-adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 from opioid poisoning for adults aged 18-64 years and enrolled in Medicaid at the time of death was eight times higher than the rate for non-Medicaid Montana adults (38.2 [95% CI (30.7-45.7)] vs. 4.7 [95% CI (4.1-5.3)]). Twenty-eight percent of unintentional poisoning deaths during this time frame were among Medicaid members. Only 33% of the Medicaid decedents had a claim for an opioid prescription during the month before their death. Our findings suggest that more needs to be done to address prescription opioid use in Montana. Adults enrolled in Medicaid continue to be at high risk for prescription opioid unintentional poisoning deaths. Data on prescribing practices suggest that there are opportunities to intervene and provide education on use of opioid medications for Medicaid members and prescribing providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  20. Development and validation of a continuously age-adjusted measure of patient condition for hospitalized children using the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Michael J; Tepas, Joseph J; Nowalk, Andrew J; Levin, James E; Rimar, Joan M; Marchetti, Albert; Hsiao, Allen L

    2017-02-01

    Awareness of a patient's clinical status during hospitalization is a primary responsibility for hospital providers. One tool to assess status is the Rothman Index (RI), a validated measure of patient condition for adults, based on empirically derived relationships between 1-year post-discharge mortality and each of 26 clinical measurements available in the electronic medical record. However, such an approach cannot be used for pediatrics, where the relationships between risk and clinical variables are distinct functions of patient age, and sufficient 1-year mortality data for each age group simply do not exist. We report the development and validation of a new methodology to use adult mortality data to generate continuously age-adjusted acuity scores for pediatrics. Clinical data were extracted from EMRs at three pediatric hospitals covering 105,470 inpatient visits over a 3-year period. The RI input variable set was used as a starting point for the development of the pediatric Rothman Index (pRI). Age-dependence of continuous variables was determined by plotting mean values versus age. For variables determined to be age-dependent, polynomial functions of mean value and mean standard deviation versus age were constructed. Mean values and standard deviations for adult RI excess risk curves were separately estimated. Based on the "find the center of the channel" hypothesis, univariate pediatric risk was then computed by applying a z-score transform to adult mean and standard deviation values based on polynomial pediatric mean and standard deviation functions. Multivariate pediatric risk is estimated as the sum of univariate risk. Other age adjustments for categorical variables were also employed. Age-specific pediatric excess risk functions were compared to age-specific expert-derived functions and to in-hospital mortality. AUC for 24-h mortality and pRI scores prior to unplanned ICU transfers were computed. Age-adjusted risk functions correlated well with similar

  1. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data: An Analysis of Data From the ERA-EDTA Registry.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke; Abad, José M; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries J; De Meester, Johan M J; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-04-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably, they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry, including patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, who are known to suffer from increased senescence rates (n = 302,455), and patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n = 74,490). From age 20 to 70, senescence rates were comparable when calculated with or without a model. However, when using non-modeled mortality rates, senescence rates were yielded at young and old ages that remained concealed when using modeled mortality rates. At young ages senescence rates were negative, while senescence rates declined at old ages. In conclusion, the rate of senescence can be calculated directly from non-modeled mortality rates, overcoming the disadvantages of an indirect estimation based on modeled mortality rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  3. The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Results This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). Conclusions HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients. PMID:25378976

  4. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  5. The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients.

  6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  7. Heart rate recovery, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Peter; Myers, Jonathan; Doumas, Michael; Faselis, Charles; Pittaras, Andreas; Manolis, Athanasios; Kokkinos, John Peter; Narayan, Puneet; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross

    2012-04-01

    Both impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) and low fitness are associated with higher mortality risk. In addition, HRR is influenced by fitness status. The interaction between HRR, mortality, and fitness has not been clearly defined. Thus, we sought to evaluate the association between HRR and all-cause mortality and to assess the effects of fitness on this association. Treadmill exercise testing was performed in 5974 male veterans for clinical reasons at two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (Washington, DC and Palo Alto, CA). HRR was calculated at 1 and 2 min of recovery. All-cause mortality was determined over a mean 6.2-year follow-up period. Mortality risk was significantly and inversely associated with HRR, only at 2 min. A cut-off value of 14 beats/min at 2 min recovery was the strongest predictor of mortality for the cohort (hazard ratio = 2.4; CI 1.6-3.5). The mortality risk was overestimated when exercise capacity was not considered. When both low fitness and low HRR were present (≤6 metabolic equivalents and ≤14 beats/min), mortality risk was approximately seven-fold higher compared to the High-fit + High-HRR group (>6 metabolic equivalents and >14 beats/min). HRR at 2 min post exercise is strongly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Exercise capacity affects HRR-associated mortality substantially and should be considered when applying HRR to estimate mortality.

  8. [Morbidity and mortality rates in relation to the "surgeon factor" after duodenopancreatectomy].

    PubMed

    Targarona, Javier; Pando, Elizabeth; Garatea, Rafael; Vavoulis, Alexandra; Montoya, Eduardo

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the surgeon factor has an independent effect on morbidity and mortality rates after duodenopancreatectomy. Between October 2002 and December 2006, we performed a study of 119 patients who underwent duodenopancreatectomy. The surgeons were divided into 3 groups according to the number of interventions they performed each year: a low volume group (three Whipple procedures per year), a medium volume group (four to 10 Whipple procedures per year) and a high volume group (> 10 Whipple procedures per year). The morbidity rate was higher in the low volume group (82%) than in the high volume group (35%). Length of hospital stay was clearly longer in the low and medium volume groups (27 days, and 21 days) than in the high volume group (17 days). Comparison of the results of the 3 groups revealed that the group performing three or less interventions per year (low volume) had the highest mortality rate (47%), while the group performing more than 10 interventions per year (high volume) had a very low mortality rate (4%). We found that the volume-to-surgeon ratio was inversely proportional to morbidity, length of hospital stay, return to oral intake, and mortality rates. Therefore, increasing surgical volume could improve morbidity and mortality rates.

  9. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2017-07-27

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Since the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under five-mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific-country under-five mortality groups, publication year and age. In the last decades, under-five mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95%CI -82% to -33% (p < 0.001). So, the higher the mortality rate, the lower the prevalence of CD. This finding is confirmed by the meta-analysis of the 4 studies conducted in Italy over time. The under five-mortality rate seems to influence the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of celiac disease patients will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of celiac children.

  10. Does the association between self-rated health and mortality vary by social class?

    PubMed

    McFadden, E; Luben, R; Bingham, S; Wareham, N; Kinmonth, A-L; Khaw, K-T

    2009-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) predicts future mortality. Individuals in different social classes with similar physical health status may have different reference levels and criteria against which they judge their health, therefore the SRH-mortality relationship may vary according to social class. We examine the relationship between SRH and mortality by occupational social class in a prospective study of 22,457 men and women aged 39-79 years, without prevalent disease, living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993-1997 and followed up for an average of 10 years. As expected, SRH was related to subsequent mortality. The age and sex adjusted hazard ratio for mortality for those with poor compared to those with excellent SRH was 4.35 (95% confidence interval 3.38-5.59, P<0.001). The prevalence of poor or moderate SRH was higher in manual than in non-manual classes. However, SRH was similarly related to mortality in manual and non-manual classes: when non-manual classes are compared with manual classes for each category of SRH, the 95% confidence intervals for the mortality hazard ratios overlap. There was no evidence of an interaction between social class and SRH in either men or women. Thus in this population, SRH appears to predict mortality in a similar manner in non-manual and manual classes.

  11. Gaming in risk-adjusted mortality rates: effect of misclassification of risk factors in the benchmarking of cardiac surgery risk-adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Sabrina; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Versteegh, Michel I M; Noyez, Luc; ter Burg, Willem Jan P P; Bots, Michiel L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A

    2013-03-01

    Upcoding or undercoding of risk factors could affect the benchmarking of risk-adjusted mortality rates. The aim was to investigate the effect of misclassification of risk factors on the benchmarking of mortality rates after cardiac surgery. A prospective cohort was used comprising all adult cardiac surgery patients in all 16 cardiothoracic centers in The Netherlands from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009. A random effects model, including the logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) was used to benchmark the in-hospital mortality rates. We simulated upcoding and undercoding of 5 selected variables in the patients from 1 center. These patients were selected randomly (nondifferential misclassification) or by the EuroSCORE (differential misclassification). In the random patients, substantial misclassification was required to affect benchmarking: a 1.8-fold increase in prevalence of the 4 risk factors changed an underperforming center into an average performing one. Upcoding of 1 variable required even more. When patients with the greatest EuroSCORE were upcoded (ie, differential misclassification), a 1.1-fold increase was sufficient: moderate left ventricular function from 14.2% to 15.7%, poor left ventricular function from 8.4% to 9.3%, recent myocardial infarction from 7.9% to 8.6%, and extracardiac arteriopathy from 9.0% to 9.8%. Benchmarking using risk-adjusted mortality rates can be manipulated by misclassification of the EuroSCORE risk factors. Misclassification of random patients or of single variables will have little effect. However, limited upcoding of multiple risk factors in high-risk patients can greatly influence benchmarking. To minimize "gaming," the prevalence of all risk factors should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Slowing of Mortality Rates at Older Ages in Large Medfly Cohorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Orozco, Dina; Vaupel, James W.

    1992-10-01

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits.

  13. Slowing of mortality rates at older ages in large medfly cohorts.

    PubMed

    Carey, J R; Liedo, P; Orozco, D; Vaupel, J W

    1992-10-16

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits.

  14. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae) in the central Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Chen, Xinjun

    2009-01-01

    Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L(infinity)=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year(-1), and t(0)=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z) was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F) and the natural mortality were 0.54 year(-1) and 0.39 year(-1), respectively. The exploitation ratio (E) was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies.

  15. The role of pregnancy outcomes in the maternal mortality rates of two areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie; Razzaque, Abdur

    2010-12-01

    The Matlab Maternal Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) project provides maternity care as part of its reproductive health services. It is important to assess whether this project has reduced maternal mortality and, if so, whether this was due to differences between the MCH-FP area (which received project services) and the comparison area (which did not) in pregnancy rates, pregnancy outcomes or case-fatality rates. Data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System on 165,894 pregnancies over the period 1982-2005 were used to calculate four measures of maternal mortality for the MCH-FP and comparison areas. Mortality risk was examined by type of pregnancy outcome and by area, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to generate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, respectively. The maternal mortality rate of 35 deaths per 100,000 women of reproductive age in the MCH-FP area was 37% lower than that in the comparison area (56 deaths per 100,000). In both areas, the maternal mortality risk was considerably higher for pregnancies that ended in induced abortion, miscarriage or stillbirth than for those that resulted in live birth (odds ratios, 4.2, 2.0 and 17.4, respectively). The difference in maternal mortality rates between the two areas was mainly a result of the MCH-FP area's lower pregnancy rate and its lower case-fatality rates for induced abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths. Interventions to increase contraceptive use; to reduce the incidence of induced abortion, miscarriage and stillbirth; to improve the management of such outcomes; and to strengthen antenatal care could substantially reduce maternal mortality in Bangladesh and similar countries.

  16. Trends in incidence and mortality rates of ventricular septal rupture during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Moreyra, Abel E; Huang, Michael S; Wilson, Alan C; Deng, Yingzi; Cosgrove, Nora M; Kostis, John B

    2010-10-15

    Since the introduction of reperfusion in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), rates of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) and associated mortality have decreased, but it is not known if incidence and mortality have continued to decrease. We describe trends in incidence and mortality rates of patients with postinfarction VSR during the previous 2 decades and identify risk factors that predict the development and mortality of this rare but catastrophic complication. We analyzed occurrence and mortality rates in patients with first AMI with (n = 408) and without VSR (n = 148,473) who were hospitalized from 1990 to 2007 using the New Jersey Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) database. The annual rate of VSR in AMI was 0.25% to 0.31%. Compared to patients with AMI without VSR, patients with VSR were older, more likely to be women, had increased rate of chronic renal disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiogenic shock, and were less likely to be hypertensive or diabetic (all p values < 0.0001). During the 18-year study period, we found no change in hospital and 1-year mortalities, which were 41% and 60% in 1990 to 1992 and 44% and 56% in 2005 to 2007, respectively. The survival benefit associated with VSR surgical repair was seen only in hospital (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.95) but not at 30 days or 1 year. In conclusion, despite improvement in medical treatment and revascularization techniques, the rate of VSR complicating AMI has not changed during the previous 2 decades, and the mortality associated with VSR has remained high and relatively constant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Demographic factors in hip fracture incidence and mortality rates in California, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Husak, Lisa E; Altebarmakian, Maria; Brox, W Timothy

    2016-01-08

    Hip fractures result in both health and cost burdens from a public health perspective and have a major impact on the health care system in the USA. The purpose was to examine whether there were systematic differences in hip fracture incidence and 30-, 90-, and 365-day mortality after hip fracture in the California population as a function of age, gender, and race/ethnicity from 2000-2011. This was a population-based study from 2000 to 2011 using data from the California Office of Statewide Health and Planning and Development (OSHPD, N = 317,677), California State Death Statistical Master File records (N = 224,899), and the US Census 2000 and 2010. There were a total of 317,677 hospital admissions for hip fractures over the 12-year span and 24,899 deaths following hip fractures. All participants without linkage (substituted for social security) numbers were excluded from mortality rate calculations. Variation in incidence and mortality rates across time, gender, race/ethnicity, and age were assessed using Poisson regression models. Odds ratio and 95 % confidence intervals are provided. The incidence rate of hip fractures decreased between 2000 and 2011 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.98, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 0.98). Mortality rates also decreased over time. There were gender, race/ethnicity, and age group differences in both incidence and mortality rates. Males were half as likely to sustain a hip fracture, but their mortality within a year of the procedure is almost twice the rate than women. As age increased, the prevalence of hip fracture increased dramatically, but mortality did not increase as steeply. Caucasians were more likely to sustain a hip fracture and to die within 1 year after a hip fracture. The disparities in subpopulations will allow for targeted population interventions and opportunities for further research.

  18. Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Adetunji, J.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adults and mortality rates among under-5-year-olds have increased or stagnated in many countries. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between under-5 mortality trends and the prevalence of HIV among adults and, if so, to assess the magnitude of the effect of adult HIV prevalence on under-5 mortality rates. METHOD: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to establish the trends in under-5 mortality rates for 25 countries for which there are data for at least two points in time. Countries were ranked according to the most recent adult HIV prevalence data and grouped in three categories: those with very high HIV prevalence (> or = 5%); those with moderately high prevalence (1-4.9%); and those with low prevalence (< 1%). A mathematical model was fitted to obtain an estimate of the contribution of HIV/AIDS to the level of under-5 mortality in each country. RESULTS: Under-5 mortality rates showed an increase in most countries with high adult HIV prevalence, but a decrease in almost every country with moderately high or low prevalence. The estimated contribution of adult HIV prevalence to the observed level of under-5 mortality was highest (up to 61%) in Zimbabwe (where HIV prevalence was highest) and tended to decrease with the level of HIV prevalence. DISCUSSION: The contribution of HIV/AIDS to childhood mortality therefore appears to be most noticeable in settings where the epidemic is most severe. PMID:11100615

  19. Method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not apparent from observed data.

  20. A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data.

  1. Growth and grazing mortality rates of phylogenetic groups of bacterioplankton in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Taichi; Nagata, Toshi

    2005-11-01

    Dilution culture experiments were conducted in western North Pacific coastal regions to determine growth and grazing mortality rates of bacterial phylogenetic groups (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster) detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Growth rates varied greatly (1.2- to 4.0-fold) among different groups, and they were related to environmental variables (chlorophyll a concentrations and temperature) in a group-specific fashion. Growth rates of alpha-proteobacteria, the most abundant group in all the samples examined, were generally lower than those of less abundant groups, including the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster and gamma-proteobacteria. Grazing mortality rates and mean cell volumes varied little among different groups. These results provide insights into factors that affect distributions of different groups, but growth and grazing mortality alone did not fully explain bacterial community compositions at a broad phylogenetic level.

  2. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    van Mantgem, Phillip J; Stephenson, Nathan L

    2007-10-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21,338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation.

  3. Racial disparities in stage-specific colorectal cancer mortality rates from 1985 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Anthony S; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates for whites and blacks in the United States have been diverging as a result of earlier and larger reductions in death rates for whites. We examined whether this mortality pattern varies by stage at diagnosis. The Incidence-Based Mortality database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program was used to examine data from the nine original SEER regions. Our main outcome measures were changes in stage-specific mortality rates by race. From 1985 to 1987 to 2006 to 2008, CRC mortality rates decreased for each stage in both blacks and whites, but for every stage, the decreases were smaller for blacks, particularly for distant-stage disease. For localized stage, mortality rates decreased 30.3% in whites compared with 13.2% in blacks; for regional stage, declines were 48.5% in whites compared with 34.0% in blacks; and for distant stage, declines were 32.6% in whites compared with 4.6% in blacks. As a result, the black-white rate ratios increased from 1.17 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.39) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.63) for localized disease, from 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.14) to 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.44) for regional disease, and from 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.34) to 1.72 (95% CI, 1.58 to 1.86) for distant-stage disease. In absolute terms, the disparity in distant-stage mortality rates accounted for approximately 60% of the overall black-white mortality disparity. The black-white disparities in CRC mortality increased for each stage of the disease, but the overall disparity in overall mortality was largely driven by trends for late-stage disease. Concerted efforts to prevent or detect CRC at earlier stages in blacks could improve the worsening black- white disparities.

  4. Temporal Trends in Mortality from Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in Mexico, 1980-2012.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Copytzy; Campuzano-Rincón, Julio César; Calleja-Castillo, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Álvarez, Anaid; Parra, María Del Socorro; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Hernández-Girón, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decades, the decline in mortality from stroke has been more pronounced in high-income countries than in low- and middle-income countries. We evaluated changes in temporal stroke mortality trends in Mexico according to sex and type of stroke. We assessed stroke mortality from Mexico's National Health Information System for the period from 1980 to 2012. We analyzed age-adjusted mortality rates by sex, type of stroke, and age group. The annual percentage change and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in the slopes of the age-adjusted mortality trends were determined using joinpoint regression models. The age-adjusted mortality rates due to stroke decreased between 1980 and 2012, from 44.55 to 33.47 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the AAPC (95% confidence interval [CI]) was -.9 (-1.0 to -.7). The AAPC for females was -1.1 (-1.5 to -.7) and that for males was -.7 (-.9 to -.6). People older than 65 years showed the highest mortality throughout the period. Between 1980 and 2012, the AAPC (95% CI) for ischemic stroke was -3.8 (-4.8 to -2.8) and was -.5 (-.8 to -.2) for hemorrhagic stroke. For the same period, the AAPC for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was -.7 (-1.6 to .2) and that for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was 1.6 (.4-2.8). The age-adjusted mortality rates of all strokes combined, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and ICH, decreased between 1980 and 2012 in Mexico. However, the increase in SAH mortality makes it necessary to explore the risk factors and clinical management of this type of stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Economics of Life and Death: Mortality and Survival Rates for African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Char, S. V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the correlates of premature death, infant mortality rates, and associated costs for African Americans using census and other government data. There is unimpeachable evidence to confirm the inferior health and survival rates of African Americans at all age intervals. (SLD)

  6. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  7. Pre-epidemic mortality rates for common Phytophthora ramorum host tree species in California

    Treesearch

    T.M. Barrett

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of Phytophthora ramorum on forests will require knowledge of pre-disease distribution, abundance, and rates of change for affected species. This study estimated pre-epidemic mortality rates for nine common host tree species: bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), California bay laurel (Umbellularia...

  8. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  9. Recent Increases in the U.S. Maternal Mortality Rate: Disentangling Trends From Measurement Issues.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-09-01

    To develop methods for trend analysis of vital statistics maternal mortality data, taking into account changes in pregnancy question formats over time and between states, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000 to 2014. This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year of adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington, DC (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, whereas Texas had a sudden increase in 2011-2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington, DC, increased from 2000 to 2014; the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year.

  10. The effect of anatomical factors on mortality rates after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Ay, D; Erdolu, B; Yumun, G; Demir, A; Aydin, U; Ozkan, H; Erkoc, K; Tiryakioglu, O

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of anatomical characteristics on mortality rates after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). We investigated 56 EVAR procedures for infrarenal aortic aneurysms performed between January 2010 and December 2013, and the data were supplemented with a prospective review. The patients were divided into two groups according to the diameter of the aneurysm. Group I (n = 30): patients with aneurysm diameters less than 6 cm, group II (n = 26): patients with aneurysm diameters larger than 6 cm. The pre-operative anatomical data of the aneurysms were noted and the groups were compared with regard to postoperative results. There were no correlations between diameter of aneurysm (p > 0.05), aneurysm neck angle (p > 0.05) and mortality rate. The long-term mortality rate was found to be high in patients in whom an endoleak occurred. We found that aneurysm diameter did not have an effect on postoperative mortality rates. An increased EuroSCORE value and the development of endoleaks had an effect on long-term mortality rates.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe region.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Martijn; Read, Sanna; Towriss, Catriona A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Grundy, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest old. We aimed to examine the evidence for socioeconomic mortality rate inequalities in old age, including information about associations with various indicators of socioeconomic position and for various geographic locations within the World Health Organization Region for Europe. The articles included in this review leave no doubt that inequalities in mortality rate by socioeconomic position persist into the oldest ages for both men and women in all countries for which information is available, although the relative risk measures observed were rarely higher than 2.00. Still, the available evidence base is heavily biased geographically, inasmuch as it is based largely on national studies from Nordic and Western European countries and local studies from urban areas in Southern Europe. This bias will hamper the design of European-wide policies to reduce inequalities in mortality rate. We call for a continuous update of the empiric evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate.

  12. Self-rated health and mortality: a follow-up study of a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Fonseca, N; Quesada, J A; Nolasco, A; Melchor, I; Moncho, J; Pereyra-Zamora, P; López, R; Calabuig, J; Barber, X

    2013-12-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is known to be a valid indicator for the prediction of health outcomes. The aims of this study were to describe and analyse the associations between SRH and health status, socio-economic and demographic characteristics; and between SRH and mortality in a Spanish population. Longitudinal study. A sample of 5275 adults (age ≥21 years) residing in the Valencian Community (Spanish Mediterranean region) was surveyed in 2005 and followed for four years. SRH was categorized into good and poor health. The response variable was mortality (dead/alive), obtained from the local mortality register. Logistic regression models were adjusted in order to analyse the associations between SRH and health status, socio-economic and demographic characteristics; odds ratios were calculated to measure the associations. Poisson regression models were adjusted in order to analyse the associations between mortality and explanatory variables; the relative risk of death was calculated to measure the associations. Poor SRH was reported by 25.9% of respondents, and the mortality rate after four years of follow-up was 3.6%. An association was found between SRH and the presence of chronic disease and disability in men and women. A perception of poor health vs good health led to a mortality risk of 3.0 in men and 2.7 in women. SRH was predictive of mortality, even after adjusting for all other variables. In men and women, the presence of disability provided additional predictive ability. SRH was predictive of mortality in both men and women, and acted as a mediator between socio-economic, demographic and health conditions and mortality. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neighborhood Poverty Rate and Mortality in Patients Receiving Critical Care in the Academic Medical Center Setting

    PubMed Central

    Zager, Sam; Mendu, Mallika L.; Chang, Domingo; Bazick, Heidi S.; Braun, Andrea B.; Gibbons, Fiona K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poverty is associated with increased risk of chronic illness but its contribution to critical care outcome is not well defined. Methods: We performed a multicenter observational study of 38,917 patients, aged ≥ 18 years, who received critical care between 1997 and 2007. The patients were treated in two academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Data sources included 1990 US census and hospital administrative data. The exposure of interest was neighborhood poverty rate, categorized as < 5%, 5% to 10%, 10% to 20%, 20% to 40% and > 40%. Neighborhood poverty rate is the percentage of residents below the federal poverty line. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis. Logistic regression examined death by days 30, 90, and 365 post-critical care initiation and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted ORs were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Sensitivity analysis was performed for 1-year postdischarge mortality among patients discharged to home. Results: Following multivariable adjustment, neighborhood poverty rate was not associated with all-cause 30-day mortality: 5% to 10% OR, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.14; P = .2); 10% to 20% OR, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.87-1.06; P = .5); 20% to 40% OR, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.96-1.22; P = .2); > 40% OR, 1.20 (95% CI, 0.90-1.60; P = .2); referent in each is < 5%. Similar nonsignificant associations were noted at 90-day and 365-day mortality post-critical care initiation and in-hospital mortality. Among patients discharged to home, neighborhood poverty rate was not associated with 1-year-postdischarge mortality. Conclusions: Our study suggests that there is no relationship between the neighborhood poverty rate and mortality up to 1 year following critical care at academic medical centers. PMID:21454401

  14. Does chronic kidney disease affect the mortality rate in patients undergoing spine surgery?

    PubMed

    Bains, Ravi S; Kardile, Mayur; Mitsunaga, Lance; Chen, Yuexin; Harris, Jessica; Paxton, Elizabeth; Majid, Kamran

    2017-09-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their life expectancy has been increasing. With time number of patients undergoing spine surgery has also been on a rise. This study we did a retrospective review of registry data to investigate the mortality rate of chronic kidney disease patients following spine surgery using a large, multi-center spine registry. 12,276 consecutive spine-fusion patients from January 2009 to December 2012 were included and mortality rates in patients with CKD compared to those with normal kidney function following spine surgery. Logistic regression was usedto evaluate risk of mortality following spine surgery. The average age of the cohort was 59 (SD=13.4). 53% were female. Patients who had stage 3, 4 or 5 CKD were older than non-CKD patients (mean=71,SD=9.2 vs. 59, SD=13.3). After adjusting for confounding variables, patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD had higher mortality rates than patients with normal kidney function (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.3-2.45) Hemodialysis-dependent patients (stage 5 CKD) had even higher rates of mortality compared to patients with normal function (OR 4.18, 95% CI1.87-9.34). our findings suggest that spine surgery is associated with significantly higher mortality rates in patients with CKD compared to patients with normal kidney function. Understanding the additional morbidity and mortality of spine surgery in this medically complicated group of patients is imperative for accurate preoperative risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring hospital mortality rates: are 30-day data enough? Ischemic Heart Disease Patient Outcomes Research Team.

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, D W; DeLong, E R; Luft, H S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We compare 30-day and 180-day postadmission hospital mortality rates for all Medicare patients and those in three categories of cardiac care: coronary artery bypass graft surgery, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. DATA SOURCES/COLLECTION. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) hospital mortality data for FY 1989. STUDY DESIGN. Using hospital level public use files of actual and predicted mortality at 30 and 180 days, we constructed residual mortality measures for each hospital. We ranked hospitals and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to compare 0-30, 31-180, and 0-180-day postadmission mortality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. For the admissions we studied, we found a broad range of hospital performance when we ranked hospitals using the 30-day data; some hospitals had much lower than predicted 30-day mortality rates, while others had much higher than predicted mortality rates. Data from the time period 31-180 days postadmission yield results that corroborate the 0-30 day postadmission data. Moreover, we found evidence that hospital performance on one condition is related to performance on the other conditions, but that the correlation is much weaker in the 31-180-day interval than in the 0-30-day period. Using ROC curves, we found that the 30-day data discriminated the top and bottom fifths of the 180-day data extremely well, especially for AMI outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Using data on cumulative hospital mortality from 180 days postadmission does not yield a different perspective from using data from 30 days postadmission for the conditions we studied. PMID:7860319

  16. Age-standardized mortality rates related to viral hepatitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perazzo, Hugo; Pacheco, Antonio G; Luz, Paula M; Castro, Rodolfo; Hyde, Chris; Fittipaldi, Juliana; Rigolon, Caroline; Cardoso, Sandra W; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa G

    2017-07-31

    Liver-related mortality has been increasing worldwide. We aimed to estimate the age-standardized mortality rates from viral hepatitis in Brazil. The Brazilian National Death Registry was analyzed from 2008 to 2014. Viral hepatitis deaths were defined by the following ICD-10 codes in the death certificate: hepatitis A [B15.0; B15.9]; hepatitis B [B16.2; B16.9; B18.1]; hepatitis C [B17.1; B18.2]; hepatitis Delta [B16.0; B16.1; B18.0; B17.0] and other viral hepatitis [B17.2; B17.8; B18.8; B18.9; B19.0; B19.9]. Crude mortality rates were calculated by the ratio between total number of deaths and estimated population. Mortality rates were age-standardized by the direct method using the WHO standard population. Thirty four thousand ,nine hundred seventy eight deaths had viral hepatitis mentioned in their death certificate [65% male, aged 58 years, 73% associated with hepatitis C]. Age-standardized mortality rate (95% CI) due to viral hepatitis was 2.695 (2.667-2.724) deaths per 100,000 inhabitants: South region had the higher rates [3.997 (3.911-4.085)]. Mortality rates associated with hepatitis A and Delta were 0.032 (0.029-0.035) and 0.028 (0.025-0.031), respectively. Hepatitis C mortality rates were 4-fold higher than those associated with hepatitis B [1.964 (1.940-1.989) vs 0.500 (0.488-0.512)]. South region had the higher rates for hepatitis C [3.163 (3.087-3.241)] and North had the higher rates for hepatitis A [0.066 (0.049-0.087)], B [0.986 (0.918-1.058)] and Delta [0.220 (0.190-0.253)]. Viral hepatitis remains a major public health issue in Brazil. Mortality rates were not homogeneous across the country, suggesting that health policies should be customized according to geographical location.

  17. Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Beavis, Anna L; Gravitt, Patti E; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-05-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race. Estimates for deaths due to cervical cancer stratified by age, state, year, and race were derived from the National Center for Health Statistics county mortality data (2000-2012). Equivalently stratified data on the prevalence of hysterectomy for women 20 years old or older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were used to remove women who were not at risk from the denominator. Age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates were computed, and trends in mortality rates were analyzed with Joinpoint regression. Age-standardized rates were higher for both races after correction. For black women, the corrected mortality rate was 10.1 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-10.6), whereas the uncorrected rate was 5.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 5.5-6.0). The corrected rate for white women was 4.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 4.6-4.8), whereas the uncorrected rate was 3.2 per 100,000 (95% CI, 3.1-3.2). Without the correction, the disparity in mortality between races was underestimated by 44%. Black women who were 85 years old or older had the highest corrected rate: 37.2 deaths per 100,000. A trend analysis of corrected rates demonstrated that white women's rates decreased at 0.8% per year, whereas the annual decrease for black women was 3.6% (P < .05). A correction for hysterectomy has revealed that cervical cancer mortality rates are underestimated, particularly in black women. The highest rates are seen in the oldest black women, and public health efforts should focus on appropriate screening and adequate treatment in this population. Cancer 2017;123:1044-50. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Investigating the Decline of Fetal and Infant Mortality Rates in Alaska During 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Prince, Cheryl B; Young, Margaret B; Sappenfield, William; Parrish, Jared W

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. infant mortality rate has been steadily declining since 2007. Although the downward trend has been notable in Alaska since 2006 when the rate was 6.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births, a dramatic drop in infant mortality occurred in 2010 and 2011 when the infant mortality rate fell to 3.8 infant deaths per 1000 live births during both years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sudden decrease in fetal and infant mortality rates (FIMR) using the perinatal periods of risk (PPOR) method, an approach that has not been used previously in Alaska. The study was conducted for 251 fetal and infant deaths in 2004-2006, 265 deaths in 2007-2009, and 129 deaths in 2010-2011. Data were stratified by Alaska Native (AN) and White maternal race and urban/rural residence. Among both urban and rural White women, the rate ratios (RR) for FIMRs between the earlier and later time periods were not significantly different. The postneonatal mortality rate (PNMR) among AN infants living in rural areas decreased significantly (RR 0.40; 95 % confidence interval 0.21-0.76) between 2007-2009 and 2010-2011. An unexplained increase in sudden unexplained infant death was noted in 2009, followed by a precipitous decrease in 2010-2011. No other unusual distribution of the cause specific mortality rates was observed. The decrease in the Alaska Native FIMR might have been due to focused efforts for preventing postneonatal sleep associated deaths. Education for prevention of sleep related deaths, particularly in rural communities, is necessary to maintain Alaska's low PNMR.

  19. Disparities in mortality rates among US infants born late preterm or early term, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk.

  20. Disparities in Mortality Rates Among US Infants Born Late Preterm or Early Term, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Gazmararian, Julie A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks gestation) and early term (37–38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003–2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85,9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk. PMID:23519825

  1. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  2. Asbestos in Belgium: an underestimated health risk. The evolution of mesothelioma mortality rates (1969–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although Belgium was once a major international manufacturer of asbestos products, asbestos-related diseases in the country have remained scarcely researched. Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide a descriptive analysis of Belgian mesothelioma mortality rates in order to improve the understanding of asbestos health hazards from an international perspective. Methods: Temporal and geographical analyses were performed on cause-specific mortality data (1969–2009) using quantitative demographic measures. Results were compared to recent findings on global mesothelioma deaths. Results: Belgium has one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates in the world, following the UK, Australia, and Italy. With a progressive increase of male mesothelioma deaths in the mid-1980s, large differences in mortality rates between sexes are apparent. Mesothelioma deaths are primarily concentrated in geographic areas with proximity to former asbestos industries. Conclusions: Asbestos mortality in Belgium has been underestimated for decades. Our findings suggest that the location of asbestos industries is correlated with rates of mesothelioma, underlining the need to avert future asbestos exposure by thorough screening of potential contaminated sites and by pursuing a global ban on asbestos. PMID:24999848

  3. Asbestos in Belgium: an underestimated health risk. The evolution of mesothelioma mortality rates (1969-2009).

    PubMed

    Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although Belgium was once a major international manufacturer of asbestos products, asbestos-related diseases in the country have remained scarcely researched. The aim of this study is to provide a descriptive analysis of Belgian mesothelioma mortality rates in order to improve the understanding of asbestos health hazards from an international perspective. Temporal and geographical analyses were performed on cause-specific mortality data (1969-2009) using quantitative demographic measures. Results were compared to recent findings on global mesothelioma deaths. Belgium has one of the highest mesothelioma mortality rates in the world, following the UK, Australia, and Italy. With a progressive increase of male mesothelioma deaths in the mid-1980s, large differences in mortality rates between sexes are apparent. Mesothelioma deaths are primarily concentrated in geographic areas with proximity to former asbestos industries. Asbestos mortality in Belgium has been underestimated for decades. Our findings suggest that the location of asbestos industries is correlated with rates of mesothelioma, underlining the need to avert future asbestos exposure by thorough screening of potential contaminated sites and by pursuing a global ban on asbestos.

  4. Age-Specific Variation in Adult Mortality Rates in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Y. Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical changes in both single-year-of-age adult mortality rates and variation of the single-year mortality rates around expected values within age intervals over the past two centuries in 15 developed countries. We apply an integrated Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort—Variance Function Regression Model to data from the Human Mortality Database. We find increasing variation of the single-year rates within broader age intervals over the life course for all countries, but the increasing variation slows down at age 90 and then increases again after age 100 for some countries; the variation significantly declined across cohorts born after the early 20th century; and the variation continuously declined over much of the last two centuries but has substantially increased since 1980. Our further analysis finds the recent increases in mortality variation are not due to increasing proportions of older adults in the population, trends in mortality rates, or disproportionate delays in deaths from degenerative and man-made diseases, but rather due to increasing variations in young and middle-age adults. PMID:28133402

  5. Differential Neonatal and Postneonatal Infant Mortality Rates across US Counties: The Role of Socioeconomic Conditions and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. Methods: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship…

  6. Differential Neonatal and Postneonatal Infant Mortality Rates across US Counties: The Role of Socioeconomic Conditions and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. Methods: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship…

  7. Urban-rural variation in mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injury in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Boland, M; Staines, A; Fitzpatrick, P; Scallan, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore urban-rural differences in the mortality and hospital admission rates for unintentional injuries in the Republic of Ireland. Design: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in residents of urban and non-city areas (called rural areas) from all causes of unintentional injury were calculated using Central Statistics Office mortality data from 1980–2000. Hospital admission data (Hospital In-Patient Enquiry) from 1993–2000 were used to calculate standardised hospital admission ratios (SARs) in urban and rural residents. Population data were obtained from the 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 censuses. Results: The rate of unintentional injury mortality was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury mortality (SMR 103.0, 95% confidence interval 101 to 105), and specifically for deaths related to motor vehicle trauma (MVT), drowning, machinery, and firearms. There were significantly higher SMRs in urban residents for falls and poisoning. The rate of unintentional injury hospital admission was significantly higher in rural residents for all-cause unintentional injury (SAR 104.6, 95% confidence interval 104 to 105) and specifically for injuries from falls, MVT, being struck by or against an object, injuries in pedal cyclists, fire/burn injuries, and machinery injuries. SARs were significantly higher in residents of urban areas for poisoning and injuries in pedestrians. Conclusions: There are urban-rural differences in mortality and admissions for injuries in Ireland. Possible reasons for the higher rural mortality rates are higher case fatality in MVT and rural exposure to hazardous farm machinery, firearms, and open areas of water. This information could assist in targeting prevention programmes under the proposed National Injury Prevention Strategy. PMID:15691988

  8. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  9. Forecasting the mortality rates of Malaysian population using Heligman-Pollard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Mohd, Razak; Ngataman, Nuraini; Abrisam, Wan Nur Azifah Wan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Actuaries, demographers and other professionals have always been aware of the critical importance of mortality forecasting due to declining trend of mortality and continuous increases in life expectancy. Heligman-Pollard model was introduced in 1980 and has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. This paper aims to estimate an eight-parameter model based on Heligman and Pollard's law of mortality. Since the model involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 7.0 (MATLAB 7.0) software will be used in order to estimate the parameters. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be applied to forecast all the parameters according to Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). The empirical data sets of Malaysian population for period of 1981 to 2015 for both genders will be considered, which the period of 1981 to 2010 will be used as "training set" and the period of 2011 to 2015 as "testing set". In order to investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecast results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The result shows that Heligman-Pollard model fit well for male population at all ages while the model seems to underestimate the mortality rates for female population at the older ages.

  10. A predictive model relating daily fluctuations in summer temperatures and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Fouillet, Anne; Rey, Grégoire; Jougla, Eric; Frayssinet, Philippe; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Hémon, Denis

    2007-06-19

    In the context of climate change, an efficient alert system to prevent the risk associated with summer heat is necessary. The authors' objective was to describe the temperature-mortality relationship in France over a 29-year period and to define and validate a combination of temperature factors enabling optimum prediction of the daily fluctuations in summer mortality. The study addressed the daily mortality rates of subjects aged over 55 years, in France as a whole, from 1975 to 2003. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures consisted in the average values recorded by 97 meteorological stations. For each day, a cumulative variable for the maximum temperature over the preceding 10 days was defined. The mortality rate was modelled using a Poisson regression with over-dispersion and a first-order autoregressive structure and with control for long-term and within-summer seasonal trends. The lag effects of temperature were accounted for by including the preceding 5 days. A "backward" method was used to select the most significant climatic variables. The predictive performance of the model was assessed by comparing the observed and predicted daily mortality rates on a validation period (summer 2003), which was distinct from the calibration period (1975-2002) used to estimate the model. The temperature indicators explained 76% of the total over-dispersion. The greater part of the daily fluctuations in mortality was explained by the interaction between minimum and maximum temperatures, for a day t and the day preceding it. The prediction of mortality during extreme events was greatly improved by including the cumulative variables for maximum temperature, in interaction with the maximum temperatures. The correlation between the observed and estimated mortality ratios was 0.88 in the final model. Although France is a large country with geographic heterogeneity in both mortality and temperatures, a strong correlation between the daily fluctuations in mortality and the

  11. Natural mortality rates of freshwater drum larvae in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Hergenrader, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Instantaneous total mortality rates for planktonic larval freshwater drums (Aplodinotus grunniens) in a channelized stretch of the Missouri River were estimated from analyses of cumulative catch curves. Mortality rates, which ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 per day, were significantly greater in 1976 than in 1974. Basing our interpretation on the underrepresentation of eggs and early larvae in the channelized river samples, we hypothesize that favorable environments upstream represent a more significant source of recruitment of larvae to the freshwater drum population than the channelized river.

  12. Socioeconomic Status, Self-Rated Health, and Mortality in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES), self-rated health (SRH), and mortality separately by race-ethnicity in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods We analyzed data from 16 716 adult women and men who were followed up for mortality for up to 12 years as part of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES III). Poverty-income ratio (PIR) and education were assessed as measures of SES. All-cause mortality (n = 2850) was recorded from the NHANES III linked mortality file. Results Lower PIR was associated with mortality after adjustment for lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and SRH in all racial-ethnic groups (P-trend <0.005). In contrast, after adjusting for lifestyle and clinical risk factors, lower education was not associated with all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic whites (P-trend = 0.16), whereas the association remained significant after adjustment for SRH and lifestyle and clinical risk factors in other race-ethnicities (P-trend = 0.005; P-interaction between education categories and race-ethnicity was 0.02). Conclusions Our results suggest that lower PIR was associated with mortality in all racial-ethnic groups. In contrast, lower education was significantly associated with mortality only in racial-ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic whites. Our results indicate that, beyond lifestyle and clinical risk factors, adjusting for SRH resulted in only a modest change in the association of SES and mortality. PMID:21747210

  13. Protective role of resting heart rate on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Arpit; Minton, Dawn; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Fayad, Raja; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To study the protective role of lower resting heart rate (RHR) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Patients (n=53,322) who received a baseline medical examination between January 1, 1974, and December 31, 2002, were recruited from the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, Texas. They completed a medical questionnaire and underwent clinical evaluation. Patients with CVD or cancer or who had less than 1 year of mortality follow-up were excluded from the study. Relative risks and 95% CIs for all-cause and CVD mortality across RHR categories were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Highest cardiorespiratory fitness with lower mortality was found in individuals with an RHR of less than 60 beats/min. Similarly, patients with a higher RHR (≥80 beats/min) were at greater risk for CVD and all-cause mortality compared with an RHR of less than 60 beats/min. This analysis was followed by stratification of the data by hypertension, where hypertensive individuals with high RHRs (≥80 beats/min) were found to be at greater risk for CVD and all-cause mortality compared with those with hypertension and lower RHRs (<60 beats/min). In addition, unfit individuals with high RHRs had the greatest risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. The unfit with low RHR group had a similar risk for CVD and all-cause mortality as the fit with high RHR group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels and higher RHRs are linked to greater CVD and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heart rate at rest, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in veterans.

    PubMed

    Pittaras, Andreas M; Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Myers, Jonathan; Kheirbek, Raya; Kokkinos, John Peter; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Aiken, Monica; Kokkinos, Peter

    2013-11-15

    Heart rate (HR) at rest has been associated inversely with mortality risk. However, fitness is inversely associated with mortality risk and both increased fitness and β-blockade therapy affect HR at rest. Thus, both fitness and β-blockade therapy should be considered when HR at rest-mortality risk association is assessed. From 1986 to 2011, we assessed HR at rest, fitness, and mortality in 18,462 veterans (mean age = 58 ± 11 years) undergoing a stress test. During a median follow-up period of 10 years (211,398 person-years), 5,100 died, at an average annual mortality of 24.1 events/1,000 person-years. After adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiac risk factors, medication, and exercise capacity, we noted approximately 11% increase in risk for each 10 heart beats. To assess the risk in a wide and clinically relevant spectrum, we established 6 HR at rest categories per 10 heart beat intervals ranging from <60 to ≥100 beats. Mortality risk was significantly elevated at a HR at rest of ≥70 beats/min (hazard ratio 1.14, confidence interval 1.04 to 1.25; p <0.006) and increased progressively to 49% (hazard ratio 1.49, confidence interval 1.29 to 1.73; p <0.001) for those with a HR at rest of ≥100 beats/min. Similar trends were noted when for subjects aged <60 and ≥60 years and those treated with β blockers. In all assessments, mortality risk was consistently overestimated when fitness was not considered. In conclusion, HR at rest-mortality risk association was direct and independent. A progressive increase in risk was noted >70 beats/min for the entire cohort, those treated with β blockers, and those aged <60 and ≥60 years. Mortality risk was overestimated slightly when fitness status was not considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The "Sapienza University Mortality and Morbidity Event Rate (SUMMER) study in diabetes": Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, I; Capoccia, D; Baroni, M G; Buzzetti, R; Cavallo, M G; De Cosmo, S; Leonetti, F; Leotta, S; Morano, S; Morviducci, L; Prudente, S; Pugliese, G; Trischitta, V

    2016-02-01

    The rate of mortality in diabetic patients, especially of cardiovascular origin, is about twice as much that of nondiabetic individuals. Thus, the pathogenic factors shaping the risk of mortality in such patients must be unraveled in order to target intensive prevention and treatment strategies. The "Sapienza University Mortality and Morbidity Event Rate (SUMMER) study in diabetes" is aimed at identifying new molecular promoters of mortality and major vascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The "SUMMER study in diabetes" is an observational, prospective, and collaborative study conducted on at least 5000 consecutive patients with T2DM, recruited from several diabetes clinics of Central-Southern Italy and followed up for a minimum of 5 years. The primary outcome is all-cause mortality; the secondary outcomes are cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and dialysis. A biobank will be created for genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analysis, in order to unravel new molecular predictors of mortality and vascular morbidity. The "SUMMER study in diabetes" is aimed at identifying new molecular promoters of mortality and major vascular events in patients with T2DM. These novel pathogenic factors will most likely be instrumental in unraveling new pathways underlying such dramatic events. In addition, they will also be used as additional markers to increase the performance of the already existing risk-scoring models for predicting the above-mentioned outcomes in T2DM, as well as for setting up new preventive and treatment strategies, possibly tailored to specific pathogenic backgrounds. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02311244; URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02311244?term=SUMMER&rank=5. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published

  16. Global Progress in Road Injury Mortality since 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Peishan; Schwebel, David C.; Huang, Helai; Li, Li; Li, Jun; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine progress in global road injury mortality since the initiation of Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020. We examined annual percent changes in age-adjusted road traffic mortality using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Association between changes in road traffic mortality and legislative efforts in individual nations was explored using data from Global Status Reports on Road Safety 2013 and 2015. We found that global age-adjusted mortality, both overall and for user-specific road traffic injuries, decreased significantly between 2010 and 2013 (annual percent change in rates range from -1.43% to -0.99%). Developed countries witnessed a larger decrease than developing countries in both overall and user-specific road mortality (about 2.0–4.6 times). However, there were substantial disparities within developed countries and within developing countries, with some countries seeing large reductions in mortality rates and others seeing none. The annual percent change in road traffic mortality during 2010–2013 was significantly correlated with total national law enforcement score (Spearman rs = -0.38). We concluded that results highlight the need for continued effort to reduce the burden of road injury mortality, especially in LMIC countries. PMID:27727318

  17. Poor self-rated health predicts mortality in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Inkrot, Simone; Lainscak, Mitja; Edelmann, Frank; Loncar, Goran; Stankovic, Ivan; Celic, Vera; Apostolovic, Svetlana; Tahirovic, Elvis; Trippel, Tobias; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Gelbrich, Götz; Düngen, Hans-Dirk

    2016-12-01

    In heart failure, a holistic approach incorporating the patient's perspective is vital for prognosis and treatment. Self-rated health has strong associations with adverse events and short-term mortality risk, but long-term data are limited. We investigated the predictive value of two consecutive self-rated health assessments with regard to long-term mortality in a large, well characterised sample of elderly patients with stable chronic heart failure. We measured self-rated health by asking 'In general, would you say your health is: 1, excellent; 2, very good; 3, good; 4, fair; 5, poor?' twice: at baseline and the end of a 12-week beta-blocker up-titration period in the CIBIS-ELD trial. Mortality was assessed in an observational follow-up after 2-4 years. A total of 720 patients (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 45±12%, mean age 73±5 years, 36% women) rated their health at both time points. During long-term follow-up, 144 patients died (all-cause mortality 20%). Fair/poor self-rated health in at least one of the two reports was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.42 per level; 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.75; P<0.001). It remained independently significant in multiple Cox regression analysis, adjusted for N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), heart rate and other risk prediction covariates. Self-rated health by one level worse was as predictive for mortality as a 1.9-fold increase in NTproBNP. Poor self-rated health predicts mortality in our long-term follow-up of patients with stable chronic heart failure, even after adjustment for established risk predictors. We encourage clinicians to capture patient-reported self-rated health routinely as an easy to assess, clinically meaningful measure and pay extra attention when self-rated health is poor. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  18. Comparison of Turkish and US haemodialysis patient mortality rates: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Asci, Gulay; Marcelli, Daniele; Celtik, Aygul; Grassmann, Aileen; Gunestepe, Kutay; Yaprak, Mustafa; Tamer, Abdulkerim Furkan; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Ok, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    There are significant differences between countries in the mortality rates of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The extent of these differences and possible contributing factors are worthy of investigation. As of March 2009, all patients undergoing HD or haemodiafiltration for >3 months (n = 4041) in the Turkish clinics of the NephroCare network were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected for 2 years through the European Clinical Dialysis Database. Mean age ± standard deviation was 58.7 ± 14.7 years, 45.9% were female and 22.9% were diabetic. Comparison with US data was performed by applying an indirect standardization technique, using specific mortality rates for patients on HD by age, gender, race and primary diagnosis as provided by the 2012 US Renal Data System Annual Data Report as reference. The crude mortality rate in Turkey was 95.1 per 1000 patient-years. Compared with the US reference population, the annual mortality rate for Turkey was significantly lower, irrespective of gender, age and diabetes. After adjustments for age, gender and diabetes, the mortality risk in the Turkish cohort was 50% lower than US whites [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.54, P < 0.001], 44% lower than US African-Americans (95% CI 0.52-0.61, P < 0.001) and 20% lower than Asian-Americans (95% CI 0.74-0.86, P < 0.05). The annual mortality rate of prevalent HD patients was found to be significantly lower in the studied Turkish cohort compared with that published by the US Renal Data System Annual Data Report. Differences in practice patterns may contribute to the divergence.

  19. Comparison of Turkish and US haemodialysis patient mortality rates: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Asci, Gulay; Marcelli, Daniele; Celtik, Aygul; Grassmann, Aileen; Gunestepe, Kutay; Yaprak, Mustafa; Tamer, Abdulkerim Furkan; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Ok, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are significant differences between countries in the mortality rates of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The extent of these differences and possible contributing factors are worthy of investigation. Methods As of March 2009, all patients undergoing HD or haemodiafiltration for >3 months (n = 4041) in the Turkish clinics of the NephroCare network were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected for 2 years through the European Clinical Dialysis Database. Mean age ± standard deviation was 58.7 ± 14.7 years, 45.9% were female and 22.9% were diabetic. Comparison with US data was performed by applying an indirect standardization technique, using specific mortality rates for patients on HD by age, gender, race and primary diagnosis as provided by the 2012 US Renal Data System Annual Data Report as reference. Results The crude mortality rate in Turkey was 95.1 per 1000 patient-years. Compared with the US reference population, the annual mortality rate for Turkey was significantly lower, irrespective of gender, age and diabetes. After adjustments for age, gender and diabetes, the mortality risk in the Turkish cohort was 50% lower than US whites [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.54, P < 0.001], 44% lower than US African-Americans (95% CI 0.52–0.61, P < 0.001) and 20% lower than Asian-Americans (95% CI 0.74–0.86, P < 0.05). Conclusions The annual mortality rate of prevalent HD patients was found to be significantly lower in the studied Turkish cohort compared with that published by the US Renal Data System Annual Data Report. Differences in practice patterns may contribute to the divergence. PMID:27274836

  20. The correlation between burn mortality rates from fire and flame and economic status of countries.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael; Pressman, Melissa A

    2013-09-01

    Over 95% of burn deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries globally. However, the association between burn mortality rates and economic health has not been evaluated for individual countries. This study seeks to answer the question, how strong is the correlation between burn mortality and national indices of economic strength? A retrospective review was performed for 189 countries during 2008-2010 using economic data from the World Bank as well as mortality data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries were categorized into four groups based on income level according to stratification by the World Bank: low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, and high income. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to estimate presence and strength of association among death rates, Gini coefficient (measure of inequality of distribution of wealth), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and gross national index (GNI) per capita. Statistically significant associations (p<0.05) were found between burn mortality and GDP per capita (r=-0.26), GNI per capita (r=-0.36), and Gini (r=+0.17). A nation's income level is negatively correlated with burn mortality; the lower the income level, the higher the burn mortality rates. The degree to which income within a country is equitably or inequitably distributed also correlates with burn mortality. Both governmental and non-governmental organizations need to focus on preventing burns in low-income countries, as well as in other countries in which there is marked disparity of income. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Computerised order entry systems: sustained impact on laboratory efficiency and mortality rates?

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Georgiou, Andrew; Rob, Marilyn I

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to measure the effectiveness of computerised test-order entry systems to reduce test turnaround time and the extent to which improvements are sustained or continue over time. Further, a recent study has raised the possibility that such systems, which require significant work practice change, may be associated with an increase in mortality rates. Our study answered two questions in relation to the introduction of a computerised pathology order entry system in a major Australian teaching hospital: i) are initial improvements in turnaround times achieved in the first 12 months of system use sustained beyond this time; and ii) did mortality rates change following the introduction of the order entry system? We found significant improvements in turnaround times 12 and 24 months following system implementation and no change in average number of tests per patient. The mortality rate significantly increased in the year following system introduction but returned to the pre-system rate in the second year of system use. Review of the excess deaths demonstrated that these were most likely attributable to a coincidental influenza outbreak and not to system introduction. The computerised order entry systems produced sustained and continuing improvements in health care delivery efficiency over a two year period. Associations between increased mortality rates and system introduction should be investigated carefully to ascertain any likely association.

  2. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring: a population-based study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-03-08

    With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified 84,752 men ≤70 years with a history of cancer, for which we calculated relative birth rates as compared to the background population(Standardized Birth Ratios, SBRs). We also identified 126,696 offspring of men who had cancer, and compared their risks of death to the background population(Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMRs). Independent factors associated with reduced birth rates and mortality rates were estimated with Poisson modelling. Men with a history of cancer were 23 % less likely to father a child compared to the background population(SBR 0.77, 95 % Confidence Interval[CI] 0.75-0.79). Nulliparous men were significantly more likely to father a child after diagnosis (SBR 0.81, 95 % CI 0.79-0.83) compared to parous men (SBR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.66-0.74). Cancer site(prostate), onset of cancer during childhood or adolescence, parity status at diagnosis(parous), current age(>40 years) and a recent diagnosis were significant and independent predictors of a reduced probability of fathering a child after diagnosis. Of the 126,696 children born to men who have had a diagnosis of cancer, 2604(2.06 %) died during follow up. The overall mortality rate was similar to the background population(SMR of 1.00, 95 %CI 0.96-1.04) and was not affected by the timing of their birth in relation to father's cancer diagnosis. Male cancer survivors are less likely to father a child compared to the background population. This is influenced by cancer site, age of onset and parity status at diagnosis. However, their offspring are not at an increased risk of death.

  3. [[Comparison of mortality rates of elderly people in China and Japan

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Morikawa, Y; Nakagawa, H; Yoshita, K; Tabata, M; Nishijo, M; Senma, M; Kawano, S; Kido, T; Chen, Y

    1992-01-01

    "The mortality rates and causes of death among elderly people aged sixty five and over were compared between China and Japan. The data used for comparison was China's 1990 and Japan's 1990 vital statistics. It appears that the mortality rate in China was higher than Japan. Comparing the causes of death, it was found that the death rates involving cerebrovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms and heart diseases in urban districts of China [were] higher than those in Japan. Also the death rate of people with bronchitis in rural districts was significantly higher in China.... The differences in the medical systems and life styles in China and Japan were suspected as the reasons for the differences of death rates and causes of death...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Statistical modelling of breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Robertson, C; Boyle, P

    1997-01-01

    The interpretation of time trends in disease rates can be facilitated using estimable contrasts from age-period-cohort models. Cohort and period trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland were investigated using contrasts that measure the changes in the linear trends. These contrasts were compared with estimates obtained from mortality rates in the USA and Japan. A significant moderation of both breast cancer incidence and mortality rates was observed in Scotland, associated with cohorts of women born after the Second World War compared with women born between the two world wars. The moderation of breast cancer mortality among cohorts born after 1925 compared with cohorts born before 1925 that was observed in the USA and Japan was also observed in this study. This moderation is not present in the incidence rates. The relative decline in the risk of breast cancer seen in younger cohorts seems to be contradictory to the temporal pattern present among breast cancer risk factors. It may well be that the alteration of eating patterns as a result of rationing in the wartime and immediate post-war period, and the subsequent influence on certain breast cancer risk factors probably produced by such changes, may have had some influence on the development of healthier girls and women. Such speculation could be addressed in a well-designed epidemiological study. There have been no changes in the mortality rate trends with period in Scotland, although the changes in the incidence rate trends with period are consistent with an increase in registration coverage.

  5. Trends in stroke admission and mortality rates from 1983 to 2013 in central Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sarfo, Fred S; Akassi, John; Awuah, Dominic; Adamu, Sheila; Nkyi, Clara; Owolabi, Mayowa; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2015-10-15

    Accumulating data based on model-derived estimates suggest rising rates of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa over the next several decades. Stroke is a leading cause of death, disability, and dementia worldwide. Directly enumerated hospital-based data on the longitudinal trajectory of stroke admissions and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa could help hospital administrators, public health officials, and government policy-makers with planning and utilization of scarce resources. To evaluate 30-year trends in stroke admission and mortality rates in central Ghana. We undertook a retrospective analysis of data on stroke admissions and mortality at a tertiary referral hospital in central Ghana between 1983 and 2013. Rates of stroke admissions and mortality were expressed as stroke admissions or deaths divided by total number of hospital admissions or deaths respectively. Yearly crude case fatality from stroke was calculated and predictors of stroke mortality were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Over the period, there were 12,233 stroke admissions with equal gender distribution. The rate of stroke admissions increased progressively from 5.32/1000 admissions in 1983 to 13.85/1000 admissions in 2010 corresponding to a 260% rise over the period. Stroke mortality rates also increased from 3.40/1000 deaths to 6.66/1000 deaths over the 30-year period. The average 28-day mortality over the period was 41.1%. Predictors of in-patient mortality were increasing age-aHR of 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for age>80years compared with <40years and admissions in 2000's compared with 1980's; aHR of 1.32 (1.26-1.39). Of the 1132 stroke patients with neuroimaging data: 569 (50.3%) had intracerebral hemorrhage, 382 (33.7%) had ischemic stroke and 181 (16.0) had sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. Patients with ischemic stroke were significantly older than those with ICH and SAH respectively. Rates of stroke admission and mortality have increased steadily over the past three decades in central

  6. Differences of Mortality Rates between Pocket and Nonpocket Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Heun; Gracely, Edward J; Aleem, Sarah Y; Kutalek, Steven P; Vielemeyer, Ole

    2015-12-01

    A steady rise in the use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), particularly in the elderly, has led to an increase in device-related infections. Although often studied and reported as a single entity, these complications in fact comprise a heterogeneous group. Specific subgroups may be associated with distinct mortality risks. Medical records of all patients who underwent device extraction for CIED-related infection at a single tertiary referral center between 1991 and 2007 were reviewed. Infections were divided into four subgroups: primary pocket site infection (PPSI), pocket site infection with bacteremia, primary/isolated bacteremia (PIB), and device-related infective endocarditis (DRIE). Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and mortality rates were obtained by chart review and by querying the Social Security Death Index. A total of 387 cases were analyzed. The overall in-hospital and 1-year all-cause mortality rates were 7.2% and 25.3%, respectively. Patients with PIB or DRIE had significantly higher mortality rates (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.6 and HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.6-4.1, respectively) when compared with patients in the PPSI group. Patients who did not receive a new device during the initial admission also had a higher 1-year mortality rate compared to those who did (HR 2.7; 95% CI 1.8-4.1). Our patients with CIED-related infections requiring extraction/hospitalization had a significant mortality risk. Presence of pocket site infection carried a more favorable prognosis, regardless of the presence of bacteremia. Early detection and prevention of CIED-related infections with PIB (i.e., no pocket site involvement), especially for high-risk populations, is needed. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  8. Septicemia mortality reduction in neonates in a heart rate characteristics monitoring trial

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Karen D.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Kaufman, David A.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Kattwinkel, John; Porcelli, Peter J.; Navarrete, Cristina T.; Bancalari, Eduardo; Aschner, Judy L.; Walker, M. Whit; Perez, Jose A.; Palmer, Charles; Lake, Douglas E.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Moorman, J. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal heart rate characteristics (HRC) wax and wane in early stages of culture-positive, late-onset septicemia (LOS) in patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Continuously monitoring an HRC index leads to a reduction in mortality among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We hypothesized that the reduction in mortality was due to a decrease in septicemia-associated mortality. Methods This is a secondary analysis of clinical and HRC data from 2989 VLBW infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of HRC monitoring in 9 NICUs from 2004–2010. Results LOS was diagnosed 974 times in 700 patients, and the incidence and distribution of organisms were similar in HRC display and non-display groups. Mortality within 30 days of LOS was lower in the HRC display compared to the non-display group (11.8% vs 19.6%, RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43, 0.87, p<0.01), but mortality reduction was not statistically significant for patients without LOS. There were fewer large, abrupt increases in the HRC index in the days leading up to LOS diagnosis in infants whose HRC index was displayed. Conclusions Continuous HRC monitoring is associated with a lower septicemia-associated mortality in VLBW infants, possibly due to diagnosis earlier in the course of illness. PMID:23942558

  9. The effect of heart disease differential mortality rate on cholesterol distribution.

    PubMed

    Zare, Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    In a good deal of studies cholesterol distribution, as a risk factor, demonstrates a special treatment towards age so that it shows an upward trend up to an age group and exhibits a downward trend for older age brackets thereafter. To investigate this phenomenon, two general points of view are presented. First, this issue may occur naturally for many subjects and it may be due to natural treatment of cholesterol variable with age. Second, it could be related to differential mortality, i.e. mortality changes in different age groups. In other words, it can be said that higher levels of cholesterol are relevant to younger-age mortality rate. Constructing a parametric model based on Weibull distribution, the association of this phenomenon with differential mortality was investigated. This study revealed that the effect of differential mortality on cholesterol distribution in the age groups younger than 65 were insignificant and it could partly be justifiable just in older age groups because it involves 35% changes in the 85-95 age groups. Thus, the differential mortality justifies just a part of cholesterol changes and other parts are due to intrinsic changes of cholesterol variable with time.

  10. Mortality from neglected tropical diseases in Brazil, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe mortality from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Brazil, 2000–2011. Methods We extracted information on cause of death, age, sex, ethnicity and place of residence from the nationwide mortality information system at the Brazilian Ministry of Health. We selected deaths in which the underlying cause of death was a neglected tropical disease (NTD), as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and based on its International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes. For specific NTDs, we estimated crude and age-adjusted mortality rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We calculated crude and age-adjusted mortality rates and mortality rate ratios by age, sex, ethnicity and geographic area. Findings Over the 12-year study period, 12 491 280 deaths were recorded; 76 847 deaths (0.62%) were caused by NTDs. Chagas disease was the most common cause of death (58 928 deaths; 76.7%), followed by schistosomiasis (6319 deaths; 8.2%) and leishmaniasis (3466 deaths; 4.5%). The average annual age-adjusted mortality from all NTDs combined was 4.30 deaths per 100 000 population (95% CI: 4.21–4.40). Rates were higher in males: 4.98 deaths per 100 000; people older than 69 years: 33.12 deaths per 100 000; Afro-Brazilians: 5.25 deaths per 100 000; and residents in the central-west region: 14.71 deaths per 100 000. Conclusion NTDs are important causes of death and are a significant public health problem in Brazil. There is a need for intensive integrated control measures in areas of high morbidity and mortality. PMID:26908960

  11. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data.

  12. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  13. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) mortality and recovery rates vary by wing molt status at time of banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery (i.e., shot, retrieved, and reported) rates and daily mortality risk of 52,330 adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) leg-banded during pre-molt, in-molt, or post-molt during 1985–2011 were evaluated to better understand mortality during wing molt in dynamics of the Mallard population in California, USA. Recovery rates and non-hunting mortality risk varied by molt status at time of banding and California region where banded. Mallards banded during post-molt were 1.22 (95% credible interval = 1.10–1.32) times more likely to be recovered than Mallards banded pre-molt; recovery probability was similar for pre-molt and in-molt Mallards. Mallards banded post-molt had 0.43 (0.17–0.98) and in-molt 0.87 (0.51–1.49) times the daily risk of non-hunting mortality as Mallards banded pre-molt. Mallards were 0.92 (0.86–0.98) times as likely to be recovered, and daily risk of non-hunting mortality was 2.93 (1.79–4.94) times greater, if banded in Northeastern California than in California's Central Valley. Results indicate that high mortality during the molt period, especially in Northeastern California where most Mallards that breed in California molt, might be negatively affecting recovery (and potentially annual survival) of Mallards in California. Thus, conservation programs that reduce mortality during molt could help attain the desired population size for Mallards nesting in California.

  14. Changes in U.S. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates following Smoking Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Kanaka D.; DeLeire, Thomas; White, Chapin; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    U.S. state and local governments have increasingly adopted restrictions on smoking in public places. This paper analyzes nationally representative databases, including the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, to compare short-term changes in mortality and hospitalization rates in smoking-restricted regions with control regions. In contrast with smaller…

  15. Infant Mortality Rates: Socioeconomic Factors. United States. National Vital Statistics System, Series 22, Number 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistics are presented on infant mortality rates according to race, sex, family income, education of mother, and education of father. The statistics are based on data collected by a questionnaire mailed to mothers of legitimate births and to medical care facilities and mothers of legitimate infant deaths. Samples were selected from records of…

  16. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  17. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  18. Geostatistical Analysis of County-Level Lung Cancer Mortality Rates in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, or occupational factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. Transferring methods originally developed for the analysis of earth properties to health science, however, presents several methodological and technical challenges. These arise because health data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports (e.g., counties) and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e., rates). This article provides an overview of geostatistical methods tailored specifically to the characteristics of areal health data, with an application to lung cancer mortality rates in 688 U.S. counties of the southeast (1970–1994). Factorial Poisson kriging can filter short-scale variation and noise, which can be large in sparsely populated counties, to reveal similar regional patterns for male and female cancer mortality that correlate well with proximity to shipyards. Rate uncertainty was transferred through local cluster analysis using stochastic simulation, allowing the computation of the likelihood of clusters of low or high cancer mortality. Accounting for population size and rate uncertainty led to the detection of new clusters of high mortality around Oak Ridge National Laboratory for both sexes, in counties with high concentrations of pig farms and paper mill industries for males (occupational exposure) and in the vicinity of Atlanta for females. PMID:20445829

  19. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  20. Changes in U.S. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates following Smoking Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Kanaka D.; DeLeire, Thomas; White, Chapin; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    U.S. state and local governments have increasingly adopted restrictions on smoking in public places. This paper analyzes nationally representative databases, including the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, to compare short-term changes in mortality and hospitalization rates in smoking-restricted regions with control regions. In contrast with smaller…

  1. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  2. Mortality rates differ among amphibian populations exposed to three strains of a lethal ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Schock, Danna M; Bollinger, Trent K; Collins, James P

    2009-09-01

    Infectious diseases are a growing threat to biodiversity, in many cases because of synergistic effects with habitat loss, environmental contamination, and climate change. Emergence of pathogens as new threats to host populations can also arise when novel combinations of hosts and pathogens are unintentionally brought together, for example, via commercial trade or wildlife relocations and reintroductions. Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and amphibian ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae) are pathogens implicated in global amphibian declines. The emergence of disease associated with these pathogens appears to be at least partly related to recent translocations over large geographic distances. We experimentally examined the outcomes of novel combinations of host populations and pathogen strains using the amphibian ranavirus Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) and barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium, formerly considered part of the Ambystoma tigrinum complex). One salamander population was highly resistant to lethal infections by all ATV strains, including its own strain, and mortality rates differed among ATV strains according to salamander population. Mortality rates in novel pairings of salamander population and ATV strain were not predictable based on knowledge of mortality rates when salamander populations were exposed to their own ATV strain. The underlying cause(s) for the differences in mortality rates are unknown, but local selection pressures on salamanders, viruses, or both, across the range of this widespread host-pathogen system are a plausible hypothesis. Our study highlights the need to minimize translocations of amphibian ranaviruses, even among conspecifc host populations, and the importance of considering intraspecific variation in endeavors to manage wildlife diseases.

  3. Reduced mortality rates in a cohort of long-term underground iron-ore miners.

    PubMed

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Wahlström, Jens; Nilsson, Tohr

    2013-05-01

    Historically, working in iron-ore mines has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and silicosis. However, studies on other causes of mortality are inconsistent and in the case of cancer incidence, sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between iron-ore mining, mortality and cancer incidence. A 54-year cohort study on iron-ore miners from mines in northern Sweden was carried out comprising 13,000 workers. Standardized rate ratios were calculated comparing the disease frequency, mortality, and cancer incidence with that of the general population of northern Sweden. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association between the durations of employment and underground work, and outcome. Underground mining was associated with a significant decrease in adjusted mortality rate ratios for cerebrovascular and digestive system diseases, and stroke. For several outcomes, elevated standardized rate ratios were observed among blue-collar workers relative to the reference population. However, only the incidence of lung cancer increased with employment time underground (P < 0.001). Long-term iron-ore mining underground was associated with lower rates regarding several health outcomes. This is possibly explained by factors related to actual job activities, environmental exposure, or the selection of healthier workers for long-term underground employment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mortality rate acceleration and post-reproductive lifespan in matrilineal whale species.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D

    2008-04-23

    The strength of selection to increase the span of a life stage is dependent upon individuals at that stage being able to contribute towards individual fitness and the probability of their surviving to that stage. Complete reproductive cessation and a long post-reproductive female lifespan as found in humans are also found in killer whale (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), but not in the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaena). Each species forms kin-based, stable matrilineal groups and exhibits kin-directed behaviours that could increase inclusive fitness. Here, the initial mortality rate and mortality rate-doubling time of females of these three closely related whale species are compared. The initial mortality rate shows little variation among pilot whale species; however mortality rate accelerates almost twice as fast in the long-finned pilot whale as it does in killer whale and short-finned pilot whale. Selection for a long post-reproductive female lifespan in matrilineal whales may therefore be determined by the proportion of females surviving past the point of reproductive cessation.

  5. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  6. Higher mortality rate in patients hospitalised for acute pulmonary embolism during weekends.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Ageno, Walter; Dentali, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    The management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is often challenging and requires specific medical expertise, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options that may not be available in all hospitals throughout the entire week. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether or not an association exists between weekday or weekend admission and mortality for patients hospitalised with acute PE. Using routinely collected hospital administrative data, we examined patients discharged with a diagnosis of PE from the hospitals of the Emilia- Romagna Region in Italy (January 1999-December 2009). The risk of in-hospital death was calculated for admissions at the weekend and compared to weekday admissions. Of a total of 26,560 PEs, 6,788 (25.6%) had been admitted during weekends. PE admissions were most frequent on Mondays (15.8%) and less frequent on Saturdays and Sundays/holidays (12.8%) (p<0.001). Weekend admissions were associated with significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality than weekday admissions (28% vs. 24.8%) (p<0.001). The risk of weekend admission and in-hospital mortality was higher after adjusting for sender, hospital characteristics, and the Charlson co-morbidity index. In conclusion, hospitalisation for PE on weekends seems to be associated with a significantly higher mortality rate than on weekdays. Further research is needed to investigate the reasons for this observed difference in mortality in order to try and implement future strategies that ensure an adequate level of care throughout the entire week.

  7. Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, William M; MacDorman, Marian F; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-01-01

    The US infant mortality rate has been steadily decreasing in recent years as has the preterm birth rate; preterm birth is a major factor associated with death during the first year of life. The degree to which changes in gestational age-specific mortality and changes in the distribution of births by gestational age have contributed to the decrease in the infant mortality rate requires clarification. The objective of the study was to better understand the major contributors to the 2007-2013 infant mortality decline for the total population and for infants born to non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women. We identified births and infant deaths from 2007 and 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System's period linked birth and infant death files. We included all deaths and births for which there was a reported gestational age at birth on the birth certificate of 22 weeks or greater. The decrease in the infant mortality rate was disaggregated such that all of the change could be attributed to improvements in gestational age-specific infant mortality rates and changes in the distribution of gestational age, by week of gestation, using the Kitagawa method. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for records in which the obstetric estimate of gestational age was missing and for deaths and births less than 22 weeks' gestation. Maternal race and ethnicity information was obtained from the birth certificate. The infant mortality rates after exclusions were 5.72 and 4.92 per 1000 live births for 2007 and 2013, respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.80 (14% decrease). Infant mortality rates declined by 11% for non-Hispanic whites, by 19% for non-Hispanic blacks, and by 14% for Hispanics during the period. Compared with 2007, the proportion of births in each gestational age category was lower in 2013 with the exception of 39 weeks during which there was an increase in the proportion of births from 30.1% in

  8. Excess mortality in Harlem.

    PubMed

    McCord, C; Freeman, H P

    1990-01-18

    In recent decades mortality rates have declined for both white and nonwhite Americans, but national averages obscure the extremely high mortality rates in many inner-city communities. Using data from the 1980 census and from death certificates in 1979, 1980, and 1981, we examined mortality rates in New York City's Central Harlem health district, where 96 percent of the inhabitants are black and 41 percent live below the poverty line. For Harlem, the age-adjusted rate of mortality from all causes was the highest in New York City, more than double that of U.S. whites and 50 percent higher than that of U.S. blacks. Almost all the excess mortality was among those less than 65 years old. With rates for the white population as the basis for comparison, the standardized (adjusted for age) mortality ratios (SMRs) for deaths under the age of 65 in Harlem were 2.91 for male residents and 2.70 for female residents. The highest ratios were for women 25 to 34 years old (SMR, 6.13) and men 35 to 44 years old (SMR, 5.98). The chief causes of this excess mortality were cardiovascular disease (23.5 percent of the excess deaths; SMR, 2.23), cirrhosis (17.9 percent; SMR, 10.5), homicide (14.9 percent; SMR, 14.2), and neoplasms (12.6 percent; SMR, 1.77). Survival analysis showed that black men in Harlem were less likely to reach the age of 65 than men in Bangladesh. Of the 353 health areas in New York, 54 (with a total population of 650,000) had mortality rates for persons under 65 years old that were at lest twice the expected rate. All but one of these areas of high mortality were predominantly black or Hispanic. We conclude that Harlem and probably other inner-city areas with largely black populations have extremely high mortality rates that justify special consideration analogous to that given to natural-disaster areas.

  9. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  10. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  11. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  12. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People.

    PubMed

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants except for hearing loss (all p < 0.001). Associations were equal in strength, except for depressive symptoms, which showed a stronger association with self-rated health (.8 [.1] versus .4 [.1]). Self-rated health predicted mortality less well than the other ratings. Self-rated health related stronger to life satisfaction than physician's and nurse's ratings. We conclude that professionals' health ratings are more reflective of physical health whereas self-rated health reflects more the older person's mental health, but all three health ratings are useful in research.

  13. Mortality rates and walking ability transition after lower limb major amputation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Fukashi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Fujishima, Shinobu; Akamatsu, Daijirou; Goto, Hitoshi; Amada, Noritoshi

    2016-10-01

    The number of hemodialysis patients with peripheral artery disease is increasing, and critical limb ischemia develops in some of these patients. The clinical outcomes in such patients after major amputation remain unclear. We therefore examined the mortality rates after major amputation in hemodialysis patients. The study enrolled 108 hemodialysis patients undergoing their first major amputation at Community Health Care Organization Sendai Hospital between January 2005 and December 2014 and monitored them until June 2015. All-cause mortality and additional amputation-free survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The most dominant primary disease of renal failure was diabetes mellitus (77%), and the duration of hemodialysis was 8.5 ± 6.8 years. During the median follow-up period of 11.5 months (20.3 ± 22.6 months), 80 patients (74%) died, and the survival rates were 83% at 30 days, 56% at 1 year, and 15% at 5 years. The median time to death was 19.9 months (95% confidence interval, 9.8-30.0 months), and the causes of death were cardiac (45%), sepsis (29%), cerebrovascular (4%), and others (22%). Thirty-one patients underwent additional amputation, and the additional amputation-free survival rates were 39% at 1 year and 9% at 5 years. The median time between the first and second amputations was 2.5 months (5.7 ± 7.6 months). Univariate analysis showed previous minor amputation (P = .04) and low hematocrit level (P = .04) were associated with the 30-day mortality rate, and age (P = .05) was associated with the 5-year mortality rate. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, only age was associated with mortality rate (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.02; P = .04). We also compared walking ability before and after major amputation among patients who survived >60 days. The rate changed from 34% to 12% for of ambulatory patients, from 45% to 48% for wheelchair use, and from 21% to 40% for bedridden patients

  14. Demographics of older keratoconics in Wales and their mortality rates-Where are the older keratoconics?

    PubMed

    Popiela, Magdalena; Young-Zvandasara, Tafadzwa; Veepanat, Elias; Saunders, David

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify keratoconics at least 40 years of age attending Welsh optometric hospital services, look at their demographics and mortality rates, and test the hypothesis that they die earlier than the general population. Keratoconic patients born before 1972 were identified retrospectively through contact lens services across 5 hospitals in Wales, United Kingdom. Patients' notes were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and collect demographic data. The Exeter patient registration system was used to trace if patients were deceased or alive. General population data was obtained from the Office for National Statistics. A total of 202 keratoconics at least 40years of age were identified. The mean age was 50.8years, 62% of patients were male and 97% Caucasian. Mean age at diagnosis was 28.7 years. Two patients were deceased, one died in 2012 and one in 2013. In 2012 mortality rates for studied patients and the general populations were 0.005 and 0.019, respectively (p 0.03). Mortality rates for the identified keratoconics were found to be significantly lower than the mortality rates for the general population in 2012. Collected data represents 52% of expected keratoconics over the age of 40, calculated based on disease prevalence, study inclusion criteria and population numbers within the regions included in the study. Thus suggesting the reason for lack of older keratoconics in the National Health Service optometric clinics could be non-attendance rather than higher mortality rates. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic leukapheresis in hyperleucocytic leukaemias: lack of correlation between degree of cytoreduction and early mortality rate.

    PubMed

    Porcu, P; Danielson, C F; Orazi, A; Heerema, N A; Gabig, T G; McCarthy, L J

    1997-08-01

    The clinical and laboratory data of 48 leukapheresis-treated patients with hyperleucocytic leukaemia (HL) was reviewed to assess the correlation between the degree of leucoreduction and early mortality. Leukapheresis resulted in > 50% leucoreductions and postapheresis WBC counts < 100 x 10(9)/l in most patients (64.5%). Patients presenting with neurological, respiratory or renal complications had higher early mortality rates than patients without such complications, despite similar initial WBC counts and comparable leucoreductions. Thus, in these patients, more efficient leucoreduction was not associated with improved early survival.

  16. Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates as Determined by the Longitudinal Hyperbolastic Mixed-Effects Type II Model

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Eby, Wayne M.; Bae, Sejong; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Manne, Upender; Fouad, Mona; Partridge, Edward E.; Singh, Karan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality rates for African American (Black) and White women residing in 13 states located in the eastern half of the United States of America from 1975 through 2010. Methods The cervical cancer mortality rates of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were used to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality. A longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model was used to model the cervical cancer mortality data and SAS PROC NLMIXED and Mathematica were utilized to perform the computations. Results Despite decreasing trends in cervical cancer mortality rates for both races, racial disparities in mortality rates still exist. In all 13 states, Black women had higher mortality rates at all times. The degree of disparities and pace of decline in mortality rates over time differed among these states. Determining the paces of decline over 36 years showed that Tennessee had the most rapid decline in cervical cancer mortality for Black women, and Mississippi had the most rapid decline for White Women. In contrast, slow declines in cervical cancer mortality were noted for Black women in Florida and for White women in Maryland. Conclusions In all 13 states, cervical cancer mortality rates for both racial groups have fallen. Disparities in the pace of decline in mortality rates in these states may be due to differences in the rates of screening for cervical cancers. Of note, the gap in cervical cancer mortality rates between Black women and White women is narrowing. PMID:25226583

  17. Disparities in cervical cancer mortality rates as determined by the longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Eby, Wayne M; Bae, Sejong; Guemmegne, Juliette T; Manne, Upender; Fouad, Mona; Partridge, Edward E; Singh, Karan P

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality rates for African American (Black) and White women residing in 13 states located in the eastern half of the United States of America from 1975 through 2010. The cervical cancer mortality rates of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were used to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality. A longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model was used to model the cervical cancer mortality data and SAS PROC NLMIXED and Mathematica were utilized to perform the computations. Despite decreasing trends in cervical cancer mortality rates for both races, racial disparities in mortality rates still exist. In all 13 states, Black women had higher mortality rates at all times. The degree of disparities and pace of decline in mortality rates over time differed among these states. Determining the paces of decline over 36 years showed that Tennessee had the most rapid decline in cervical cancer mortality for Black women, and Mississippi had the most rapid decline for White Women. In contrast, slow declines in cervical cancer mortality were noted for Black women in Florida and for White women in Maryland. In all 13 states, cervical cancer mortality rates for both racial groups have fallen. Disparities in the pace of decline in mortality rates in these states may be due to differences in the rates of screening for cervical cancers. Of note, the gap in cervical cancer mortality rates between Black women and White women is narrowing.

  18. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

  19. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    PubMed

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  20. Disparities in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates in the United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Martha S; Smith, Ruben A; Petrini, Joann R; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-08-24

    Although studies have examined overall temporal changes in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates, there is little information on the current status of racial/ethnic differences. We hypothesize that differences exist between racial/ethnic groups across gestational age and that these differences are not equally distributed. Using the 2009-2013 data from US fetal death and live birth files for non-Hispanic white (NHW); non-Hispanic black (NHB); Hispanic; and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women, we conducted analyses to examine fetal mortality rates and estimate adjusted prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were lower risks of fetal mortality among NHB women (aPRR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.71-0.81) and Hispanic women (aPRR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.83-0.96) compared with NHWs at 22-23 weeks' gestation. For NHB women, the risk was higher starting at 32-33 weeks (aPRR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.04-1.18) and continued to increase as gestational age increased. Hispanic and AIAN women had lower risks of fetal mortality compared with NHW women until 38-39 weeks. Further examination is needed to identify causes of fetal death within the later pregnancy period and how those causes and their antecedents might differ by race and ethnicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Socio-demographic factors intensifying male mating competition exacerbate male mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2010-05-07

    Sex differences in mortality rates stem from a complex set of genetic, physiological, psychological, and social causes whose influences and interconnections are best understood in an integrative evolutionary life history framework. Although there are multiple levels of mechanisms contributing to sex based disparities in mortality rates, the intensity of male mating competition in a population may have a crucial role in shaping the level of excess male mortality. The degree of variation and skew in male reproductive success may shape the intensity of male mating competition, leading to riskier behavioral and physiological strategies. This study examines three socio-demographic factors related to variation in human male reproductive success; polygyny, economic inequality, and the population ratio of reproductively viable men to women across nations with available data. The degrees of economic inequality and polygyny explained unique portions in the sex difference in mortality rates, these predictors accounted for 53% of the variance. The population ratio of reproductively viable men to women did not explain any additional variance. These results demonstrate the association between social conditions and health outcomes in modern nations, as well as the power of an evolutionary life history framework for understanding important social issues.

  2. Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Laskey, Warren K.; Alomari, Ihab; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J.; Zhao, Xin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Eapen, Zubin J.; Yancy, Clyde; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long‐term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines®–Heart Failure. Cox proportional‐hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all‐cause mortality, all‐cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ≥75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats‐per‐minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all‐cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates <75, an association was significant for mortality only for both SR and AF patients. Conclusions Among older patients hospitalized with heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF. PMID:25904590

  3. Racial Difference in Sarcoidosis Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Roberto F.; Schraufnagel, Dean; Sweiss, Nadera J.; Baughman, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and outcome of sarcoidosis varies by race. However, the race difference in mortality outcome remains largely unknown. METHODS: We studied mortality related to sarcoidosis from 1999 through 2010 by examining data on multiple causes of death from the National Center for Health Statistics. We compared the comorbid conditions between sarcoidosis-related deaths with deaths caused by car accidents (previously healthy control subjects) and rheumatoid arthritis (chronic disease control subjects) in both African Americans and Caucasians. RESULTS: From 1999 through 2010, sarcoidosis was reported as an immediate cause of death in 10,348 people in the United States with a combined overall mean age-adjusted mortality rate of 2.8 per 1 million person-years. Of these, 6,285 were African American and 3,984 Caucasian. The age-adjusted mortality rate for African Americans was 12 times higher than for Caucasians. African Americans died at an earlier age than Caucasians. African Americans living in the District of Columbia and North Carolina and Caucasians living in Vermont had higher mortality rates. Although the total sarcoidosis age-adjusted mortality rate had not changed over the 12 year period studied, this rate increased for Caucasians (R = 0.747, P = .005) but not for African Americans. Compared with the control groups, pulmonary hypertension was significantly more common in individuals with sarcoidosis. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide population-based study exposes a significant difference in ethnicity and sex among people dying of sarcoidosis in the United States. Pulmonary hypertension investigation should be considered in all patients with sarcoidosis, especially African Americans. PMID:25188873

  4. American-Indian diabetes mortality in the Great Plains Region 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Allyson; Giroux, Jennifer; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Bob; Wallace, Debra; Bell, Ronny; Morrison, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare American-Indian and Caucasian mortality rates from diabetes among tribal Contract Health Service Delivery Areas (CHSDAs) in the Great Plains Region (GPR) and describe the disparities observed. Research design and methods Mortality data from the National Center for Vital Statistics and Seer*STAT were used to identify diabetes as the underlying cause of death for each decedent in the GPR from 2002 to 2010. Mortality data were abstracted and aggregated for American-Indians and Caucasians for 25 reservation CHSDAs in the GPR. Rate ratios (RR) with 95% CIs were used and SEER*Stat V.8.0.4 software calculated age-adjusted diabetes mortality rates. Results Age-adjusted mortality rates for American-Indians were significantly higher than those for Caucasians during the 8-year period. In the GPR, American-Indians were 3.44 times more likely to die from diabetes than Caucasians. South Dakota had the highest RR (5.47 times that of Caucasians), and Iowa had the lowest RR, (1.1). Reservation CHSDA RR ranged from 1.78 to 10.25. Conclusions American-Indians in the GPR have higher diabetes mortality rates than Caucasians in the GPR. Mortality rates among American-Indians persist despite special programs and initiatives aimed at reducing diabetes in these populations. Effective and immediate efforts are needed to address premature diabetes mortality among American-Indians in the GPR. PMID:25926992

  5. Temporal dynamics of outcrossing and host mortality rates in host-pathogen experimental coevolution.

    PubMed

    Morran, Levi T; Parrish, Raymond C; Gelarden, Ian A; Lively, Curtis M

    2013-07-01

    Cross-fertilization is predicted to facilitate the short-term response and the long-term persistence of host populations engaged in antagonistic coevolutionary interactions. Consistent with this idea, our previous work has shown that coevolving bacterial pathogens (Serratia marcescens) can drive obligately selfing hosts (Caenorhabditis elegans) to extinction, whereas the obligately outcrossing and partially outcrossing populations persisted. We focused the present study on the partially outcrossing (mixed mating) and obligately outcrossing hosts, and analyzed the changes in the host resistance/avoidance (and pathogen infectivity) over time. We found that host mortality rates increased in the mixed mating populations over the first 10 generations of coevolution when outcrossing rates were initially low. However, mortality rates decreased after elevated outcrossing rates evolved during the experiment. In contrast, host mortality rates decreased in the obligately outcrossing populations during the first 10 generations of coevolution, and remained low throughout the experiment. Therefore, predominant selfing reduced the ability of the hosts to respond to coevolving pathogens compared to outcrossing hosts. Thus, we found that host-pathogen coevolution can generate rapid evolutionary change, and that host mating system can influence the outcome of coevolution at a fine temporal scale. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution © 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. The impact of blood flow rate during hemodialysis on all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-11-01

    Inadequacy of dialysis is associated with morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Blood flow rate (BFR) during HD is one of the important determinants of increasing dialysis dose. However, the optimal BFR is unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of the BFR on all-cause mortality in chronic HD patients. Prevalent HD patients were selected from Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease cohort in Korea. We categorized patients into two groups by BFR < 250 and ≥ 250 mL/min according to the median value of BFR 250 mL/min in this study. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. A total of 1,129 prevalent HD patients were included. The number of patients in the BFR < 250 mL/min was 271 (24%) and in the BFR ≥ 250 mL/min was 858 (76%). The median follow-up period was 30 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with BFR < 250 mL/min than those with BFR ≥ 250 mL/min (p = 0.042, log-rank). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, patients with BFR < 250 mL/min had higher all-cause mortality than those with BFR ≥ 250 mL/min (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 2.73; p = 0.048). Our data showed that BFR < 250 mL/min during HD was associated with higher all-cause mortality in chronic HD patients.

  7. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality.

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Gaetano; Gattinoni, Luciano; Radrizzani, Danilo; Simini, Bruno; Bertolini, Guido; Ferla, Luca; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Porta, Francesca; Miranda, Dinis R

    2004-02-01

    Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of risk-adjusted volume of activity specific for ICUs. Prospective, multicenter, observational study. Eighty-nine ICUs in 12 European countries. During a 4-month study period, 12,615 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinical statistics, severity at admission and a score of nursing complexity and workload were collected. Total volume of activity was defined as the number of patients admitted per bed per year, high-risk volume as the number of high-risk patients admitted per bed per year (selected combining of length of stay and severity of illness). A multi-step risk-adjustment process was planned. ICU volume corresponding both to overall [odds ratio (OR) 0.966] and 3,838 high-risk (OR 0.830) patients was negatively correlated with mortality. Relative mortality decreased by 3.4 and 17.0% for every five extra patients treated per bed per year in overall volume and high-risk volume, respectively. A direct relationship was found between mortality and the ICU occupancy rate (OR 1.324 and 1.351, respectively). Intensive care patients, whatever their level of risk, are best treated where more high-risk patients are treated. Moreover, the higher the ICU occupancy rate, the higher is the mortality.

  8. Hurricane Sandy (New Jersey): Mortality Rates in the Following Month and Quarter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeon; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Rajan, Mangala; Thomas, Pauline; Tsai, Stella; Tan, Christina; Davidow, Amy

    2017-08-01

    To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level. In elderly persons, all-cause mortality rates increased 10% (95% CI = 5%, 15%) and 13% (95% CI = 10%, 16%) in the month and quarter, respectively. Deaths that were cardiovascular disease-related increased by 6% in both periods, noninfectious respiratory disease-related by 24% in the quarter, infection-related by 20% in the quarter, and unintentional injury-related by 23% in the month. Mortality increased, heterogeneous by cause, for both periods after Hurricane Sandy, particularly in communities more severely affected and in the elderly, who may benefit from supportive services.

  9. Effects of Pressure Reductions in a Proposed Siphon Water Lift System at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on Mortality Rates of Juvenile American Shad and Blueback Herring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates . Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish...from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  10. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  11. Alcohol consumption, alcoholics anonymous membership, and homicide mortality rates in Ontario 1968 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert E; Zalcman, Rosely Flam; Smart, Reginald G; Rush, Brian R; Suurvali, Helen

    2006-10-01

    Research has shown a strong link between alcohol use and a variety of problems, including violence. Parker and colleagues have presented a selective disinhibition theory for the link between alcohol use and homicide (and other violence) that posits a causal relationship that is also influenced by other situational and contextual factors. This model is particularly well suited for aggregate-level investigations. In this study, we examine the impact of alcohol factors, including consumption measures and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership rates, on homicide mortality rates in Ontario, and test predictions derived from the selective disinhibition model. Time series analyses with ARIMA modeling were applied to total, male, and female homicide rates in Ontario between 1968 and 1991. The analyses performed included total alcohol consumption, spirits consumption, beer consumption, and wine consumption. Missing AA membership data were interpolated with cubic splines. For the total population and males, homicide rates were significantly and positively related to total alcohol consumption and to the consumption of beer and spirits. They were also negatively related to AA membership rates in the analyses involving spirits and wine and positively related to unemployment rates in the analyses involving beer, wine, and total alcohol. Among females, none of the measures were significant predictors of homicide mortality rates. These data provide important support for the selective disinhibition model and confirm important relationships between per capita consumption measures and homicide mortality rates, especially among males, seen in other studies. Additionally, the results for AA membership rates are consistent with the hypothesis that AA membership and treatment for misuse of alcohol can exert beneficial effects observable at the population level.

  12. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  13. Data, collaboration reduce sepsis mortality rates, improve use of ICU resources.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two different hospital systems have made sizable dents in their sepsis mortality rates through a collaborative process between emergency and ICU staff. At Northwest Hospital in Randallstown, MD, success occurred, in part, by lowering the threshold for transfer of emergency patients with signs of sepsis to the ICU. Voorhees, NJ-based Kennedy Health has lowered sepsis mortality rates by taking steps to integrate the care of sepsis patients between the ED and the ICU, and slashing the time required to deliver bundle-oriented care. Research conducted at Northwest Hospital shows that sepsis mortality decreased by nearly half, going from 14.38% before intervention to 7.85% following implementation of the lower ICU thresholds. Clinical leaders at Kennedy Health report that they have lowered sepsis mortality from the mid-20% range to less than 12% through a collaborative approach involving all stakeholders. Sources from both hospitals stress the importance of using data to achieve buy-in to improvement efforts, and giving interventions enough time to take hold.

  14. Estimating freshwater turtle mortality rates and population declines following hook ingestion.

    PubMed

    Steen, David A; Robinson, Orin J

    2017-03-15

    Freshwater turtle populations are susceptible to declines following small increases in the mortality of adults, making it essential to identify and understand potential threats. Freshwater turtles ingest fish hooks associated with recreational angling, and this is likely a problem because hook ingestion is a source of additive mortality for sea turtles. We used a Bayesian-modeling framework, observed rates of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles, and mortality of sea turtles from hook ingestion to examine the probability that a freshwater turtle in a given population ingests a hook and subsequently dies from it. We used the results of these analyses and previously published life-history data to simulate the effects of hook ingestion on population growth for 3 species of freshwater turtle. In our simulation, the probability that an individual turtle ingests a hook and dies as a result was 1.2-11%. Our simulation results suggest that this rate of mortality from hook ingestion is sufficient to cause population declines. We believe we have identified fish-hook ingestion as a serious yet generally overlooked threat to the viability of freshwater turtle populations. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Heart rate recovery: autonomic determinants, methods of assessment and association with mortality and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Peçanha, Tiago; Silva-Júnior, Natan Daniel; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction seems to be related to the genesis of several CVDs and is also linked to the increased risk of mortality in CVD patients. The quantification of heart rate decrement after exercise - known as heart rate recovery (HRR) - is a simple tool for assessing cardiac autonomic activity in healthy and CVD patients. Furthermore, since The Cleveland Clinic studies, HRR has also been used as a powerful index for predicting mortality. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has been interested in proposing methods and protocols to investigate HRR and understand its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about HRR, including its potential primary and secondary physiological determinants, as well as its role in predicting mortality. Published data show that HRR can be modelled by an exponential curve, with a fast and a slow decay component. HRR may be influenced by population and exercise characteristics. The fast component mainly seems to be dictated by the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, probably promoted by the deactivation of central command and mechanoreflex inputs immediately after exercise cessation. On the other hand, the slow phase of HRR may be determined by cardiac sympathetic withdrawal, possibly via the deactivation of metaboreflex and thermoregulatory mechanisms. All these pathways seem to be impaired in CVD, helping to explain the slower HRR in such patients and the increased rate of mortality in individuals who present a slower HRR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21 338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  18. Association of heart rate at hospital discharge with mortality and hospitalizations in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Habal, Marlena V; Liu, Peter P; Austin, Peter C; Ross, Heather J; Newton, Gary E; Wang, Xuesong; Tu, Jack V; Lee, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Hospital discharge is an opportunity for identification of modifiable prognostic factors in the transition to chronic HF. We examined the association of discharge heart rate with 30-day and 1-year mortality and hospitalization outcomes in a cohort of 9097 patients with HF discharged from hospital. Discharge heart rate was categorized into predefined groups: 40 to 60 (n=1333), 61 to 70 (n=2170), 71 to 80 (n=2631), 81 to 90 (n=1700), and >90 bpm (n=1263). There was a significant increase in all-cause 30-day mortality with adjusted odds ratios of 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.14; P=0.003) for discharge heart rates 81 to 90 bpm and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.13-2.16; P=0.007) for heart rates>90 bpm when compared with the reference group (heart rates, 61-70 bpm). Cardiovascular death risk at 30 days was also higher with adjusted odds ratio 1.59 (discharge heart rates, 81-90 bpm; 95% CI, 1.09-2.33; P=0.017) and 1.65 (discharge heart rates, >90 bpm; 95% CI, 1.09-2.48; P=0.017). One-year all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.72; P<0.001) and cardiovascular death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12-1.92; P=0.005) were higher with discharge heart rates>90 bpm when compared with the reference group (heart rates, 40-60 bpm). Readmissions for HF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54; P=0.021) and cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.54; P=0.004) within 30 days were also higher with discharge heart rates>90 bpm. Higher discharge heart rates were associated with greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality≤1-year follow-up and an elevated risk of 30-day readmission for HF and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Comparison of Hospital Mortality and Readmission Rates for Medicare Patients Treated by Male vs Female Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Yusuke; Jena, Anupam B.; Figueroa, Jose F.; Orav, E. John; Blumenthal, Daniel M.; Jha, Ashish K.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Studies have found differences in practice patterns between male and female physicians, with female physicians more likely to adhere to clinical guidelines and evidence-based practice. However, whether patient outcomes differ between male and female physicians is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine whether mortality and readmission rates differ between patients treated by male or female physicians. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We analyzed a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years or older hospitalized with a medical condition and treated by general internists from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014. We examined the association between physician sex and 30-day mortality and readmission rates, adjusted for patient and physician characteristics and hospital fixed effects (effectively comparing female and male physicians within the same hospital). As a sensitivity analysis, we examined only physicians focusing on hospital care (hospitalists), among whom patients are plausibly quasi-randomized to physicians based on the physician’s specific work schedules. We also investigated whether differences in patient outcomes varied by specific condition or by underlying severity of illness. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patients’ 30-day mortality and readmission rates. RESULTS A total of 1 583 028 hospitalizations were used for analyses of 30-day mortality (mean [SD] patient age, 80.2 [8.5] years; 621 412 men and 961 616 women) and 1 540 797 were used for analyses of readmission (mean [SD] patient age, 80.1 [8.5] years; 602 115 men and 938 682 women). Patients treated by female physicians had lower 30-day mortality (adjusted mortality, 11.07% vs 11.49%; adjusted risk difference, −0.43%; 95% CI, −0.57% to −0.28%; P < .001; number needed to treat to prevent 1 death, 233) and lower 30-day readmissions (adjusted readmissions, 15.02% vs 15.57%; adjusted risk difference, −0.55%; 95% CI, −0.71% to −0.39%; P < .001; number

  20. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P <.001 and HR: 2.52, CI: 1.56 to 4.05, P <.001; respectively), sudden death (HR: 2.25, CI: 1.13 to 4.46, P = .021 for HRT2), and death due to heart failure progression (HR: 4.11, CI: 1.84 to 9.19, P <.001 for HRT2) after adjustment for clinical covariates in multivariate analysis. The prognostic value of TS for predicting total mortality was similar in various groups dichotomized by age, gender, NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and CHF etiology. TS was found to be predictive for total mortality only in patients with QRS > 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  1. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-08-29

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ(2) and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  2. High mortality rate associated with KPC-producing Enterobacter cloacae in a Brazilian hospital.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kesia Esther; Varella, Tháigor Rezek; Bet, Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Correa, Maisa Estopa; Vasconcelos, Nathalie Gaebler; Croda, Julio; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2017-08-22

    We describe a clonal dissemination of KPC-producing Enterobacter cloacae in a Brazilian hospital. Patients diagnosed with theses isolates showed high mortality rate (41.8%) and were associated with previous use of antibiotics and urinary catheterization. Therefore, infection control measures and use of stricter antibiotic policies are required to control the spread of these organisms. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delivery indications at late-preterm gestations and infant mortality rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Uma M; Ko, Chia-Wen; Raju, Tonse N K; Willinger, Marian

    2009-07-01

    The rate of preterm births has been increasing in the United States, especially for births 34 to 36 weeks of gestation (late preterm), which now constitute 71% of all preterm births. The causes for these trends remain unclear. We characterized the delivery indications for late preterm births and their potential impact on neonatal and infant mortality rates. Using the 2001 US Birth Cohort Linked birth/death files of 3 483 496 singleton births, we categorized delivery indications as follows: (1) maternal medical conditions; (2) obstetric complications; (3) major congenital anomalies; (4) isolated spontaneous labor: vaginal delivery without induction and without associated medical/obstetric factors; and (5) no recorded indication. Of the 292 627 late-preterm births, the first 4 categories (those with indications and isolated spontaneous labor) accounted for 76.8%. The remaining 23.2% (67 909) were classified as deliveries with no recorded indication. Factors significantly increasing the chance of no recorded indication were older maternal age; non-Hispanic, white mother; >/=13 years of education; Southern, Midwestern, and Western region; multiparity; or previous infant with a >/=4000-g birth weight. The neonatal and infant mortality rates were significantly higher among deliveries with no recorded indication compared with deliveries secondary to isolated spontaneous labor but lower compared with deliveries with an obstetric indication or congenital anomaly. A total of 23% of late preterm births had no recorded indication for delivery noted on birth certificates. Patient factors may be playing a role in these deliveries. It is concerning that these infants had higher mortality rates compared with those born after spontaneous labor at similar gestational ages. Given the excess risk of mortality, patients and providers need to discuss the risks of delivering a preterm infant in the absence of medical indications at 34 to 36 weeks.

  4. Homicide mortality rates in Canada, 2000-2009: Youth at increased risk.

    PubMed

    Basham, C Andrew; Snider, Carolyn

    2016-10-20

    To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001. Both death and population counts were organized into five-year age groups. A random effects negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to estimate age group-specific rates, rate ratios, and trends in homicide mortality. There were 9,878 homicide deaths in Canada during the study period. The increase in the overall homicide mortality rate (HMR) of 0.3% per year was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.1% to +1.8%). Canadians aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years had the highest HMRs during the study period, and experienced statistically significant annual increases in their HMRs of 3% and 4% respectively (p < 0.05). A general, though not statistically significant, decrease in the HMR was observed for all age groups 50+ years. A fixed effects negative binomial regression model showed that the HMR for males was higher than for females over the study period [RRfemale/male = 0.473 (95% CI: 0.361, 0.621)], but no significant difference in sex-specific trends in the HMR was found. An increasing risk of homicide mortality was identified among Canadian youth, ages 15-24, over the 10-year study period. Research that seeks to understand the reasons for the increased homicide risk facing Canada's youth, and public policy responses to reduce this risk, are warranted.

  5. Linking leaf veins to growth and mortality rates: an example from a subtropical tree community.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Sun, I-Fang; Price, Charles A; Chen, Chien-Teh; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Huang, Chun-Lin; Swenson, Nathan G

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in ecology is to link variation in species function to performance, but functional trait-performance investigations have had mixed success. This indicates that less commonly measured functional traits may more clearly elucidate trait-performance relationships. Despite the potential importance of leaf vein traits, which are expected to be related to resource delivery rates and photosynthetic capacity, there are few studies, which examine associations between these traits and demographic performance in communities. Here, we examined the associations between species traits including leaf venation traits and demographic rates (Relative Growth Rate, RGR and mortality) as well as the spatial distributions of traits along soil environment for 54 co-occurring species in a subtropical forest. Size-related changes in demographic rates were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. Next, Kendall's rank correlations were quantified between traits and estimated demographic rates at a given size and between traits and species-average soil environment. Species with denser venation, smaller areoles, less succulent, or thinner leaves showed higher RGR for a wide range of size classes. Species with leaves of denser veins, larger area, cheaper construction costs or thinner, or low-density wood were associated with high mortality rates only in small size classes. Lastly, contrary to our expectations, acquisitive traits were not related to resource-rich edaphic conditions. This study shows that leaf vein traits are weakly, but significantly related to tree demographic performance together with other species traits. Because leaf traits associated with an acquisitive strategy such as denser venation, less succulence, and thinner leaves showed higher growth rate, but similar leaf traits were not associated with mortality, different pathways may shape species growth and survival. This study suggests that we are still not measuring some of key traits related to

  6. Is there any relationship between different phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular mortality rate?

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Alireza; Ahmadzadeh, Sareh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Jozan, Mahnaz; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to focus on different phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their impact on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: The Isfahan cohort study is a population-based, on-going longitudinal study of adults aged 35 years old or more, living in urban and rural areas of three counties in central Iran namely Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak. Participants were selected by multistage random sampling and were recruited to reflect the age, sex and urban/rural distribution of the community. The sample was restricted to subjects with MetS based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and no history of coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at the time of the baseline clinical examination. Results: Among different phenotypes of MetS components, clustering of high triglycerides (TGs), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and abdominal obesity (ABO) was the most related to the all-cause mortality among women and followed in order by high TGs, hypertension (HTN) and ABO. In men, the highest rate of all-cause mortality was related to high TGs, low HDL, and HTN. Clustering of four components (high TGs, low HDL and HTN and obesity) is the most related to all-cause mortality in the both sexes (12.1% in men, and 21.5% in women). Conclusion: This study showed different phenotypes of MetS related with all-cause mortality rate and existing HTN in the phenotype of MetS increased the incidence of CVD mortality. PMID:28028525

  7. Association of Hospital Spending Intensity With Mortality and Readmission Rates in Ontario Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Stukel, Therese A.; Fisher, Elliott S.; Alter, David A.; Guttmann, Astrid; Ko, Dennis T.; Fung, Kinwah; Wodchis, Walter P.; Baxter, Nancy N.; Earle, Craig C.; Lee, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Context The extent to which better spending produces higher-quality care and better patient outcomes in a universal health care system with selective access to medical technology is unknown. Objective To assess whether acute care patients admitted to higher-spending hospitals have lower mortality and readmissions. Design, Setting, and Patients The study population comprised adults (> 18 years) in Ontario, Canada, with a first admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n=179 139), congestive heart failure (CHF) (n=92 377), hip fracture (n=90 046), or colon cancer (n=26 195) during 1998–2008, with follow-up to 1 year. The exposure measure was the index hospital’s end-of-life expenditure index for hospital, physician, and emergency department services. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcomes were 30-day and 1-year mortality and readmissions and major cardiac events (readmissions for AMI, angina, CHF, or death) for AMI and CHF. Results Patients’ baseline health status was similar across hospital expenditure groups. Patients admitted to hospitals in the highest- vs lowest-spending intensity terciles had lower rates of all adverse outcomes. In the highest- vs lowest-spending hospitals, respectively, the age- and sex-adjusted 30-day mortality rate was 12.7% vs 12.8% for AMI, 10.2% vs 12.4% for CHF, 7.7% vs 9.7% for hip fracture, and 3.3% vs 3.9% for CHF; fully adjusted relative 30-day mortality rates were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89–0.98) for AMI, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76–0.86) for CHF, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68–0.80) for hip fracture, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.66–0.91) for colon cancer. Results for 1-year mortality, readmissions, and major cardiac events were similar. Higher-spending hospitals had higher nursing staff ratios, and their patients received more inpatient medical specialist visits, interventional (AMI cohort) and medical (AMI and CHF cohorts) cardiac therapies, preoperative specialty care (colon cancer cohort), and postdischarge collaborative care with a

  8. Can better infrastructure and quality reduce hospital infant mortality rates in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Nelly; Marrufo, Grecia M

    2007-02-01

    Preliminary evidence from hospital discharges hints enormous disparities in infant hospital mortality rates. At the same time, public health agencies acknowledge severe deficiencies and variations in the quality of medical services across public hospitals. Despite these concerns, there is limited evidence of the contribution of hospital infrastructure and quality in explaining variations in outcomes among those who have access to medical services provided at public hospitals. This paper provides evidence to address this question. We use probabilistic econometric methods to estimate the impact of material and human resources and hospital quality on the probability that an infant dies controlling for socioeconomic, maternal and reproductive risk factors. As a measure of quality, we calculate for the first time for Mexico patient safety indicators developed by the AHRQ. We find that the probability to die is affected by hospital infrastructure and by quality. In this last regard, having been treated in a hospital with the worse quality incidence doubles the probability to die. This paper also presents evidence on the contribution of other risk factors on perinatal mortality rates. The conclusions of this paper suggest that lower infant mortality rates can be reached by implementing a set of coherent public policy actions including an increase and reorganization of hospital infrastructure, quality improvement, and increasing demand for health by poor families.

  9. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD--a review of potential interventions.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, Terence A R; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles.

  10. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence AR; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles. PMID:19554195

  11. Epidemiological data and mortality rate of patients hospitalized with burns in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De-Souza, D A; Marchesan, W G; Greene, L J

    1998-08-01

    This retrospective analysis of burn patients in a University Hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was carried out to characterize this population and to identify the factors that affect the mortality rate. All patients hospitalized from January 1990 to April 1995 (n = 229, 3.6 patients/month) and who terminated treatment were included. Of these, 80.8% (185 patients) were hospitalized within 24 h of the burn. Occupational and/or domestic accidents were responsible for most of the burns (78.6%), which were mainly caused by a direct flame (71.2%). with alcohol being the flammable fluid most frequently used. The average patient treated at the center was a male of 9 years of age or less with 20-40% burned body surface, who received care within 24 h after suffering an accidental alcohol burn and who was hospitalized for < or =30 days. The mortality rate was 18.8% for all patients and increased with burned body surface and age, and for suicide patients. Suicide attempts for all patients > or = 18 years were the cause of 46 .5% (20/43) of the burns involving women and of 8.9% (8/90) of the burns involving men. The mortality rate was significantly higher for self-inflicted burns (42.9%) than for accidental burns (20.2%).

  12. Icodextrin reduces mortality and the drop-out rate in Japanese peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Renjiro; Tranaeus, Anders; Ikegami, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    Although numerous reports have shown that the use of icodextrin solution, as compared with conventional dextrose solutions, provides various clinical benefits, data on the impact of icodextrin solution on mortality and drop-out are sparse. In the present retrospective study, we compared clinical outcomes in a large cohort of patients prescribed either icodextrin or dextrose solution for the long dwell. A total of 7808 patients across Japan who were using Baxter peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions in 2004 were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Outcomes data were retrieved from the Baxter Japan database. The annual drop-out rate in the icodextrin group (8.9%) was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than that in the dextrose group (14.5%). The annual mortality rate was also lower (6.6% vs. 13.5%, p < 0.0001). Using data from the 2000 report of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy, the relative risk of death in the icodextrin group, regardless of PD duration, was consistently lower than that in hemodialysis patients. These results indicate that, in PD, the use of icodextrin solution (as compared with dextrose solution) significantly reduces both mortality and drop-out rate.

  13. A population-based analysis of pneumococcal disease mortality in California, 1989-1998.

    PubMed

    Redelings, Matthew D; Sorvillo, Frank; Simon, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of vaccine-preventable mortality. It is important to understand the burden and distribution of mortality so that prevention efforts can be targeted appropriately. This study evaluated pneumococcal disease mortality and its demographic correlates in California from 1989 to 1998. Deaths due to pneumococcal disease were identified from statewide vital records data using multiple cause-coded information. Denominator data were obtained from estimates from the California Department of Finance. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each age, gender, and racial/ethnic group. The age-adjusted pneumococcal disease mortality rate was 2.05 deaths per 100,000 population. Mortality was highest in elderly individuals (reaching 38.29 deaths per 100,000 population in individuals older than age 85). Age-adjusted mortality rates were elevated in the African American race/ethnicity group (2.96 deaths per 100,000 population) and males (2.67 deaths per 100,000 population). The majority of individuals who died of pneumococcal disease (78.9%) fell into at-risk groups indicated for vaccination. The majority of all pneumococcal deaths were caused by pneumococcal pneumonia. Mortality was seasonal, reaching a peak in the winter months. A decreasing trend in mortality was observed over the 10-year period examined. Pneumococcal disease remains a significant cause of vaccine-preventable mortality in the California population. Greater efforts must be made to vaccinate at-risk individuals, especially those in demographic groups at highest risk of death.

  14. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  15. QuickStats: Average Infant Mortality Rate,* by Month - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    2016-11-18

    During 2010-2014, the infant mortality rate averaged approximately 6.00 infant deaths per 1,000 live births each month. The infant mortality rate peaked in February and April at approximately 6.30 and was lowest from July to September with approximately 5.71 infant deaths per 1,000 live births.

  16. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  17. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Jianzan, Gongque; Gyal, Lhusham; Xianjia, Li; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi, Tsering; Rangji, Cai; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-01-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  18. Skin thickness progression rate: a predictor of mortality and early internal organ involvement in diffuse scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Domsic, Robyn T; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana; Lucas, Mary; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of skin thickness progression rate (STPR) with mortality, and as a predictor of future internal organ involvement in an inception cohort of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Methods Diffuse cutaneous SSc patients older than 16 years of age evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh within 2 years of the first evidence of skin thickening between 1980 and 2005 were eligible. The authors calculated the STPR on these patients, and examined the relationship of this variable to the development of early internal organ involvement and short-term mortality using logistic regression. Results 826 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with a rapid STPR experienced significantly reduced short-term survival at 1 and 2 years from the time of first Pittsburgh evaluation (p=0.002). Patients with a rapid STPR were more likely to develop renal crisis within 1–2 years of follow-up. Rapid STPR was found to be an independent predictor of both mortality (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.62; p=0.01) and ‘renal crisis’ (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.85; p=0.02) within 2 years from first evaluation. Conclusion The STPR is an easy measure to perform at the time of initial evaluation for identifying those diffuse cutaneous SSc patients who are at increased risk of mortality and the development of renal crisis during the following 2 years. PMID:20679474

  19. Skin thickness progression rate: a predictor of mortality and early internal organ involvement in diffuse scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Domsic, Robyn T; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana; Lucas, Mary; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association of skin thickness progression rate (STPR) with mortality, and as a predictor of future internal organ involvement in an inception cohort of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Diffuse cutaneous SSc patients older than 16 years of age evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh within 2 years of the first evidence of skin thickening between 1980 and 2005 were eligible. The authors calculated the STPR on these patients, and examined the relationship of this variable to the development of early internal organ involvement and short-term mortality using logistic regression. 826 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with a rapid STPR experienced significantly reduced short-term survival at 1 and 2 years from the time of first Pittsburgh evaluation (p=0.002). Patients with a rapid STPR were more likely to develop renal crisis within 1-2 years of follow-up. Rapid STPR was found to be an independent predictor of both mortality (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.62; p=0.01) and 'renal crisis' (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.85; p=0.02) within 2 years from first evaluation. The STPR is an easy measure to perform at the time of initial evaluation for identifying those diffuse cutaneous SSc patients who are at increased risk of mortality and the development of renal crisis during the following 2 years.

  20. Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Adjuik, Martin; Smith, Tom; Clark, Sam; Todd, Jim; Garrib, Anu; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kahn, Kathy; Mola, Mitiki; Ashraf, Ali; Masanja, Honorati; Adazu, Kubaje; Adazu, Ubaje; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alam, Nurul; Marra, Adama; Gbangou, Adjima; Mwageni, Eleuther; Binka, Fred

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2). FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique). The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases. PMID:16583076

  1. The increasing racial disparity in infant mortality rates: composition and contributors to recent US trends.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Greg R; Wingate, Martha S; Bader, Deren; Kogan, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    We examined trends in birthweight-gestational age distributions and related infant mortality for African American and white women and calculated the estimated excess annual number of African American infant deaths. Live births to US-resident mothers with a maternal race of white or African American were selected from the National Center for Health Statistics' linked live birth-infant death cohort files (1985-1988 and 1995-2000). The racial disparity in infant mortality widened despite an increasing rate of white low-birthweight infants. White preterm infants had relatively greater gains in survival and the white advantage in survival at term increased. Annually, African American women experience approximately 3300 more infant deaths than would be expected. The increasing US racial disparity in infant mortality is largely influenced by changes in birthweight-gestational age-specific mortality, rather than the birthweight-gestational age distribution. Improvement in the survival of white preterm and low-birthweight infants, probably reflecting advances in and changing access to medical technology, contributed appreciably to this trend.

  2. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  3. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates. PMID:27929405

  4. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  5. Geomagnetic storms link to the mortality rate in the Smolyan region for the period 1988--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Siyka G. 1; Georgieva, Radostina C. 2; Dimitrova, Boryana H. 2; Slavcheva, Radka G. 2; Kerimova, Bojena P. 2; Georgiev, Tsvetan B. 34

    We present correlations and trends of 10 parameters of annual mortality rate (1 to common mortality rate, 5 to cardiovascular reasons and 4 to "accidental" reasons (car accidents, suicides, infections)) with respect to 6 parameters of annual solar and geomagnetic activity (Wolf index, number of geomagnetic storms, duration of the storms, amplitude of the storms). During the period of observation, characterized by a 3-4-fold decrease of the mean geomagnetic activity (in terms of the number and the duration of the storms) and with a strong variations of the amplitude of the storms (about an almost constant mean values for the period), there is a 1.3-fold decrease in the urban population, a 1.5-fold increase of the common mortality rate, a 1.8-fold increase of the cardiovascular mortality rate and a 1.1-fold decrease of the "accidental" mortality rates. During the years 2003-2005 we observe about 2-fold temporary increase in the storm amplitudes. During the years 2007-2008, characterized by extremely low geomagnetic activity, we observe a surprising temporary increase of the common and the cardiovascular mortality rates 1.1 and 1.3-fold, respectively (Figures 1-4). We point out 3 main results. (1) The available data shows notable increase in the mortality rates while there is generally a decrease of the solar or geomagnetic activity during the studied period (Figures 5-9). We explain this anti-correlation with the domination of the increasing mortality rates as an effect of the advance in the mean age of the population (due to immigration of young people and decrease of new-borns), hiding an eventual display of the solar and geomagnetic influence on the mortality rates. Using this data we can not reveal influence of the long-time (10-20 years) change of the average solar and geomagnetic activity on the mortality rate. (2) Excluding the unusual years 2007 and 2008, we establish that with respect to the years with low geomagnetic activity (1993, 1995, 1996, 1999), in

  6. Mortality rate estimation for eelgrass Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) using projections from Leslie matrices.

    PubMed

    Flores Uzeta, Olga; Solana Arellano, Elena; Echavarría Heras, Héctor

    2008-09-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide estimations of mean mortality rate of vegetative shoots of the seagrass Zostera marina in a meadow near Ensenada Baja California, using a technique that minimizes destructive sampling. Using cohorts and Leslie matrices, three life tables were constructed, each representing a season within the period of monthly sampling (April 1999 to April 2000). Ages for the cohorts were established in terms of Plastochrone Interval (PI). The matrices were projected through time to estimate the mean total number of individuals at time t, n(t) as well as mortality. We found no statistical differences between observed and predicted mean values for these variables (t = -0.11, p = 0.92 for n(t) and t = 0.69, p = 0.5 for mean rate of mortality). We found high correlation coefficient values between observed and projected values for monthly number of individuals (r = 0.70, p = 0.007) and monthly mortality rates (r = 0.81, p = 0.001). If at a certain time t a sudden environmental change occurs, and as long as the perturbation does not provoke the killing of all the individuals of a given age i for 0 < or = i < or = x - 1, there will be a prevailing number of individuals of age or stage x at a time t+1. This nondestructive technique reduces the number of field visits and samples needed for the demographic analysis of Z. marina, and therefore decreases the disturbance caused by researches to the ecosystem.

  7. The role of sales of new motorcycles in a recent increase in motorcycle mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Paulozzi, Leonard J

    2005-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has reported that mortality rates from crashes among motorcycle riders in the United States increased from 21.0 per 100 million motorcycle miles traveled in 1997 to 38.4 per 100 million motorcycle miles traveled in 2003. At the same time, annual domestic sales of new, on-road motorcycles increased from 247,000 in 1997 to 648,000 in 2003. This study used data from the NHTSA Fatality Analysis Reporting System and annual sales figures for on-road motorcycles to determine if newer motorcycles were more likely to be involved in fatal crashes and if fatal crashes involving newer motorcycles could account for the mortality increase after 1997. Mortality rates were 7.9, 8.1, 5.4, and 2.9 per 10,000 motorcycles sold for motorcycles <1, 1-3, 4-6, and 7-11 years old, respectively, from 1994 to 2003. Assuming complete registration, the number of motorcycles sold during the 2000-2003 time period accounted for 42.4% of the total number of motorcycles registered in 2003. Motorcycles sold during 2000-2003 were associated with 52.5% of all motorcycle deaths in 2003. The increase in the number of deaths associated with motorcycles less than four years old between 1997 and 2003 accounted for 78.1% of the total increase in motorcyclist deaths over this time period. Two possible explanations for the association between high sales volumes and mortality rates are: (a) increased exposure from more extensive use of motorcycles when they are new; and (b) inexperience with motorcycle riding or with specific motorcycles. This study suggests that the deaths of growing numbers of motorcyclists are a consequence of the financial success of the motorcycle industry.

  8. Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S; McClure, Laura A; Shema, Sarah J; Cockburn, Myles G; John, Esther M; Clarke, Christina A

    2009-10-01

    The racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer rates are well documented, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed among African-Americans followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Whether socioeconomic status (SES) can account for these differences in risk has been investigated in previous studies, but with conflicting results. Furthermore, previous studies have focused primarily on the differences between African-Americans and non-Hispanic Whites, and little is known for Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders. To further investigate the relationship between SES and prostate cancer among African-Americans, non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders, we conducted a large population-based cross-sectional study of 98,484 incident prostate cancer cases and 8,997 prostate cancer deaths from California. Data were abstracted from the California Cancer Registry, a population-based surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry. Each prostate cancer case and death was assigned a multidimensional neighborhood-SES index using the 2000 US Census data. SES quintile-specific prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates and rate ratios were estimated using SEER*Stat for each race/ethnicity categorized into 10-year age groups. For prostate cancer incidence, we observed higher levels of SES to be significantly associated with increased risk of disease [SES Q1 vs. Q5: relative risk (RR) = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-1.30]. Among younger men (45-64 years), African-Americans had the highest incidence rates followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders for all SES levels. Yet, among older men (75-84 years) Hispanics, following African-Americans, displayed the second highest incidence rates of prostate cancer. For prostate cancer deaths, higher levels of SES were associated with lower mortality rates of prostate cancer deaths (SES Q1 vs. Q5: RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0

  9. Environmental manganese and cancer mortality rates by county in North Carolina: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Spangler, John G; Reid, Jeffrey C

    2010-02-01

    Manganese is an element essential for health in trace amounts, but toxic at higher exposures. Since manganese is replacing lead in gasoline globally, evaluation of potential cancer effects is essential. To determine whether environmental manganese is related to cancer at the county level in North Carolina (n = 100 counties; North Carolina 2000 population = 8,049,313), we carried out an ecological study using data from the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, North Carolina Geological Survey, US Geological Survey, and US Census. County-level all-cause and cancer mortality rates between 1997 and 2001 reported in deaths per 100,000 population associated by multivariable regression with logarithmically transformed groundwater (microgram per liter) and airborne (microgram per cubic meter) manganese concentrations by county measured between 1973 and 1979 (water) and in 1996 (air). Models controlled for county characteristics. Median all-cause and cancer mortality rates by county in North Carolina (1997-2001) exceeded those of the USA (2000). For each log increase in groundwater manganese concentration, there was a corresponding county-level increase of 12.10 deaths/100,000 population in all-site cancer rates, 2.84 deaths/100,000 in colon cancer rates, and 7.73 deaths/100,000 in lung cancer rates. For each log increase in airborne manganese concentration, there was a corresponding county-level decrease of 8.10 deaths/100,000 population in all-site cancer rates, 3.28 deaths/100,000 in breast cancer rates, and 3.97 deaths/100,000 in lung cancer rates. Neither groundwater nor air concentrations of manganese correlated with county-level all-cause or prostate cancer death rates. These are the first data we know of to document a potential relationship between environmental manganese and population-level cancer death rates. The positive association between groundwater manganese and specific cancer mortality rates might be a function of the high concentrations

  10. Encephalitis Hospitalization Rates and Inpatient Mortality in the United States, 2000-2010

    PubMed Central

    George, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Encephalitis rates by etiology and acute-phase outcomes for encephalitis in the 21st century are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate cause-specific rates of encephalitis hospitalizations and predictors of inpatient mortality in the United States. Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010, a retrospective observational study of 238,567 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [24.0] years) hospitalized within non-federal, acute care hospitals in the U.S. with a diagnosis of encephalitis was conducted. Hospitalization rates were calculated using population-level estimates of disease from the NIS and population estimates from the United States Census Bureau. Adjusted odds of mortality were calculated for patients included in the study. Results In the U.S. from 2000–2010, there were 7.3±0.2 encephalitis hospitalizations per 100,000 population (95% CI: 7.1–7.6). Encephalitis hospitalization rates were highest among females (7.6±0.2 per 100,000) and those <1 year and >65 years of age with rates of 13.5±0.9 and 14.1±0.4 per 100,000, respectively. Etiology was unknown for approximately 50% of cases. Among patients with identified etiology, viral causes were most common (48.2%), followed by Other Specified causes (32.5%), which included predominantly autoimmune conditions. The most common infectious agents were herpes simplex virus, toxoplasma, and West Nile virus. Comorbid HIV infection was present in 7.7% of hospitalizations. Average length of stay was 11.2 days with mortality of 5.6%. In regression analysis, patients with comorbid HIV/AIDS or cancer had increased odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.30–2.22 and OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.88–2.71, respectively). Enteroviral, postinfectious, toxic, and Other Specified causes were associated with lower odds vs. herpes simplex encephalitis. Conclusions While encephalitis and encephalitis-related mortality impose a considerable burden in the U.S. in the 21st

  11. Encephalitis hospitalization rates and inpatient mortality in the United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    George, Benjamin P; Schneider, Eric B; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Encephalitis rates by etiology and acute-phase outcomes for encephalitis in the 21st century are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate cause-specific rates of encephalitis hospitalizations and predictors of inpatient mortality in the United States. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010, a retrospective observational study of 238,567 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [24.0] years) hospitalized within non-federal, acute care hospitals in the U.S. with a diagnosis of encephalitis was conducted. Hospitalization rates were calculated using population-level estimates of disease from the NIS and population estimates from the United States Census Bureau. Adjusted odds of mortality were calculated for patients included in the study. In the U.S. from 2000-2010, there were 7.3±0.2 encephalitis hospitalizations per 100,000 population (95% CI: 7.1-7.6). Encephalitis hospitalization rates were highest among females (7.6±0.2 per 100,000) and those <1 year and >65 years of age with rates of 13.5±0.9 and 14.1±0.4 per 100,000, respectively. Etiology was unknown for approximately 50% of cases. Among patients with identified etiology, viral causes were most common (48.2%), followed by Other Specified causes (32.5%), which included predominantly autoimmune conditions. The most common infectious agents were herpes simplex virus, toxoplasma, and West Nile virus. Comorbid HIV infection was present in 7.7% of hospitalizations. Average length of stay was 11.2 days with mortality of 5.6%. In regression analysis, patients with comorbid HIV/AIDS or cancer had increased odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.30-2.22 and OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.88-2.71, respectively). Enteroviral, postinfectious, toxic, and Other Specified causes were associated with lower odds vs. herpes simplex encephalitis. While encephalitis and encephalitis-related mortality impose a considerable burden in the U.S. in the 21st Century, the reported demographics of hospitalized

  12. Correlation Among Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates and Internet Searches in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Mackenzie R; Nead, Kevin T; Linos, Eleni

    2017-09-01

    Population-level disease metrics are critical to guide the distribution of resources and implementation of public health initiatives. Internet search data reflect population interest in health topics and may be an alternative metric of disease characteristics when traditional sources are lacking, such as in basal and squamous cell carcinomas, which are not included in national cancer registries. However, these data are not yet well validated or understood. To evaluate whether state-specific normalized internet search volume correlates with incidence and mortality rates of common cancers in the United States, including melanoma. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Google search volume index data and US cancer incidences and mortalities of 8 of the most incident cancers in the United States in 2009 to 2013, at the state level, per the National Program of Cancer Registries. Participants were people performing Google searches and patients diagnosed as having cancers reported to cancer registries. Correlation between Google search volumes, normalized to total Google search volume, and National Program of Cancer Registries recorded cancer incidence and mortality rates. By state, relative Google search volume statistically significantly correlated with cancer incidence rates in 5 of 8 commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States (colon cancer: R = 0.61; P < .001; lung cancer: R = 0.73; P < .001; lymphoma: R = 0.51; P < .001; melanoma: R = 0.36; P = .01; and thyroid cancer: R = 0.30; P = .03). For 4 of those 5 cancers (colon cancer: R = 0.61; P < .001; lung cancer: R = 0.62; P < .001; lymphoma: R = 0.38; P = .006; and melanoma: R = 0.31; P = .03), relative Google search volume also correlated with mortality rates. Population-level internet search behavior may be a valuable real-time tool to estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates, especially for cancers not included in national

  13. The mortality rates and the space-time patterns of John Snow's cholera epidemic map.

    PubMed

    Shiode, Narushige; Shiode, Shino; Rod-Thatcher, Elodie; Rana, Sanjay; Vinten-Johansen, Peter

    2015-06-17

    Snow's work on the Broad Street map is widely known as a pioneering example of spatial epidemiology. It lacks, however, two significant attributes required in contemporary analyses of disease incidence: population at risk and the progression of the epidemic over time. Despite this has been repeatedly suggested in the literature, no systematic investigation of these two aspects was previously carried out. Using a series of historical documents, this study constructs own data to revisit Snow's study to examine the mortality rate at each street location and the space-time pattern of the cholera outbreak. This study brings together records from a series of historical documents, and prepares own data on the estimated number of residents at each house location as well as the space-time data of the victims, and these are processed in GIS to facilitate the spatial-temporal analysis. Mortality rates and the space-time pattern in the victims' records are explored using Kernel Density Estimation and network-based Scan Statistic, a recently developed method that detects significant concentrations of records such as the date and place of victims with respect to their distance from others along the street network. The results are visualised in a map form using a GIS platform. Data on mortality rates and space-time distribution of the victims were collected from various sources and were successfully merged and digitised, thus allowing the production of new map outputs and new interpretation of the 1854 cholera outbreak in London, covering more cases than Snow's original report and also adding new insights into their space-time distribution. They confirmed that areas in the immediate vicinity of the Broad Street pump indeed suffered from excessively high mortality rates, which has been suspected for the past 160 years but remained unconfirmed. No distinctive pattern was found in the space-time distribution of victims' locations. The high mortality rates identified around the

  14. Inequalities in suicide mortality rates and the economic recession in the municipalities of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Saurina, Carme; Marzo, Manel; Saez, Marc

    2015-09-08

    While previous research already exists on the impact of the current economic crisis and whether it leads to an increase in mortality by suicide, our objective in this paper is to determine if the increase in the suicide rate in Catalonia, Spain from 2010 onwards has been statistically significant and whether it is associated with rising unemployment. We used hierarchical mixed models, separately considering the crude death rate of suicides for municipalities with more than and less than 10,000 inhabitants as dependent variables both unstratified and stratified according to gender and/or age group. In municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants there was an increase in the relative risk of suicide from 2009 onwards. This increase was only statistically significant for working-aged women (16-64 years). In municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants the relative risk showed a decreasing trend even after 2009. In no case did we find the unemployment rate to be associated (statistically significant) with the suicide rate. The increase in the suicide rate from 2010 in Catalonia was not statistically significant as a whole, with the exception of working-aged women (16-64 years) living in municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants. We have not found this increase to be associated with rising unemployment in any of the cases. Future research into the effects of economic recessions on suicide mortality should take into account inequalities by age, sex and size of municipalities.

  15. Adolescent inpatient psychiatric admission rates and subsequent one-year mortality in England: 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric conditions in adolescents in England, and to examine their mortality within one year of discharge. Using a record-linked NHS Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) dataset for England, and linked death certificates, age- and sex-specific admission rates and subsequent mortality rates were analysed by single year of age for people aged 10-19 years. There were similar numbers of admissions for males and females: 29,595 and 28,188 respectively. Admission rates increased substantially with increasing age, from .2 per 1000 population per year aged 10 years to 2.2 per 1000 aged 19 years. There was no appreciable difference in death rates for males and females in the year following discharge--males .23% (based on 68 deaths), females .18% (52 deaths). However, these death rates were significantly higher than those found in the general population of equivalent age: expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), setting the SMRs for males and females in the general population each as 100, the SMR in the psychiatric population were 518 (95% CI 402-657) for males and 937 (692-1225) for females. The diagnostic groups with the highest mortality were development disorders (SMR 3017, 95% CI 1757-4831), eating disorders (SMR 1103, 443-2272), and affective disorders (SMR 940, 589-1423). Adolescent psychiatric disorders represent a serious public health issue, with a steep rise in hospital admissions during the teenage years, and a six-fold increased death rate within one year of discharge compared to the general population of the same age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent

  16. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 2: Transient mortality spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    We examine what happens in a population when it experiences an abrupt change in surrounding conditions. Several cases of such "abrupt transitions" for both physical and living social systems are analyzed from which it can be seen that all share a common pattern. First, a steep rising death rate followed by a much slower relaxation process during which the death rate decreases as a power law. This leads us to propose a general principle which can be summarized as follows: "Any abrupt change in living conditions generates a mortality spike which acts as a kind of selection process". This we term the Transient Shock conjecture. It provides a qualitative model which leads to testable predictions. For example, marriage certainly brings about a major change in personal and social conditions and according to our conjecture one would expect a mortality spike in the months following marriage. At first sight this may seem an unlikely proposition but we demonstrate (by three different methods) that even here the existence of mortality spikes is supported by solid empirical evidence.

  17. Mortality rates and division of labor in the leaf-cutting ant, Atta colombica.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark J F; Bot, A N M; Hart, Adam G

    2006-01-01

    Division of labor in social groups is affected by the relative costs and benefits of conducting different tasks. However, most studies have examined the dynamics of division of labor, rather than the costs and benefits that presumably underlie the evolution of such systems. In social insects, division of labor may be simplistically described as a source-sink system, with external tasks, such as foraging, acting as sinks for the work force. The implications of two distinct sinks - foraging and waste-heap working - for division of labor were examined in the leaf-cutting ant Atta colombica. Intrinsic mortality rates were similar across external task groups. Exposure to waste (a task-related environment) led to a 60% increase in the mortality rate of waste-heap workers compared to workers not exposed to waste. Given the small number of workers present in the waste-heap task group, such increases in mortality are unlikely to affect division of labor and task allocation dramatically, except perhaps under conditions of stress.

  18. The health of nations in a global context: trade, global stratification, and infant mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Spencer; Teixeira, Ana C; Shiell, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Despite the call for a better understanding of macro-level factors that affect population health, social epidemiological research has tended to focus almost exclusively on national-level factors, such as Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP/c) or levels of social cohesion. Using a world-systems framework to examine cross-national variations in infant mortality, this paper seeks to emphasize the effects of global trade on national-level population health. Rather than viewing national-level health indicators as autonomous from broader global contexts, the study uses network analysis methods to examine the effects of international trade on infant mortality rates. Network data for countries were derived from international data on the trade of capital-intensive commodities in 2000. Using automorphic equivalence to measure the degree to which actors in a network perform similar roles, countries were assigned into one of six world-system blocks, each with its own pattern of trade. These blocks were dummy-coded and tested using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. A key finding from this analysis is that after controlling for national-level factors, the two blocks with the lowest density in capital-intensive exchange, i.e., the periphery, are significantly and positively associated with national-level infant mortality rates. Results show the effects of peripherality and stratification on population health, and highlight the influence of broader macro-level factors such as trade and globalization on national health.

  19. Mortality of congenital osteochondrodysplasias: a nationwide registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Piga, Antonio; Alonso-Ferreira, Verónica; Villaverde-Hueso, Ana; Posada de la Paz, Manuel; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2013-07-01

    Osteochondrodysplasias are a heterogeneous group of more than 200 entities, characterized by abnormalities of cartilage, bone growth, and skeletal development. The aim of this study was to assess temporal and spatial changes in overall mortality due to these disorders in Spain, using data from a nationwide registry. Annual deaths showing osteochondrodysplasias as the underlying cause of death were selected using the International Classification of Diseases-9th revision (ICD-9) codes for the period 1981 through 1998, and ICD-10 codes for the period 1999 through 2008. Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated by sex, and geographic analysis was performed by municipality. A total of 679 deaths were recorded (53% men). Age-adjusted mortality rates went from 0.09 (0.06, 0.12) per 100,000 population in 1981 to 0.05 (0.03, 0.08) per 100,000 population in 2008. A changing trend in the age-standardized mortality rate was in evidence, with an annual increase of 2.4% (-0.4, 5.2) from 1981 to 1994, and an annual decrease of -7.3% (-10.9, -3.5) from 1995 onwards. Geographic analysis showed some places situated in the west and south of Spain with greater risk of mortality. There is a need to identify risk factors and to increase overall knowledge about the life expectancy and epidemiology of osteochondrodysplasias. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The impact of debt relief on under five mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Oryema, John Bosco; Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena; Picone, Gabriel

    2017-02-10

    This paper examines the impact of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative on under five mortality rate (U5MR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative involves debt forgiveness and the redirection of funds that were meant to service external debt towards the provision of social services and poverty reduction in eligible countries. The Initiative is akin to a natural experiment since some countries benefited while some did not, and the timing of debt forgiveness varied across countries. We exploit these variations to identify the impact of HIPC Initiative on child mortality using a dynamic panel data estimator. We find that participation in HIPC Initiative is associated with statistically significant decreases in U5MR. On the other hand, the impact of actual debt cancelled is statistically insignificant.

  1. Evaluating mortality rates with a novel integrated framework for nonmonogamous species.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Simone; Iemma, Aaron; Bragalanti, Natalia; Pedrini, Paolo; De Barba, Marta; Randi, Ettore; Groff, Claudio; Genovart, Meritxell

    2016-12-01

    The conservation of wildlife requires management based on quantitative evidence, and especially for large carnivores, unraveling cause-specific mortalities and understanding their impact on population dynamics is crucial. Acquiring this knowledge is challenging because it is difficult to obtain robust long-term data sets on endangered populations and, usually, data are collected through diverse sampling strategies. Integrated population models (IPMs) offer a way to integrate data generated through different processes. However, IPMs are female-based models that cannot account for mate availability, and this feature limits their applicability to monogamous species only. We extended classical IPMs to a two-sex framework that allows investigation of population dynamics and quantification of cause-specific mortality rates in nonmonogamous species. We illustrated our approach by simultaneously modeling different types of data from a reintroduced, unhunted brown bear (Ursus arctos) population living in an area with a dense human population. In a population mainly driven by adult survival, we estimated that on average 11% of cubs and 61% of adults died from human-related causes. Although the population is currently not at risk, adult survival and thus population dynamics are driven by anthropogenic mortality. Given the recent increase of human-bear conflicts in the area, removal of individuals for management purposes and through poaching may increase, reversing the positive population growth rate. Our approach can be generalized to other species affected by cause-specific mortality and will be useful to inform conservation decisions for other nonmonogamous species, such as most large carnivores, for which data are scarce and diverse and thus data integration is highly desirable. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Lower Mortality Rate in Elderly Patients With Community‐Onset Pneumonia on Treatment With Aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Cangemi, Roberto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Calvieri, Camilla; Barillà, Francesco; Scarpellini, Maria Gabriella; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Palange, Paolo; Taliani, Gloria; Venditti, Mario; Violi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is complicated by high rate of mortality and cardiovascular events (CVEs). The potential benefit of aspirin, which lowers platelet aggregation by inhibition of thromboxane A2 production, is still unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of aspirin on mortality in patients with pneumonia. Methods and Results Consecutive patients admitted to the University‐Hospital Policlinico Umberto I (Rome, Italy) with community‐onset pneumonia were recruited and prospectively followed up until discharge or death. The primary end point was the occurrence of death up to 30 days after admission; the secondary end point was the intrahospital incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. One thousand and five patients (age, 74.7±15.1 years) were included in the study: 390 were receiving aspirin (100 mg/day) at the time of hospitalization, whereas 615 patients were aspirin free. During the follow‐up, 16.2% of patients died; among these, 19 (4.9%) were aspirin users and 144 (23.4%; P<0.001) were aspirin nonusers. Overall, nonfatal CVEs occurred in 7% of patients, 8.3% in nonaspirin users, and 4.9% in aspirin users (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 3.04; P=0.040). The Cox regression analysis showed that pneumonia severity index (PSI), severe sepsis, pleural effusion, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 negatively influenced survival, whereas aspirin therapy was associated with improved survival. Compared to patients receiving aspirin, the propensity score adjusted analysis confirmed that patients not taking aspirin had a hazard ratio of 2.07 (1.08 to 3.98; P=0.029) for total mortality. Conclusions This study shows that chronic aspirin use is associated with lower mortality rate within 30 days after hospital admission in a large cohort of patients with pneumonia. PMID:25564372

  3. Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate in caesarean section and vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Khosravi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cesarean section is one of the most common procedures to prevent health-threatening risks to the mother and infant. Increasing rate of cesarean section attracted the attention of professionals and the overall objective of this study was to determine the frequency of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in the two methods of delivery. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cohort study, 300 cases undergoing caesarean section and 300 cases with vaginal delivery were selected in two main hospitals of Isfahan, Iran during 2013 and 2014. Demographic characteristics and factors related to mortality and morbidity of mothers and infants were studied. Mothers were also recruited 6 weeks after delivery to ask for complications. Mothers and infants mortality and morbidity were studied and analyzed by SPSS 22 software. Results: Follow-up of deliveries up to 1-month after delivery suggested 2 cases of infant death (7%) in vaginal delivery group, while no case of infant death was reported in cesarean delivery group (P = 0.5). Incidence of fever was observed in first 10 days after delivery in 7 cases in the vaginal delivery group and 11 cases in the cesarean delivery group (2.3% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.4). Conclusion: Despite all the benefits of vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section, in many cases, especially in emergency cesarean section delivery can substantially reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is recommended to assess the complications of each method in all pregnant women about to give birth, and then decide on the method of delivery. PMID:26605232

  4. Normal overall mortality rate in Addison's disease, but young patients are at risk of premature death.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, Martina M; Løvås, Kristian; Fougner, Kristian J; Svartberg, Johan; Hauge, Erik R; Bollerslev, Jens; Berg, Jens P; Mella, Bjarne; Husebye, Eystein S

    2009-02-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare autoimmune disease. Until recently, life expectancy in Addison's disease patients was considered normal. To determine the mortality rate in Addison's disease patients. i) Patients registered with Addison's disease in Norway during 1943-2005 were identified through search in hospital diagnosis registries. Scrutiny of the medical records provided diagnostic accuracy and age at diagnosis. ii) The patients who had died were identified from the National Directory of Residents. iii) Background mortality data were obtained from Statistics Norway, and standard mortality rate (SMR) calculated. iv) Death diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Death Cause Registry. Totally 811 patients with Addison's disease were identified, of whom 147 were deceased. Overall SMR was 1.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.96-1.35), similar in females (1.18 (0.92-1.44)) and males (1.10 (0.80-1.39)). Patients diagnosed before the age of 40 had significantly elevated SMR at 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.01), most pronounced in males (2.03 (1.19-2.86)). Acute adrenal failure was a major cause of death; infection and sudden death were more common than in the general population. The mean ages at death for females (75.7 years) and males (64.8 years) were 3.2 and 11.2 years less than the estimated life expectancy. Addison's disease is still a potentially lethal condition, with excess mortality in acute adrenal failure, infection, and sudden death in patients diagnosed at young age. Otherwise, the prognosis is excellent for patients with Addison's disease.

  5. Microbial Mortality Rates in Support of Model Development in Three Distinct Ocean Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. E.; Gellene, A. G.; Campbell, V.; Hu, S. K.; Arrigo, K. R.; Caron, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative assessments of trophic interactions have become increasingly important in plankton research with the recognition that delicate balances between predators and prey strongly influence biogeochemical cycles. As the modeling community continues to increase the complexity of ecosystem models in order to improve their predictive power, understanding the balances of production and loss across spatial and seasonal scales is critical. We measured the growth and mortality rates of the total phytoplankton community and key picophytoplankton groups (Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes) using a modified dilution method, as well as bacterial mortality rates via FLB (fluorescently-labeled bacteria) disappearance incubations. Community composition was assessed using microscopy and flow cytometry. Measurements were conducted in three climatic regions: coastal waters of the Southern California Bight, The Chukchi Sea, and the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Local seasonal variability was also assessed quarterly (January, April, July, October) in the Bight. These measurements provided insight into the relative turnover rates of key microbial groups and the microbial population dynamics of disparate ocean regimes. This study will aid our ability to construct predictive ecosystem models through the application of community composition and rate data to model parameterization.

  6. Resources, mortality, and disease ecology: Importance of positive feedbacks between host growth rate and pathogen dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Val H.; Holt, Robert D.; Smith, Marilyn S.; Niu, Yafen; Barfield, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Resource theory and metabolic scaling theory suggest that the dynamics of a pathogen within a host should strongly depend upon the rate of host cell metabolism. Once an infection occurs, key ecological interactions occur on or within the host organism that determine whether the pathogen dies out, persists as a chronic infection, or grows to densities that lead to host death. We hypothesize that, in general, conditions favoring rapid host growth rates should amplify the replication and proliferation of both fungal and viral pathogens. If a host population experiences an increase in mortality, to persist it must have a higher growth rate, per host, often reflecting greater resource availability per capita. We hypothesize that this could indirectly foster the pathogen, which also benefits from increased within-host resource turnover. We first bring together in a short review a number of key prior studies which illustrate resource effects on viral and fungal pathogen dynamics. We then report new results from a semi-continuous cell culture experiment with SHIV, demonstrating that higher mortality rates indeed can promote viral proliferation. We develop a simple model that illustrates dynamical consequences of these resource effects, including interesting effects such as alternative stable states and oscillatory dynamics. Our paper contributes to a growing body of literature at the interface of ecology and infectious disease epidemiology, emphasizing that host abundances alone do not drive community dynamics: the physiological state and resource content of infected hosts also strongly influence host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27642269

  7. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    PubMed

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P < 0.001). There was no meaningful relationship between the mortality rate of patients with MI who were either opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  8. Mortality rates and risk factors for emergent open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Felice; Gloekler, Steffen; Mader, Caecilia E; Roos, Malgorzata; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mangialardi, Nicola; Neff, Thomas; Lachat, Mario

    2017-09-14

    The background of this paper is to report the mortality at 30 and 90 days and at mean follow-up after open abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) emergent repair and to identify predictive risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality. Between 1997 and 2002, 104 patients underwent emergent AAA open surgery. Symptomatic and ruptured AAAs were observed, respectively, in 21 and 79% of cases. Mean patient age was 70 (SD 9.2) years. Mean aneurysm maximal diameter was 7.4 (SD 1.6) cm. Primary endpoints were 30- and 90-day mortality. Significant mortality-related risk factor identification was the secondary endpoint. Open repair trend and its related perioperative mortality with a per-year analysis and a correlation subanalysis to identify predictive mortality factor were performed. Mean follow-up time was 23 (SD 23) months. Overall, 30-day mortality was 30%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were the use of computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative diagnostic tool, AAA rupture, preoperative shock, intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of aortic balloon occlusion, intraoperative massive blood transfusion (MBT), and development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Previous abdominal surgery was identified as a protective risk factor. The mortality rate at 90 days was 44%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were AAA rupture, aortocaval fistula, peripheral artery disease (PAD), preoperative shock, CPR, MBT, and ACS. The mortality rate at follow-up was 45%. Correlation analysis showed that MBT, shock, and ACS are the most relevant predictive mortality factor at 30 and 90 days. During the transition period from open to endovascular repair, open repair mortality outcomes remained comparable with other contemporary data despite a selection bias for higher risk patients. MBT, shock, and ACS are the most pronounced predictive mortality risk factors.

  9. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  10. Mortality from lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in New Mexico, 1958-82.

    PubMed

    Samet, J M; Wiggins, C L; Key, C R; Becker, T M

    1988-09-01

    We examined mortality from lung cancer and from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hispanic White, Other White, and Native American residents of New Mexico during the period 1958-82. Age-specific mortality was calculated by combining death certificate data with population estimates based on the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses that were adjusted for inconsistencies in the designation of race and ethnicity. In Other Whites, age-adjusted mortality rates from lung cancer and from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased progressively in males and females. Mortality rates for both diseases also increased in Hispanics during the study period, but the most recent rates for Hispanics were well below those for Other Whites. Age-specific mortality rates for lung cancer declined for more recently born Hispanic women at older ages. In Native Americans, rates for both diseases were low throughout the study period and did not show consistent temporal trends.

  11. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  12. Long-Term Effects of Wealth on Mortality and Self-rated Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%–44% higher risk and 6–18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth–mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality. PMID:21059808

  13. Rates of thoracic trauma and mortality due to accidents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cury, Francisco; Baitello, André Luciano; Echeverria, Rodrigo Florêncio; Espada, Paulo César; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    To report on the causes of trauma, indexes of trauma, and mortality related to thoracic trauma in one region of Brazil. This prospective study was performed at the Regional Trauma Center in São José do Rio Preto over a 1-year period, from 1(st) July 2004 to 30(th) June 2005. We included all patients attending the center's emergency room with thoracic trauma and an anatomic injury scale (AIS) ≥ 2. We collected data using a protocol completed on arrival in hospital utilizing the AIS. We studied the types of accidents as well as the mortality and the AIS scores. Prevalence rates were calculated and the paired t-test and logistic regression were employed for the statistical analysis. There were a total of 373 casualties with AIS ≥ 2 and there were 45 (12%) deaths. The causes of thoracic trauma among the 373 casualties were as follows: 91 (24.4%) car crashes, 75 (20.1%) falls, 46 (12.3%) motorbike accidents, 40 (10.7%) stabbings, 22 (5.9%) accidents involving pedestrians, 21 (5.6%) bicycle accidents, 17 (4.6%) shootings, and 54 (14.5%) other types of accident. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the AIS: 224 (60%) were grade 2, 101 (27%) were grade 3, 27 (7.2%) were grade 4, 18 (4.9%) were grade 5, and 3 were (0.8%) grade 6. With respect to thoracic trauma, pedestrians involved in accidents and victims of shootings had mortality rates that were significantly higher than that of those involved in other types of accidents. Road accidents are the main cause of thoracic injury, with accidents involving pedestrians and shootings being associated with a greater death rate.

  14. New myocardial infarction definition affects incidence, mortality, hospitalization rates and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Fernando; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Sala, Joan; Masiá, Rafael; Ramos, Rafel; Grau, María

    2015-10-01

    To analyse differences in myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and hospitalization rates, 28-day case-fatality and two-year prognosis using two myocardial infarction case definitions: the classical World Health Organization definition (1994) and the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition (2000), which added cardiac troponin as a diagnostic biomarker. Population-based cohort of 4170 consecutive myocardial infarction patients aged 35-74 years from Girona (Spain) recruited between 2002 and 2009. Incidence, mortality rates standardized to the European population and 28-day case-fatality were calculated. To estimate the association between case definition and prognosis, Cox models were fitted. Use of the 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition significantly increased myocardial infarction incidence per 100,000 population (238.3 vs. 274.5 in men and 54.1 vs. 69.7 in women). Applying this definition decreased the 28-day case-fatality rate from 26.9% to 23.4% in men, and from 31.0% to 24.1% in women. In the acute phase, patients diagnosed only by increased troponins were significantly less treated with thrombolysis (34.4% vs. 2.0%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (71.7% vs. 65.0%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (41.1% vs. 31.7%). Case-fatality at 28 days was significantly better in cases diagnosed only by troponin increase (0.2 % vs. 9.7%), but two-year cardiovascular mortality was higher (7.5% vs. 3.7%). Inclusion of cardiac troponins in myocardial infarction diagnosis increased annual incidence and decreased case-fatality. Diagnosis based only on increased troponins was associated with worse outcome. This group of patients at high risk of death should receive aggressive secondary prevention therapy. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. Trends in amenable mortality rate in the Mongolian population, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Surenjav, Enkhjin; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007–2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee’s classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia. During the study period, a total of 130,402 deaths were registered in Mongolia, of which 44,800 (34.4%) deaths were classified as being amenable. The age-standardized AMR per 100,000 population was highest in 2007 (226.6), and declined continuously until the level of 169.2 in 2014. The rate remained consistently higher in males than in females. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, perinatal deaths, influenza/pneumonia/asthma and tuberculosis were the leading causes of AM in the past eight years in Mongolia. The AMR was higher in remote western provinces with harsh weather conditions, high poverty rates, lack of human resources for health, and poor infrastructure. In addition, the provinces where Mongolia’s ethnic minorities live tended to have a higher AMR. The government of Mongolia needs to critically look at the regional differences in AM in order to allocate health resources, including human resources, effectively. Further studies are needed to look into the causes of regional disparities in AM, individual-level risk factors to amenable deaths, and validity of death coding in health sector. PMID:27019528

  16. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, E S; Peruga, A; Restrepo, H E

    1993-01-01

    Despite subregional differences, mortality profiles have undergone major changes in most countries of the Americas. While the proportion of deaths caused by noncommunicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, has increased, overall age-adjusted mortality rates attributable to all cardiovascular disease are declining in 13 of the 15 countries selected for the present study. About half the countries showed decreasing mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease; the other half had increasing rates. The mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease and hypertensive disease declined in all but four countries. The ischaemic heart disease/cerebrovascular disease mortality ratio increased as a consequence of a greater decline in deaths due to cerebrovascular disease, except in two countries that exhibited a greater decline for ischaemic heart disease. With few exceptions the male-to-female mortality ratios increased for all cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, reflecting a greater decline in female mortality. In general there was a decline in all cardiovascular disease mortality for almost every age group in the North American, Southern Cone, English-speaking Caribbean, and Andean subregions, while there were increases in the Central American and Latin Caribbean subregions. The magnitude of the changes was related to the initial level of mortality and the date of onset of the decline. Change began earlier and the declines were largest in the countries with the highest initial mortality levels, whereas in the countries that initially had comparatively low values the mortality rates are still increasing. Insufficient information is available to permit elucidation of the determinants of the changes reported. There has been speculation about the possible role of factors such as demographic and sociocultural changes, changes in lifestyle and subsequently in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the

  17. Mortality Rates and Associated Factors in Equine Colic Operations — A Retrospective Study of 341 Operations

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P. J.; McDonell, W. N.; Trim, Cynthia M.; Van Gorder, J.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 300 surgical treatments for colic involving 341 interventions was carried out to determine mortality rates and associated factors. These horses had been referred to the Ontario Veterinary College over the period September 1974 to February 1980. Data from the case records was collected and stored on a computer and statistical analysis was carried out using X2 tests. Fifty percent (150/300) of the horses survived to be discharged from the hospital. Fifty-two horses were euthanized during the operation and another ten horses should have been; if these cases are excluded the overall survival rate is 64.7% (150/232). A wide range of breeds were involved but the breed did not significantly affect survival. There was a significantly greater occurrence of serious colic in the two week to two month and one to two year age groups and significantly less in the two to four year age groups when compared with the total number of horses admitted over the same period. There was an even distribution of male and female horses but males showed a significantly lower mortality rate (57% of the males survived compared with 43% of the females). The size of the animal did not affect survival significantly. There was no seasonal variation when compared with the total number of equine patients. Survival was significantly influenced by the lesion, the preoperative packed cell volume and total plasma protein and by the length of the surgical procedure. PMID:17422234

  18. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  19. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  20. Assessing the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality rate in Asia and North Africa: an application of latent growth models.

    PubMed

    Zayeri, F; Talebi Ghane, E; Borumandnia, N

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major global health challenge. This study evaluates the change of HIV/AIDS mortality rates in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. HIV/AIDS mortality rates were derived from the GBD database from 1990 to 2010, for 52 countries in Asia and North Africa. First, a Latent Growth Model was employed to assess the change in AIDS mortality rate over time in six different regions of Asia, and also the change in AIDS mortality rate over time for males and females in Asia and North Africa. Finally, Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMMs) were applied to identify distinct groups in which countries within each group have similar trends over time. Our results showed that increase in mortality rate over time for males is about three times greater than for females. The highest and lowest trend of AIDS mortality rates were observed in South-East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions, respectively. The LGMM allocated most countries in the South and South-East region into two classes with the highest trend of AIDS mortality rates. Although the HIV/AIDS mortality rates are decreasing in some countries and clusters, the general trend in the Asian continent is upwards. Therefore, it is necessary to provide programmes to achieve the goal of access to HIV prevention measures, treatment, care, and support for high-risk groups, especially in countries with a higher trend of AIDS mortality rates.

  1. The Impact of Data Suppression on Local Mortality Rates: The Case of CDC WONDER

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Kirsten; Rushton, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    CDC WONDER (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) is the nation’s primary data repository for health statistics. Before WONDER data are released to the public, data cells with fewer than 10 case counts are suppressed. We showed that maps produced from suppressed data have predictable geographic biases that can be removed by applying population data in the system and an algorithm that uses regional rates to estimate missing data. By using CDC WONDER heart disease mortality data, we demonstrated that effects of suppression could be largely overcome. PMID:24922161

  2. The impact of data suppression on local mortality rates: the case of CDC WONDER.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Chetan; Beyer, Kirsten; Rushton, Gerard

    2014-08-01

    CDC WONDER (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) is the nation's primary data repository for health statistics. Before WONDER data are released to the public, data cells with fewer than 10 case counts are suppressed. We showed that maps produced from suppressed data have predictable geographic biases that can be removed by applying population data in the system and an algorithm that uses regional rates to estimate missing data. By using CDC WONDER heart disease mortality data, we demonstrated that effects of suppression could be largely overcome.

  3. Late Entry into HIV Care: Estimated Impact on AIDS Mortality Rates in Brazil, 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Alencar, Rosa; Ayres de Castilho, Euclides

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, a high proportion of HIV-infected individuals enter into HIV care late. Here, our objective was to estimate the impact that late entry into HIV care has had on AIDS mortality rates in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed data from information systems regarding HIV-infected adults who sought treatment at public health care facilities in Brazil from 2003 to 2006. We initially estimated the prevalence of late entry into HIV care, as well as the probability of death in the first 12 months, the percentage of the risk of death attributable to late entry, and the number of avoidable deaths. We subsequently adjusted the annual AIDS mortality rate by excluding such deaths. Of the 115,369 patients evaluated, 50,358 (43.6%) had entered HIV care late, and 18,002 died in the first 12 months, representing a 16.5% probability of death in the first 12 months (95% CI: 16.3–16.7). By comparing patients who entered HIV care late with those who gained timely access, we found that the risk ratio for death was 49.5 (95% CI: 45.1–54.2). The percentage of the risk of death attributable to late entry was 95.5%, translating to 17,189 potentially avoidable deaths. Averting those deaths would have lowered the 2003–2006 AIDS mortality rate by 39.5%. Including asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T cell counts >200 and ≤350 cells/mm3 in the group who entered HIV care late increased this proportion by 1.8%. Conclusions/Significance In Brazil, antiretroviral drugs reduced AIDS mortality by 43%. Timely entry would reduce that rate by a similar proportion, as well as resulting in a 45.2% increase in the effectiveness of the program for HIV care. The World Health Organization recommendation that asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T cell counts ≤350 cells/mm3 be treated would not have a significant impact on this scenario. PMID:21283618

  4. Morbidity and Mortality Rates After Maxillomandibular Advancement for Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Passeri, Luis A; Choi, James G; Kaban, Leonard B; Lahey, Edward T

    2016-10-01

    To compare morbidity and mortality rates in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) versus dentofacial deformity (DFD) patients undergoing equivalent maxillofacial surgical procedures. Patients with OSA who underwent maxillomandibular advancement with genial tubercle advancement in the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from December 2002 to June 2011 were matched to patients with DFD undergoing similar maxillofacial procedures during the same period. They were compared regarding demographic variables, medical comorbidities, perioperative management, intraoperative complications, early and late postoperative complications, and mortality rate. A study group of 28 patients with OSA and a control group of 26 patients with DFD were compared. The patients with OSA were older (41.9 ± 12.5 years vs 21.7 ± 8.6 years), had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (2.0 ± 0.5 vs 1.3 ± 0.6), and had a higher body mass index (29.6 ± 4.7 kg/m(2) vs 23.0 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)). They also had a greater number of medical comorbidities (2.4 ± 2.3 vs 0.7 ± 1.0). More OSA patients than DFD patients had complications (28 [100%] vs 19 [73%], P = .003), and the total number of complications in the OSA group was higher (108 vs 33, P < .001). Of the complications, 13.9% in the OSA group and 3.0% in the DFD group were classified as major. The absolute risk of a complication was 3.9 for the OSA group versus 1.3 for the DFD group. The relative risk of complications in OSA patients compared with DFD patients was 3.0. No difference in mortality rate was found. The patients in the OSA group were older, had more comorbidities, and ultimately had a greater number of early, late, minor, and major complications than those in the DFD group. The incidence of death in both groups was zero. Maxillomandibular advancement appears to be a safe procedure regarding mortality rate, but OSA patients should be counseled preoperatively regarding the

  5. Birth rate and perinatal mortality in Italy during the years 1964 through 1986.

    PubMed

    Pecorari, D; Diani, F; Tanganelli, E

    1989-01-01

    "Between 1964 and 1986 the number of births in Italy declined from over one million per year to little more than half a million per year. The perinatal mortality rate declined from 37.3/1,000 to 12.8/1,000. Using the year 1964 as [the] reference year, the total number of babies who were saved from perinatal death by socio-economic and medical improvements during the 22 years between 1965 and 1986 can be calculated as 435,005."

  6. How much does decompressive laparotomy reduce the mortality rate in primary abdominal compartment syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Mircea; Muresan, Simona; Brinzaniuc, Klara; Voidazan, Septimiu; Sala, Daniela; Jimborean, Ovidiu; Hussam, Al Husseim; Bara, Tivadar; Popescu, Gabriel; Borz, Cristian; Neagoe, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Contribution of decompressive laparotomy within the framework of the complex therapeutic algorithm of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is cited with an extremely heterogeneous percentage in terms of survival. The purpose of this study was to present new data regarding contribution of each therapeutic step toward decreasing the mortality of this syndrome. This is a longitudinal prospective study including 134 patients with risk factors for ACS. The intra-abdominal pressure was measured every hour indirectly based on transvesical approach and the appearance of organ dysfunction. Specific therapy for ACS was based on the 2013 World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome guidelines, which include laparotomy decompression. Management of the temporarily open abdomen included an assisted vacuum wound therapy. Of 134 patients, 66 developed ACS. The average intra-abdominal pressure significantly decreased after therapy and decompression surgery. The overall rate of mortality was 27.3% with statistical significance in necrotizing infected pancreatitis. Surgical decompression performed within the first 24 hours after the onset of ACS had a protective role against mortality (odds ratio <1). The average time after which laparotomy decompression was performed was 16.23 hours. The complications occurred during TAC were 2 wound suppurations and 1 intestinal obstruction. Wound suppurations evolved favorably by using vacuum wound-assisted therapy associated with the general treatment, whereas for occlusion, resurgery was performed after which adhesions dissolved. The final closure of the abdomen was performed at a mean of 11.7 days (min. = 9, max. = 14). The closure type was primary suture of the musculoaponeurotic edges in 4 cases, and the use of dual mesh in the other 11 cases. The highest mortality rate in the study group was registered in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and the lowest in trauma group. Surgical decompression within the framework

  7. While Mortality Rates Differ After Dysvascular Partial Foot and Transtibial Amputation, Should They Influence the Choice of Amputation Level?

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael; Fatone, Stefania; Quigley, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Although there is strong evidence to show that the risk of dying after transtibial amputation is higher than partial foot amputation, we are concerned by the implication that amputation level influences mortality, and that such interpretations of the evidence may be used to inform decisions about the choice of amputation level. We argue that the choice of partial foot or transtibial amputation does not influence the risk of mortality. The highest mortality rates are observed in studies with older people with more advanced systemic disease and multiple comorbidities. Studies that control for the confounding influence of these factors have shown no differences in mortality rates by amputation level. These insights have important implications in terms of how we help inform difficult decisions about amputation at either the partial foot or transtibial level, given a more thoughtful interpretation of the published mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Evidence for an Emerging Nonmetropolitan Mortality Penalty in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cosby, Arthur G.; Neaves, Tonya T.; Cossman, Ronald E.; Cossman, Jeralynn S.; James, Wesley L.; Feierabend, Neal; Mirvis, David M.; Jones, Carol A.; Farrigan, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    We discovered an emerging non-metropolitan mortality penalty by contrasting 37 years of age-adjusted mortality rates for metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan US counties. During the 1980s, annual metropolitan–nonmetropolitan differences averaged 6.2 excess deaths per 100000 nonmetropolitan population, or approximately 3600 excess deaths; however, by 2000 to 2004, the difference had increased more than 10 times to average 71.7 excess deaths, or approximately 35 000 excess deaths. We recommend that research be undertaken to evaluate and utilize our preliminary findings of an emerging US nonmetropolitan mortality penalty. PMID:18556611

  9. Does mortality vary between pacific groups in New Zealand? Estimating Samoan, Cook Island Maori, Tongan, and Niuean mortality rates using hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Young, Jim; Callister, Paul; Didham, Robert

    2009-12-11

    BACKGROUND Pacific mortality rates are traditionally presented for all Pacific people combined, yet there is likely heterogeneity between separate Pacific ethnic groups. We aimed to determine mortality rates for Samoan, Cook Island Māori, Tongan, and Niuean ethnic groups (living in New Zealand). METHODS We used New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (NZCMS) data for 2001-04, for 380,000 person years of follow-up of 0-74 year olds in the 2001-04 cohort for which there was complete data on sex, age, ethnicity (total counts), natality, and household income. Given sparse data, we used hierarchical Bayesian (HB) regression modelling, with: a prior covariate structure specified for sex, age, natality (New Zealand/Overseas born), and household income; and smoothing of rates using shrinkage. The posterior mortality rate estimates were then directly standardised.RESULTS Standardising for sex, age, income, and natality, all-cause mortality rate ratios compared to Samoan were: 1.21 (95% credibility interval 1.05 to 1.42) for Cook Island Māori; 0.93 (0.77 to 1.10) for Tongan; and 1.07 (0.88 to 1.29) for Niuean. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rate ratios showed greater heterogeneity: 1.66 (1.26 to 2.13) for Cook Island Māori; 1.11 (0.72 to 1.58) for Niuean; and 0.86 (0.58 to 1.20) for Tongan. Results were little different standardising for just sex and age. We conducted a range of sensitivity analyses about a plausible range of (differential) return migration by Pacific people when terminally ill, and a plausible range of census undercounting of Pacific people. Our findings, in particular the elevated CVD mortality among Cook Island Māori, appeared robust. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this project is the first time in New Zealand that clear (and marked in the case of CVD) differences in mortality have been demonstrated between different Pacific ethnic groups. Future health research and policy should, wherever possible and practicable, evaluate and incorporate

  10. Ethnic Inequalities in Mortality: The Case of Arab-Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Background Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs), relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. Conclusions/Significance Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings. PMID:22216204

  11. Social disorganization and homicide mortality rate trajectories in Brazil between 1991 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Nivette, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Since the 1990s, researchers have noted declining trends in crime and violence, particularly homicide, in Western countries. Studies have explored national and sub-national trends using latent trajectory analysis techniques and identified several factors associated with declining and/or increasing trajectories. Social disorganization (SD) has been consistently linked to increases in homicide rates over time, explaining at least some of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide. Similar studies have not yet been carried out in Latin America's cities. In this paper we use Group Based Trajectory models to study homicide mortality rate [HMR] trajectories in Brazilian municipalities between 1991 and 2010. Then, through binary and multinomial logistic regression we investigated the association between SD in 1991, and the likelihood of an increasing HMR trajectory. We carried out an ecological time series study using all Brazilian municipalities in the period between 1991 and 2010 (n = 4491). Data on homicide deaths were collected from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health and standardized by age to calculate HMR per 100,000 population. Socioeconomic and demographic data for 1991 were used to compose the composite measure of SD. Our results highlight the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide mortality in Brazilian municipalities. While national trends are steadily increasing, disaggregating municipal trajectories shows that this is driven by a small proportion of municipalities in the country. We found that SD is associated with an ascending homicide trajectory. This result generally supports the notion that poor social structural conditions can create 'space' for criminal behavior and groups and, consequently, violent death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  13. Heart Rate Variability is a Predictor of Mortality in CKD - A Report from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E; Babineau, Denise C; Brecklin, Carolyn; He, Jiang; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Xie, Dawei; Appleby, Dina; Anderson, Amanda H; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A 10 second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD). Results In 3245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal (SDNN: HR=0.96 (95% CI 0.88–1.05); RMSSD: HR=0.97 (95% CI 0.88–1.07)) or cardiovascular outcomes (SDNN: HR=1.02 (95% CI 0.92–1.13); RMSSD: HR=1.00 (95% CI 0.90–1.10)). There was a non-linear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (P=0.04). Conclusions In a large cohort of participants with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular disease were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV as measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients. PMID:24356377

  14. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province.

  15. Five-year all-cause mortality rates across five categories of substantiated elder abuse occurring in the community.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.

  16. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy.

  17. Correlation between HLA-A2 gene frequency, latitude, ovarian and prostate cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    De Petris, Luigi; Bergfeldt, Kjell; Hising, Christina; Lundqvist, Andreas; Tholander, Bengt; Pisa, Pavel; van der Zanden, Henk G M; Masucci, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Molecular-target therapies are novel approaches to the treatment of prostate and ovarian cancer, but to ensure the best response, a very careful selection of patients, based on immunological characteristics, must be performed. We screened for HLA type, 24 patients with advanced ovarian cancer and 26 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, in order to be recruited to vaccine protocols. HLA typing was performed with PCR in ovarian cancer patients and with serological assay in prostate cancer patients. The results were then extended to a population level, comparing the HLA genotype frequencies in Europe with ovarian and prostate cancer mortality rates. An overrepresentation of HLA-A2 phenotype was observed in both patient groups compared to the normal Swedish population (p = 0.01). As it is already known, the higher phenotype frequency of this allele found in Scandinavian countries decreases significantly as one moves further south in Europe. Ovarian and prostate cancer mortality rates decrease as well as the demographic changes in HLA-A2. These observations have to be confirmed by more extended investigations in order to elucidate if HLA-A2 higher frequency is already present at the diagnosis (risk factor) or is selected during the course of the disease (prognostic factor). Moreover, this fact would suggest different strategies for specific immunotherapy in addition to first line conventional treatments.

  18. The effects of air pollutants on the mortality rate of lung cancer and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Keshtgar, Laila; Javaheri, Mohammad Reza; Derakhshan, Zahra; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Zuccarello, Pietro; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-03-24

    World Health Organization classifies air pollution as the first cause of human cancer. The present study investigated impact of air pollutants on the mortality rates of lung cancer and leukemia in Shiraz, one of the largests cities of Iran. This cross‑sectional (longitudinal) study was carried out in Shiraz. Data on six main pollutants, CO, SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, were collected from Fars Environmental Protection Agency for 3,001 days starting from 1 January, 2005. Also, measures of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from Shiraz Meteorological Organization. Finally, data related to number of deaths due to lung and blood cancers (leukemia) were gathered from Shiraz University Hospital. Relationship between variations of pollutant concentrations and cancers in lung and blood was investigated using statistical software R and MiniTab to perform time series analysis. Results of the present study revealed that the mortality rate of leukemia had a direct significant correlation with concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide in the air (P<0.05). Therefore, special attention should be paid to sources of these pollutants and we need better management to decrease air pollutant concentrations through, e.g., using clean energy respect to fossil fuels, better management of urban traffic planning, and the improvement of public transport service and car sharing.

  19. How well does LiST capture mortality by wealth quintile? A comparison of measured versus modelled mortality rates among children under-five in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Richard, Stephanie A; Friberg, Ingrid K; Bryce, Jennifer; Baqui, Abdullah H; El Arifeen, Shams; Walker, Neff

    2010-04-01

    In the absence of planned efforts to target the poor, child survival programs often favour the rich. Further evidence is needed urgently about which interventions and programme approaches are most effective in addressing inequities. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is available and can be used to model mortality levels across economic groups based on coverage levels for child survival interventions. We used LiST to model neonatal and under-5 mortality levels among the highest and the lowest wealth quintiles in Bangladesh based on national and wealth-quintile-specific coverage of child survival interventions. The cause-of-death structure among children under-5 was also modelled using the coverage levels. Modelled rates were compared to the rates measured directly from the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey and associated verbal autopsies. Modelled estimates of mortality within wealth quintiles fell within the 95% confidence intervals of measured mortality for both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. LiST also performed well in predicting the cause-of-death structure for these two age groups for the poorest quintile of the population, but less well for the richest quintile. LiST holds promise as a useful tool for assessing socio-economic inequities in child survival in low-income countries.

  20. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  1. Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Swahn, Monica H.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states’ alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Methods We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0–100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization. Results Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84–0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions. Conclusions Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship. PMID:26469950

  2. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R(2)=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R(2)=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Results After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R2=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R2=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. Conclusions AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. PMID:26674986

  4. All-cause mortality rate in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Implications for the design and execution of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    King, Talmadge E; Albera, Carlo; Bradford, Williamson Z; Costabel, Ulrich; du Bois, Roland M; Leff, Jonathan A; Nathan, Steven D; Sahn, Steven A; Valeyre, Dominique; Noble, Paul W

    2014-04-01

    FVC has emerged as a standard primary endpoint in clinical trials evaluating novel therapies for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, it has recently been proposed that all-cause mortality or a composite comprised of all-cause mortality and all-cause nonelective hospitalization be adopted as the standard primary endpoint for IPF clinical trials. To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of mortality in three phase 3 clinical trials and evaluate the feasibility of mortality trials in patients with IPF. The study population included 622 patients randomized to placebo in the CAPACITY studies evaluating pirfenidone (n = 347) or the INSPIRE study evaluating interferon-γ1b (n = 275). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of 2-year survival was fit to the exponential distribution and used to calculate sample size requirements for a mortality study with 90% power to detect a 25% reduction in all-cause mortality with a two-sided α of 0.05. Modeling analyses were used to assess the effects of selected variables on sample size and study design. A total of 73 deaths occurred during the period of observation (mean duration of follow-up, 80.1 wk). The all-cause mortality rate was 6.6% at 1 year and 13.7% at 2 years. Based on the observed 2-year mortality rate, a total of 508 events would be required to detect a significant treatment benefit in a two-arm trial with 90% power to detect a 25% reduction in all-cause mortality. The estimated sample size for a trial enrolled over 3 years with a maximum follow-up period of 5 years is 2,582 patients. The all-cause mortality rate is relatively low in patients with IPF with mild to moderate impairment in lung function. Accordingly, the necessary size, duration, and cost of all-cause mortality trials in this population are substantial and likely prohibitive.

  5. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  6. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Moura, Lenildo de; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-06-27

    To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. Descrever a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil e regiões, antes e após as correções por sub-registro de óbitos, redistribuição de causas mal definidas e causas inespecíficas. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos por câncer de pulmão da população de 30 a 69 anos, notificados ao Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre 1996 e 2011, corrigidos para sub-registro de óbitos, declaração de sexo e idade ignorados e causas com códigos mal definidos e inespecíficos segundo sexo, idade e região. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade para dados brutos e corrigidos. Realizou-se análise da tendência temporal da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão por meio do modelo de regressão com erros autorregressivos. O câncer de pulmão no Brasil apresentou taxas mais elevadas em homens que em mulheres e a região Sul foi a que apresentou maior risco de morte em 1996 e

  7. The effect of levamisole on mortality rate among patients with severe burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Hamid; Akbari, Hossein; Alinejad, Faranak; Saberi, Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Soltani, Majid; Taghavi, Shahrzad; Payandan, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Burn injuries are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world and burn patients have higher chances for infection due to their decreased immune resistance. Levamisole, as an immunomodulation agent, stimulates the immune response against infection. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Motahari Burn Center, Tehran, Iran. Patients who had second- or third-degree burn with involvement of more than 50% of total body surface area (TBSA) were studied. The levamisole group received levamisole tablet, 100 mg per day. Meantime, both the levamisole and control groups received the standard therapy of the Burn Center, based on a standard protocol. Then, the outcome of the patients was evaluated. Results: 237 patients entered the study. After excluding 42 patients with inhalation injury, electrical and chemical burns, and the patients who died in the first 72 h, 195 patients remained in the study, including 110 patients in the control group and 85 in the treatment group. The mean age of all patients (between 13 to 64 years) was 33.29 ± 11.39 years (Mean ± SD), and it was 33.86 ± 11.45 years in the control group and 32.57 ± 11.32 years in the treatment group. The mean percentage of TBSA burn was 64.50 ± 14.34 and 68.58 ± 14.55 for the levamisole and control groups, respectively, with the range of 50-100% and 50-95% TBSA. The mortality rate was 68 (61.8%) patients in the control group and 50 (58.8%) patients in the treatment group (P = 0.8). Conclusion: According to this study, there was no significant relationship between improvement of mortality and levamisole consumption. PMID:24381625

  8. Elevated Serum PCT in Septic Shock With Endotoxemia Is Associated With a Higher Mortality Rate.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Dominika; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of endotoxemia on the procalcitonin (PCT) serum levels and mortality rates of adult patients with septic shock diagnosed on the day of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).A retrospective observational study was performed over a 2-year period. Levels of PCT were compared for septic shock patients with and without endotoxemia on admission to the ICU. Endotoxemia was identified with an Endotoxin Activity Assay.One hundred fifty-seven patients with septic shock were enrolled into the study. Group 1 consisted of patients with elevated endotoxin activity (EA) (n = 95, EA = 0.57 endotoxin activity unit [EAU] [0.46-0.67]) and Group 2 consisted of patients with low EA (n = 62, EA = 0.27 EAU [0.17-0.36]). Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and SOFA score were similar in both groups (APACHE II = 23 [16-29] and 19 [16-25]; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] = 10 [7-13] and 11 [8-12] in Groups 1 and 2, respectively) (nonsignificant). The PCT level was 6 times higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (19.6 ng/mL vs. 3.1 ng/mL, P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between EA and serum PCT (P < 0.001, R = 0.5). The presence of endotoxemia on admission to the ICU was associated with an increased mortality rate: 52% in the group of patients with endotoxemia and 25% in the group without endotoxemia. EA in survivors was 0.39 EAU (0.26-0.57) and 0.53 EAU (0.4-0.61) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.004). The median PCT level in survivors was 6.7 ng/mL (2.3-28.0), compared with 16.7 ng/mL (5.3-31.0) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.04).This observational study revealed that endotoxemia in patients with septic shock on admission to the ICU was frequently found and was associated with an elevated PCT level and a high mortality rate. Endotoxemia was a common occurrence in patients with septic shock, regardless of the infecting microorganism.

  9. Short-term diabetes attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and mortality rates after myocardial infarction in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot Taboas; Fang, Jiao; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Llesuy, Suzana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on left ventricular dysfunction, morphometry, myocardial infarction area, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress profile, and mortality rate in rats that had undergone seven days of myocardial infarction. INTRODUCTION: Previous research has demonstrated that hyperglycemia may protect the heart against ischemic injury. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control-sham, diabetes-sham, myocardial infarction, and diabetes + myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was induced 14 days after diabetes induction. Ventricular function and morphometry, as well as oxidative stress and hemodynamic parameters, were evaluated after seven days of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The myocardial infarction area, which was similar in the infarcted groups at the initial evaluation, was reduced in the diabetes + myocardial infarction animals (23±3%) when compared with the myocardial infarction (42±7%, p<0.001) animals at the final evaluation. The ejection fraction (22%, p = 0.003), velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (30%, p = 0.001), and left ventricular isovolumetric relaxation time (26%, p = 0.002) were increased in the diabetes + myocardial infarction group compared with the myocardial infarction group. The diabetes-sham and diabetes + myocardial infarction groups displayed increased catalase concentrations compared to the control-sham and myocardial infarction groups (diabetes-sham: 32±3; diabetes + myocardial infarction: 35±0.7; control-sham: 12±2; myocardial infarction: 16±0.1 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein). The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were reduced in the diabetes-sham rats compared to the control-sham rats. These positive adaptations were reflected in a reduced mortality rate in the diabetes + myocardial infarction animals (18.5%) compared with the myocardial infarction animals (40.7%, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that short

  10. Groundwater manganese and infant mortality rate by county in North Carolina: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Andrew H; Spangler, John G

    2009-12-01

    Manganese is an element essential in trace quantities but toxic in high concentrations. As a naturally occurring element in groundwater and a chemical of increasing global significance due to its growing trend of replacing lead in gasoline, vigilant assessment of its detrimental effects is essential. In response to previous research that showed a potential link between manganese and well water, we performed a pilot ecological study using data obtained from the North Carolina Center for Health Statistics, the North Carolina Geological Survey, and the U.S. Census. Our pilot study investigated the relationship between logarithmically transformed county level groundwater manganese concentrations with county level infant mortality rates (reported as deaths/1,000) within the state of North Carolina (n = 100 counties; North Carolina 2000 population = 8,049,313) using stepwise, multiple regression. Our model accounted for such confounders as low birth weight, economic status, education, and ethnicity. Across North Carolina counties, for every log increase in groundwater manganese concentration, there was a 2.074 increase in county level infant deaths per 1,000 live births. This study is the first to show on a statewide basis adverse infant mortality effects of environmental manganese. These pilot data argue for further research into a broad range of developmental effects and also may be useful to regulatory agencies interested in protecting communities' health.

  11. Mortality rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with a FIGO score of ≥13.

    PubMed

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Riedl, Cécilia; Massardier, Jérôme; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; You, Benoit; Schott, Anne-Marie; Hajri, Touria; Golfier, François

    2016-03-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases include premalignant (partial and complete hydatidiform moles) and malignant entities referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Use of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics prognostic score is encouraged in cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia to predict the potential for the development of resistance to single-agent chemotherapy. An International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics score of ≥7 defines a high-risk patient and requires combination chemotherapy. Appropriate and rapid diagnosis, treatment by specialized centers, and reduction of early deaths at the time of chemotherapy initiation have led to significant improvements in survival for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. There is a crucial need for the early identification of high-risk patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who have an increased death risk to organize their treatment in highly specialized centers. The purpose of this study was to describe cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that have resulted in death, particularly in a subgroup with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics prognostic score of ≥13, for whom low-dose etoposide and cisplatin induction chemotherapy recently was shown to reduce early death rate. We identified 974 patients from the French Center for Trophoblastic Diseases who had a diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia from November 1999 to March 2014. Among 140 patients who were at high risk of resistance to single-agent chemotherapy (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics score, ≥7), 29 patients (21%) had a score of ≥13. Mortality rate was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The 5-year overall mortality rate, after the exclusion of placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, was 2% for patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (95% confidence interval, 1

  12. Mortality rates among employees potentially exposed to chrysotile asbestos at two automotive parts factories.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1989-07-15

    A study of the mortality rates among 1657 employees at two Ontario automotive parts factories that manufactured friction materials containing chrysotile asbestos was initiated in response to the workers' concerns about the effects of asbestos on their health. A total of 1194 men and 258 women had had their first potential exposure at least 10 years before the end of the study period; 563 of the men and 138 of the women had had such an exposure at least 20 years before the end of the study period. A significantly increased rate of death from laryngeal cancer and an elevated rate of death from lung cancer were observed in a cohort analysis. One or two deaths might have been due to pleural mesothelioma. There was no increase in the rate of death from gastrointestinal cancer or from nonmalignant respiratory disease. Case-control analysis showed no association between the risk of laryngeal or lung cancer and the total duration of employment (a surrogate for the extent of ambient exposure to asbestos or other workplace toxic substances) or employment in departments where asbestos had been used. An association between risk of death and occupational exposure is uncertain.

  13. Mortality rates among employees potentially exposed to chrysotile asbestos at two automotive parts factories.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1989-01-01

    A study of the mortality rates among 1657 employees at two Ontario automotive parts factories that manufactured friction materials containing chrysotile asbestos was initiated in response to the workers' concerns about the effects of asbestos on their health. A total of 1194 men and 258 women had had their first potential exposure at least 10 years before the end of the study period; 563 of the men and 138 of the women had had such an exposure at least 20 years before the end of the study period. A significantly increased rate of death from laryngeal cancer and an elevated rate of death from lung cancer were observed in a cohort analysis. One or two deaths might have been due to pleural mesothelioma. There was no increase in the rate of death from gastrointestinal cancer or from nonmalignant respiratory disease. Case-control analysis showed no association between the risk of laryngeal or lung cancer and the total duration of employment (a surrogate for the extent of ambient exposure to asbestos or other workplace toxic substances) or employment in departments where asbestos had been used. An association between risk of death and occupational exposure is uncertain. PMID:2545323

  14. Usefulness of the heart-rate variability complex for predicting cardiac mortality after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that decreased heart-rate variability (HRV) is related to the risk of death in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the conventional indices of HRV have poor predictive value for mortality. Our aim was to develop novel predictive models based on support vector machine (SVM) to study the integrated features of HRV for improving risk stratification after AMI. Methods A series of heart-rate dynamic parameters from 208 patients were analyzed after a mean follow-up time of 28 months. Patient electrocardiographic data were classified as either survivals or cardiac deaths. SVM models were established based on different combinations of heart-rate dynamic variables and compared to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. We tested the accuracy of predictors by assessing the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC). Results We evaluated a SVM algorithm that integrated various electrocardiographic features based on three models: (A) HRV complex; (B) 6 dimension vector; and (C) 8 dimension vector. Mean AUC of HRV complex was 0.8902, 0.8880 for 6 dimension vector and 0.8579 for 8 dimension vector, compared with 0.7424 for LVEF, 0.7932 for SDNN and 0.7399 for DC. Conclusions HRV complex yielded the largest AUC and is the best classifier for predicting cardiac death after AMI. PMID:24886422

  15. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010: results from the Euro-Peristat project

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina; Lack, Nicholas; Nijhuis, Jan; Haidinger, Gerald; Blondel, Béatrice; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D

    2016-01-01

    Background Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods Data about live births, stillbirths and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10% to 23%), with a range from 1% to 39% by country. Neonatal mortality declined by 29% (95% CI 23% to 35%) with a range from 9% to 67%. Preterm birth rates did not change: 0% (95% CI −3% to 3%). Mortality declines were of a similar magnitude at all GA; mortality levels in 2004 were not associated with RRs. Conclusions Stillbirths and neonatal deaths declined at all gestational ages in countries with both high and low levels of mortality in 2004. These results raise questions about how low-mortality countries achieve continued declines and highlight the importance of improving care across the GA spectrum. PMID:26719590

  16. On-admission blood pressure and pulse rate in trauma patients and their correlation with mortality: Cushing's phenomenon revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Prashant; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Roy, Nobhojit; Kumar, Vineet; Samudrala, Veda Dhruthy; Kamble, Jyoti; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Injury-induced alteration in initial physiological responses such as hypertension and heart rate (HR) has a significant effect on mortality. Research on such associations from our country-India is limited. The present study investigates the injury-induced early blood pressure (BP) and HR changes and their association with mortality. Materials and Methods: The data were selected from Towards Improved Trauma Care Outcomes collected from October 1, 2013, to July 24, 2014. Patients above 18 years of age with documented systolic BP (SBP) and HR were selected. BP was categorized into hypotension (SBP <90 mmHg), hypertension (SBP >140 mmHg), and normal (SBP 90–140 mmHg). HR was categorized into bradycardia (HR <60 beats/min [bpm]), tachycardia (HR >100 bpm), and normal (HR 60–100 bpm). These categories were compared with mortality. Results: A total of 10,200 patients were considered for the study. Mortality rate was 24%. Mortality among females was more than males. Patients with normal BP and HR had 20% of mortality. Mortality in patients with abnormal BP and HR findings was 36%. Mortality was higher among hypotension-bradycardia patients (80%) followed by hypertension-bradycardia patients (58%) and tachycardia hypotension patients (48%). Elderly patients were at higher risk of deaths with an overall mortality of 35% compared to 23% of adults. Conclusion: The study reports that initial combination of hypotension-bradycardia had higher mortality rate. Specific precautions in prehospital care should be given to trauma patients with these findings. Further prospective study in detail should be considered for exploring this abnormality. PMID:28382254

  17. Age adjusted nationwide trends in the incidence of all cause and ST elevation myocardial infarction associated cardiogenic shock based on gender and race in the United States.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammad Reza; Khan, Muhammad F; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvement in the care of patients with myocardial infarction should lead to better outcome. The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence of all cause cardiogenic shock (CS) and CS occurring in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the United States. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was utilized to calculate the age-adjusted incident rate of CS from 1996 to 2006 based on ICD-9 coding in the setting of STEMI. Furthermore, we evaluated this trend based on race and gender. A total population of 52,784,917 patients was available between 1996 and 2006. We found that the incidence of all cause CS has not changed over time. However, in the setting of STEMI, CS has been declining slowly over the last 10 years. The age-adjusted rate for CS was 4.3 per 100,000 in 1996 which remained steady with an incidence of 3.1 per 100.000 in 2006 (p<0.01). This decline was persistent across different race or gender. However, African Americans and female gender had persistently lower rate of CS. Advancement in the treatment of acute STEMI has led to gradual reduction in the incidence of STEMI related cardiogenic shock irrespective of ethnicities or gender suggesting improving outcome of patients presenting with STEMI in recent years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal

  19. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Oien, Cecilia M; Levey, Andrew S; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-29

    To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. 2,051,158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1,861,052), high risk cohorts (n=151,494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38,612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥ 50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (P(interaction)<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (P(interaction)<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal disease risk. Both sexes face increased risk of all

  20. Racial segregation, income inequality, and mortality in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2011-04-01

    Evidence of the association between income inequality and mortality has been mixed. Studies indicate that growing income inequalities reflect inequalities between, rather than within, racial groups. Racial segregation may play a role. We examine the role of racial segregation on the relationship between income inequality and mortality in a cross-section of US metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10% black (N = 107). Deaths for the time period 1991-1999 were used to calculate age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates for each metropolitan statistical area (MSA) using direct age-adjustment techniques. Multivariate least squares regression was used to examine associations for the total sample and for blacks and whites separately. Income inequality was associated with lower mortality rates among whites and higher mortality rates among blacks. There was a significant interaction between income inequality and racial segregation. A significant graded inverse income inequality/mortality association was found for MSAs with higher versus lower levels of black-white racial segregation. Effects were stronger among whites than among blacks. A positive income inequality/mortality association was found in MSAs with higher versus lower levels of Hispanic-white segregation. Uncertainty regarding the income inequality/mortality association found in previous studies may be related to the omission of important variables such as racial segregation that modify associations differently between groups. Research is needed to further elucidate the risk and protective effects of racial segregation across groups.

  1. Rates and correlates of mortality amongst heroin users: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Mills, Katherine L; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to determine mortality rates, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), and correlates of mortality amongst the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS) cohort of 615 heroin users over the period 2001-2009. The cohort was followed for a total of 4820.1 person years. A total of 31 deaths (5% of the cohort) occurred across follow-up. The mean age at death was 34.5 years, and 58% were male. The most common cause of death was overdose (68%). The crude mortality rate was 6.43 per 1000 person years, with no gender difference, and the SMR was 4.56 (males=2.95, females=18.57). The only significant bivariate (hazard ratio=3.69) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio=3.03) correlate of mortality was a history of opioid overdose prior to baseline. Mortality rates were lower than those seen outside Australasia. Screening for overdose by those treating heroin users would be appropriate, and may contribute to reductions in overall mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries.

    PubMed

    Brinda, Ethel Mary; Rajkumar, Anto P; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-03-09

    Gender inequality weakens maternal health and harms children through many direct and indirect pathways. Allied biological disadvantage and psychosocial adversities challenge the survival of children of both genders. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has recently developed a Gender Inequality Index to measure the multidimensional nature of gender inequality. The global impact of Gender Inequality Index on the child mortality rates remains uncertain. We employed an ecological study to investigate the association between child mortality rates and Gender Inequality Indices of 138 countries for which UNDP has published the Gender Inequality Index. Data on child mortality rates and on potential confounders, such as, per capita gross domestic product and immunization coverage, were obtained from the official World Health Organization and World Bank sources. We employed multivariate non-parametric robust regression models to study the relationship between these variables. Women in low and middle income countries (LMICs) suffer significantly more gender inequality (p < 0.001). Gender Inequality Index (GII) was positively associated with neonatal (β = 53.85; 95% CI 41.61-64.09), infant (β = 70.28; 95% CI 51.93-88.64) and under five mortality rates (β = 68.14; 95% CI 49.71-86.58), after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders (p < 0.001). We have documented statistically significant positive associations between GII and child mortality rates. Our results suggest that the initiatives to curtail child mortality rates should extend beyond medical interventions and should prioritize women's rights and autonomy. We discuss major pathways connecting gender inequality and child mortality. We present the socio-economic problems, which sustain higher gender inequality and child mortality in LMICs. We further discuss the potential solutions pertinent to LMICs. Dissipating gender barriers and focusing on social well-being of women may augment the survival of

  3. High mortality rates occur in copper deficient rats exposed to a normally nonlethal endotoxin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    DiSilvestro, R.; Joseph, E.; Yang, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Endotoxin hepatotoxicity is proposed to occur by processes which could be retarded by 3 copper enzymes: ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and extracellular (EC) SOD. Weanling rats fed low copper for 40 days showed low activity levels of these enzymes, and a very high mortality rate 20 h after endotoxin injection. No rats fed adequate copper died from this treatment. In addition, serum transaminase activities, indicators of liver damage, were elevated by 3 h to a greater extent in the deficient rats than in the adequates. The high susceptibility to endotoxemia in the deficient rats was not associated with low hepatic glutathione, high liver malondialedhyde, nor restricted metallothionein induction 3 h after endotoxin injection. Endotoxin reduced serum EC SOD activities in adequate and deficient rats, but final values were lower in the latter. Studies on roles of specific copper enzymes in resistance to endotoxemia are currently underway.

  4. Assessing mortality rates from dubious data--when to stop doing statistics and start doing mathematics.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Steve

    2005-08-01

    When trying to assess surgical outcomes at a particular centre, it is important to take account of case mix in terms of the types of operation performed. This is because those centres that undertake a disproportionately high number of complex operations might well be expected to have higher mortality rates than other centres whose case mix is more routine. From a statistical viewpoint, such case-mix adjustment is relatively straightforward if there are reliable risk estimates for different operation types. However this may not be the case and the risk estimates may have to be derived from several different sources which may not themselves be in agreement. Here, standard case-mix adjustment methods are no longer applicable and alternative analysis methods need to be used to make use of such unreliable risk estimates.

  5. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; de Boer, Anthonius; Hoes, Arno W; De Bruin, Marie L

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) generally do have an increased heart rate, the effects on both mortality and non-fatal pulmonary complications are unclear. We assessed whether heart rate is associated with all-cause mortality, and non-fatal pulmonary endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 405 elderly patients with COPD was performed. All patients underwent extensive investigations, including electrocardiography. Follow-up data on mortality were obtained by linking the cohort to the Dutch National Cause of Death Register and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59). The major causes of death were cardiovascular and respiratory. The relative risk of all-cause mortality increased with 21% for every 10 beats/minute increase in heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.21 [1.07-1.36], p = 0.002). The incidence of major non-fatal pulmonary events was 145/1000 py (120-168). The risk of a non-fatal pulmonary complication increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96-1.18], p = 0.208). Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients.

  6. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pflederer, Matthew C; Long, Carlin S; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P; Mehler, Philip S; Keniston, Angela; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-04-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population.

  7. Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery Independently Predicts Mortality Risk in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-Da; Dewland, Thomas A.; Wencker, Detlef; Katz, Stuart D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is an index of parasympathetic function associated with clinical outcomes in populations with and without documented coronary heart disease. Decreased parasympathetic activity is thought to be associated with disease progression in chronic heart failure (HF), but an independent association between post-exercise HRR and clinical outcomes among such patients has not been established. Methods and Results We measured HRR (calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and after 1 minute of recovery) in 202 HF subjects and recorded 17 mortality and 15 urgent transplantation outcome events over 624 days of follow-up. Reduced post-exercise HRR was independently associated with increased event risk after adjusting for other exercise-derived variables (peak oxygen uptake and VE/VCO2 slope), for the Heart Failure Survival Score (adjusted HR 1.09 for one beat/min reduction, 95% CI 1.05-1.13, p<0.0001) and the Seattle Heart Failure Model score (adjusted HR 1.08 for one beat/min reduction, 95% CI 1.05-1.12, p<0.0001). Subjects in the lowest risk tertile based on post-exercise HRR (≥30 beats/min) had low risk of events irrespective of the risk predicted by the survival scores. In a subgroup of 15 subjects, reduced post-exercise HRR was associated with increased serum markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 r=0.58, p=0.024, high sensitivity C-reactive protein r=0.66, p=0.007). Conclusions Post-exercise HRR predicts mortality risk in patients with HF and provides prognostic information independent of previously described survival models. Pathophysiologic links between autonomic function and inflammation may be mediators of this association. PMID:19944361

  8. Post-exercise heart rate recovery independently predicts mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Da; Dewland, Thomas A; Wencker, Detlef; Katz, Stuart D

    2009-12-01

    Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is an index of parasympathetic function associated with clinical outcomes in populations with and without documented coronary heart disease. Decreased parasympathetic activity is thought to be associated with disease progression in chronic heart failure (HF), but an independent association between post-exercise HRR and clinical outcomes among such patients has not been established. We measured HRR (calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and after 1 minute of recovery) in 202 HF subjects and recorded 17 mortality and 15 urgent transplantation outcome events over 624 days of follow-up. Reduced post-exercise HRR was independently associated with increased event risk after adjusting for other exercise-derived variables (peak oxygen uptake and change in minute ventilation per change in carbon dioxide production slope), for the Heart Failure Survival Score (adjusted HR 1.09 for 1 beat/min reduction, 95% CI 1.05-1.13, P < .0001), and the Seattle Heart Failure Model score (adjusted HR 1.08 for one beat/min reduction, 95% CI 1.05-1.12, P < .0001). Subjects in the lowest risk tertile based on post-exercise HRR (>or=30 beats/min) had low risk of events irrespective of the risk predicted by the survival scores. In a subgroup of 15 subjects, reduced post-exercise HRR was associated with increased serum markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, r = 0.58, P = .024; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, r = 0.66, P = .007). Post-exercise HRR predicts mortality risk in patients with HF and provides prognostic information independent of previously described survival models. Pathophysiologic links between autonomic function and inflammation may be mediators of this association.

  9. Level of dependence in patients on haemodialysis in Catalonia and evolution of mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Periz, Lola; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Cases-Amenós, Aleix

    2012-01-01

    Age and the comorbidities associated with ESRD impair the functional autonomy of patients on haemodialysis (HD). Our objectives were to assess the level of dependence in patients on HD and their mortality rates after three years of treatment. To do so, we followed the criteria established by the "Ley de Promoción de la Autonomía Personal y Atención a las Personas en situación de dependencia", the Spanish Law of Dependence (LD). We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study between October 2007 and January 2008. From 3702 patients in 40 dialysis units in Catalonia, 806 were selected as potential dependent individuals according to the criteria of their healthcare providers. Variables studied included: level of dependence according to the LD criteria, age, time on HD, associated pathology, treatment characteristics, family circumstances, and survival from 2009 to 2011. According to the LD, 137 were not dependent, 350 had a grade 1 dependence level, 237 grade 2, and 82 grade 3. In addition, 121 were living in an institution. The mean age was 74.9 ± 18.2 years and the median time on HD was 36 months. The prevalence of common pathologies was: diabetes (35.7%) and cardiovascular disease (29.1%). Musculoskeletal alterations (87%) and neurological disorders (38%) were the main causes of dependence. 64.2% of patients had a catheter as a vascular access. 34.9% of patients survived after three years, and these had a lower level of dependence when compared to those patients who had died, with no statistically significant differences within those three years. According to the LD, the prevalence of dependent patients in Catalonia is substantial (18.07%). These patients have a high mortality rate after three years.

  10. Is the United States Maternal Mortality Rate Increasing? Disentangling trends from measurement issues Short title: U.S. Maternal Mortality Trends

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background A pregnancy question was added to the U.S. standard death certificate in 2003 to improve ascertainment of maternal deaths. The delayed adoption of this question among states led to data incompatibilities, and impeded accurate trend analysis. Our objectives were to develop methods for trend analysis, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000–2014. Methods This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year-of-adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted, to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. Results The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington D.C. (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, while Texas had a sudden increase in 2011–2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Discussion Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington D.C. increased from 2000–2014, while the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year. PMID:27500333

  11. Trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe: retrospective analysis of the WHO mortality database

    PubMed Central

    Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Pizot, Cécile; Boniol, Magali; Malvezzi, Matteo; Boniol, Mathieu; Negri, Eva; Bota, Maria; Jenkins, Mark A; Bleiberg, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in colorectal cancer mortality in 34 European countries between 1970 and 2011. Design Retrospective trend analysis. Data source World Health Organization mortality database. Population Deaths from colorectal cancer between 1970 and 2011. Profound changes in screening and treatment efficiency took place after 1988; therefore, particular attention was paid to the evolution of colorectal cancer mortality in the subsequent period. Main outcomes measures Time trends in rates of colorectal cancer mortality, using joinpoint regression analysis. Rates were age adjusted using the standard European population. Results From 1989 to 2011, colorectal cancer mortality increased by a median of 6.0% for men and decreased by a median of 14.7% for women in the 34 European countries. Reductions in colorectal cancer mortality of more than 25% in men and 30% in women occurred in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, and Ireland. By contrast, mortality rates fell by less than 17% in the Netherlands and Sweden for both sexes. Over the same period, smaller or no declines occurred in most central European countries. Substantial mortality increases occurred in Croatia, the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, and Romania for both sexes and in most eastern European countries for men. In countries with decreasing mortality, reductions were more important for women of all ages and men younger than 65 years. In the 27 European Union member states, colorectal cancer mortality fell by 13.0% in men and 27.0% in women, compared with corresponding reductions of 39.8% and 38.8% in the United States. Conclusion Over the past 40 years, there has been considerable disparity in the level of colorectal cancer mortality between European countries, as well as between men and women and age categories. Countries with the largest reductions in colorectal cancer mortality are characterised by better accessibility to screening

  12. A web tool for age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Philip S; Check, David P; Anderson, William F

    2014-11-01

    Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly Web tool. Input data for the Web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates, period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift), and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The Web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats, including R and Excel. APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely available user-friendly Web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. The Web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. A Web Tool for Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Check, David P.; Anderson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. METHODS We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly web tool. RESULTS Input data for the web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates; period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift); and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value (csv) file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats including R and Excel. CONCLUSIONS APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely-available user-friendly web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. IMPACT The web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. PMID:25146089

  14. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Â Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 Â *Source: Table 1 of ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...

  15. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy. PMID:27730182

  16. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age-period-cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was -3.6% in men and -2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  17. Short-Term Effect of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality Rate in A Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies examined the short-term effects of air pollution on frequency of daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between exposure to levels of coarse particles (PM(2.5-10)) and daily mortality rate is relatively sparse due to limited availability of monitoring data and findings are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to determine whether an association exists between PM(2.5-10) levels and rate of daily mortality in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a large industrial city with a tropical climate. Daily mortality rate, air pollution parameters, and weather data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2008. The relative risk (RR) of daily mortality occurrence was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for (1) weather variables, (2) day of the week, (3) seasonality, and (4) long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model without adjustment for other pollutants, PM(2.5-10) exposure levels showed significant correlation with total mortality rate both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 14% (95% CI = 5-23%) and 12% (95% CI = 5-20%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM(2.5-10) exerted significant influence on total mortality frequency after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on warm days. On cool days, PM(2.5-10) induced significant elevation in total mortality rate when SO(2) or ozone (O(3)) was added in the regression model. There was no apparent indication of an association between PM(2.5-10) exposure and deaths attributed to respiratory and circulatory diseases. This study provided evidence of correlation between short-term exposure to PM(2.5-10) and increased risk of death for all causes.

  18. Statistical methodology for age-adjustment of the GH-2000 score detecting growth hormone misuse.

    PubMed

    Böhning, Dankmar; Böhning, Walailuck; Guha, Nishan; Cowan, David A; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2016-10-28

    The GH-2000 score has been developed as a powerful and unique technique for the detection of growth hormone misuse by sportsmen and women. The score depends upon the measurement of two growth hormone (GH) sensitive markers, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III collagen (P-III-NP). With the collection and establishment of an increasingly large database it has become apparent that the score shows a positive age effect in the male athlete population, which could potentially place older male athletes at a disadvantage. We have used results from residual analysis of the general linear model to show that the residual of the GH-2000 score when regressed on the mean-age centred age is an appropriate way to proceed to correct this bias. As six GH-2000 scores are possible depending on the assays used for determining IGF-I and P-III-NP, methodology had to be explored for including six different age effects into a unique residual. Meta-analytic techniques have been utilized to find a summary age effect. The age-adjusted GH-2000 score, a form of residual, has similar mean and variance as the original GH-2000 score and, hence, the developed decision limits show negligible change when compared to the decision limits based on the original score. We also show that any further scale-transformation will not change the adjusted score. Hence the suggested adjustment is optimal for the given data. The summary age effect is homogeneous across the six scores, and so the generic adjustment of the GH-2000 score formula is justified. A final revised GH-2000 score formula is provided which is independent of the age of the athlete under consideration.

  19. Occupational risks for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Germania A; Antao, Vinicius C; Wood, John M; Wassell, James T

    2008-01-01

    Metal and wood dust exposures have been identified as possible occupational risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analyzed mortality data using ICD-10 code J84.1--"Other interstitial pulmonary diseases with fibrosis," derived age-adjusted mortality rates for 1999-2003, and assessed occupational risks for 1999, by calculating proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and mortality odds ratios (MORs) using a matched case-control approach. We identified 84,010 IPF deaths, with an age-adjusted mortality rate of 75.7 deaths/million. Mortality rates were highest among males, whites, and those aged 85 and older. Three industry categories with potential occupational exposures recognized as risk factors for IPF were identified: "Wood buildings and mobile homes" (PMR = 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-11.6 and MOR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.2-23.8), "Metal mining" (PMR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.0 and MOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), and "Fabricated structural metal products" (PMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1 and MOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.1). Workers in these industry categories may benefit from toxicological studies and improved surveillance for this disease.

  20. POVERTY, INFANT MORTALITY, AND HOMICIDE RATES IN CROSS-NATIONAL PERPSECTIVE: ASSESSMENTS OF CRITERION AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY*

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Sutton, Gretchen M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which the infant mortality rate might be treated as a “proxy” for poverty in research on cross-national variation in homicide rates. We have assembled a pooled, cross-sectional time-series dataset for 16 advanced nations over the 1993–2000 period that includes standard measures of infant mortality and homicide and also contains information on two commonly used “income-based” poverty measures: a measure intended to reflect “absolute” deprivation and a measure intended to reflect “relative” deprivation. With these data, we are able to assess the criterion validity of the infant mortality rate with reference to the two income-based poverty measures. We are also able to estimate the effects of the various indicators of disadvantage on homicide rates in regression models, thereby assessing construct validity. The results reveal that the infant mortality rate is more strongly correlated with “relative poverty” than with “absolute poverty,” although much unexplained variance remains. In the regression models, the measure of infant mortality and the relative poverty measure yield significant positive effects on homicide rates, while the absolute poverty measure does not exhibit any significant effects. Our analyses suggest that it would be premature to dismiss relative deprivation in cross-national research on homicide, and that disadvantage is best conceptualized and measured as a multidimensional construct. PMID:21643432

  1. Decrease in mortality rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with statin use: a population-based analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Wataru; Kajiwara, Takashi; Ishii, Mototsugu; Fujiwara, Fumikado; Taneichi, Haruhito; Takebe, Noriko; Takahashi, Kazuma; Kaneko, Yoshihito; Segawa, Ikuo; Inoue, Hiroshi; Satoh, Jo

    2007-07-01

    It has been well established that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, reduce mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drug, may also affect mortality from various diseases by their pleiotropic effects of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. However, there are only few reports concerning the effects of statins on diseases other than cardiovascular diseases. We therefore designed a population-based analysis, using the data from marketing surveys on statin sales and government reports on mortalities. We compared the statin use as expressed by statin sales per capita in the aged (> or = 65-year-old) population with mortality from major causes of death among 47 prefectures in Japan. As expected, there were significant negative correlations between statin sales per capita and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (p < 0.05). In addition, we found that there was a correlation between statin sales and the decrease in mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p < 0.0001), senility (p < 0.01), pneumonia (p < 0.05), accidents (p < 0.05), or all death causes (p < 0.05). However, statin sales were not associated with mortalities from renal failure, liver diseases, suicide, and malignant diseases. These results suggest a broad spectrum of beneficial effects of statins, including reduction of mortality rate of COPD as well as cardiovascular diseases. It will be worthy to confirm the protective effect of statins on COPD by prospective randomized clinical trials.

  2. Do younger women fare worse? Sex differences in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization and early mortality rates over ten years.

    PubMed

    Izadnegahdar, Mona; Singer, Joel; Lee, May K; Gao, Min; Thompson, Christopher R; Kopec, Jacek; Humphries, Karin H

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has identified younger women as an "at-risk" population with rising prevalence of cardiac risk factors and excess mortality risk following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, population-based data on trends in AMI hospitalization and early mortality post AMI among younger adults is scarce. We, therefore, aimed to provide a 10-year, descriptive analysis of these trends in a Canadian setting. We assessed trends and sex differences in AMI hospitalization and 30-day mortality rates using negative binomial and logistic regression, respectively. From 2000 to 2009, there were 70,628 AMI hospitalizations in adults aged ≥20 years, in British Columbia, Canada, with 17.1% of cohort being younger adults ≤55 years. Overall, age-standardized AMI rates (per 100,000 population) declined similarly in men (295.8 to 247.7) and women (152.1 to 128.8) [sex-year interaction p=0.81]. However, these trends differed according to age (age-sex-year interaction p=0.02) with increased rates observed only in younger women (+1.7% per year; p=0.04). The 30-day mortality rates declined similarly for women (19.4% to 13.9%) and men (13.0% to 9.3%) (sex-year interaction p=0.33). Yet, younger women continued to have excess mortality risk, compared with younger men, even in the most recent period [odds ratio: (2008-09)=1.61 (95% onfidence interval: 1.25, 2.08)]. While the overall AMI hospitalization and 30-day mortality rates significantly declined in women and men, hospitalization rates in women ≤55 years increased and their excess risk of 30-day mortality persisted. These findings highlight the need to intensify strategies to reduce the incidence of AMI and improve outcomes after AMI in younger women.

  3. Variation in the mortality rate of turkeys during transport to the slaughterhouse with travel distance and month.

    PubMed

    Voslárová, Eva; Rubesová, Lenka; Vecerek, Vladimír; Pisteková, Vladimíra; Malena, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Failure to comply with animal welfare requirements during the transport of turkeys to the slaughterhouse increases stress in animals, which is manifested by increased mortality rate during transport. The numbers of turkeys that died during transport or soon after arrival may serve as an important parameter to indicate the level of animal welfare during transport of turkeys. The number of turkeys that died during transport to slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic in the period from 1997 to 2004 was investigated. The mortality rate found was 0.28% +/- 0.06% but varied with travel distance. The lowest mortality rate was found in case of travel distance below 50 km (0.18% +/- 0.08%) while long travel distances resulted in considerable increase in the mortality rates of turkeys (between 0.28% +/- 0.07 and 0.37% +/- 0.10%). The mortality rate of transported turkeys was also affected by the particular month of the year. Thus, the highest overall mortality rate occurred at long travel distances during winter months, i.e. in December (0.34% +/- 0.18%), January (0.32% +/- 0.06%), and February (0.36% +/- 0.07%). The comparison of individual years has shown a long-term trend towards a decrease in turkeys' mortality during transportation to slaughterhouses from 0.32% in 1998 to 0.20% in 2004. The decrease was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = -0.86, p < 0.01). This trend can be evaluated as positive.

  4. Socioeconomic instability and the availability of health resources: their effects on infant mortality rates in Macau from 1957-2006.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Ng, Wai I; Van, Iat Kio

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the effects of socioeconomic instability and the availability of health resources on infant mortality rate. In 1960, the infant mortality rate was 46.3 infants per 1000 live births in Macau but by 2006 it had declined to 2.7 infants per 1000 live births. A retrospective design collecting yearly data for the Macau covering the period from 1957-2006. The infant mortality rate was the dependent variable and demographics, socioeconomic status and health resources are three main explanatory variables to determine the mortality rate. Regression modelling. Results show that higher birth (Beta = 0.029, p = 0.004) and unemployment rates (Beta = -0.120, p = 0.036) and more public expenditure on health (Beta = -0.282, p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to reduce the infant mortality rate. These results indicate that the socioeconomically disadvantaged are at a significantly higher risk for infant mortality. In contrast, more public expenditure on health resources significantly reduces the risk for infant mortality. This study provides further international evidence that suggests that improving aspects of the healthcare system may be one way to compensate for the negative effects of social inequalities on health outcomes. The implication of these results is that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to healthcare services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a scarcity of medical resources. In addition, efforts should be made to expand and improve the coverage of prenatal and infant healthcare programmes to alleviate regional differences in the use of health care and improve the overall health status of infants in Macau.

  5. [Neonatal mortality in a regional perinatal hospital in Merida, Yucatan, 1995-2004 I. Analysis of the gross, specific rates].

    PubMed

    Osorno Covarrubias, Lorenzo; Acosta Mass, Arlene; Dávila Velásquez, Jorge; Rodríguez Chapuz, José; Escamilla Sosa, Manuel; Echeverría Eguiluz, Manuel

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the neonatal mortality and the specific neonatal mortality rates by groups of birthweight and gestacional age, at the Ignacio García Téllez National Medical Center which is a reference tertiary perinatal center of the Social Security Mexican Institute for the Yucatan Peninsula, along the period of 1995-2004. A cohort of 46,297 live newborns was studied with birtweight of 500 grams or more, that were discharged between January 1st 1995 and December 31st 2004. Birthweight, gestational age, length of hospitalization, condition at discharge were captured in a data base. Triennial analysis of mortality was done. The proportion of neonates with birthweight <2,500 g increased and 19% neonates <1,000 g 50%, the increment was 21% for preterm neonates, 46% for immature, and 40% for those extremely immature. The early neonatal mortality rate diminished from 7.0 to 6.9, the late mortality from 3.0 to 2.2, the neonatal from 10.0 to 9.2/1,000 live newborn, the survival increased 232% in neonates with birthweight between 500-749 g, 25% between 750-999 g, 5.8% between 1,000-1,249 g, 8.2% between 1,250-1,499 g. The neonatal mortality decreased 31.8% from the expected, because the adjusted neonatal mortality rate was 13.5 compared with the observed 9.2/1,000 live newborn. There was a significant increase of the survival with lesser birthweight and gestational age, although it was not reflected in the brut neonatal mortality rate because there was an increase of the risk population.

  6. Demonstrating the robustness of population surveillance data: implications of error rates on demographic and mortality estimates.

    PubMed

    Fottrell, Edward; Byass, Peter; Berhane, Yemane

    2008-03-25

    As in any measurement process, a certain amount of error may be expected in routine population surveillance operations such as those in demographic surveillance sites (DSSs). Vital events are likely to be missed and errors made no matter what method of data capture is used or what quality control procedures are in place. The extent to which random errors in large, longitudinal datasets affect overall health and demographic profiles has important implications for the role of DSSs as platforms for public health research and clinical trials. Such knowledge is also of particular importance if the outputs of DSSs are to be extrapolated and aggregated with realistic margins of error and validity. This study uses the first 10-year dataset from the Butajira Rural Health Project (BRHP) DSS, Ethiopia, covering approximately 336,000 person-years of data. Simple programmes were written to introduce random errors and omissions into new versions of the definitive 10-year Butajira dataset. Key parameters of sex, age, death, literacy and roof material (an indicator of poverty) were selected for the introduction of errors based on their obvious importance in demographic and health surveillance and their established significant associations with mortality. Defining the original 10-year dataset as the 'gold standard' for the purposes of this investigation, population, age and sex compositions and Poisson regression models of mortality rate ratios were compared between each of the intentionally erroneous datasets and the original 'gold standard' 10-year data. The composition of the Butajira population was well represented despite introducing random errors, and differences between population pyramids based on the derived datasets were subtle. Regression analyses of well-established mortality risk factors were largely unaffected even by relatively high levels of random errors in the data. The low sensitivity of parameter estimates and regression analyses to significant amounts of

  7. Diet and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stages in the nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last century we have seen wide-reaching changes in diet, nutritional status and life expectancy. The change in diet and physical activity patterns has become known as the nutrition transition. At any given time, a country or region within a country may be at different stages within this transition. This paper examines a range of nutrition-related indicators for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and attempts to develop a typical model of a country in transition. Methods Based on the availability of data, 40 countries in SSA were selected for analysis. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation, Demographic and Health Surveys and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) was used to explore the determinants of infant mortality. A six point score was developed to identify each country's stage in the nutrition transition. Results MLRA showed that underweight-for-age, protein and the percentage of exclusively breastfed infants were associated with the infant mortality rate (IMR). The majority of countries (n = 26) used in the analysis had nutrition transition scores of zero and one. Most of them had a high prevalence of infant mortality, children that were stunted or underweight-for-age, small percentages of women that were overweight and obese, and low intakes of energy, protein, and fat. Countries with the highest scores include South Africa, Ghana, Gabon, Cape Verde and Senegal which had relatively low IMRs, high levels of obesity/overweight, and low levels of underweight in women, as well as high intakes of energy and fat. These countries display classic signs of a population well established in the nutrition-related non-communicable disease phase of the nutrition transition. Conclusions Countries in SSA are clearly undergoing a nutrition transition. More than half of them are still in the early stage, while a few have reached a point where changes in dietary patterns

  8. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  9. Does limited access to NICU services account for higher neonatal mortality rates among blacks?

    PubMed

    Langkamp, D L; Foye, H R; Roghmann, K J

    1990-07-01

    During a 2-year period in the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, black infants were admitted to the NICU 2.6 times as often as white infants. The relative risk of NICU admission among black low birthweight infants was 9.2 times that of normal birthweight black infants. The relative risk of NICU admission among white low birthweight infants was 16.4 times that of normal birthweight white infants. Thus, higher rates of low birthweight among blacks did not account for the increased utilization of NICU services by blacks. Within the NICU, 30% of the deaths among black normal birthweight infants could be attributed to complications of asphyxia, persistent fetal circulation, or meconium aspiration. Only 14.3% of the deaths among white normal birthweight infants were attributed to these cause. Higher black neonatal mortality rates did not appear to be due to limited access to NICU services, but more normal birthweight black babies may have died of potentially preventable causes.

  10. Trends in Suicide Mortality Rates for Turkey from 1987 to 2011: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally in all age groups and it is still a significant social and public health problem. Data on suicide deaths in 1987-2011 were extracted from the Turkish Statistical Institute mortality dataset based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. The temporal trend in age-standardized suicide rates was tested for age, gender and methods using Joinpoint Regression Analysis. The average of age-standardized suicide rates of the period 1987-2011 were 3.08 per 100,000 people, 3.95 for male and 2.21 for female. Significant increases were observed in males in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed in females over the age of 45. The most common methods of suicide among people who live in Turkey were hanging, poisoning, firearms and jumping. High-risk groups could benefit from targeted strategies of suicide prevention. To understand the important influences on suicide risk in different age groups, future studies must investigate the experiences of older and younger individuals separately.

  11. Why do mortality rates for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding differ around the world? A systematic review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Jairath, Vipul; Martel, Myriam; Logan, Richard F A; Barkun, Alan N

    2012-08-01

    Discrepancies exist in reported mortality rates of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). To perform a systematic review assessing possible reasons for these disparate findings and to more reliably compare them. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies reporting mortality rates in NVUGIB involving adults and published in English. To ensure robust and contemporary estimates, studies spanning 1996 to January 2011 that included more than 1000 patients were selected. Eighteen of 3077 studies were selected. Ten studies used administrative databases and the remaining eight used registries. The mortality rates reported in these studies ranged from 1.1% in Japan to 11% in Denmark. There were variations in reported mortality rates among countries and also within countries. Reasons for these disparities included a spectrum of quality in reporting as well as heterogeneous definitions of case ascertainment, differing patient populations with regard to severity of presentation and associated comorbidities, varying durations of follow-up and different health care system-related practices. Wide differences in reported NVUGIB mortality rates are attributable to differences in adopted methodologies and populations studied. More uniform standards in reporting are needed; only then can true observed variations enable a better understanding of causes of death and pave the way to improved patient outcomes.

  12. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73–0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  13. Comparison of Mortality Disparities in Central Appalachian Coal- and Non-Coal-Mining Counties.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Shannon M; Meacham, Susan L; Balmert, Lauren C; Talbott, Evelyn O; Buchanich, Jeanine M

    2015-06-01

    Determine whether select cause of death mortality disparities in four Appalachian regions is associated with coal mining or other factors. We calculated direct age-adjusted mortality rates and associated 95% confidence intervals by sex and study group for each cause of death over 5-year time periods from 1960 to 2009 and compared mean demographic and socioeconomic values between study groups via two-sample t tests. Compared with non-coal-mining areas, we found higher rates of poverty in West Virginia and Virginia (VA) coal counties. All-cause mortality rates for males and females were higher in coal counties across all time periods. Virginia coal counties had statistically significant excesses for many causes of death. We found elevated mortality and poverty rates in coal-mining compared with non-coal-mining areas of West Virginia and VA. Future research should examine these findings in more detail at the individual level.

  14. Delayed Effects of Obese and Overweight Population Conditions on All-Cause Adult Mortality Rate in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Albert A.; Rubin, Rose M.; Okunade, Adeyinka K.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMIs) to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) rates to the all-cause deaths rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid) from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage) provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic, and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed) effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation) to slow premature mortality linked with unhealthy BMIs. PMID:27734013

  15. Mortality rates for Medicare beneficiaries admitted to critical access and non-critical access hospitals, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Joynt, Karen E; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2013-04-03

    Critical access hospitals (CAHs) provide inpatient care to Americans living in rural communities. These hospitals are at high risk of falling behind with respect to quality improvement, owing to their limited resources and vulnerable patient populations. How they have fared on patient outcomes during the past decade is unknown. To evaluate trends in mortality for patients receiving care at CAHs and compare these trends with those fo