Science.gov

Sample records for age-adjusted prevalence rates

  1. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  2. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  3. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  4. Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Psota, Marek; Pekarciková, Jarmila; O'Mullane, Monica; Rusnák, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.

  5. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  6. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes.

  7. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P < 0.001), and a 0.17% increase in age-adjusted diabetes prevalence percent (P < 0.001), while natural fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P < 0.001) and 0.33% (P < 0.001), respectively. These findings are adjusted for county-level and time-varying changes in per capita tap water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes. PMID:27740551

  8. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  9. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Rate* for Suicide,(†) by Sex - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1975-2015.

    PubMed

    2017-03-17

    There was an overall decline of 24% in the age-adjusted suicide rate from 1977 (13.7 per 100,000) to 2000 (10.4). The rate increased in most years from 2000 to 2015. The 2015  suicide rate (13.3) was 28% higher than in 2000. The rates for males and females  followed the overall pattern; however, the rate for males was approximately 3-5 times higher than the rate for females throughout the study period.

  10. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group.

  11. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-08-12

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase).

  12. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  13. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  14. An age adjustment of very young children of India, 1981 and reappraisal of fertility and mortality rates--A model approach.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, B K

    1986-01-01

    Several approaches were made by actuaries and demographers to correct and smooth the Indian age distribution with special emphasis on population in age group 0-4 at different points of time. The present analysis conceives the life table stationary population (using the West Model) as 'reference standard'. 2 parameters were estimated from a regression equation using the proportion of population in age groups 5-14 and 60-plus as independent variables and that in 0-4 as the dependent variable. The corrected census proportions in age group 0-4 obtained from the regression model under certain assumptions for the 14 major states and India seem to be consistent and to have slightly lower values than those of the 1971 adjusted data. Moreover, unadjusted and adjusted proportions in 5-14 and 60 plus do not show any significant difference between the predicted values. Using the corrected population aged 0-4 years, the average annual birth and death rates during the 5 year period preceeding the 1981 census have been estimated for those 14 states and India as well. The estimated birth rates so obtained were further adjusted using an appropriate factor from the West Model and Indian life table survival ratios. The final estimates seem to be consistent, except for a few, and to have slightly higher values than those of earlier estimates. As the present analysis is based on a 5% sample and confined to only 14 states, it is proposed to study the same for all the states and India in greater detail using full count data on age distribution and actul life tables as and when available.

  15. State-level Uterine Corpus Cancer Incidence Rates Corrected for Hysterectomy Prevalence, 2004-2008

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rebecca L.; Devesa, Susan S.; Cokkinides, Vilma; Ma, Jiemin; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background The interpretation of uterine cancer rates is hindered by the inclusion of women whose uterus has been surgically removed in the population at risk. Hysterectomy prevalence varies widely by state and race/ethnicity, exacerbating this issue. Methods We estimated hysterectomy-corrected, age-adjusted uterine corpus cancer incidence rates by race/ethnicity for 49 states and the District of Columbia during 2004-2008 using case counts obtained from population-based cancer registries; population data from the U.S. Census Bureau; and hysterectomy prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Corrected and uncorrected incidence rates were compared with regard to geographic and racial/ethnic disparity patterns and the association with obesity. Results Among non-Hispanic whites, uterine cancer incidence rates (per 100,000 woman-years) uncorrected for hysterectomy prevalence ranged from 17.1 in Louisiana to 32.1 in New Jersey, mirrored regional hysterectomy patterns, and were not correlated with obesity prevalence (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.06, two-sided p = 0.68). In comparison, hysterectomy-corrected rates were higher by 30% (District of Columbia) to more than 100% (Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Oklahoma), displayed no discernible geographic pattern, and were moderately associated with obesity (r = 0.37, two-sided p = 0.009). For most states, hysterectomy correction diminished or reversed the black/white deficit and accentuated the Hispanic/white deficit. Conclusion Failure to adjust uterine cancer incidence rates for hysterectomy prevalence distorts true geographic and racial patterns and substantially underestimates the disease burden, particularly for Southern states. Impact Correction for hysterectomy is necessary for the accurate evaluation of uterine cancer rates. PMID:23125334

  16. Age-adjusted mortality and its association to variations in urban conditions in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito; Fu, Jia; Nakamura, Keiko; Uji, Kazuyuki; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Masafumi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between health and urbanization in a megacity, Shanghai, by calculating the age-adjusted mortality ratio by ward-unit of Shanghai and by examining relationships between mortalities and urban indicators. Crude mortality rates and age-adjusted mortality ratios by ward-unit were calculated. Demographic, residential environment, healthcare, and socioeconomic indicators were formulated for each of the ward-units between 1995 and 1998. Correlation and Poisson regression analyses were performed to examine the association between urban indicators and mortalities. The crude mortality rate by ward-unit in 1997 varied from 6.3 to 9.4 deaths per 1000 population. The age-adjusted mortality ratio in 1997 by ward-units as reference to the average mortality of urban China varied from 57.8 to 113.3 within Shanghai. Age-adjusted mortalities were inversely related with indicators of a larger floor space of dwellings per population, a larger proportion of parks, gardens, and green areas to total land area; a greater number of health professionals per population; and a greater number of employees in retail business per population. Spacious living showed independent association to a higher standard of community health in Shanghai (P < 0.05). Consequences of health policy and the developments of urban infrastructural resources from the viewpoint of the Healthy Cities concept were discussed.

  17. Estimating the Prevalence and Awareness Rates of Hypertension in Africa: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Basquill, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of hypertension is high in Africa, and due to rapid population growth and ageing, the exact burden on the continent is still far from being known. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and awareness rates of hypertension in Africa based on the cut off “≥140/90 mm Hg”. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health. Search date was set from January 1980 to December 2013. We included population-based studies on hypertension, conducted among people aged ≥15 years and providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of hypertension in Africa. Overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in mixed, rural and urban settings in Africa were estimated from reported crude prevalence rates. A meta-regression epidemiological modelling, using United Nations population demographics for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2030, was applied to determine the prevalence rates and number of cases of hypertension in Africa separately for these four years. Results Our search returned 7680 publications, 92 of which met the selection criteria. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in Africa was 19.7% in 1990, 27.4% in 2000 and 30.8% in 2010, each with a pooled awareness rate (expressed as percentage of hypertensive cases) of 16.9%, 29.2% and 33.7%, respectively. From the modelling, over 54.6 million cases of hypertension were estimated in 1990, 92.3 million cases in 2000, 130.2 million cases in 2010, and a projected increase to 216.8 million cases of hypertension by 2030; each with an age-adjusted prevalence of 19.1% (13.9, 25.5), 24.3% (23.3, 31.6), 25.9% (23.5, 34.0), and 25.3% (24.3, 39.7), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest the prevalence of hypertension is increasing in Africa, and many hypertensive individuals are not aware of their condition. We hope this research will prompt appropriate policy response towards improving the awareness, control and overall management of hypertension in Africa. PMID:25090232

  18. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  19. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05) and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001). Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05), simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001) and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05) were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05) and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001) were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  20. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  1. Implementing personalized medicine with asymmetric information on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Juárez-Castelló, Carmelo A; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Although personalized medicine is becoming the new paradigm to manage some diseases, the economics of personalized medicine have only focused on assessing the efficiency of specific treatments, lacking a theoretical framework analyzing the interactions between pharmaceutical firms and healthcare systems leading to the implementation of personalized treatments. We model the interaction between the hospitals and the manufacturer of a new treatment as an adverse selection problem where the firm does not have perfect information on the prevalence across hospitals of the genetic characteristics of the patients making them eligible to receive a new treatment. As a result of the model, hospitals with high prevalence rates benefit from the information asymmetry only when the standard treatment is inefficient when applied to the patients eligible to receive the new treatment. Otherwise, information asymmetry has no value. Personalized medicine may be fully or partially implemented depending on the proportion of high prevalence hospitals.

  2. Lifetime Prevalence Rates of Sleep Paralysis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jacques P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis. Data Sources Keyword term searches using “sleep paralysis”, “isolated sleep paralysis”, or “parasomnia not otherwise specified” were conducted using MEDLINE (1950-present) and PsychINFO (1872-present). English and Spanish language abstracts were reviewed, as were reference lists of identified articles. Study Selection Thirty five studies that reported lifetime sleep paralysis rates and described both the assessment procedures and sample utilized were selected. Data Extraction Weighted percentages were calculated for each study and, when possible, for each reported subsample. Data Synthesis Aggregating across studies (total N = 36533), 7.6% of the general population, 28.3% of students, and 31.9% of psychiatric patients experienced at least one episode of sleep paralysis. Of the psychiatric patients with panic disorder, 34.6% reported lifetime sleep paralysis. Results also suggested that minorities experience lifetime sleep paralysis at higher rates than Caucasians. Conclusions Sleep paralysis is relatively common in the general population and more frequent in students and psychiatric patients. Given these prevalence rates, sleep paralysis should be assessed more regularly and uniformly in order to determine its impact on individual functioning and better articulate its relation to psychiatric and other medical conditions. PMID:21571556

  3. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Methods Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Results Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Conclusions Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Clinical significance Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace. PMID:24907896

  4. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  5. Explanatory Model to Describe School District Prevalence Rates for Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Data reports from South Carolina's 92 independent school districts during 1980-81 were used to calculate prevalence rates of mental retardation and learning disabilities. These prevalence rates were 41.66/1,000 children enrolled for mental retardation and 33.21/1,000 children enrolled for learning disabilities. Additional analysis showed that…

  6. National Prevalence Rates of Bully Victimization among Students with Disabilities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lund, Emily M.; Zhou, Qiong; Kwok, Oi-man; Benz, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence rates of bully victimization and risk for repeated victimization among students with disabilities using the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 longitudinal datasets. Results revealed that a prevalence rate ranging from 24.5% in elementary school to…

  7. Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe.

    PubMed

    Planzer, Simon; Gray, Heather M; Shaffer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and other interested stakeholders currently are seeking information about the comparative effectiveness of different regulatory approaches to minimising gambling-related harm. This study responds to this research gap by exploring associations between gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates. We gathered information about gambling policies for thirty European jurisdictions and past-year prevalence rates for disordered gambling for twelve of these jurisdictions. We present policy trends and prevalence rates and then describe the level of association between policy and prevalence. We observe one statistically significant association between policy and prevalence: rates of sub-clinical (i.e., Level 2) disordered gambling were higher within environments that mandated less strict regulation of advertising for online gambling. Finally, we discuss the implications of our research in the context of the current process regarding the pan-European regulation of gambling. Our findings do not offer evidence for certain assumptions made in the past by the European judiciary.

  8. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  9. Neighborhood Incarceration Rate and Asthma Prevalence in New York City: A Multilevel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Clemens S.; Subramanian, S. V.; Wang, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and asthma prevalence and morbidity among New York City adults. Methods. We used multilevel modeling techniques and data from the New York City Community Health Survey (2004) to analyze the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and asthma prevalence, adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, behavioral, and environmental characteristics. We examined interactions between neighborhood incarceration rate, respondent incarceration history, and race/ethnicity. Results. The mean neighborhood rate of incarceration was 5.4% (range = 2.1%–12.8%). Neighborhood incarceration rate was associated with individual-level asthma prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.10) in unadjusted models but not after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.04). This association did not differ according to respondent race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Among New York City adults, the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and asthma prevalence is explained by the sociodemographic composition of neighborhoods and disparities in asthma prevalence at the individual level. Public health practitioners should further engage with criminal justice professionals and correctional health care providers to target asthma outreach efforts toward both correctional facilities and neighborhoods with high rates of incarceration. PMID:23488496

  10. Luteinizing hormone--releasing hormone agonists: a quick reference for prevalence rates of potential adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lauren M; Tran, Susan; Robinson, John W

    2013-12-01

    Men with prostate cancer (PCa) frequently undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), typically in the form of a depot injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa). LHRHa are associated with many adverse effects (eg, hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, metabolic syndrome), which drastically impact patient quality of life. This literature review, which includes a comprehensive table documenting prevalence rates, provides a quick reference for health care professionals involved in the care of men undergoing ADT with LHRHa. Primary sources were acquired from PubMed using the search terms "androgen deprivation therapy" and each potentially adverse effect (eg, "androgen deprivation therapy and hot flashes"). Commonly cited review articles were also examined for citations of original studies containing prevalence rates. More than 270 articles were reviewed. In contrast to many existing reviews, rates are cited exclusively from original sources. The prevalence rates, obtained from original sources, suggest that more than half of documented adverse effects are experienced by as many as 40% or more of patients. A critique of the literature is also provided. Although there is a vast literature of both original and review articles on specific adverse effects of LHRHa, the quality of research on prevalence rates for some adverse effects is subpar. Many review articles contain inaccuracies and do not cite original sources. The table of prevalence rates will serve as a quick reference for health care providers when counseling patients and will aid in the development of evidence-based patient education materials.

  11. Capture-recapture-adjusted prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes are related to social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V; Bellis, M A

    1999-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and social deprivation in one urban district in Liverpool from October 1995 to September 1996 inclusive. This area has a stable Caucasian population of 176, 682. Lists were made of all known diabetics attending six different medical points of contact during the year, and were condensed and aggregated to eliminate duplicates. From postcode data, each patient was assigned to residence in one of the 14 electoral wards in the district, for which demographic structure and standardized measures of social deprivation were known (Townsend index). The crude period prevalences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes were estimated for each ward. Crude prevalence data were then corrected by applying capture-recapture (CR) techniques to the different patient datasets to allow for undercount. The crude period prevalence (95%CI) of diabetes was 1.5% (1.4-1.5%), or 2585/176, 682. The mean age of people with diabetes was not significantly different between electoral wards. The crude period prevalence of type 2 diabetes within individual wards ranged from 0.4% (0.3-0.6%) in the least deprived area to 4.1% (3.6-4.6%) in the most deprived area. The corresponding range of CR-adjusted period prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes was from 3.2% (2.8-3.6%) to 6.7% (6.1-7.4%), and there was strong correlation between both crude and CR-adjusted prevalence and social deprivation in each ward (r=0.76, p<0.001 for crude; and r=0. 49, p<0.005 for CR-adjusted prevalence). There was no correlation between the crude or CR-adjusted period prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes and Townsend index (r=0.14, p=NS). This strong correlation between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and social deprivation has important implications for the planning of health-care delivery.

  12. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  13. Consequences of high incarceration rate and high obesity prevalence on the prison system.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Meaghan A; Schulkin, Jay; Power, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Incarceration and obesity rates have both increased in the United States. An implication is that there will be more obese inmates, which likely will raise the prevalence of obesity-related diseases, affecting the cost and performance of correctional health care. Other issues include increased costs of transport, restraint, and housing. There is surprisingly little published information on inmate obesity prevalence. The few published research studies suggest obesity prevalence in prisons reflects that of their region. Cardiovascular-related prisoner deaths appear to be associated with state-level obesity, though other risk factors are likely involved. Weight gain while incarcerated is common, and the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. The data suggest that preventive care is not a priority in prisons. Evidence from Japan suggests restricted diets and enforced activity can improve inmate health.

  14. Relationship between entomological inoculation rate, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence rate, and incidence of malaria attack in rural Gabon.

    PubMed

    Elissa, N; Migot-Nabias, F; Luty, A; Renaut, A; Touré, F; Vaillant, M; Lawoko, M; Yangari, P; Mayombo, J; Lekoulou, F; Tshipamba, P; Moukagni, R; Millet, P; Deloron, P

    2003-03-01

    To assess the relationships between variations of Plasmodium falciparum transmission and those of peripheral parasitaemia prevalence or malaria attack incidence rates in regions with limited fluctuations of transmission, we conducted a follow-up in two Gabonese populations. Entomological surveys were carried out from May 1995 to April 1996 in Dienga, and from May 1998 to April 1999 in Benguia. In Dienga, malaria transmission was seasonal, being not detected during two 3-month periods. Mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 0.28 infective bite/person/night. In Benguia, malaria transmission was perennial with seasonal fluctuations, mean EIR being 0.76 infective bite/person/night. In Dienga, 301 schoolchildren were followed from October 1995 to March 1996. Clinical malaria attack was defined as fever associated with >5000 parasites/microl of blood. P. falciparum prevalence varied from 28 to 42%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 30 to 169 per thousand. In Benguia, the entire population (122 persons) was followed from November 1998 to April 1999. Prevalence varied from 22 to 50%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 52 to 179 per thousand. In each area, entomological variations were not related to parasite prevalence, but preceded malaria attack incidence with 1- or 2-month time lag, corresponding to the pre-patency period that differs in the two populations, possibly according to differences in immunity related to parasite transmission.

  15. Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Past, Current and Future Prevalence and Incidence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108

  16. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  17. Prevalence Rates of Depression, Anxiety, and Somatization among Rural Southwestern Native American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carolyn T.; Morris, Christopher; Crowley, Susan L.

    Internalizing symptoms, which include anxiety and depression, may be the most common pattern of psychopathology found in children. However, the knowledge base targeting internalizing symptomology in Native American children of the Southwest is surprisingly limited. This paper reports on a study of prevalence rates of internalizing disorders among…

  18. Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…

  19. One-Year Prevalence Rates of Major Depressive Disorder in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, E. Lisa; McLeod, Peter J.; Gleich, Stephen S.; Hand, Denise

    2006-01-01

    First-year university students may be more at risk for experiencing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) than the general population given associated risk factors of this age range. A two-phase procedure was used to estimate the one-year prevalence rate of MDD and comorbid Major Anxiety Disorders among first-year university students at a small Canadian…

  20. The prevalence, awareness and control rate of hypertension among elderly in northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Samad; Pourafkari, Leili; Tajlil, Arezou; Sahebihagh, Mohammad Hassan; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Nader, Nader D; Azizi Zeinalhajlou, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adequate treatment of hypertension is infrequent in older patients. Determining the prevalence of hypertension in older patients, identifying the pattern of the treatment in this age group and evaluating their awareness of the disease may help healthcare systems to devise appropriate programs for controlling the disease. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study included a sample from population of Tabriz, a large city in North-West of Iran, who were 60 years or older. Data collection and blood pressure measurements were conducted in the households of the participants from 1st June 2015 through 1st August 2015. Hypertension was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥150/90 mm Hg or receiving anti-hypertensive medications. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension, awareness of patients about their diagnosis and prevalence of treatment and adequately controlled blood pressure were determined. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 68.0%. Among hypertensive patients 81.8% were aware of their diagnosis, 78.0% were receiving antihypertensive medications. Among treated patients, 46.2% were adequately controlled. In univariate analysis, prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in women (74.0% vs. 60.7%, P < 0.001). Women were more likely to be aware of diagnosis and to receive antihypertensive medications; however, the prevalence of adequately controlled blood pressure was similar in treated men and women. Among included variables in logistic regression analysis, older age, lower number of family members in household, cardiac diseases, being on low salt low fat diet, higher Body mass index (BMI) and not being educated were independently associated with having hypertension. Conclusion: Hypertension is highly prevalent among older population of Tabriz. Despite high rate of treatment, the rates of control are relatively low, indicating a demand for prevention and better management of hypertension in older

  1. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed.

  2. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  3. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain among sport-poomsae-Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jae O

    2016-07-07

    BACKGROUNDː To estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport-poomsae-Taekwondo. METHODSː This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport-poomsae- Taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. RESULTSː A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. CONCLUSIONː The prevalence of COP is high among sport-poomsae-Taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport- poomsae-Taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  4. Prevalence and Incidence Rates of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Mejia-Arango, Silvia; Gutierrez, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in the Mexican population. Methods The MHAS study is a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico with 7,000 elders that represent 8 million subjects nationally. Using measurements of cognition and activities of daily living of dementia cases and CIND were identified at baseline and follow up. Overall incidence rates and specific rates for sex, age and education were calculated. Results Prevalence was 6.1% and 28.7% for dementia and CIND, respectively. Incidence rates were 27.3 per 1,000 person-years for dementia and 223 per 1,000 persons-year for CIND. Rates of dementia and CIND increased with advancing age and decreased with higher educational level; sex had a differential effect depending on the age strata. Hypertension, diabetes and depression were risk factors for dementia but not for CIND. Discussion These data provide estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment in the Mexican population for projection of future burden. PMID:21948770

  5. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  6. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  7. Current prevalence rate of latex allergy: Why it remains a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaozong; McIntosh, James; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to review the current prevalence rate of latex allergy among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and the general public, and to investigate why latex is still a ubiquitous occupational health hazard. Methods: Scientific publications on PubMed, particularly those published within the last five years, and current regulations from agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed. Consumer and commercial products that may contain latex were also surveyed. Results: Approximately 12 million tons of natural rubber latex is produced annually and is widely used to manufacture millions of consumer and commercial products. Only limited number of latex-derived products have been approved and regulated by government agencies, such as FDA, whereas the majority of finished products do not label whether they contain latex. Owing to millions of unidentifiable products containing latex and many routes for exposure to latex, preventing contact with latex allergens and reducing the prevalence of latex allergy are more difficult than expected. Reported data suggest that the average prevalence of latex allergy worldwide remains 9.7%, 7.2%, and 4.3% among healthcare workers, susceptible patients, and general population, respectively. Conclusions: Latex-derived products are ubiquitous, and latex allergy remains a highly prevalent health risk in many occupations and to the general population. Developing alternative materials and increasing the ability to identify and label latex-derived products will be practicable approaches to effectively control the health risks associated with latex. PMID:27010091

  8. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P < 0.001) and control (1.1 ± 1.0 s; P = 0.005) muscles. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the higher-threshold unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  9. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Mottram, C J; Heckman, C J; Powers, R K; Rymer, W Z; Suresh, N L

    2014-05-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P < 0.001) and control (1.1 ± 1.0 s; P = 0.005) muscles. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the higher-threshold unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing.

  10. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors☆

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-01-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries. PMID:24027422

  11. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-09-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries.

  12. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  13. Rates of Prevalent HIV Infection, Prevalent Diagnoses, and New Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Counties, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) increasingly represent the majority of people living with and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Local and federal surveillance programs estimate the number of persons living with an HIV diagnosis, persons living with HIV infection, and new diagnoses. Given the absence of population-based estimates of the number of MSM for US states, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), or counties, it is not possible to accurately estimate rates using these indicators at these levels, inhibiting the ability to understand HIV burden and to direct prevention efforts. Objective To synthesize recently published estimates of MSM population size with publicly available HIV surveillance data, in order to estimate the prevalence of HIV diagnosis and infection and the rate of new diagnoses, at the national, state, MSA, and county levels. Methods The number of MSM living with HIV infection in 2012 (prevalence), living with an HIV diagnosis in 2012 (diagnosed prevalence), and newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2013 (new diagnosis), at state, MSA, and county levels, were obtained from publicly available data from AIDSVu.org and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The estimated number of MSM living in every US county was calculated using recently published methodology that utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and American Community Survey. Estimated county-level MSM counts were aggregated to form MSA- and state-level totals. From this, we estimated HIV prevalence, diagnosed prevalence, and new diagnosis rates. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among MSM in the United States in 2012 was 15.0% (666,900/4,452,772), the diagnosed HIV prevalence in 2012 was 11.1% (493,453/4,452,772), and the new diagnosis rate for 2013 was 0.7 per 100 MSM. For diagnosed prevalence at the state level, 6 states had both <15,000 cases and diagnosed prevalence rates of ≥15

  14. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  15. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  16. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  17. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization recommends a target for the male circumcision prevalence rate of 80%. This rate will have a substantial impact on the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. The objective of the study was to assess whether an innovative intervention can lead to an increased voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) uptake among adults in a short time. This prospective observational study of a demand generation intervention was conducted in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa) in August to November 2015. In this community male circumcision prevalence rate among adults was stable between 2010 and 2015 at 55% and 57%, despite regular VMMC campaigns at community level and the presence of a VMMC clinic that offered free VMMC. The intervention took place in a random sample of 981 households where 522 men aged 18 to 49 years accepted to participate in the study. Among the 226 uncircumcised men, 212 accepted to be enrolled in the intervention study. A personal male circumcision adviser trained in interpersonal communication skills was assigned to each uncircumcised participant. The male circumcision advisers were trained to explain the risks and benefits of VMMC, and to discuss 24 possible reasons given by men for not being circumcised. Participants were then followed for 9 weeks. Each participant had a maximum of 3 motivational interviews at home. Participants who decided to be circumcised received financial compensation for their time equivalent to 2.5 days of work at the minimum South African salary rate. Among the 212 uncircumcised men enrolled in the intervention, 69.8% (148/212; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 63.4%–75.7%) agreed to be circumcised, which defines the uptake of the intervention. The male circumcision prevalence rate of the sample increased from 56.7% (296/522) to 81.4% (425/522; 77.9%–84.6%), P < 0.001, corresponding to a relative increase of 43.6% (95% CI

  18. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Sule; Akpolat, Tekin; Erdem, Yunus; Derici, Ulver; Arici, Mustafa; Sindel, Sukru; Karatan, Oktay; Turgan, Cetin; Hasanoglu, Enver; Caglar, Sali; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the current epidemiology of hypertension, including its prevalence, the awareness of the condition and its treatment and control, in Turkey to evaluate changes in these factors over the last 10 years by comparing the results with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study data (2003), as well as to assess parameters affecting awareness and the control of hypertension. Methods: The PatenT 2 study was conducted on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population (n = 5437) in 2012. Specifically trained staff performed the data collection. Hypertension was defined as mean SBP or DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, previously diagnosed disease or the use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were assessed by self-reporting, and control was defined as SBP/DBP less than 140/90 mmHg. Results: Although the prevalence of hypertension in the PatenT and PatenT 2 surveys was stable at approximately 30%, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates have improved in Turkey. Overall, 54.7% of hypertensive patients were aware of their diagnosis in 2012 compared with 40.7% in 2003. The hypertension treatment rate increased from 31.1% in 2003 to 47.4% in 2012, and the control rate in hypertensives increased from 8.1% in 2003 to 28.7% in 2012. The rate of hypertension control in treated patients improved between 2003 (20.7%) and 2012 (53.9%). Awareness of hypertension was positively associated with older age, being a woman, residing in an urban area, a history of parental hypertension, being a nonsmoker, admittance by a physician, presence of diabetes mellitus, and being obese or overweight; it was inversely associated with a higher amount of daily bread consumption. Factors associated with better control of hypertension were younger age, female sex, residing in an urban area, and higher education level in Turkey. Conclusion: Although some progress has been made in

  19. Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study.

    PubMed Central

    Arason, V. A.; Kristinsson, K. G.; Sigurdsson, J. A.; Stefánsdóttir, G.; Mölstad, S.; Gudmundsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of antimicrobial consumption with the carriage rate of penicillin resistant and multiresistant pneumococci in children. DESIGN: Cross sectional and analytical prevalence study. SETTING: Five different communities in Iceland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children aged under 7 years in relation to antibiotic use as determined by information from parents, patient's records, and total sales of antimicrobials from local pharmacies in four study areas. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial sales for children (6223 prescriptions) among the four areas for which data were available ranged from 9.6 to 23.2 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily (1.1 to 2.6 courses yearly per child). Children under 2 consumed twice as much as 2-6 year olds (20.5 v 10.9 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily). Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from 919 children, representing 15-38% of the peer population groups in the different areas. Pneumococci were carried by 484 (52.7%) of the children, 47 (9.7%) of the isolates being resistant to penicillin or multiresistant. By multivariate analysis age (< 2 years), area (highest antimicrobial consumption), and individual use of antimicrobials significantly influenced the odds of carrying penicillin resistant pneumococci. By univariate analysis, recent antimicrobial use (two to seven weeks) and use of co-trimoxazole were also significantly associated with carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use, with regard to both individual use and total antimicrobial consumption in the community, is strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children. Control measures to reduce the prevalence of penicillin resistant pneumococci should include reducing the use of antimicrobials in community health care. PMID:8761224

  20. Effect of rice cultivation on the prevalence and infection rates of Schistosoma intermediate host.

    PubMed

    el-Hawy, A M; Negm, I A; el-Alamy, M A; Agina, A A

    1993-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to explore the effect of rice cultivation on the prevalence, density and infection rates on the snail intermediate hosts of human schistosomiasis. A village was chosen and examine for the main water canal supplying the rice field by making three successive scoops at 10.20, 30, 40 and 50 meters up stream the site of the pump supplying the rice field. The same was done in the large irrigation canal supplying 50 feddans of rice up to 100 meters (i.e. 10 sampling sites). Also the drains in between the rice fields were examined at 10 meters distance throughout the drain. The hunted snails were sorted, the Biomphalaria alexanderina and Bulinus truncatus were separated, their age was determined then crushed to look for immature stages under the microscope. Also the vegetations coming in the scoops were examined. The results showed that rice cultivation and irrigation is a suitable site for the prevalence and intensity of snails. Both species of snails were found in the main canal, irrigation canal and drains. All Bulinus truncatus snails were free from infections. The number of infected Biomphalaria alexanderina snails was significantly higher in the irrigation canal and drains than main canal which may be attributed to pollution of the drain water and irrigation canal by micturition and defecation or to the use of water in ablution.

  1. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an elderly urban Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Han-Ik; Eun Kim, Jung; Woong Kim, Ki; Jung Kim, Yu; Lee, Keun-Wook; Hyun Kim, Jee; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-01

    Research on the epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MGUS in an elderly urban Korean population. A random sample of 1118 Korean elders was selected from residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea 1 year from August 2005. We obtained plasma samples remaining after scheduled tests for the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The mean age of the study population was 72 years (range, 65-97 years). To screen for MGUS, immunofixation and free light-chain (FLC) assays were performed. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted MGUS prevalence rates in 680 responders were estimated as 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.6%], and the estimated age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 4.3% in men (95% CI = 1.9-6.6%) and 2.6% in women (95% CI = 1.0-4.2%). Abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 10% of MGUS cases. Multivariate analysis of 945 participants revealed that significant risk factors for MGUS included advanced age, male sex, hyperproteinemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal FLC ratio. MGUS is less prevalent among elderly Koreans (3.3%) than other races. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of MGUS in the Korean elderly population. Our findings should be confirmed with additional studies analyzing follow-up samples from 2010.

  2. Mapping the serological prevalence rate of West Nile fever in equids, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bargaoui, R; Lecollinet, S; Lancelot, R

    2015-02-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Tunisia, two outbreaks of WNF occurred in humans in 1997 and 2003; sporadic cases were reported on several other years. Small-scale serological surveys revealed the presence of antibodies against WN virus (WNV) in equid sera. However, clinical cases were never reported in equids, although their population is abundant in Tunisia. This study was achieved to characterize the nationwide serological status of WNV in Tunisian equids. In total, 1189 sera were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies, using ELISA and microneutralization tests. The estimated overall seroprevalence rate was 28%, 95% confidence interval [22; 34]. The highest rates were observed (i) in the north-eastern governorates (Jendouba, 74%), (ii) on the eastern coast (Monastir, 64%) and (iii) in the lowlands of Chott El Jerid and Chott el Gharsa (Kebili, 58%; Tozeur, 52%). Environmental risk factors were assessed, including various indicators of wetlands, wild avifauna, night temperature and chlorophyllous activity (normalized difference vegetation index: NDVI). Multimodel inference showed that lower distance to ornithological sites and wetlands, lower night-time temperature, and higher NDVI in late spring and late fall were associated with higher serological prevalence rate. The model-predicted nationwide map of WNF seroprevalence rate in Tunisian equids highlighted different areas with high seroprevalence probability. These findings are discussed in the perspective of implementing a better WNF surveillance system in Tunisia. This system might rely on (i) a longitudinal survey of sentinel birds in high-risk areas and time periods for WNV transmission, (ii) investigations of bird die-offs and (iii) syndromic surveillance of equine meningoencephalitis.

  3. Using prevalence indices to aid interpretation and comparison of agreement ratings between two or more observers.

    PubMed

    Burn, Charlotte C; Weir, Alex A S

    2011-05-01

    Veterinary clinical and epidemiological investigations demand observer reliability. Kappa (κ) statistics are often used to adjust the observed percentage agreement according to that expected by chance. In highly homogenous populations, κ ratings can be poor, despite percentage agreements being high, because the probability of chance agreement is also high. Veterinary researchers are often unsure how to interpret these ambiguous results. It is suggested that prevalence indices (PIs), reflecting the homogeneity of the sample, should be reported alongside percentage agreements and κ values. Here, a published PI calculation is extended, permitting extrapolation to situations involving three or more observers. A process is proposed for classifying results into those that do and do not attain clinically useful ratings, and those tested on excessively homogenous populations and which are therefore inconclusive. Pre-selection of balanced populations, or adjustment of scoring thresholds, can help reduce population homogeneity. Reporting PIs in observer reliability studies in veterinary science and other disciplines enables reliability to be interpreted usefully and allows results to be compared between studies.

  4. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Haro, Josep Maria; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Chrepa, Vanessa; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2016-11-17

    Edentulism is associated with various adverse health outcomes but treatment options in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Data on its prevalence and its effect on mental health and overall-health is lacking, especially from LMICs. Self-reported data on complete edentulism obtained by standardized questionnaires on 201,953 adults aged ≥18 years from 50 countries which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Age and sex-standarized edentulism prevalence ranged from 0.1% (95% CI = 0.0-0.3) (Myanmar) to 14.5% (95% CI = 13.1-15.9) (Zimbabwe), and 2.1% (95% CI = 1.5-3.0) (Ghana) to 32.3% (95% CI = 29.0-35.8) (Brazil) in the younger and older age groups respectively. Edentulism was significantly associated with depression (OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.23-2.00) and poor self-rated health (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03-1.83) in the younger group with no significant associations in the older age group. Our findings highlight the edentulism-related health loss in younger persons from LMICs. The relative burden of edentulism is likely to grow as populations age and live longer. Given its life-long nature and common risk factors with other NCDs, edentulism surveillance and prevention should be an integral part of the global agenda of NCD control.

  5. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Haro, Josep Maria; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Chrepa, Vanessa; Kotsakis, Georgios A.

    2016-01-01

    Edentulism is associated with various adverse health outcomes but treatment options in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Data on its prevalence and its effect on mental health and overall-health is lacking, especially from LMICs. Self-reported data on complete edentulism obtained by standardized questionnaires on 201,953 adults aged ≥18 years from 50 countries which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002–2004 were analyzed. Age and sex-standarized edentulism prevalence ranged from 0.1% (95% CI = 0.0–0.3) (Myanmar) to 14.5% (95% CI = 13.1–15.9) (Zimbabwe), and 2.1% (95% CI = 1.5–3.0) (Ghana) to 32.3% (95% CI = 29.0–35.8) (Brazil) in the younger and older age groups respectively. Edentulism was significantly associated with depression (OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.23–2.00) and poor self-rated health (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03–1.83) in the younger group with no significant associations in the older age group. Our findings highlight the edentulism-related health loss in younger persons from LMICs. The relative burden of edentulism is likely to grow as populations age and live longer. Given its life-long nature and common risk factors with other NCDs, edentulism surveillance and prevention should be an integral part of the global agenda of NCD control. PMID:27853193

  6. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population.

  7. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.

  8. Prevalence rates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium among diarrheic patients in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Filipinas F; Buerano, Corazon C; Lago, Catherine B; Mapua, Cynthia A; de Guzman, Blanquita B; Seraspe, Ebonia B; Samentar, Lorena P; Endo, Takuro

    2008-11-01

    The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium among 3,456 diarrheic patients corrected from May 2004 to May 2005 in the Philippines was determined. Of 133 (3.8%) positive samples, 69 (2.0%) were positive for Giardia and 67 (1.9%) for Cryptosporidium. Three samples had co-infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Luzon had the highest positive samples (5.0%) followed by Mindanao (4.9%), then Visayas (2.2%). Giardia was most prevalent in Mindanao (3.6%) while Cryptosporidium was most prevalent in Luzon (3.1%). The prevalence of Giardia (2.0%) among pediatric patients (0-18 years) did not significantly differ from that (1.9%) among adults (> 18 years old). However, for Cryptosporidium, the prevalence (2.9%) among pediatric patients was significantly higher compared to that (0.2%) among adult patients. In the pediatric population, the highest percentage of patients with Giardia was the 5-9 year old age group, while that of Cryptosporidium was in the 0-4 year old group. The prevalence of Giardia, but not Cryptosporidium, was significantly higher in male than female adults. Seasonality had a distinct peak in September with Cryptosporidium more prevalent in the rainy (2.6%) than dry season (0.9%).

  9. Construction Industry Apprentices' Substance Use: A Survey of Prevalence Rates, Reasons for Use, and Regional and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence rates and reasons for substance use were studied in a sample of 172 male construction industry apprentices who had a mean age of 20 years. Results were compared with those of men in similar age groups in Victoria, and regional and age differences were explored. Findings indicate that more metropolitan apprentices had experimented with…

  10. How Variable Are Interstate Prevalence Rates of Learning Disabilities and Other Special Education Categories? A Longitudinal Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallahan, Daniel P.; Keller, Clayton E.; Martinez, Elizabeth A.; Byrd, E. Stephen; Gelman, Jennifer A.; Fan, Xitao

    2007-01-01

    This study compared interstate variability of prevalence rates for special education categories from 1984 to 1985 through 2001 to 2002, using the coefficient of variation (CV), which is designed to compare variances when the means of the groups compared are radically different. The category of learning disabilities, presumed by many to be the most…

  11. Prevalence rate for inherited thrombophilia in patients with chronic and recurrent venous leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewski, Adam; Bykowska, Ksenia; Bilski, Radoslaw; Jaśkowiak, Wojciech; Proniewski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence rate for inherited thrombophilia (IT) in patients with chronic (CVU) and recurrent venous leg ulceration. We also investigated and evaluated the severity of the clinical pattern of CVU in patients with and without IT. We examined 110 patients with CVU (the study group) and 110 healthy subjects (the control group). We prepared a questionnaire to be completed by each study participant. Ultrasound Doppler color imaging or/and duplex ultrasonography was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the venous system. The ankle-brachial index was calculated to determine the efficiency of the arterial system. We examined both groups for the presence of IT. IT was diagnosed in 30% of study group and in 1.8% of control group. Our diagnoses of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were based on medical interviews, physical examinations, and an ultrasonography of the venous system and concerned 64 study group patients (58.2%), 35 of whom (31.8%) experienced recurrent DVT. Proximal and/or distal DVT was determined in an interview and/or by an ultrasonography performed for all patients with CVU and IT. In 94% of these patients, DVT was recurrent, and in 88% of patients with CVU and IT, we observed recurrent DVT and CVU. It recurred more often and persisted longer when compared to patients with CVU and no IT, despite similar management. No differences were observed in ulcer size, localization, or pain level related to ulceration between patients with CVU and IT and those with CVU and no IT.

  12. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  13. Prevalence Rates and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Depression in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotlib, Ian H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined prevalence of depression in 360 women during pregnancy and after delivery. At both assessments, approximately 25 percent reported elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. Ten percent met diagnostic criteria for depression during pregnancy; 6.8 percent were depressed postpartum. One-half of postpartum depression cases were new onset.…

  14. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Iranian emigrants: review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Zahra; Majed, Masoud; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Sahraian, Mohamad Ali; Minagar, Alireza; Amini, Arman; McGee, Jeanine C; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    Iran has the highest prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Middle East and Asia. Rate of emigration has been significantly raised among Iranians and though, multiple studies have been published on prevalence of MS among Iranian emigrants. Here we systematically reviewed these publications. We performed a comprehensive literature search was performed on April 30, 2015 in data bases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar for the terms 'multiple sclerosis', 'incidence', 'prevalence', 'epidemiology', 'migration', 'emigrant', 'immigrant', 'Iran', 'Parsis' and 'Persian'. Study location, prevalence day or period, and age of at disease onset were recorded for all the included publications. Nine publications from Sweden, Canada, Norway, UK, and India were included. Only three reported age-adjusted prevalence and six reported age of disease onset. MS prevalence among Iranian emigrants varied from 21 per 100,000 people in Bombay, India in 1985 to 433 per 100,000 people in British Columbia, Canada in 2012. Five studies reported the prevalence in the region of interest, ranging from 1.33 in Bombay, India to 240 in British Columbia, Canada. Five studies also reported the prevalence of MS in the population of the destination country, and in all of them, the prevalence of MS was higher in Iranian immigrants compared to native people. Prevalence studies performed in Iran and also on Iranian emigrants indicate roles for both genetic and environmental factors in MS susceptibility. Data might indicate that living in a high-risk area increases the susceptibility to MS.

  15. Prevalence rates of health and welfare conditions in broiler chickens change with weather in a temperate climate

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Hajat, Shakoor

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact assessment and adaptation research in agriculture has focused primarily on crop production, with less known about the potential impacts on livestock. We investigated how the prevalence of health and welfare conditions in broiler (meat) chickens changes with weather (temperature, rainfall, air frost) in a temperate climate. Cases of 16 conditions were recorded at approved slaughterhouses in Great Britain. National prevalence rates and distribution mapping were based on data from more than 2.4 billion individuals, collected between January 2011 and December 2013. Analysis of temporal distribution and associations with national weather were based on monthly data from more than 6.8 billion individuals, collected between January 2003 and December 2013. Ascites, bruising/fractures, hepatitis and abnormal colour/fever were most common, at annual average rates of 29.95, 28.00, 23.76 and 22.29 per 10 000, respectively. Ascites and abnormal colour/fever demonstrated clear annual cycles, with higher rates in winter than in summer. Ascites prevalence correlated strongly with maximum temperature at 0 and −1 month lags. Abnormal colour/fever correlated strongly with temperature at 0 lag. Maximum temperatures of approximately 8°C and approximately 19°C marked the turning points of curve in a U-shaped relationship with mortality during transportation and lairage. Future climate change research on broilers should focus on preslaughter mortality. PMID:27703686

  16. Methods for estimating comparable prevalence rates of food insecurity experienced by adults in 147 countries and areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Mark; Cafiero, Carlo; Viviani, Sara

    2016-11-01

    Statistical methods based on item response theory are applied to experiential food insecurity survey data from 147 countries, areas, and territories to assess data quality and develop methods to estimate national prevalence rates of moderate and severe food insecurity at equal levels of severity across countries. Data were collected from nationally representative samples of 1,000 adults in each country. A Rasch-model-based scale was estimated for each country, and data were assessed for consistency with model assumptions. A global reference scale was calculated based on item parameters from all countries. Each country's scale was adjusted to the global standard, allowing for up to 3 of the 8 scale items to be considered unique in that country if their deviance from the global standard exceeded a set tolerance. With very few exceptions, data from all countries were sufficiently consistent with model assumptions to constitute reasonably reliable measures of food insecurity and were adjustable to the global standard with fair confidence. National prevalence rates of moderate-or-severe food insecurity assessed over a 12-month recall period ranged from 3 percent to 92 percent. The correlations of national prevalence rates with national income, health, and well-being indicators provide external validation of the food security measure.

  17. HIV testing rates, prevalence, and knowledge among outpatients in Durban, South Africa: Time trends over four years.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Ross, Douglas; Katz, Jeffrey N; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Losina, Elena; Walensky, Rochelle P; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2015-09-01

    The HIV public health messages in South Africa have increased. Our objective was to evaluate changes over time in HIV testing behaviour, prevalence and knowledge. We prospectively enrolled adults (≥18 years) prior to HIV testing at one urban and one peri-urban outpatient department in Durban, South Africa. A baseline questionnaire administered before testing included the number of prior HIV tests and four knowledge items. We used test results to estimate previously undiagnosed HIV prevalence among those tested. We assessed linear trends over enrollment. From November 2006 to August 2010, 5229 subjects enrolled and 4877 (93%) were HIV tested and had results available. Subjects reporting prior testing over time increased, from 13% in study year 1 to 42% in year 4 (linear trend p < 0.001). The HIV prevalence among those tested declined steadily and significantly over time, from 64% of enrollees in study year 1 to 39% in the final year (linear trend p < 0.001). The percentage of subjects who recognised that medicine can help people with HIV live longer increased from 80% in study year 1 to 96% in study year 4. Rates of HIV testing have increased and prevalence among those tested has decreased in outpatients in Durban, South Africa.

  18. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  19. The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates among Rural Population in Henan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotian; Wang, Ling; Wang, Panpan; Liu, Ruihua; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Fan, Jingjing; Yu, Songcheng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness (P = 0.089) and treatment (P = 0.257) in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM. PMID:28326333

  20. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

  1. Chapter 5: Actual and counterfactual smoking prevalence rates in the U.S. population via microsimulation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jihyoun; Meza, Rafael; Krapcho, Martin; Clarke, Lauren D; Byrne, Jeff; Levy, David T

    2012-07-01

    The smoking history generator (SHG) developed by the National Cancer Institute simulates individual life/smoking histories that serve as inputs for the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) lung cancer models. In this chapter, we review the SHG inputs, describe its outputs, and outline the methodology behind it. As an example, we use the SHG to simulate individual life histories for individuals born between 1890 and 1984 for each of the CISNET smoking scenarios and use those simulated histories to compute the corresponding smoking prevalence over the period 1975-2000.

  2. How does relaxing the algorithm for autism affect DSM-V prevalence rates?

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W

    2012-08-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Transmission rates, screening methods and costs of MRSA--a systematic literature review related to the prevalence in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tübbicke, A; Hübner, C; Kramer, A; Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S

    2012-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections represent a serious challenge for health care institutions, which is inherent in the combination of prevalence, transmission rates and costs. Furthermore, performing an MRSA screening requires information on the complex system of effectiveness, accuracy and costs of different screening methods. The purpose of this study was to give an overview of parameters with decisive significance for the burden of MRSA and the selection of a specific MRSA screening strategy. A systematic literature search for peer-reviewed health economic studies associated with MRSA was performed (from 1995 to the present). Eighty-seven different studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary outcomes included the prevalence of MRSA, MRSA transmission rates, performance characteristics of MRSA screening methods, costs for pre-emptive isolation precautions and costs per MRSA case. The prevalence rates reported for all inpatients (1.2-5.3 %) as well as for inpatients with risk factors or patients in risk areas (3.85-20.6 %) vary greatly. The range of cross-transmission rates per day reported for patients with MRSA in isolation is 0.00081-0.009 and for carriers not in isolation is 0.00137-0.140, respectively. For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 91.09 and 95.79 %, respectively. Culture methods show an average sensitivity of 89.01 % and an average specificity of 93.21 %. The turn-around time for PCR methods averages 15 h, while for the culture method, it can only be estimated as 48-72 h. This review filtered important parameters and cost drivers, and covered them with literature-based averages. These findings serve as an ideal evidence base for further health economic considerations of the cost-effectiveness of different MRSA screening methods.

  4. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

    2014-01-31

    Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a

  5. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in diabetic kidney disease and effect of thyroid hormone replacement on estimate glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sarita; Purwar, Naincy; Gupta, Arvind; Gupta, Poonam; Srivastava, Anubha

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and effect of thyroid hormone replacement on progression of DKD. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study on 41 adult DKD patients who were screened for hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid DKD patients were started on levothyroxine replacement and were reviewed after 3 and 6 months. Results: Of the total population, 14 (34.1%) cases were hypothyroid, among whom 12 (29.3%) cases were subclinical, and 2 (4.8%) were overt hypothyroidism. Prevalence of hypothyroidism and mean thyroid stimulating hormone levels increased with increasing severity of DKD. There were 2 (14.3%) hypothyroid cases in stage 3b, 4 (28.5%) cases in stage 4, and 8 (57.2%) in stage 5 DKD. The mean estimate glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) at baseline was 13.6 ± 13.3 which increased to 16.4 ± 14.5 and 21.2 ± 15.3 after 3 and 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT), respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with DKD. Prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with declining renal function. THRT significantly improved renal function in DKD patients with hypothyroidism after 3 and 6 months of therapy. PMID:27867882

  6. Trends in the Prevalence Rates and Numbers of Blind and Visually Impaired Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper draws on primary and secondary data sources to document an increasing number of visually handicapped children. The paper discusses socioeconomic trends, increased rates of handicapping conditions in general, increased number of legally blind schoolchildren, and evidence of an increase in retinopathy of prematurity. (JDD)

  7. Changing trends in sex specific prevalence rates for childhood asthma, eczema, and hay fever.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mustafa; Tagiyeva, Nara; Wassall, Heather J; Ninan, Titus K; Devenny, Anne M; McNeill, Geraldine; Helms, Peter J; Russell, George

    2007-01-01

    Numerous surveys of school-aged children have shown increasing asthma prevalence with a less publicized but noticeable change in the male to female ratio. We sought to confirm this change in the sex ratio in four questionnaire-based surveys and investigate possible explanations. Identical questionnaire surveys were performed in 1989 (n=3,390), 1994 (n=4,047), 1999 (n=3,540) and 2004 (n=1,920) in school-children aged 9-11 years. Over these 15 years the male to female ratio (M:F) significantly narrowed for wheeze (1.34 to 0.98:1 P < 0.0002), for asthma (1.74 to 1.02:1 P < 0.0001), for eczema (1.42:1 to 0.81:1 P < 0.0001) and for hay fever (1.46 to 0.93:1 P < 0.0001). The diagnosis of asthma in children with wheeze was more commonly made in boys in 1989 relative risk RR 1.32 (1.12, 1.56), even in those with accompanying eczema and/or hay fever RR 1.20 (0.99, 1.45). By 2004 this sex bias in diagnosis was no longer present, RR 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) for wheeze and 1.02 (0.85, 1.21) for those with wheeze and eczema and/or hay fever. From 1989 to 2004 no significant difference in sex distribution changes between older and younger children occurred, making secular trends in the onset of puberty in females an unlikely contributory factor. The disappearance of the bias to diagnose asthma in symptomatic males but not in females may be partly responsible for the narrowing of the sex ratio, but other factors such as those enhancing the expression of asthma and atopy in females may also be implicated.

  8. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  9. The original and simplified Wells rules and age-adjusted D-dimer testing to rule out pulmonary embolism: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Es, N; Kraaijpoel, N; Klok, F A; Huisman, M V; Den Exter, P L; Mos, I C M; Galipienzo, J; Büller, H R; Bossuyt, P M

    2017-04-01

    Essentials Evidence for the simplified Wells rule in ruling out acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is scarce. This was a post-hoc analysis on data from 6 studies comprising 7268 patients with suspected PE. The simplified Wells rule combined with age-adjusted D-dimer testing may safely rule out PE. Given its ease of use, the simplified Wells rule is to be preferred over the original Wells rule.

  10. Self-rated chronic conditions and 2-week prevalence in adults in Zhongshan, China: an epidemiological survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Sun, Xiaomin; Geng, Qingshan; Fu, Rong; Yang, Hongling; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between behavioural factors and the risk of chronic conditions and 2-week prevalence. Design This was a cross-sectional survey. Setting The study was conducted in Zhongshan, China. Participants A multistage clustering sampling method was used to select a representative sample of residents from the household registration system between July and September 2011. The overall sample replacement rate was 9.4%, and the final sample included 43 028 individuals. Outcome measures Chronic conditions and 2-week prevalence. Results 4979 (11.6%) of the participants reported having at least one chronic condition, 1067 (2.5%) had two or more concurrent chronic conditions, and 6830 (15.9%) reported having at least one disease in a 2-week recall period. The most common chronic condition was primary hypertension, which was reported by 6.8% of participants. Logistic regression models demonstrated that the main factors for having a chronic condition and 2-week prevalence were older age (≥65 years of age; OR 44.91, 95% CI 33.05 to 61.03; and OR 12.71, 95% CI 10.44 to 15.46, respectively), obesity (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.63 to 3.42; and OR 2.50, 95% CI 2.22 to 2.82, respectively) and being a former smoker (OR 3.02, 95% CI 2.54 to 3.58; and OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.74 to 3.82, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that older age, obesity and unhealthy behaviours are high-risk factors for poorer health status among the residents of Zhongshan, China. The present findings highlight the importance of recognising and managing harmful behaviours in order to improve health. PMID:26560055

  11. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  12. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease and effect of thyroxine replacement on estimated glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, S.; Purwar, N.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, P.; Srivastava, A.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced T3 and free T4, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone, and hyporesponsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone raise questions about the presence of hypothyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and raise the possibility of benefit from thyroxine supplementation. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 73 nondiabetic CKD cases. Hypothyroid patients were started on levothyroxine and were reviewed after 3 and 6 months. The mean age of study population was 42.3 ± 16.8 years. Of the total population, 32 (43.8%) cases had hypothyroidism, among whom 2 (2.7%) had overt hypothyroidism and 30 (41.1%) had subclinical hypothyroidism. Prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with increasing severity of CKD. There were 1 (3.1%) case with hypothyroidism in stage 3b, 8 (25%) cases in stage 4, and 23 (71.9%) cases in stage 5. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) at baseline was 13.7 ± 8.9 which increased to 17.5 ± 6.8 and 22.4 ± 9.3 after 3 and 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT), respectively (P < 0.001). Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with nondiabetic CKD and its prevalence increases with declining renal function. THRT significantly improves renal function in nondiabetic CKD with hypothyroidism. PMID:28356660

  13. Long term observation of MRSA prevalence in a German rehabilitation center: risk factors and variability of colonization rate

    PubMed Central

    Gieffers, Jens; Ahuja, André; Giemulla, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data on MRSA prevalence in rehabilitation centers are sparse. Methods: We screened more than 18,000 patients with neurological, cardiac/pulmonary or orthopedic diagnoses treated in three German rehabilitation centers and documented potential risk factors in almost 1,500 of them. Results: 2.1% were MRSA positive (CI 1.9%–2.4%). Prevalence was higher in neurologic patients (3.7%) and lower in orthopedic patients (0.9%). While the overall MRSA situation was stable over two years, the weekly MRSA rate fluctuated strongly (0.0% to 8.0%). We confirmed five risk factors in our study population. A risk adapted screening strategy derived from our data had a significance of 74% and a positive predictive value of only 2.2%. Conclusion: MRSA positivity is a rare and highly variable event, requiring a huge sample size to generate robust data. The benefit of a risk-adapted screening strategy over a general screening should be questioned in each individual setting. PMID:27777874

  14. Avoiding sedation in research MRI and spectroscopy in infants: our approach, success rate and prevalence of incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher; Jeffries, Suzan; Logan, Karen Mary; Chappell, Karyn E; Uthaya, Sabita N; Modi, Neena

    2013-05-01

    Performing magnetic resonance investigations in a paediatric population can be difficult; image acquisition is commonly complicated by movement artefact and non-compliance. Sedation is widely used for clinically indicated investigations, but there is controversy when used for research imaging. Over a 10-year period we have performed whole body MRI on over 450 infants and hepatic magnetic resonance spectroscopy on over 270 infants. These investigations have been accomplished without the use of sedation in infants up to 3 months of age. Our overall success rate in achieving good quality images free of movement artefact is 94%. The prevalence of incidental findings on whole body (excluding brain) MRI in our cohort was 0.8%. We conclude that the use of sedation for research MRI in this group is not necessary. Our approach to MRI in infancy is also described.

  15. Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Paulo Roberto L.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Thomas, Laine; Smith, Peter K.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. PMID:27556308

  16. Preliminary data on changes in neural tube defect prevalence rates after folic acid fortification in South America.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Nazer-Herrera, Julio

    2003-12-01

    Several South American countries are fortifying wheat flour with folic acid. However, only Chile started in 2000 to add 2.2 mg/kg, providing 360 microg daily per capita, an acceptable dosage for preventing the occurrence of some neural tube defect (NTD) cases. ECLAMC (Spanish acronym for the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) routinely monitoring birth defects in South America since 1976, surveyed the impact of this fortification. Data from 361,374 births occurred in 43 South American hospitals, distributed in five different countries, active throughout the 1999-2001 triennium, were selected from the ECLAMC network. Birth prevalence rates for three different congenital anomalies with similar expected prevalence rates, were surveyed by the Cumulative Sum Method (CUSUM) method. They were NTD, oral clefts (OC), and Down syndrome (DS). Expected values were derived from observations made in 1999, and CUSUM was applied to the consecutive series of 24 months covering years 2000 and 2001. Only one of three congenital anomaly types, NTDs, in only one of five sampled out countries, Chile, showed a significant decrease, of 31%, during the 2000-2001 biennium, corresponding to the birth of the periconceptionally fortified infants. The level of significance (P < 0.001) was reached in the 20th month after fortification started, corresponding to August 2001. This is the first observation of a significant decrease in the occurrence of NTD after folic acid food fortification in a population little influenced by confounders common in the developed world as pre-existing secular decreasing trends, and partially unregistered induced abortions.

  17. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Viegi, G. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson ); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. ); Di Pede, C. Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana ); Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

  18. Prevalence of poor self-rated health and associated risk factors among older adults in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de J; Cubides-Munévar, Ángela M; Curcio, Carmen L; Villegas, Juan de D; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) has beeen considered an important marker of quality of life and an independent predictor of mortality in older adults. Objective: To determine the prevalence of poor SRH and identify risk factors associated with poor SRH among older adults residing in the Commune 18 of the city of Cali, Colombia, in 2009. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study with a single-stage cluster sampling design. Sample included 314 persons aged 60 and older. The dependent variable, SRH was dichotomized into good (excellent, very good, good) and poor (fair, poor). Independent variables were sociodemographic, biological, mental, functional and geriatric syndromes. Logistic regression was used for multivariate statistical modeling. Results: Overall, 40.1% reported poor SRH (women 42.9%, men 35.0%). Factors independently associated with poor SRH were diabetes mellitus, depression, fear of falling and frailty syndrome (frail and pre-frail vs. non-frail). Widowed men reported poorer health than married men while other marital status (single/separated/divorced) was associated with better self-rated health in women. Conclusion: Potential modifiable factors such as depression and frailty syndrome are important determinants for poor SRH in Colombian older adults. PMID:24892239

  19. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls.

  20. Development and validation of a continuously age-adjusted measure of patient condition for hospitalized children using the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Michael J; Tepas, Joseph J; Nowalk, Andrew J; Levin, James E; Rimar, Joan M; Marchetti, Albert; Hsiao, Allen L

    2017-02-01

    Awareness of a patient's clinical status during hospitalization is a primary responsibility for hospital providers. One tool to assess status is the Rothman Index (RI), a validated measure of patient condition for adults, based on empirically derived relationships between 1-year post-discharge mortality and each of 26 clinical measurements available in the electronic medical record. However, such an approach cannot be used for pediatrics, where the relationships between risk and clinical variables are distinct functions of patient age, and sufficient 1-year mortality data for each age group simply do not exist. We report the development and validation of a new methodology to use adult mortality data to generate continuously age-adjusted acuity scores for pediatrics. Clinical data were extracted from EMRs at three pediatric hospitals covering 105,470 inpatient visits over a 3-year period. The RI input variable set was used as a starting point for the development of the pediatric Rothman Index (pRI). Age-dependence of continuous variables was determined by plotting mean values versus age. For variables determined to be age-dependent, polynomial functions of mean value and mean standard deviation versus age were constructed. Mean values and standard deviations for adult RI excess risk curves were separately estimated. Based on the "find the center of the channel" hypothesis, univariate pediatric risk was then computed by applying a z-score transform to adult mean and standard deviation values based on polynomial pediatric mean and standard deviation functions. Multivariate pediatric risk is estimated as the sum of univariate risk. Other age adjustments for categorical variables were also employed. Age-specific pediatric excess risk functions were compared to age-specific expert-derived functions and to in-hospital mortality. AUC for 24-h mortality and pRI scores prior to unplanned ICU transfers were computed. Age-adjusted risk functions correlated well with similar

  1. Is the prevalence of coronary heart disease falling in British men?

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, F; Morris, R; Whincup, P; Walker, M; Ebrahim, S; Shaper, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess whether long term trends over time in acute coronary heart disease (CHD) event rates have influenced the burden of prevalent CHD in British men.
DESIGN—Longitudinal cohort study.
PARTICIPANTS—7735 men, aged 40-59 at entry (1978-80), selected from 24 British towns.
METHODS—The prevalences of current angina symptoms and history of diagnosed CHD were ascertained by questionnaire in 1978-80, 1983-85, 1992, and 1996. New major CHD events (fatal and non-fatal) were ascertained throughout the study from National Health Service central registers and general practice record reviews. Age adjusted trends in CHD prevalence were compared with trends in major CHD event rates.
RESULTS—From 1978-1996 there was a clear decline in the prevalence of current angina symptoms: the age adjusted annual percentage change in odds was -1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8% to -0.8%). However, there was no evidence of a trend in the prevalence of history of diagnosed CHD (annual change in odds 0.1%, 95% CI -1.0% to 1.2%). Over the same period, the CHD mortality rate fell substantially (annual change -4.1%, 95% CI -6.5% to -1.6%); rates of non-fatal myocardial infarction, all major CHD events, and first major CHD event fell by -1.7% (95% CI -3.9% to 0.5%), -2.5% (95% CI -4.1% to -0.8%), and -2.4% (95% CI% -4.3 to -0.4%), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that middle aged British men are less likely to experience symptoms of angina than in previous decades but are just as likely to have a history of diagnosed CHD. Despite falling rates of new major events and falling symptom prevalence, the need for secondary prevention among middle aged men with established CHD is as great as ever.


Keywords: coronary heart disease; angina; prevalence; trends PMID:11602539

  2. A Meta-Analysis of the Global Prevalence Rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Contamination of Different Raw Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qianting; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Bai, Chan; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jialing; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-03-30

    Previous research has indicated that raw meats are frequently contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus , but data regarding the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) contamination in different types of raw meat products (beef, chicken, and pork) and across different periods, regions, and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, and HighWire databases to identify studies published up to June 2016. The STROBE guidelines were used to assess the quality of the 39 studies included in this meta-analysis. We observed no significant differences in the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA contamination identified in various raw meat products, with overall pooled prevalence rates of 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.8 to 35.9%) and 3.2% (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.9%) identified for the two contaminants, respectively. In the subgroup analyses, the prevalence of S. aureus contamination in chicken products was highest in Asian studies and significantly decreased over time worldwide. In European studies, the prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in chicken and pork products were lower than those reported on other continents. The pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in chicken and pork products and MRSA contamination in beef and pork products were significantly higher in samples collected from retail sources than in samples collected from slaughterhouses and processing plants. These results highlight the need for good hygiene during transportation to and manipulation at retail outlets to reduce the risk of transmission of S. aureus and MRSA from meat products to humans.

  3. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Barengo, Noël C.; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20–79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system. PMID:26494999

  4. Effect of agricultural activities on prevalence rates, and clinical and presumptive malaria episodes in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Koudou, Benjamin G; Tano, Yao; Keiser, Jennifer; Vounatsou, Penelope; Girardin, Olivier; Klero, Kouassi; Koné, Mamadou; N'goran, Eliézer K; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural activities, among other factors, can influence the transmission of malaria. In two villages of central Côte d'Ivoire (Tiémélékro and Zatta) with distinctively different agro-ecological characteristics, we assessed Plasmodium prevalence rates, fever and clinically confirmed malaria episodes among children aged 15 years and below by means of repeated cross-sectional surveys. Additionally, presumptive malaria cases were monitored in dispensaries for a 4-year period. In Tiémélékro, we observed a decrease in malaria prevalence rates from 2002 to 2005, which might be partially explained by changes in agricultural activities from subsistence farming to cash crop production. In Zatta, where an irrigated rice perimeter is located in close proximity to human habitations, malaria prevalence rates in 2003 were significantly lower than in 2002 and 2005, which coincided with the interruption of irrigated rice farming in 2003/2004. Although malaria transmission differed by an order of magnitude in the two villages in 2003, there was no statistically significant difference between the proportions of severe malaria episodes (i.e. axillary temperature>37.5 degrees C plus parasitaemia>5000 parasites/microl blood). Our study underscores the complex relationship between malaria transmission, prevalence rate and the dynamics of malaria episodes. A better understanding of local contextual determinants, including the effect of agricultural activities, will help to improve the local epidemiology and control of malaria.

  5. Prevalence of bovine subclinical endometritis 4h after insemination and its effects on first service conception rate.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, T B; Drillich, M; Tenhagen, B-A; Forderung, D; Heuwieser, W

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of subclinical endometritis 4h after AI and its effect on first service conception rate (FSCR) in dairy cows. A total of 201 Holstein-Friesian cows with no signs of clinical endometritis were examined 4h after first AI for signs of subclinical endometritis. Endometrial samples were collected from the uterus using the cytobrush technique. The proportion of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) in the cytological sample was used to characterize an inflammation of the endometrium. Cows were categorized into three groups according to the proportion of PMN in the sample. Cows with 0% PMN (n=115) were assigned to group Zero, cows with >0-15% PMN (n=59) to group Medium, and cows with >15% PMN (n=27) to group High. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed between days 38-44 after AI by palpation of the uterus and its contents per rectum. The FSCR was significantly higher in group Medium than in groups Zero and High (57.6% vs. 39.1% and 29.6%). Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between parity and PMN group. Primiparous cows were at higher risk of being classified into group Medium than multiparous cows (OR=2.27, P=0.01). Primiparous cows in group Zero had lower odds of pregnancy after first AI than primiparous cows in group Medium (OR=0.3, P=0.02). A comparison with cows that were not examined for subclinical endometritis showed that the collection of endometrial samples itself had no effect on FSCR.

  6. Substance Use and Other Mental Health Disorders Among Veterans Returning to the Inner City: Prevalence, Correlates, and Rates of Unmet Treatment Need

    PubMed Central

    Vazan, Peter; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of substance use and other mental health disorders of veterans (N = 269) who returned to predominantly low-income minority New York City neighborhoods between 2009 and 2012 are presented. Although prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and depression clustered around 20%, the estimated prevalence rates of alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and substance use disorder were 28%, 18%, and 32%, respectively. Only about 40% of veterans with any diagnosed disorder received some form of treatment. For alcohol use disorder, the estimate of unmet treatment need was 84%, which is particularly worrisome given that excessive alcohol use was the greatest substance use problem. PMID:23869460

  7. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2008–2012 The graph above shows age-adjusted incidence rates for HPV- ... were diagnosed with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. This graph was adapted from Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson ...

  8. Population Reference Values and Prevalence Rates following Universal Screening for Subclinical Hypothyroidism during Pregnancy of an Afro-Caribbean Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nadine; Chatrani, Vikash; Taylor-Christmas, Anna-Kay; Choo-Kang, Eric; Smikle, Monica; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie; Phillips, Karen; Reid, Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, however universal screening and treatment is controversial. Objectives Our objectives were to determine population-specific pregnancy reference values (R1) for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) at 14 weeks' gestation, along with the prevalence of SCH and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb). Methods This was a prospective hospital-based cohort study. 1,402 subjects were recruited. Blood samples were obtained from 769 singleton pregnancies due to default between recruitment and scheduled blood draw. The prevalence of SCH was determined using R1, the laboratory non-pregnant reference values (R2) and previously recommended pregnancy reference values (R3). Results R1 for TSH and FT4 was 0.03-3.17 mU/l (mean ± SD, 1.1 ± 0.76) and 8.85-17.02 pmol/l (mean ± SD, 11.96 ± 2.06), respectively. The prevalence of SCH using reference values R1, R2 and R3 was 1.4% (11/769), 0.5% (4/769) and 1.9% (15/769). Prevalence was significantly greater using R3 when compared to R2 (p = 0.011). TPOAb prevalence was 2.6%. A significantly greater prevalence of TPOAb was found in subclinical hypothyroid subjects using all three reference values than in euthyroid subjects (∼25 vs. 2%, p < 0.05). Conclusions These reference values are the first to be reported for an Afro-Caribbean population. Our findings support the use of pregnancy-specific reference values in our population. PMID:25759799

  9. Reduced rates of hospital-acquired UTI in medical patients. Prevalence surveys indicate effect of active infection control programmes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, M; Jepsen, O B

    2001-01-01

    Prevalence surveys have been part of the Danish infection control programme since 1974. Nationwide surveys were carried out in 1978, 1979, 1980, 1991 and 1999. The results indicate a net reduction of approximately 25%, mainly due to a reduction of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in medical patients. Results from the nationwide surveys are validated by results of occasional independent surveys performed in regions or single hospitals. The reduction coincides with preventive programmes focused on catheter policy and UTI. We conclude that the prevalence survey is an important part of our strategic programme for infection control in hospitals.

  10. Long-term follow-up of tandem high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell support for adults with high-risk age-adjusted international prognostic index aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: a GOELAMS pilot study.

    PubMed

    Monjanel, Hélène; Deconinck, Eric; Perrodeau, Elodie; Gastinne, Thomas; Delwail, Vincent; Moreau, Anne; François, Sylvie; Berthou, Christian; Gyan, Emmanuel; Milpied, Noël

    2011-06-01

    Single high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) support improves complete response and overall survival (OS) in untreated aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, patients with a high age-adjusted international prognostic index (aa-IPI equal to 3) still have poor clinical outcome despite high dose intensity regimen. To improve complete response in this subgroup, the French Groupe Ouest-Est des Leucémies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) conducted a pilot phase II trial (073) evaluating tandem HDT with PBSC support in a series of 45 patients with aa-IPI equal to 3 untreated aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. After induction with an anthracyclin-containing regimen, responders underwent tandem HDT conditioned by high-dose mitoxantrone plus cytarabine for the first HDT and total-body irradiation (TBI), carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide for the second HDT. Thirty-one patients out of 41 evaluable patients completed the program. There were 4 toxic deaths. The complete response rate was 49%. With a median follow-up of 114 months for surviving patients, the OS was 51%, and 19 out of the 22 patients (86%) who reached a complete response are alive and relapse-free. Recent prospective evaluation of quality of life and comorbidities of surviving patients does not reveal long-term toxicities of the procedure. In the era of monoclonal antibodies and response-adapted therapy, the role of tandem HDT still need to be determined.

  11. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Yit-Sheung; Chuang, Kai-Wen; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC). Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n > 30) in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence. PMID:26605329

  12. Large-scale survey of rates of achieving targets for blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids and prevalence of complications in type 2 diabetes (JDDM 40)

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hiroki; Oishi, Mariko; Takamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Katsuya; Shirabe, Shin-ichiro; Uchida, Daigaku; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Kurihara, Yoshio; Araki, Shin-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The fact that population with type 2 diabetes mellitus and bodyweight of patients are increasing but diabetes care is improving makes it important to explore the up-to-date rates of achieving treatment targets and prevalence of complications. We investigated the prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications and rates of achieving treatment targets through a large-scale multicenter-based cohort. Research design and methods A cross-sectional nationwide survey was performed on 9956 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who consecutively attended primary care clinics. The prevalence of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications and rates of achieving targets of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, and lipids of low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.1/≥1.0 mmol/L and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <3.8 mmol/L were investigated. Results The rates of achieving targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids were 52.9%, 46.8% and 65.5%, respectively. The prevalence of microvascular complications was ∼28% each, 6.4% of which had all microvascular complications, while that of macrovascular complications was 12.6%. With an increasing duration of diabetes, the rate of achieving target HbA1c decreased and the prevalence of each complication increased despite increased use of diabetes medication. The prevalence of each complication decreased according to the number achieving the 3 treatment targets and was lower in subjects without macrovascular complications than those with. Adjustments for considerable covariates exhibited that each complication was closely inter-related, and the achievement of each target was significantly associated with being free of each complication. Conclusions Almost half of the subjects examined did not meet the recommended targets. The risk of each complication was significantly affected by 1 on-target treatment (inversely) and the

  13. Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence among American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in the Southwestern United States and in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Lanier, Anne P.; Slattery, Martha L.; Schraer, Cynthia D.; Raymer, Terry W.; Dillard, Denise; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome occurs commonly in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among American Indian and Alaska Native people. Methods We measured the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, among four groups of American Indian and Alaska Native people aged 20 years and older. One group was from the southwestern United States (Navajo Nation), and three groups resided within Alaska. Prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. adult 2000 population and compared to rates for U.S. whites (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 1988–1994). Results Among participants from the southwestern United States, metabolic syndrome was found among 43.2% of men and 47.3% of women. Among Alaska Native people, metabolic syndrome was found among 26.5% of men and 31.2% of women. In Alaska, the prevalence rate varied by region, ranging among men from 18.9% (western Alaska) to 35.1% (southeast), and among women from 22.0% (western Alaska) to 38.4 % (southeast). Compared to U.S. whites, American Indian/Alaska Native men and women from all regions except western Alaska were more likely to have metabolic syndrome; men in western Alaska were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than U.S. whites, and the prevalence among women in western Alaska was similar to that of U.S. whites. Conclusion The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome varies widely among different American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Differences paralleled differences in the prevalence rates of diabetes. PMID:19067530

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: prevalence rates of causal microorganisms, etiology of infection in different patient populations, and recent advances in molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Ipe, Deepak S; Sundac, Lana; Benjamin, William H; Moore, Kate H; Ulett, Glen C

    2013-09-01

    Bacteriuria, or the presence of bacteria in urine, is associated with both asymptomatic and symptomatic urinary tract infection and underpins much of the dynamic of microbial colonization of the urinary tract. The prevalence of bacteriuria in dissimilar patient groups such as healthy adults, institutionalized elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised patients varies widely. In addition, assessing the importance of 'significant bacteriuria' in infected individuals represents a diagnostic challenge, partly due to various causal microorganisms, and requires careful consideration of the distinct etiologies of bacteriuria in different populations and circumstances. Recent molecular discoveries have revealed how some bacterial traits can enable organisms to grow in human urine, which, as a fitness adaptation, is likely to influence the progression of bacteriuria in some individuals. In this review, we comprehensively analyze currently available data on the prevalence of causal organisms with a focus on asymptomatic bacteriuria in dissimilar populations. We evaluate recent advances in the molecular detection of bacteriuria from a diagnostic viewpoint and briefly discuss the potential benefits and some of the challenges of these approaches. Overall, this review provides an update on the comparative prevalence and etiology of bacteriuria from both microbiological and clinical perspectives.

  15. Age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index score as predictor of prolonged postoperative ileus in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yaohua; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Guopei; Li, Yan; Liu, Hui

    2017-02-11

    Comorbidities had considerable effects on the development of postoperative ileus (POI). The primary aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) score on the risk of prolonged POI in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection. Using the electronic Hospitalization Summary Reports, we identified 11,397 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgical resection from 2013 through 2015. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the effect of the ACCI score on the risk of prolonged POI. The ACCI score had a positive graded association with the risk of prolonged POI in both colon and rectal cancer (P for trend < 0.05). Among patients with rectal cancer, after adjusting for potential confounders, those with an ACCI score of 4-5 had a 108% higher risk of prolonged POI than those with an ACCI score of 0-1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.98), and those with an ACCI score of ≥ 6 had a 130% higher risk (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.08-4.89). Among patients with colon cancer, those with an ACCI score of ≥ 6 had a 47% greater risk of prolonged POI than those with an ACCI score of 0-1 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.07-2.02). These findings suggested that a higher ACCI score was an independent predictor of the development of prolonged POI.

  16. Diabetes incidence and glucose intolerance prevalence increase with higher outdoor temperature

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Aziz, N Ahmad; Tannemaat, Martijn R; Blauw, C Alexander; de Craen, Anton J; Pijl, Hanno; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Rising global temperatures might contribute to the current worldwide diabetes epidemic, as higher ambient temperature can negatively impact glucose metabolism via a reduction in brown adipose tissue activity. Therefore, we examined the association between outdoor temperature and diabetes incidence in the USA as well as the prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide. Research design and methods Using meta-regression, we determined the association between mean annual temperature and diabetes incidence during 1996–2009 for each US state separately. Subsequently, results were pooled in a meta-analysis. On a global scale, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess the association between mean annual temperature and the prevalence of glucose intolerance. Results We demonstrated that, on average, per 1°C increase in temperature, age-adjusted diabetes incidence increased with 0.314 (95% CI 0.194 to 0.434) per 1000. Similarly, the worldwide prevalence of glucose intolerance increased by 0.170% (95% CI 0.107% to 0.234%) per 1°C rise in temperature. These associations persisted after adjustment for obesity. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the diabetes incidence rate in the USA and prevalence of glucose intolerance worldwide increase with higher outdoor temperature.

  17. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health.

  18. Estimating Plasmodium falciparum transmission rates in low-endemic settings using a combination of community prevalence and health facility data.

    PubMed

    Yukich, Joshua; Briët, Olivier; Bretscher, Michael T; Bennett, Adam; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Eisele, Thomas P; Keating, Joseph; Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems. However, by themselves, these data are poor measures of transmission. In this paper, we propose an approach for combining annual parasite incidence and treatment data with cross-sectional parasite prevalence and treatment seeking survey data to estimate the incidence of new infections in the human population, also known as the force of infection. The approach is based on extension of a reversible catalytic model. The accuracy of the estimates from this model appears to be highly dependent on levels of detectability and treatment in the community, indicating the importance of information on private sector treatment seeking and access to effective and appropriate treatment.

  19. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs - which are often characterised as 'female') among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls.

  20. Prevalence rates of sexual difficulties and associated distress in heterosexual men and women: results from an Internet survey in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Lies; Gijs, Luk; Enzlin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As most epidemiological surveys on sexual problems have not included assessment of associated distress, the principal aim of this study was to provide prevalence estimates of both DSM-IV-TR-defined (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000 ) and less commonly assessed sexual difficulties and dysfunction (e.g., lack of responsive sexual desire, lack of subjective arousal). A secondary aim was to obtain information about comorbidity between sexual desire and sexual arousal difficulties/dysfunction. This study comprised an online survey completed by 35,132 heterosexual Flemish men and women (aged 16 to 74 years). Results indicated that sexual dysfunctions were far less common than sexual difficulties, and some uncommonly assessed sexual problems (e.g., "lack of responsive desire" in women; "hyperactive sexual desire" in men) were quite prevalent. In women, there was a high comorbidity between "lack of spontaneous sexual desire" and "lack of responsive sexual desire"; between "lack of genital arousal" and "lack of subjective sexual arousal"; and between sexual desire and sexual arousal difficulties/dysfunctions. The implications of these findings for epidemiological research on sexual dysfunction and for the newly defined DSM-5 Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (APA, 2013 ) are discussed.

  1. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs – which are often characterised as ‘female’) among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls. PMID:26290657

  2. Flagellated algae protein evolution suggests the prevalence of lineage-specific rules governing evolutionary rates of eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yan; Liao, Ben-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the general rules governing the rate of protein evolution is fundamental to evolutionary biology. However, attempts to address this issue in yeasts and mammals have revealed considerable differences in the relative importance of determinants for protein evolutionary rates. This phenomenon was previously explained by the fact that yeasts and mammals are different in many cellular and genomic properties. Flagellated algae species have several cellular and genomic characteristics that are intermediate between yeasts and mammals. Using partial correlation analyses on the evolution of 6,921 orthologous proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, we examined factors influencing evolutionary rates of proteins in flagellated algae. Previous studies have shown that mRNA abundance and gene compactness are strong determinants for protein evolutionary rates in yeasts and mammals, respectively. We show that both factors also influence algae protein evolution with mRNA abundance having a larger impact than gene compactness on the rates of algae protein evolution. More importantly, among all the factors examined, coding sequence (CDS) length has the strongest (positive) correlation with protein evolutionary rates. This correlation between CDS length and the rates of protein evolution is not due to alignment-related issues or domain density. These results suggest no simple and universal rules governing protein evolutionary rates across different eukaryotic lineages. Instead, gene properties influence the rate of protein evolution in a lineage-specific manner.

  3. The Strengths of Youth in a Public Behavioral Health System: Measurement Choices, Prevalence Rates, and Group Differences.

    PubMed

    Accomazzo, Sarah; Shapiro, Valerie B; Israel, Nathaniel; Kim, B K Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Youth with severe emotional and behavioral problems receiving services in public behavioral health systems have strengths that are understudied in research and underutilized in practice. This study explores four alternative strategies (individual item scores, the number of "actionable" strengths, subscales, and a total composite) for summarizing the strengths of youth assessed with the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) in a large, urban, public behavioral health system. The paper examines whether these summarization strategies produce divergent understandings of the prevalence of strengths across gender, age, and racial groups. Analyses suggest that youth enter this system with high levels of strengths. There are few group differences in strengths across the diverse summarization strategies. Though the practice-preferred method of using individual strengths items provides the most interpretable information about strengths, the aggregation strategies may be useful for programs and systems. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  4. Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population — The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures – 70)

    PubMed Central

    Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Ganesan, Anbhazhagan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Background In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. Methods and Findings Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%). Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) – 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9%) and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.12–1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%), followed by tiredness (30.0%) while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4%) and speech and motor retardation (12.4%) were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001) and male subjects (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3%) compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001). Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5%) and widowed (20%) compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population. PMID:19784380

  5. Clinical usefulness and safety of an age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff levels to exclude pulmonary embolism: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Flores, Julio; García de Tena, Jaime; Galipienzo, Javier; García-Avello, Ángel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Esteban; Tortuero, José Ignacio; Álvarez, Concepción; Ruíz, Antonio; Arribas, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    Age-adjusted D-dimer (AADD) appears to increase the proportion of patients in whom pulmonary embolism (PE) can safely be excluded compared with conventional D-dimer (CDD), according to a limited number of studies. The aim if this study was to assess whether the use of an AADD might safely increase the clinical usefulness of CDD for the diagnosis of PE in our setting. Three hundred and sixty two consecutive outpatients with clinically suspected PE in whom plasma samples were obtained to measure D-dimer were included in this post hoc analysis of a previous study. CDD cutoff value was 500 ng/mL and AADD was calculated as (patient's age × 10) ng/mL in patients aged >50. Sensitivity, specificity, clinical usefulness (i.e., proportion of true-negative tests among all patients with suspected PE), and the proportion of false negatives were calculated for both AADD and CDD among patients with low-to-moderate clinical probability of PE according to Well's criteria. PE was confirmed in 98 patients (27%). Among 331 patients with low-to-moderate clinical probability of PE, sensitivity and clinical usefulness were 100 and 27.8% for CDD, respectively, and 100 and 36.5% for AADD, respectively. In 29 patients aged >50 with CDD >500 ng/mL, AADD showed values under its normal cutoff point, without false negatives for the diagnosis of PE (0%, 95% CI 0-11%). AADD increases clinical usefulness notably with respect to that of CDD in patients with clinical suspected PE without losing sensitivity in our cohort. The use of AADD apparently does not reduce the safety of CDD for the exclusion of PE.

  6. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

    PubMed Central

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M.; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Objective The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data. PMID:25989951

  7. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    PubMed

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  8. Diagnostic Prevalence Rates from Early to Mid-Adolescence among Indigenous Adolescents: First Results from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yu, Mansoo; Johnson, Kurt D.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Walls, Melissa L.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates change in occurrences for mental and substance abuse children between early and mid-adolescence among a group of indigenous adolescents. Findings show a dramatic increase in occurrence rates for substance abuse disorder and conduct disorder, and a mental health crisis on indigenous reservations and reserves indicating a need…

  9. The prevalence of osteoporosis and the rate of bone loss in Korean adults: the Chungju metabolic disease cohort (CMC) study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y; Jo, K; Ha, H-S; Yim, H-W; Yoon, K-H; Lee, W-C; Son, H-Y; Baek, K H; Kang, M-I

    2017-04-01

    Because the rate of bone loss is an important risk factor for fracture, we studied longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Although the BMD of the hip decreased over time, spine BMD remained largely stable or increased. Therefore, spine BMD may not be appropriate for assessing BMD change.

  10. A Comparative Study of Iron Uptake Rates and Mechanisms amongst Marine and Fresh Water Cyanobacteria: Prevalence of Reductive Iron Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Hagar; Kranzler, Chana; Keren, Nir; Shaked, Yeala

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we address the question of iron bioavailability to cyanobacteria by measuring Fe uptake rates and probing for a reductive uptake pathway in diverse cyanobacterial species. We examined three Fe-substrates: dissolved inorganic iron (Fe') and the Fe-siderophores Ferrioxamine B (FOB) and FeAerobactin (FeAB). In order to compare across substrates and strains, we extracted uptake rate constants (kin = uptake rate/[Fe-substrate]). Fe' was the most bioavailable Fe form to cyanobacteria, with kin values higher than those of other substrates. When accounting for surface area (SA), all strains acquired Fe' at similar rates, as their kin/SA were similar. We also observed homogeneity in the uptake of FOB among strains, but with 10,000 times lower kin/SA values than Fe'. Uniformity in kin/SA suggests similarity in the mechanism of uptake and indeed, all strains were found to employ a reductive step in the uptake of Fe' and FOB. In contrast, different uptake pathways were found for FeAB along with variations in kin/SA. Our data supports the existence of a common reductive Fe uptake pathway amongst cyanobacteria, functioning alone or in addition to siderophore-mediated uptake. Cyanobacteria combining both uptake strategies benefit from increased flexibility in accessing different Fe-substrates. PMID:25768677

  11. Determining Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse Using Promotores: Low Income Immigrant Latinos Report High Rates of Abuse and Neglect

    PubMed Central

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Homeier, Diana C.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2012-01-01

    Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, we recruited and trained promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, to interview a sample of Latino adults age 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, financial exploitation, and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of Latino elders experienced some form of abuse and/or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% indicated physical assault, 9% reported sexual abuse, 16.7% indicated financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with increased risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the U.S. was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elders, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment, or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community. PMID:22697790

  12. Incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among adults hospitalized after traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neurological outcome and mortality. However, as many relevant published studies to date have varied in the type and severity of TBI among included patients as well as in their design (randomized versus non-randomized), risk of bias, and setting (hospital ward versus intensive care unit), their reported estimates of infection occurrence vary considerably. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among patients hospitalized after TBI. Methods/Design We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their first available date as well as personal files, reference lists of included articles, and conference proceedings. Two investigators will independently screen titles and abstracts and select cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials involving adults hospitalized after TBI that reported estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, or occurrence rate of infection for inclusion in the systematic review. These investigators will also independently extract data and assess risk of bias. We will exclude studies with fewer than ten patients; experimental groups allocated to treatment with antibiotics, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, barbiturates, or hypothermia; and studies focused on military/combat-related TBI. Pooled estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, and occurrence rate will be calculated using random effects models. We will also calculate I2 and Cochran

  13. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time: An observational prospective intervention study in the Orange Farm township of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    World Health Organization recommends a target for the male circumcision prevalence rate of 80%. This rate will have a substantial impact on the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. The objective of the study was to assess whether an innovative intervention can lead to an increased voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) uptake among adults in a short time. This prospective observational study of a demand generation intervention was conducted in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa) in August to November 2015. In this community male circumcision prevalence rate among adults was stable between 2010 and 2015 at 55% and 57%, despite regular VMMC campaigns at community level and the presence of a VMMC clinic that offered free VMMC. The intervention took place in a random sample of 981 households where 522 men aged 18 to 49 years accepted to participate in the study. Among the 226 uncircumcised men, 212 accepted to be enrolled in the intervention study. A personal male circumcision adviser trained in interpersonal communication skills was assigned to each uncircumcised participant. The male circumcision advisers were trained to explain the risks and benefits of VMMC, and to discuss 24 possible reasons given by men for not being circumcised. Participants were then followed for 9 weeks. Each participant had a maximum of 3 motivational interviews at home. Participants who decided to be circumcised received financial compensation for their time equivalent to 2.5 days of work at the minimum South African salary rate. Among the 212 uncircumcised men enrolled in the intervention, 69.8% (148/212; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 63.4%-75.7%) agreed to be circumcised, which defines the uptake of the intervention. The male circumcision prevalence rate of the sample increased from 56.7% (296/522) to 81.4% (425/522; 77.9%-84.6%), P < 0.001, corresponding to a relative increase of 43.6% (95% CI: 35

  14. Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings.

    PubMed

    Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia

    2009-08-01

    Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of Parkinson's disease in retired Thai traditional boxers.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Praween; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2010-09-15

    Boxing is often believed to be a frequent cause for parkinsonism caused by chronic repetitive head injury, with Muhammad Ali frequently cited as an example. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in retired Thai traditional boxers. Two standardized screening questionnaires were sent to all registered Thai traditional boxers. Subjects who screened positive for parkinsonism were invited for clinical examinations by two independent neurologists. Among 704 boxers (70%) who completed the questionnaires, 8 boxers (1.14%) had parkinsonism: 5 with PD, 1 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 2 with vascular parkinsonism. Boxers with PD were found to have an older mean age than those without PD (P = 0.003). The analysis of probable risk factors disclosed an association between the number of professional bouts (>100 times) and PD (P = 0.01). The crude prevalence of PD in Thai boxers was 0.71% (95% CI: 0.09-1.33), with a significant increase with age. The prevalence rate of PD in those aged 50 and above was 0.17% (95% CI: 0.15-0.20), age-adjusted to the USA 1970 census, which is comparable to that of the general populations. The analysis determined that the number of professional bouts is a risk factor among these boxers, supporting the notion that repetitive head trauma may pose an additional risk to certain individuals who are already susceptible to PD.

  16. Seasonal prevalence of malaria vectors and entomological inoculation rates in the rubber cultivated area of Niete, South Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of large scale agro-industries are subject to serious environmental modifications. In malaria endemic areas this would greatly impact on the transmission paradigm. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys to characterize the Anopheles fauna and their entomological inoculation rates were conducted during May 2010 (peak rainy season) and December 2010 (peak dry season) in the intense rubber cultivated area of Niete in southern forested Cameroon. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled by night collections on human volunteers, identified morphologically and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex further identified to species and molecular form. Parity status was determined following the dissection of the ovaries. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigen indices were estimated after the identification of CS antigen by ELISA and the average entomological inoculation rates determined. Results A total of 1187 Anopheles was collected, 419 (35.3%) in the rainy season and 768 (64.7%) in the dry season. Species found were the M molecular form of An. gambiae s.s (66.8%), An. ziemanni (28.3%), An. paludis (4.7%), An. smithii (0.2%). An. gambiae M-form was the principal species in the dry (56.2%) and wet (86.2%) seasons. Average overall entomological inoculation rate for the malaria vectors varied between the dry season (1.09 ib/p/n) and the rainy season (2.30 ib/p/n). Conclusions Malaria transmission in Niete occurs both in the dry and rainy season with the intensities peaking in the dry season. This is unlike previous studies in other areas of southern forested Cameroon where transmission generally peaks in the rainy season. Environmental modifications due to agro-industrial activities might have influenced vector distribution and the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. This necessitates the possible implementation of control strategies that are related to the eco-geography of the area. PMID:22963986

  17. Population-Based Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Emily C.; Marder, Wendy; Cagnoli, Patricia; Lewis, Emily E.; DeGuire, Peter; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G.; Wang, Lu; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Dhar, J. Patricia; Leisen, James; Shaltis, Diane; McCune, W. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a sociodemographically diverse southeastern Michigan source population of 2.4 million people. Methods SLE cases fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria (primary case definition) or meeting rheumatologist-judged SLE criteria (secondary definition) and residing in Wayne or Washtenaw Counties during 2002–2004 were included. Case finding was performed from 6 source types, including hospitals and private specialists. Age-standardized rates were computed, and capture–recapture was performed to estimate underascertainment of cases. Results The overall age-adjusted incidence and prevalence (ACR definition) per 100,000 persons were 5.5 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.0–6.1) and 72.8 (95% CI 70.8–74.8). Among females, the incidence was 9.3 per 100,000 persons and the prevalence was 128.7 per 100,000 persons. Only 7 cases were estimated to have been missed by capture–recapture, adjustment for which did not materially affect the rates. SLE prevalence was 2.3-fold higher in black persons than in white persons, and 10-fold higher in females than in males. Among incident cases, the mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 39.3 ± 16.6 years. Black SLE patients had a higher proportion of renal disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (40.5% and 15.3%, respectively) as compared to white SLE patients (18.8% and 4.5%, respectively). Black patients with renal disease were diagnosed as having SLE at younger age than white patients with renal disease (mean ± SD 34.4 ± 14.9 years versus 41.9 ± 21.3 years; P = 0.05). Conclusion SLE prevalence was higher than has been described in most other population-based studies and reached 1 in 537 among black female persons. There were substantial racial disparities in the burden of SLE, with black patients experiencing earlier age at diagnosis, >2-fold increases in SLE incidence and prevalence, and increased

  18. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Adrian; Bull, Fiona; Chey, Tien; Craig, Cora L; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Sallis, James F; Bowles, Heather R; Hagstromer, Maria; Sjostrom, Michael; Pratt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference) with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity. PMID:19335883

  19. Divergence between the high rate of p53 mutations in skin carcinomas and the low prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moch, C; Moysan, A; Lubin, R; Salmonière, P de La; Soufir, N; Galisson, F; Vilmer, C; Venutolo, E; Pelletier, F Le; Janin, A; Basset-Séguin, N

    2001-01-01

    Circulating anti-p53 antibodies have been described and used as tumoural markers in patients with various cancers and strongly correlate with the p53 mutated status of the tumours. No study has yet looked at the prevalence of such antibodies in skin carcinoma patients although these tumours have been shown to be frequently p53 mutated. Most skin carcinoma can be diagnosed by examination or biopsy, but aggressive, recurrent and/or non-surgical cases' follow up would be helped by a biological marker of residual disease. We performed a prospective study looking at the prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies using an ELISA technique in a series of 105 skin carcinoma patients in comparison with a sex- and age-matched control skin carcinoma-free group (n = 130). Additionally, p53 accumulation was studied by immunohistochemistry to confirm p53 protein altered expression in a sample of tumours. Anti-p53 antibodies were detected in 2.9% of the cases, with a higher prevalence in patients suffering from the more aggressive squamous cell type (SCC) of skin carcinoma (8%) than for the more common and slowly growing basal cell carcinoma type or BCC (1.5%). p53 protein stabilization could be confirmed in 80% of tumours studied by IHC. This low level of anti-p53 antibody detection contrasts with the high rate of p53 mutations reported in these tumours. This observation shows that the anti-p53 humoral response is a complex and tissue-specific mechanism. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747330

  20. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-03-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension {le}1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Changes in blindness prevalence over 16 years in Malawi: reduced prevalence but increased numbers of blind

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, P; Hoeshcmann, A; Metcalfe, N; Chirambo, M; Noertjojo, K; Barrows, J; Katz, J

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: In the coming two decades significant increases in the burden of blindness are anticipated unless concerted efforts are made to improve eye care in developing countries. Evidence of changing prevalence rates or numbers of blind people are few. The change in blindness prevalence and the number of blind people in an adult population of Malawi was measured over a 16 year period. Methods: In 1999 a population based survey of blindness in adults (age 50+) was conducted in Chikwawa district of Malawi. Visual acuity and cause of vision loss were recorded for each eye independently. Blindness was defined as presenting better eye vision of <6/60. Findings from a 1983 survey of blindness in the same district (using similar methods) were re-analysed to be comparable with the survey conducted in 1999. Results: Among 1630 enumerated adults 89% were examined. The age adjusted prevalence of blindness in the adult population was 5.4% and more common in women than men. In each age group the prevalence of blindness was lower in 1999 than in 1983; the overall reduction in blindness was 31%. During this period the 50+ population in Malawi increased almost twofold. Extrapolating the Chikwawa district data to the Malawi population reveals that the number of blind people has increased by 24%; the increase is primarily because of the large increase in the size of the most elderly group, aged 70 and above. Conclusion: The majority of blind people in Chikwawa (1983 and 1999) are in the age group 70 and over. This group has had the largest proportional increase in population size in this time. Services in this population have improved in the intervening 16 years and yet there was still an increase in the number of blind people. There was little change in excess blindness in women, suggesting that the same barriers that prevented utilisation of services in 1983 probably persist in 1999. Efforts to reach the most elderly and to reach women are needed to lead to a reduction in

  2. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  3. Conditional Release of Forensic Psychiatric Patients Consistent with or Contrary to Behavioral Experts' Recommendations in the Netherlands: Prevalence Rates, Patient Characteristics and Recidivism After Discharge from Conditional Release.

    PubMed

    Nagtegaal, Maria H; Boonmann, Cyril

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined a group of 447 Dutch forensic psychiatric patients on conditional release (CR). After a brief overview of the Dutch CR system for forensic psychiatric patients is presented, two sets of factors were studied: factors associated with behavioral experts' recommendations on CR readiness (prevalence rates of recommendations in contrast to or consistent with the judge's decision on CR, written vs. oral recommendations and consensus among parties); and characteristics of forensic psychiatric patients on CR imposed consistent with or contrary to behavioral experts' recommendations (i.e., demographic variables, psychopathology, judicial background and outcomes of violent behavior). Patients on CR consistent with or contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations did not differ in demographic background variables and psychopathology. Patients on CR contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations, however, had more prior convictions, and their index offense more often included a sex offense and a property offense (with or without violence) as compared to patients on CR consistent with the behavioral experts' recommendations. In addition, decisions contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations were more often reached after a 3-month continuation adjournment and after an appeal. Also, patients on CR contrary to the behavioral experts' recommendations were less often found to have been on trial leave before their CR. Finally, recidivism rates were found to be much higher for those on CR contrary to, as compared with those on CR consistent with the behavioral experts' recommendations. However, when corrected for other well-known static predictors of recidivism, this significant difference was no longer prevalent. The implications for evaluators' CR readiness reports and lessons that may be learned from the Dutch forensic psychiatric CR system are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  5. Quarterly report to the Domestic Policy Council on the prevalence and rate of spread of HIV and AIDS in the United States.

    PubMed

    1988-04-15

    This report includes trends in reported cases of AIDS; trends in prevalence and incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection; status of HIV-1 antibody surveys; data on HIV-2; and a comparison of AIDS mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) with other major diseases. By March 14, 1988, a total of 56,212 cases of AIDS had been reported in the US; nearly 10,000 of these cases have been reported since the last report, on November 30, 1987. More than 31,400 cases have resulted in death. The 416 cases of AIDS reported during the past 12 months among children under 13 years of age represent an 85% increase over the total for the previous year; 75% of these children acquired their infection perinatally, probably before birth, from their infected mothers. Accurate estimates of the prevalence and rate of spread of HIV-1 infection in the entire US population are not possible at this time. More precise estimates are available only for certain subgroups of the general population such as blood donors and applicants for military service. Among active-duty US Army personnel who have been tested more than once, 7.7/10,000/year have become infected since their 1st test. The 1st reported case of AIDS caused by HIV-2 in the US was diagnosed in December 1987. The patient was a recent visitor from West Africa, where HIV-2 was originally described, and denied sexual intercourse, use of nonsterile needles, or donation of blood while in the US.

  6. Retrospective analysis of age-adjusted body mass index among pre-pregnant women in the Lithuanian urban area during three decades

    PubMed Central

    Francaite-Daugeliene, Migle; Petrenko, Vladimiras; Baliutaviciene, Dalia; Velickiene, Dzilda

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal obesity at the beginning of pregnancy is increasing. However, there are some studies reporting the stabilisation of obesity epidemic or even the downward trend in the general population. Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Lithuanian pre-pregnant women during 3 decades. Methods This observational retrospective study included a sample of 2827, women aged 18–44 years who gave birth in 1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010: 861 (30.5%), 995 (35.2%) and 971 (34.3%), respectively. All women were divided into groups by body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height, and age reported during the first antenatal visit. Quantitative parametric variables were expressed as mean and SD; qualitative variables, as absolute numbers (n) and percentage (%). For parametric data, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women aged 18–24 years decreased from 20.9% in 1987–1989 to 9.5% in 1996–1997 but increased to 15.7% in 2007–2010; among women aged 25–34 years, decreased from 35.5% in 1987–1989 to 23% in 1996–1997 and to 22.4% in 2007–2010; and among women aged 35–44 years decreased from 64.9% in 1987–1989 to 34% in 1996–1997 but increased to 45.3% in 2007–2010. BMI increased with an increasing age (r=0.254, p<0.05). Analysis by separate periods (1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010) revealed a positive correlation between BMI and age at the first antenatal visit in all periods (r=0.325, p<0.01; r=0.266, p<0.01; and r=0.210, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-pregnant women tended to decrease in the Lithuanian urban area during 3 decades. A slight increase in overweight and obesity documented in 2007–2010 compared with 1996–1997 most likely was caused by older maternal age. PMID

  7. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Bértoli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33%) donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%), followed by syphilis (22.5%), HBsAg (4.7%), anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%), human immunodeficiency virus (1.5%) and Chagas' disease (1.5%). The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337) of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24478604

  8. Lifetime Prevalence Rates and Overlap of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization in a National Sample of Youth.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Boyd, Danah

    2016-07-01

    National, epidemiological data that provide lifetime rates of psychological, physical, and sexual adolescent data abuse (ADA) perpetration and victimization within the same sample of youth are lacking. To address this gap, data from 1058 randomly selected U.S. youth, 14-21 years old, surveyed online in 2011 and/or 2012, were weighted to be nationally representative and analyzed. In addition to reporting prevalence rates, we also examined the overlap of the six types of ADA queried. Results suggested that ADA was commonly reported by both male and female youth. Half (51 %) of female youth and 43 % of male youth reported victimization of at least one of the three types of ADA. Half (50 %) of female youth and 35 % of male youth reported at least one type of ADA perpetration. More male youth reported sexual ADA perpetration than female youth. More female youth reported perpetration of psychological and physical ADA and more reported psychological victimization than male youth. Rates were similar across race and ethnicity, but increased with age. This increase may have been because older youth spent longer time in relationships than younger youth, or perhaps because older youth were developmentally more likely than younger youth to be in abusive relationships. Many youth reported being both perpetrators and victims and/or involved in multiple forms of ADA across their dating history. Together, these findings suggested that interventions should acknowledge that youth may play multiple roles in abusive dyads. Understanding the overlap among ADA within the same as well as across multiple relationships will be invaluable to future interventions aiming to disrupt and prevent ADA.

  9. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B.

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/ STI risk driven by structural factors. PMID:26320916

  10. Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease in a Sample of Greek Adults: The Saronikos Study

    PubMed Central

    Gikas, Aristofanis; Lambadiari, Vaia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pappas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive data regarding prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated factors in different geographical regions are very important to our understanding of global distribution and evolution of CHD. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of self-reported risk factors and CHD in Greek adult population. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014, during an election day, among residents of Saronikos municipality (Attica region). Data were collected from face-to-face interviews. The study sample included 2636 subjects (men, 49.5%; mean age, 50.5; range 20-95 years), with similar age and sex distribution to the target population. Results: The age-standardized prevalence rates of five major risk factors were as follows: type 2 diabetes 11.1%, hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol>240 mg/dl or using cholesterol-lowering medication) 23.8%, hypertension 27.2%, current smoking 38.9% and physical inactivity 43%. Of the participants, only 21% were free of any of these factors. Clustering of two to five risk factors was more frequent among persons aged 50 years and older as compared with younger ones (60% vs 27%, P=0.000). The age-adjusted prevalence of CHD was 6.3% (in men, 8.9%; in women, 3.8%) and that of myocardial infarction was 3.6% (in men, 5.2%; in women, 2.1%). According to multivariate analysis age, gender, education level, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever smoking were strongly associated with CHD. Conclusion: Classic risk factors are highly prevalent and frequently clustered, especially in adults aged 50 years and older. These findings raise concerns about future trends of already increased rates of CHD. Multifactorial and integrated population-based interventions need to be applied to reduce the burden of cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27429668

  11. Geographical Differences in the Population-Based Cross-Sectional Growth Curve and Age at Peak Height Velocity with respect to the Prevalence Rate of Overweight in Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Yokoya, Masana; Higuchi, Yukito

    2014-01-01

    The School Health Examination Survey is a nationwide examination carried out annually in Japan, and the results are entered into a prefectural-level physical measurement database. We used this database to determine the geographical differences in a population-based cross-sectional growth curve and investigated the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV) and the prevalence rate of overweight in children among Japanese prefectures. Mean prefectural-level age at PHV was estimated by the cubic spline-fitting procedure using cross-sectional whole-year prefectural mean height data (5-17 years, 2006-2013), and 8-year (2006-2013) means of the standardized prevalence rates of overweight children and other anatomical data (8-year standardized weight and height) were recalculated. Mean prefectural age at PHV was more strongly correlated with the mean prefectural prevalence rate of overweight (age 5-8 years) than with other weights or heights in both sexes. On the basis of these findings and their confirmation by multiple regression analysis, the prevalence rate of overweight was selected as a primary factor to explain the geographical difference in age at PHV. These findings suggest that childhood overweight is a dominant factor responsible for the observed geographical differences in onset of puberty in Japan.

  12. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006).

  13. Higher prevalence of elevated LDL-C than non-HDL-C and low statin treatment rate in elderly community-dwelling Chinese with high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kuang, YaShu; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Xiaoli; Sun, Huimin; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul; Zheng, Liang; Pi, Jinjiang; Peng, Sheng; Wu, Hong; Ding, Xugang; Qian, Dingguang; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Zuoren; Fan, Lieying; Chen, Ming; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2016-09-30

    Lipid levels are increasing in all age groups in the Chinese population, but the use of statin treatment in the elderly is not well documented. We examined serum lipids, statin usage and achievement of lipid goals in 3950 subjects aged ≥65 years. Established CVD was present in 7.77% of participants and increased CVD risk was common. Elevated LDL-C according to CVD risk level was present in 46.70% of all subjects and was more frequent (p < 0.01) than elevated non-HDL-C at 32.58%. With increasing age, LDL-C was unchanged but triglycerides and non-HDL-C decreased and HDL-C increased. Individuals at moderate risk for CVD had higher TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C than low-risk subjects, but the values were lower in high- and very-high-risk individuals, probably because of the use of statin which was 28.57% in high-risk subjects with established CVD and 37.60% in very-high-risk individuals, but only 2.62% in those with estimated high-risk and 3.75% in those with high-risk from diabetes. More subjects in each risk group reached the non-HDL-C goal than the LDL-C goal because of the relatively low triglycerides and VLDL-C levels. These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated LDL-C but low rate of statin treatment in elderly community-dwelling Chinese.

  14. Natural toxoplasma gondii infections in European brown hares and mountain hares in Finland: proportional mortality rate, antibody prevalence, and genetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Isomursu, Marja; Näreaho, Anu; Oksanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    In material examined postmortem in Finland from May 2006 to April 2009, acute generalized toxoplasmosis was the immunohistochemically confirmed cause of death in 14 (8.1%) of 173 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) and four (2.7%) of 148 mountain hares (Lepus timidus). Sera from 116 of the European brown hares and 99 of the mountain hares were screened with a commercial direct agglutination test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies at a dilution of 1:40. All sera from cases of fatal toxoplasmosis had high titers of antibodies reactive to T. gondii. In contrast, none of 107 European brown hares and four (4%) of 96 mountain hares that died of other causes were antibody-positive. The proportional mortality rates and the T. gondii antibody prevalences among noncases differed significantly between the two host species (P<0.05). Direct genetic characterization of the causative agent was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the hares with fatal toxoplasmosis. Based on the results with six microsatellite markers (B18, TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, and M33; all six in 15 cases and four in three cases), all the cases were caused by T. gondii genotype II; the size of the PCR product at the seventh marker (M48) varied (213-229 base pairs). The presence of T. gondii genotype II, which is endemic in Europe, is now confirmed in Finnish wildlife: Natural infections with T. gondii parasites belonging to this widespread genotype caused fatal generalized toxoplasmosis in the two species of wild hares.

  15. Decreased microfilarial load and its effect on the calculation of prevalence and the rate of false negatives in the detection of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K; Prost, A

    1983-03-01

    It has been shown in the epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis that the method of taking two or more snips per person contains information about the probabilities of false negatives which can be extracted and used to improve the prevalence estimates. Using the method of maximum likelihood, one can obtain expressions for estimating the prevalence, adjusted for the false negatives, and for estimating the proportion of false negatives. The variances of all estimates are also available, making confidence interval estimation possible.

  16. Estimating the Burden of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness: A Pilot Study of the Prevalence and Underreporting in Saint Lucia, Eastern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Jaime, Alina; Mckensie, Martin; Auguste, Ava; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Saint Lucia was the first country to conduct a burden of illness study in the Caribbean to determine the community prevalence and underreporting of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective cross-sectional population survey on AGE-related illness was administered to a random sample of residents of Saint Lucia in 20 April–16 May 2008 and 6-13 December 2009 to capture the high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the selected 1,150 individuals, 1,006 were administered the survey through face-to-face interviews (response rate 87.4%). The overall monthly prevalence of AGE was 3.9%. The yearly incidence rate was 0.52 episodes/person-year. The age-adjusted monthly prevalence was 4.6%. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE was among children aged <5 years (7.5%) and the lowest in persons aged 45-64 years (2.6%). The average number of days an individual suffered from diarrhoea was 3.8 days [range 1-21 day(s)]. Of the reported AGE cases, only seven (18%) sought medical care; however, 83% stayed at home due to the illness [(range 1-16 day(s), mean 2.5]; and 26% required other individuals to take care of them. The estimated underreporting of syndromic AGE and laboratory-confirmed foodborne disease pathogens was 81% and 99% respectively during the study period. The economic cost for treating syndromic AGE was estimated at US$ 3,892.837 per annum. This was a pilot study on the burden of illness (BOI) in the Caribbean. The results of the study should be interpreted within the limitations and challenges of this study. Lessons learnt were used for improving the implementation procedures of other BOI studies in the Caribbean.

  17. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Young and Middle-Aged Rural Population in Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ching Thon, Chang; Ping Yein, Lee; Whye Lian, Cheah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) was the second leading cause of death in Malaysia in 2006. CHD has known risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among 260 participants aged 20 to 65 years in a rural community in Sarawak. Results: The prevalences of overweight and obesity in this study were 39.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Approximately 13% of participants had hypertension, and 1.5% had a random blood sugar greater than 11.1 mmol/L. Chi-square tests showed significant associations between obesity and gender (P = 0.007), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and race (P = 0.05), high total cholesterol and age (P = 0.007), age and hypertension (P = 0.011), smoking and gender (P < 0.001), and smoking and income (P = 0.050). Age-adjusted logistic regression showed that women were 0.246 times more likely to be obese, that older participants (> 45 years) were 0.395 times more likely to have high cholesterol and that those with a higher monthly household income (> RM830) were 2.471 times more likely to smoke. Conclusion: These findings indicate that we should be concerned about the high rates of overweight in this rural community to prevent obesity. PMID:22973135

  18. Prevalence of hypertension in the Gambia and Sierra Leone, western Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Morcos; Setareh-Shenas, Saman; Robert Pixton, J; Soliman, Camelia; Czer, Lawrence SC; Ruzza, Andrea; Mirocha, James

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Hypertension (HTN) is one of the causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Africa, and may be associated with lower socio-economic status (SES). The prevalence of HTN is not well established in the Gambia or in Sierra Leone. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study of adults was conducted in the Gambia in 2000 and in Sierra Leone from 2001 to 2003 and in 2009. The study was conducted as part of the annual visit to countries in western Africa sponsored by a medical delegation from California. People from the Gambia and Sierra Leone were examined by the medical delegation and blood pressures were measured. Results A total of 2 615 adults were examined: 1 400 females and 1 215 males. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the females was 134.3 ± 29.7 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 84.5 ± 17.5 mmHg, and 46.2% were hypertensive. The mean SBP of the males was 132.8 ± 28.5 mmHg, mean DBP was 82.8 ± 16.2 mmHg, and 43.2% were hypertensive. Overall prevalence of HTN in the subjects was 44.8%. Mean SBP, mean DBP and HTN prevalence increased with age decade, both in males and females. In addition, after age adjustment (known age), females had higher mean SBP (p = 0.042), mean DBP (p = 0.001) and rate of occurrence of HTN (p = 0.016) when compared with males. Conclusions Prevalence rates of HTN in the Gambia and Sierra Leone were higher than 40% in males and females, and may be a major contributor to CVD in both countries. Due to the association of HTN with low SES, improvements in educational, public health, economic, non-governmental and governmental efforts in the Gambia and Sierra Leone may lead to a lower prevalence of HTN. The cause of the higher prevalence in women may be due to post-menopausal hormonal changes. PMID:25333811

  19. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity among Chinese Korean Nationality Children and Adolescents, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Chunhua; MA, Yana; PAN, Chenwei; CHEN, Xing; SUN, Hongpeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a serious problem for Chinese Han nationality. This research aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and trends in obesity among Chinese Korean nationality children and adolescents (1991–2010). Methods: We used data from Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). CNSSCH was utilized to monitor Chinese students’ health condition and released its data every 5 yr (1991, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010). The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts based on the 1985 CNSSCH data. Obesity was defined as ≧120% of standard weight-for-height. Results: The total age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 15.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9–16.9%) among Chinese Korean children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 yr. Children or adolescents who were boys (Rate ratios (RR), 1.35; 95% CI, 1.19–1.53) or aged 10–12 (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17–1.63) were more likely to be obese. The trend analysis of the 19-yr period implied a serious annual increasing trend during 1991–2000 (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07) and during 2000–2010 (RR,, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11–1.13). Chinese Korean children may also be more likely to become obese than Han nationality children during 1991–2010. Conclusion: A serious and continuous increasing trend was in the prevalence of obesity among Chinese Korean children and adolescents during 1991–2010. Childhood obesity had become a serious problem. This prognosis is worrisome. PMID:27648414

  20. Prevalence, characteristics, and survival of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Katrina M.; Patterson, Karalyn; Vázquez Rodríquez, Patricia; Wehmann, Eileen; Wilcox, Alicia; Lansdall, Claire J.; Dawson, Kate E.; Wiggins, Julie; Mead, Simon; Brayne, Carol; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the lifetime risk, prevalence, incidence, and mortality of the principal clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) using revised diagnostic criteria and including intermediate clinical phenotypes. Methods: Multisource referral over 2 years to identify all diagnosed or suspected cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in 2 UK counties (population 1.69 million). Diagnostic confirmation used current consensus diagnostic criteria after interview and reexamination. Results were adjusted to the 2013 European standard population. Results: The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS was 10.8/100,000. The incidence and mortality were very similar, at 1.61/100,000 and 1.56/100,000 person-years, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk is 1 in 742. Survival following diagnosis varied widely: from PSP 2.9 years to semantic variant FTD 9.1 years. Age-adjusted prevalence peaked between 65 and 69 years at 42.6/100,000: the age-adjusted prevalence for persons older than 65 years is double the prevalence for those between 40 and 64 years. Fifteen percent of those screened had a relevant genetic mutation. Conclusions: Key features of this study include the revised diagnostic criteria with improved specificity and sensitivity, an unrestricted age range, and simultaneous assessment of multiple FTLD syndromes. The prevalence of FTD, PSP, and CBS increases beyond 65 years, with frequent genetic causes. The time from onset to diagnosis and from diagnosis to death varies widely among syndromes, emphasizing the challenge and importance of accurate and timely diagnosis. A high index of suspicion for FTLD syndromes is required by clinicians, even for older patients. PMID:27037234

  1. Change in the Prevalence of HIV-1 and the Rate of Transmitted Drug-Resistant HIV-1 in Haiphong, Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung Viet; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Saina, Matilda Chelimo; Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Tran, Vuong Thi; Bi, Xiuqiong; Pham, Thuc Van; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported a significant decrease in HIV-1 prevalence, with no increase in drug-resistant HIV-1 among injecting drug users (IDU), female sex workers (FSW), and blood donors (BD), in Haiphong, Vietnam, from 2007 to 2009. In 2012, 388 IDU, 51 FSW, and 200 BD were recruited for further analysis. None had a history of antiretroviral treatment. From 2007 to 2012, HIV-1 prevalence was reduced from 35.9% to 18.6% (p<0.001), 23.1% to 9.8% (p<0.05), and 2.9% to 1% (p=0.29) in IDU, FSW, and BD, respectively. Of 79 anti-HIV-1 antibody-positive samples, 61 were successfully analyzed for the pol-reverse transcriptase (RT) region. All HIV-1 strains were CRF01_AE. Nonnucleoside RT inhibitor-resistant mutations, Y181C/I, were detected in three subjects; one had the nucleoside RT inhibitor-resistant mutations L74V and M184V and one had E138K. The prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV-1 in Haiphong increased slightly from 1.8% in 2007 to 6.6% in 2012 (p=0.06).

  2. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  3. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach

    PubMed Central

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Nor, Norashidah Mohamed; Abdullah, Nik Mustapha Raja; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  5. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  6. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trematode communities often consist of different species exploiting the same host population, with two or more trematodes sometimes co-occuring in the same host. A commonly used diagnostic method to detect larval trematode infections in snails has been based on cercarial shedding, though it is often criticized as inaccurate. In the present study we compare infection prevalences determined by cercarial emission with those determined, for the first time, by molecular methods, allowing us to quantify the underestimation of single and double infections based on cercarial emission. We thus developed a duplex PCR for two host-parasite systems, to specifically differentiate between single and double infections. The Ebro samples include two morphologically similar opecoelids, whereas the Otago samples include two morphologically different larval trematodes. Methods Snails were screened for infections by incubating them individually to induce cercarial emission, thus determining infection following the “classical” detection method. Snail tissue was then removed and fixed for the duplex PCR. After obtaining ITS rDNA sequences, four species-specific primers were designed for each snail-trematode system, and duplex PCR prevalence was determined for each sample. Results from both methods were statistically compared using the McNemar’s Chi-squared test and Cohen’s Kappa Statistic for agreement between outcomes. Results Overall infection prevalences determined by duplex PCR were consistently and substantially higher than those based on cercarial shedding: among Ebro samples, between 17.9% and 60.1% more snails were found infected using the molecular method, whereas in the Otago samples, the difference was between 9.9% and 20.6%. Kappa values generally indicated a fair to substantial agreement between both detection methods, showing a lower agreement for the Ebro samples. Conclusions We demonstrate that molecular detection of single and double infections by

  7. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases.

  8. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  9. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  10. Determining prevalence and correlates of elder abuse using promotores: low-income immigrant Latinos report high rates of abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    DeLiema, Marguerite; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Homeier, Diana C; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2012-07-01

    Low-income Latino immigrants are understudied in elder abuse research. Limited English proficiency, economic insecurity, neighborhood seclusion, a tradition of resolving conflicts within the family, and mistrust of authorities may impede survey research and suppress abuse reporting. To overcome these barriers, promotores, local Spanish-speaking Latinos, were recruited and trained to interview a sample of Latino adults aged 66 and older residing in low-income communities. The promotores conducted door-to-door interviews in randomly selected census tracts in Los Angeles to assess the frequency of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; financial exploitation; and caregiver neglect. Overall, 40.4% of elderly Latino adults had experienced some form of abuse or neglect within the previous year. Nearly 25% reported psychological abuse, 10.7% physical assault, 9% sexual abuse, and 16.7% financial exploitation, and 11.7% were neglected by their caregivers. Younger age, higher education, and experiencing sexual or physical abuse before age 65 were significant risk factors for psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Years lived in the United States, younger age, and prior abuse were associated with greater risk of financial exploitation. Years spent living in the United States was a significant risk factor for caregiver neglect. Abuse prevalence was much higher in all mistreatment domains than findings from previous research on community-dwelling elderly adults, suggesting that low-income Latino immigrants are highly vulnerable to elder mistreatment or that respondents are more willing to disclose abuse to promotores who represent their culture and community.

  11. Prevalence of tuberculosis among close family contacts of tuberculous patients in South India, and influence of segregation of the patient on the early attack rate*

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, R. H.; Devadatta, S.; Fox, Wallace; Radhakrishna, S.; Ramakrishnan, C. V.; Velu, S.

    1960-01-01

    The results of a study by the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, of the merits of home as compared with sanatorium treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis have indicated that treatment at home is satisfactory in the majority of cases. Before domiciliary chemotherapy can be introduced on a large scale, however, it must be established that it does not expose the patient's contacts to a special risk of infection, avoided by his isolation in a sanatorium. Accordingly, a further study was undertaken by the Centre to determine (a) the prevalence of tuberculosis among the family contacts of patients, and (b) the incidence of clinical tuberculosis and of tuberculous infections in the family contacts of the home and sanatorium groups of patients during the first year of treatment. The findings of this study indicate that the major risk for contacts lies in exposure to the infectious case before diagnosis, whether the patient subsequently remains at home or is isolated in a sanatorium appearing to have little importance, if the patients at home are treated with effective chemotherapy. Children under seven years of age proved to be particularly vulnerable to infection. The management of young contacts by chemoprophylaxis or by BCG vaccination, or by both measures, has been discussed. PMID:13683486

  12. Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men? A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Women have in general poorer self-rated health than men. Both material and psychosocial conditions have been found to be associated with self-rated health. We investigated whether two such factors, financial insecurity and condescending treatment, could explain the difference in self-rated health between women and men. Methods The association between the two factors and self-rated health was investigated in a population-based sample of 35,018 respondents. The data were obtained using a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-75 years in 2008. The area covers 55 municipalities in central Sweden and the overall response rate was 59%. Multinomial odds ratios for poor self-rated health were calculated adjusting for age, educational level and longstanding illness and in the final model also for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. Results The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 7.4% among women and 6.0% among men. Women reported more often financial insecurity and condescending treatment than men did. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health in relation to good self-rated health was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.17-1.42) for women compared to men when adjusted for age, educational level and longstanding illness. The association became, however, statistically non-significant when adjusted for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. Conclusion The present findings suggest that women would have as good self-rated health as men if they had similar financial security as men and were not treated in a condescending manner to a larger extent than men. Longitudinal studies are, however, required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:22937777

  13. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides.

  14. Prevalence Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Host-Seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M L; Strohecker, M D; Simmons, T W; Kyle, A D; Helwig, M W

    2015-07-01

    The etiological agents responsible for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and babesiosis (Babesia microti) are primarily transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. Despite Pennsylvania having in recent years reported the highest number of Lyme disease cases in the United States, relatively little is known regarding the geographic distribution of the vector and its pathogens in the state. Previous attempts at climate-based predictive modeling of I. scapularis occurrence have not coincided with the high human incidence rates in parts of the state. To elucidate the distribution and pathogen infection rates of I. scapularis, we collected and tested 1,855 adult ticks statewide from 2012 to 2014. The presence of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi was confirmed from all 67 Pennsylvania counties. Analyses were performed on 1,363 ticks collected in the fall of 2013 to avoid temporal bias across years. Infection rates were highest for B. burgdorferi (47.4%), followed by Ba. microti (3.5%) and A. phagocytophilum (3.3%). Coinfections included B. burgdorferi+Ba. microti (2.0%), B. burgdorferi+A. phagocytophilum (1.5%) and one tick positive for A. phagocytophilum+Ba. microti. Infection rates for B. burgdorferi were lower in the western region of the state. Our findings substantiate that Lyme disease risk is high throughout Pennsylvania.

  15. Heavy smoking rate trends and related factors in Korean occupational groups: analysis of KNHANES 2007–2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Guen; Pang, Do-Dam; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Jang, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to investigate the smoking and heavy smoking trends and identify possible related factors among Korean male workers from 2007 to 2012 by occupational groups. Methods The data were derived from the fourth (2007–2009) and fifth (2010–2012) waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Occupational groups were categorised into three groups, which were non-manual, manual and service and sales groups. Age-adjusted prevalence rates of smoking and heavy smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) in men aged 25–64 years were calculated. Factors associated with heavy smoking were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Results Smoking rate in manual workers decreased gradually over time (p for trend <0.0001). Smoking rate was higher in manual than non-manual workers, but the difference reduced over time (p for trend <0.0001). Heavy smoking rate decreased from 2007 to 2012 (p for trend <0.0001). Heavy smoking rate was higher in manual than non-manual workers; however, this difference increased over time. Stress, depressive mood and long working hours (≥60 h/week) were associated with heavy smoking. Conclusions Antismoking policy should focus on current and heavy smokers. Workplace antismoking programmes should consider working hours and stress, especially in manual workers. PMID:26563212

  16. Altitude and regional gradients in chronic kidney disease prevalence in Costa Rica: Data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Harhay, Meera N.; Harhay, Michael O.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando; Bixby, Luis Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent studies in Central America indicate that mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising rapidly. We sought to determine the prevalence and regional variation of CKD and the relationship of biologic and socioeconomic factors to CKD risk in the older-adult population of Costa Rica. Methods We used data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Health Aging Study (CRELES). The cohort was comprised of 2657 adults born before 1946 in Costa Rica, chosen through a sampling algorithm to represent the national population of Costa Ricans >60 years of age. Participants answered questionnaire data and completed laboratory testing. The primary outcome of this study was CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results The estimated prevalence of CKD for older Costa Ricans was 20% (95% CI 18.5 – 21.9%). In multivariable logistic regression, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08 per year, 95%CI 1.07–1.10, p<0.001) was independently associated with CKD. For every 200 meters above sea level of residence, subjects’ odds of CKD increased 26% (aOR 1.26 95% CI 1.15–1.38, p<0.001). There was large regional variation in adjusted CKD prevalence, highest in Limon (40%, 95% CI 30%–50%) and Guanacaste (36%, 95% CI 26–46%) provinces. Regional and altitude effects remained robust after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusions We observed large regional and altitude-related variations in CKD prevalence in Costa Rica, not explained by the distribution of traditional CKD risk factors. More studies are needed to explore the potential association of geographic and environmental exposures with the risk of CKD. PMID:26466575

  17. Prevalence of Children with Severe Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Communities Near Rome, Italy: New Estimated Rates Are Higher than Previous Estimates

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Aragón, Alfredo S.; Buckley, David; Stellavato, Chandra; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Manning, Melanie; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. Methods: Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented first grade children (n = 976) were screened in Tier I for height, weight, or head circumference and all children ≤10th centile on one of these measurements were included in the study. Also, teachers referred children for learning or behavioral problems. Children meeting either of these two criteria, along with randomly-selected controls, advanced to Tier II which began with a dysmorphology examination. Children with a possible FASD, and controls, advanced to Tier III for neurobehavioral testing, and their mothers were interviewed for maternal risks. Final diagnoses using indicators of dysmorphology, neurobehavior, and maternal risk were made in formally-structured, interdisciplinary case conferences. Results: Case control comparisons of physical, neurobehavioral, and maternal risk variables are presented for 46 children with an FASD and 116 randomly-selected controls without a diagnosis on the FASD continuum. Rates of diagnoses within the FASD continuum are then estimated from these in-school data via three different methods. The range of rates of FAS produced by these methods is between 4.0 to 12.0 per 1,000; Partial FAS ranges from 18.1 to 46.3 per 1,000; and an FASD was found in 2.3% to 6.3% of the children. Conclusions: These rates are substantially higher than previous estimates of FAS and overall FASD for the general populations of Western Europe and the U. S., and raise questions as to the total impact of FASD on mental deficit in mainstream populations of Western Europe and the United States where the majority are middle class and are not believed to be characterized by heavy episodic drinking. PMID

  18. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  19. Probably Benign Lesions at Screening Breast US in a Population with Elevated Risk: Prevalence and Rate of Malignancy in the ACRIN 6666 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Cormack, Jean B.; Mendelson, Ellen B.; Berg, Wendie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively validate predefined breast ultrasonographic (US) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 criteria in a multicenter setting in an elevated-risk population. Materials and Methods The American College of Radiology Imaging Network 6666 database was reviewed for prospectively defined BI-RADS category 3 lesions. Patient characteristics, lesion US features at initial detection, and work-up recommendations were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were given, where appropriate. Lesion reference standard was biopsy or a minimum of 1-year follow-up. In addition, malignancy rate for lesions that had at least 2 years of follow-up data or that had biopsy data was calculated. Results Of 2662 participants, 519 (19.5%) had 745 BI-RADS category 3 lesions (25.5% of 2916 US lesions other than simple cysts), with a median size of 7 mm (range, 2–135 mm). The number of new BI-RADS category 3 lesions decreased with year 2–3 screening, but the percentage of new BI-RADS category 3 lesions was stable at 26.4% (506 of 1920 lesions), 23.6% (142 of 601 lesions), and 24.6% (97 of 395 lesions), respectively. Of 745 BI-RADS category 3 lesions, 124 (16.6%) were ultimately sampled for biopsy. Six malignancies (0.8% of BI-RADS category 3 lesions; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3%, 1.7%) occurred in five (1.0%) of 519 participants: Five malignancies were invasive (median size, 10 mm; size range, 2–18 mm), and one was node positive. When the analysis is limited to lesions with at least 2-year follow-up or biopsy, the malignancy rate among BI-RADS category 3 lesions is 0.9% (95% CI: 0.3%, 2.0%). Three malignant BI-RADS category 3 lesions were sampled for biopsy because of a suspicious change at follow-up (two N0 lesions, one each at 6- and 12-month follow-up; one N1 lesion at 24-month follow-up), one was sampled for biopsy because of an upgrade after additional mammography (NX), one was found at mastectomy for

  20. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare–Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329

  1. The incidence of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran: a promising rate comparing to previous studies.

    PubMed

    Maharlouei, N; Atefi, S; Namazi, H; Kazemifar, S; Soveid, M; Shahraki, H R; Farahmand, Z; Khodayari, M; Arab, P; Forouzan, F; Allamehzadeh, N; Fazilat, S; Khademolhosseini, S; Nafari, F; Lankarani, K B

    2017-03-16

    We evaluate the incidence of hip fracture in 50 years old or above in southwest of Iran. Age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture, standardized to the 2000 US white population, were 79.55 per 10(5) in total and 66.51 and 92.37 per 10(5) in male and female, respectively.

  2. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in union ironworkers.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Punnett, Laura; Wegman, David H

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) symptoms and doctor-diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders (DDMDs) were estimated among union construction ironworkers by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Of 1996 ironworkers eligible, 1566 were contacted and 981 were interviewed. The prevalence of self-reported MSD symptoms was high for the lower back (56%), wrist/hands/fingers (40%), knees (39%), and shoulders (36%). The most common DDMDs were tendonitis (19%), ruptured disk in the back (18%), bursitis in the shoulder (15%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (12%). Generally, the prevalence of DDMDs and MSD symptoms increased with duration of employment. In age-adjusted logistic regression analyses, those who worked 25 to 35 years were more likely to have tendonitis (odds ratio [OR] 7.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.116.6), shoulder bursitis (OR 13.7, 95% CI 3.160.4), knee bursitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.025.1), and ruptured intervertebral back disk (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.617.5). The effect of prior injury was also consistently high (upper extremities, OR 4.6; lower extremities OR 5.1; lower back, OR 6.0). Among workers without prior injuries, MSD symptoms were more frequent for the lower back in structural ironwork (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.12.6), and for the upper extremity in concrete reinforcement ironwork (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.22.9). These findings suggest that some musculoskeletal morbidity in construction ironworkers may be work related and thus preventable.

  4. The prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, Z; Yu, Q; Wu, C; Lu, Z; Zhu, F; Zhang, H; Liao, M; Li, T; Chen, W; Xian, X; Tan, A; Mo, Z

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction (ED) among southern Chinese men. Data were collected from 2790 men attending the Fangchenggang Area Male Healthy and Examination Survey from September 2009 to December 2009. The prostatitis-like symptoms were assessed by the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and ED was assessed using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Lifestyle and demographic characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire. Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms was 12.4% among 2790 Chinese men aged 20-84 years. In smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes per day (age-adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.00-1.66; p = 0.04), physical inactivity (age-adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.03-1.66; p = 0.02) was a significant risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms. Alcohol consumption (daily drinking) also was a risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms, although the differences were not statistically significant (age-adjusted OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.96-1.92; p = 0.07). Those with diabetes may also be at higher risk for prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.85-2.21; p = 0.19). In addition, men with ED were more likely to have had prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.47-2.36; p < 0.0001), and the ORs increased with increasing severity of ED status (mild ED, mild to moderate ED, and moderate to severe ED were 1.57, 2.62, and 3.24, respectively. Test for trend, p = 0.0001). Our results show that prostatitis-like symptoms are prevalent in Southern China affecting men of all ages. Smoking, drinking, lack of physical activity, and elevated plasma glucose level were associated with an increased risk of prostatitis-like symptoms. In addition, our results reveal that ED accounted for a large proportion (61.5%) among men with prostatitis-like symptoms; we also confirm the magnitude of ED associated with

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  6. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China’s Labor-Force Dynamic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604

  8. Prevalence of disability in a composite ≥75 year-old population in Spain: A screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF. Methods Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items) as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100) assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items) was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100). Results The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32). Conclusions Disability is highly prevalent among the Spanish elderly

  9. Prevalence of Axial Spondylarthritis in the United States: Estimates From a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    REVEILLE, JOHN D.; WITTER, JAMES P.; WEISMAN, MICHAEL H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The US national prevalence of spondylarthritis (SpA) was estimated for 2 published sets of classification criteria: the Amor criteria and the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria. These 2 SpA criteria sets have been the most widely utilized in previous population-based studies of SpA. Methods The US SpA prevalence estimates were based on a representative sample of 5,013 US adults ages 20 – 69 years who were examined in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010. Results The overall age-adjusted prevalence of definite and probable SpA by the Amor criteria was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.7–1.1%), corresponding to an estimated 1.7 million persons (95% CI 1.4–2.1 million persons). The age-adjusted prevalence of SpA by the ESSG criteria was 1.4% (95% CI 1.0–1.9%), corresponding to an estimated 2.7 million persons (95% CI 1.9–3.7 million persons). There were no statistically significant sex differences in SpA prevalence. The SpA prevalence among non-Hispanic white persons was 1.0% (95% CI 0.7–1.5%) by the Amor criteria and 1.5% (95% CI 1.0–2.3%) by the ESSG criteria. SpA prevalence could not be reliably estimated in other race/ethnicity subgroups due to sample size imitations. Conclusion The SpA prevalence estimates are in the range of SpA prevalence estimates reported elsewhere in population-based surveys and it is likely that SpA may affect up to 1% of US adults, a prevalence similar to that reported for rheumatoid arthritis. The current US SpA prevalence estimates may be lower than the true value because the NHANES 2009–2010 data collection did not capture a complete set of the elements specified in the 2 SpA criteria sets. PMID:22275150

  10. Prevalence of obesity in Malta

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, J.; Calleja, N.; Camilleri, R.; Borg, A.; Bonnici, G.; Zhang, Y.; Pace, N.; Mamo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted (2014–2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight‐obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. Results The study identified 69.75% (95% CI: 68.32–71.18) of the Maltese population to be either overweight or obese. The men overweight/obese prevalence (76.28% 95% CI: 74.41–78.14) was statistically higher than that for women (63.06% 95% CI: 60.92–65.20) (p = 0.0001). Age stratification revealed that both genders had the highest overweight prevalence rates between 55 and 64 years (Men = 23.25% 95% CI: 20.43–26.33; Women = 24.68% 95% CI: 21.44–28.22). Men obesity prevalence rates were highest in the 35 to 44 years group (22.52% 95% CI: 19.65–25.68) while for women it was highest in the 55 to 64 years group (28.90%, 95% CI: 25.44–30.63). Conclusion Over a 35‐year period, an overall decrease in the normal and overweight BMI categories occurred with an increase in the prevalence of obesity. An exception was observed in the women, where the prevalence of normal BMI increased over this time period. Also, it appears that while the total population obesity prevalence increased (for 2016), a percentage of the women have shifted from an obese to an overweight status. PMID:28090352

  11. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  12. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    PubMed Central

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  13. Prevalence of obesity and correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Wen, Wanqing; Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the age-adjusted prevalence of general and centralized obesity among Chinese men living in urban Shanghai. Research Methods and Procedures A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61,582 Chinese men aged 40 to 75. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was used to measure overweight (23≤BMI<27.5) and obesity (BMI≥27.5) based on the WHO recommended criteria for Asians. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used to measure moderate (75th≤WHR<90th percentile) and severe (WHR≥90th percentile) centralized obesity. Results The average BMI and WHR were 23.7 kg/m2 and 0.90, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 48.6% and obesity, 10.5%. The prevalence of general and centralized obesity was higher in men with high income or who were unemployed, tea drinkers, or non-ginseng users than their counterparts. Men with high education had a higher prevalence of overweight and centralized obesity, but had a lower prevalence of obesity and severe centralized obesity compared to those with lower education. Current smokers or alcohol drinkers had a lower prevalence of general obesity but higher prevalence of centralized obesity than non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Ex-smokers and ex-alcohol drinkers had a higher prevalence of general and centralized obesity compared to non-smokers and non-alcohol drinkers. Prevalence of obesity was associated with high energy intake and low daily physical activity. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity in Chinese men in urban Shanghai was lower than that observed in Western countries but higher than that in other Asian countries, and the prevalence of general and centralized obesity differed by demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. PMID:18356829

  14. AB144. The prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhifu; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction (ED) among southern Chinese male population. Methods Data were collected from 2,790 men attending the Fangchenggang Area Male Healthy and Examination Survey from September 2009 to December 2009. The prostatitis-like symptoms were assessed by the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and ED was assessed using the 5-item international index of erectile function. Lifestyle and demographic characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire. Results Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms was 12.4% among 2,790 Chinese men aged 20-84 years. Smokers ≥20 cigarettes/day (age-adjusted OR =1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.66; P=0.04), physical inactivity (age-adjusted OR =1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.66; P=0.02), was a significant risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms. Alcohol consumption (daily drinking) may also was a risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms, although the differences were not statistically significant (age-adjusted OR =1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.92; P=0.07). Those who undergone diabetes may also be a risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR =1.37; 95% CI, 0.85-2.21; P=0.19). In addition, men with ED were more likely to have had prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR =1.86; 95% CI, 0.47-2.36; P<0.0001), and the ORs increased with increasing severe of ED status (mild ED, mild to moderate ED, moderate to severe ED were 1.57, 2.62, 3.24 respectively. Test for trend, P=0.0001). Conclusions Prostatitis-like symptoms is prevalent in Southern China affects men of all ages. Smoking, drinking, lack of physical activity and elevated plasma glucose level were associated with an increased risk of prostatitis-like symptoms. In addition, we confirm the magnitude of ED associated with prostatitis-like symptoms.

  15. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  16. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes in the Australian National Eye Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R.; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants in the National Eye Health Survey. Research Design and Methods 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50–98 years and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40–92 years were examined in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. A history of diabetes was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results 13.91% (431/3098) of non-Indigenous Australians and 37.11% (645/1738) of Indigenous Australians had self-reported diabetes. The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported diabetes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australians was 11.49% and 43.77%, respectively (p <0.001). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes increased markedly with age (OR = 1.04 per year, p = 0.017). Indigenous Australians living in very remote areas were more likely to have self-reported diabetes than those in major city areas (OR = 1.61, p = 0.038). Conclusions The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Australia was high, with the prevalence being almost 4 times higher in Indigenous Australians compared with non-Indigenous Australians. With the prevalence of diabetes likely to increase, the results of this national survey may inform future policy, planning and funding allocation to assist in controlling the diabetes epidemic. PMID:28045990

  17. Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Paul S.

    The current prevailing professional opinion is that the prevalence rates of alcohol abuse among the elderly are low compared to the general population. The prevalence of alcohol abuse among the elderly was examined through a review of the empirical research. This review revealed a number of serious methodological problems. The most important of…

  18. Understanding CKD among patients with T2DM: prevalence, temporal trends, and treatment patterns—NHANES 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingcao; Bell, Kelly; Stanford, Amy; Kern, David M; Tunceli, Ozgur; Vupputuri, Suma; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Willey, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the estimated prevalence and temporal trends of chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment patterns, and the association between CKD and potential factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different demographic subgroups. Research design and methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of adults with T2DM based on multiple US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets developed during 2007–2012. CKD severity was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation: mild to moderate=stages 1–3a; moderate to kidney failure=stages 3b–5. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between CKD and potential factors. Results Of the adult individuals with T2DM (n=2006), age-adjusted CKD prevalence was 38.3% during 2007–2012; 77.5% were mild-to-moderate CKD. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was 40.2% in 2007–2008, 36.9% in 2009–2010, and 37.6% in 2011–2012. The prevalence of CKD in T2DM was 58.7% in patients aged ≥65 years, 25.7% in patients aged <65 years, 43.5% in African-Americans and Mexican-Americans, and 38.7% in non-Hispanic whites. The use of antidiabetes and antihypertensive medications generally followed treatment guideline recommendations. Older age, higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and having hypertension were significantly associated with CKD presence but not increasing severity of CKD. Conclusions CKD continued to be prevalent in the T2DM population; prevalence remained fairly consistent over time, suggesting that current efforts to prevent CKD could be improved overall, especially by monitoring certain populations more closely. PMID:27110365

  19. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2011-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... group. NOTES: Totals were age-adjusted by the direct method to the 2000 U.S. census population using ... NOTE: All estimates are age-adjusted by the direct method to the 2000 U.S. census population using ...

  20. Stroke prevalence among the Spanish elderly: an analysis based on screening surveys

    PubMed Central

    Boix, Raquel; del Barrio, José Luis; Saz, Pedro; Reñé, Ramón; Manubens, José María; Lobo, Antonio; Gascón, Jordi; de Arce, Ana; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Bergareche, Alberto; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background This study sought to describe stroke prevalence in Spanish elderly populations and compare it against that of other European countries. Methods We identified screening surveys -both published and unpublished- in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality requirements and targeted prevalence of stroke in populations aged 70 years and over. Surveys covering seven geographically different populations with prevalence years in the period 1991–2002 were selected, and the respective authors were then asked to provide descriptions of the methodology and raw age-specific data by completing a questionnaire. In addition, five reported screening surveys in European populations furnished useful data for comparison purposes. Prevalence data were combined, using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The overall study population, resident in central and north-eastern Spain, totalled 10,647 persons and yielded 715 cases. Age-adjusted prevalences, using the European standard population, were 7.3% for men, 5.6% for women, and 6.4% for both sexes. Prevalence was significantly lower in women, OR 0.79 95% CI 0.68–0.93, increased with age, particularly among women, and displayed a threefold spatial variation with statistically significant differences. Prevalences were highest, 8.7%, in suburban, and lowest, 3.8%, in rural populations. Compared to pooled Spanish populations, statistically significant differences were seen in eight Italian populations, OR 1.39 95%CI (1.18–1.64), and in Kungsholmen, Sweden, OR 0.40 95%CI (0.27–0.58). Conclusion Prevalence in central and north-eastern Spain is higher in males and in suburban areas, and displays a threefold geographic variation, with women constituting the majority of elderly stroke sufferers. Compared to reported European data, stroke prevalence in Spain can be said to be medium and presents similar age- and sex-specific traits. PMID:17042941

  1. Prevalence of hypertension and noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Ming; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Enming; Zhao, Qiuni; Wang, Boshen; Han, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to inconsistent epidemiologic evidence and the presence of confounding factors, the relation between occupational noise exposure and hypertension still remained unclear. We aimed to assess whether Chinese coal miners were at risk of developing hypertension and noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), and whether occupational noise exposure was a risk factor of hypertension. Methods A questionnaire was designed to collect information from 738 study participants, all of whom were employees from the Datun Xuzhou Coal Company. The participants were divided into a noise-exposed group and a control group based on the noise level to which they were exposed in the workplace. The differences in the mean of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were compared between the noise-exposed and control groups. Also the prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of audiometric deficit and hypertension was compared in the study. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the relation between occupational noise level and hypertension while controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Hypertension was more prevalent in noise-exposed group than the control group, 29.2% vs. 21.2% (P=0.012). The noise-exposed group faced an increased risk of hypertension (age-adjusted OR =1.52, 95% CI =1.07–2.15) when the control group was used as reference. The mean values of SBP and DBP of the noise-exposed groups were significantly higher than the control group (P=0.006 and P=0.002 respectively). Hearing loss at low frequencies was significantly more prevalent in the noise-exposed group than the control group, 12.8% vs. 7.4% (P=0.015), while the noise-exposed group faced the increased risk of hearing loss at low frequencies (age-adjusted OR =1.81, 95% CI =1.10–2.96). LEX, 8h (OR =1.036, 95% CI =1.012–1.060) was an independent risk of hypertension when controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusions We

  2. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L.; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C. W.; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Solomon, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. Methods A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1–9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. Results The prevalence of active trachoma in 1–9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4–4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1–9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4–2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. Discussion The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in

  3. Death rate variation in US subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Kindig, David A.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Libby, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To account for variations in death rates in population subgroups of the USA. METHODS: Factors associated with age-adjusted death rates in 366 metropolitan and non- metropolitan areas of the United States were examined for 1990-92. The rates ranged from 690 to 1108 per 100 000 population (mean = 885 +/- 78 per 100 000). FINDINGS: Least squares regression analysis explained 71% of this variance. Factors with the strongest independent positive association were ethnicity (African-American), less than a high school education, high Medicare expenditures, and location in western or southern regions. Factors with the strongest independent negative associations were employment in agriculture and forestry, ethnicity (Hispanic) and per capita income. CONCLUSION: Additional research at the individual level is needed to determine if these associations are causal, since some of the factors with the strongest associations, such as education, have long latency periods. PMID:11884968

  4. Executive function moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and resting heart rate variability in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gathright, Emily C; Walter, Fawn A; Hawkins, Misty A W; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Hughes, Joel W; Gunstad, John

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with high rates of depression. In turn, depression is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of parasympathetic dysfunction and poorer cardiac outcomes. Cognitive impairment--especially executive dysfunction--is also highly prevalent in HF, but it is unknown whether executive function (EF) impacts the depression-HRV relationship. The primary objective of this paper is to examine whether EF moderates the relationship between depression and HRV in HF. Participants were 109 HF patients. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. EF was assessed using a composite of age-adjusted T scores on the Frontal Assessment Battery, Trail Making Test B, and Stroop Color Word subtest. Parasympathetic function was assessed using resting high frequency HRV (HF-HRV). Multiple hierarchical regression was used to conduct BDI × EF moderation analyses. BDI scores were associated with reduced resting HF-HRV (p < .05). No main effects were detected between EF and resting HF-HRV (p > .05). However, EF moderated the relationship between BDI scores and resting HF-HRV (β = 0.59, p < .01). Simple slope analyses revealed that among participants with poorer EF, higher BDI scores were associated with lower resting HF-HRV (p < .001). Structural brain changes common in HF may contribute to lower EF, increased depression, and poorer autonomic functioning. Alternatively, the results may indicate that individuals with intact EF engage in self-care strategies that negate the detrimental impact of depression on autonomic function. Additional work is needed to clarify these possibilities and the potential benefits of treating depression in HF patients with different cognitive abilities.

  5. Creation of an age-adjusted, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived trabecular bone score curve for the lumbar spine in non-Hispanic US White women.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Christine; Leib, Edward; Mossman, Ned; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Hans, Didier; McClung, Michael

    2014-01-01

    L1-L4 between 45 and 90 yr of age (vs. -2.34 for aBMD). Microarchitectural loss rate increased after age 65 by 50% (-0.004 to -0.006). Similar results were obtained for other combinations of lumbar vertebra. TBS, an index of bone microarchitectural texture, decreases with advancing age in non-Hispanic US white women. Little change in TBS is observed between ages 30 and 45. Thereafter, a progressive decrease is observed with advancing age. The changes we observed in these American women are similar to that previously reported for a French population of white women (r(2) > 0.99). This reference database will facilitate the use of TBS to assess bone microarchitectural deterioration in clinical practice.

  6. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identified as male at birth and self-identified/expressed as a different gender, and reported having sex with at least one male partner in past year. From six major urban centers of Cambodia, 891 transgender individuals were recruited. Results The majority of the 891 participants self-identified as third gender or female (94.5%), were young (median age 23, IQR [20–27]), had secondary education or higher (80.5%), not married (89.7%), and employed (90.2%). The majority had first sex before 18 years (66.8%), with a male (79.9%), 37.9% having been paid or paying for this first sex. The rate of HIV positivity among participants was found to be 4.15%. Consistent condom use with male and female partners was low with all partner types, but particularly low with male partners when paying for sex (20.3%). The majority of participants reported having experienced discrimination in their lifetime (54.8%) and 30.3% had been assaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (adjusted OR = 14.73 [4.20, 51.67] for age 35–44 and adjusted OR = 7.63 [2.55, 22.81] for age 30–34), only having a primary school education or no schooling at all (adjusted OR = 2.62 [1.18, 5.80], being a resident of Siem Reap (adjusted OR = 7.44 [2.37,23.29], receiving payment at first sex (adjusted OR = 2.26 [1.00, 5.11], having sex during/after using drugs (adjusted OR = 2.90 [1.09,7.73]), inconsistent condom use during last anal sex (adjusted OR = 3.84 [1.58, 9.33]), and reporting low self-esteem (adjusted OR

  7. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases.

  8. Prevalence of Injury in Occupation and Industry: Role of Obesity in the National Health Interview Survey 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ja K.; Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of injury by occupation and industry and obesity’s role. Methods Self-reported injuries were collected annually for US workers during 2004 to 2013. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from fitted logistic regression models. Results Overall weighted injury prevalence during the previous three months was 77 per 10,000 workers. Age-adjusted injury prevalence was greatest for Construction and Extraction workers (169.7/10,000) followed by Production (160.6) among occupations, while workers in the Construction industry sector (147.9) had the highest injury prevalence followed by the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing/Mining/Utilities sector (122.1). Overweight and obese workers were 26% to 45% more likely to experience injuries than normal-weight workers. Conclusion The prevalence of injury, highest for Construction workers, gradually increased as body mass index levels increased in most occupational and industry groups. PMID:27058472

  9. Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727

  10. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  11. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing.

  12. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Elderly of Namwon County, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Guk; Yang, Seung Won; Jang, An Soo; Seo, Jeong Pyeong; Han, Sang Woo; Yeom, Chung Ho; Kim, Yong Chul; Oh, Sung Hee; Kim, Jung Seok; Nam, Hae Sung; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Min Young

    2002-01-01

    Background: Ethnic and geographic differences exist in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus which has increased dramatically in South Korea. A few community-based epidemiologic studies with oral glucose tolerance test were performed in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Diabetic Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria and to investigate their associated risk factors. Also, we compared and analyzed the characteristics of Koreans by WHO and ADA diagnostic criteria. Methods : Between March 22, 1999 and July 14, 1999, a random sampling of 1,445 residents over 40 years of age in five villages (3 myons and 2 dongs) in Namwon City, Chollabuk-do Province, South Korea was carried out. WHO and ADA diagnostic criteria were used for the prevalence of DM, IGT and IPG. The associated factors of subjects were analyzed. Results : After age adjustment for the population projection of Korea (1999), the prevalence of DM and IGT was 13.7% and 13.8%, respectively, by WHO criteria, while the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG was 15.8%, 12.8% and 5.7%, respectively, by ADA criteria, and the previous diagnosed diabetics were 5.8% in 665 adults over 40 years of age in the Namwon area. The age-adjusted prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetics was 5.8%. When the subjects classified by both criteria were compared, the level of agreement between WHO and ADA diagnostic criteria, except IFG, was very high (κ=0.94; p<0.001). The ROC curve analysis determined FSG of 114.5 mg/dL (6.4 mmol/L) to yield optimal sensitivity and specificity corresponding to a PP2SG 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L). The prevalence of DM and IGT with ADA diagnostic criteria rose with increasing age (p<0.05). The body mass index was mean 23.8±3.4 in all the subjects, 23.75±3.46 in NGT group and 23.67±3.16 in DM group, but the differences in the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG by BMI were not significant. The prevalence of

  13. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them with the rates among adolescents in the general…

  14. Variations in hysterectomy rates in Ontario: does the indication matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R E; Cohen, M M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine variations in rates of hysterectomy for the five main indications for the procedure in regions of Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based analysis of hospital discharge abstracts. SETTING: All acute care facilities in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: All 65,599 women whose hospital record contained a procedure code indicating that a hysterectomy was performed between Apr. 1, 1988, and Mar. 31, 1991. Duplicate cases, records of cancelled procedures and nonresidents were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crude and age-adjusted rates of hysterectomy, by indication, for each region of Ontario. RESULTS: Five indications accounted for more than 80% of hysterectomies performed. The median age-adjusted rate of hysterectomy for Ontario regions during the study period was 6.25 per 1000 women, with a 2.7-fold variation among regions. The regions with rates of hysterectomy in the highest quartile tended to be rural, and those with rates in the lowest quartile tended to be urban areas with teaching hospitals. When rates of hysterectomy for specific indications were examined, they showed substantial variations among regions in the rate of the procedure for menstrual hemorrhage (18-fold variation), uterine prolapse (9.3-fold) and endometriosis (6.3-fold). A smaller but still significant variation was shown in the rate of hysterectomy for leiomyoma (2.3-fold). Regional variation in the rate of hysterectomy for cancer (2.5-fold) was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There are large interregional variations in rates of hysterectomy, especially for indications that are more discretionary than others (i.e., menstrual hemorrhage, uterine prolapse and endometriosis) and less variation in rates when treatment options and diagnosis are clear-cut. This result suggests the need for more definitive practice guidelines on treatment of the indications for which the rate is more variable. PMID:7994690

  15. High Prevalence and High Incidence of Coinfection with Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Syphilis and Low Rate of Effective Vaccination against Hepatitis B in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men with Known Date of HIV Seroconversion in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Klaus; Thamm, Michael; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Scheufele, Ramona; Kücherer, Claudia; Muenstermann, Dieter; Hagedorn, Hans-Jochen; Jessen, Heiko; Dupke, Stephan; Hamouda, Osamah; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk for coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis than the general population. HIV infection and these coinfections accelerate disease progression reciprocally. This study evaluated the prevalence and incidence of these coinfections in HIV1-positive MSM in Germany. Materials and Methods As part of a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study of HIV-infected MSM, plasma samples collected yearly were screened for HBsAg and antibodies to HBc, HBs, HCV, and syphilis. Samples with indications of active HBV or HCV infection were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and incidence of each infection and incidence rates per study participant were calculated, and incidences over 4-year time intervals compared. Results This study screened 5,445 samples from 1,843 MSM. Median age at HIV seroconversion was 33 years. Prevalences of active, cleared, and occult HBV, and of active/cleared HCV were 1.7%, 27.1%, 0.2%, and 8.2%, respectively, and 47.5% had been effectively vaccinated against HBV. Prevalence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum and of triple or quadruple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were 39.6% and 18.9%, respectively. Prevalence of STI, cleared HBV, HBV vaccination, and history of syphilis differed significantly among age groups. Incidences of HBV, HCV, and syphilis were 2.51, 1.54, and 4.06 per 100 person-years, respectively. Incidences of HCV and syphilis increased over time. HCV incidence was significantly higher in MSM coinfected with syphilis and living in Berlin, and syphilis incidence was significantly higher for MSM living in Berlin. Discussion Despite extensive HBV vaccination campaigns, fewer than 50% of screened MSM were effectively vaccinated, with a high proportion of HIV-positive MSM coinfected with HBV. High rates of STI coinfections in HIV-positive MSM and increasing incidences emphasize the need for better tailored campaigns for

  16. Low Target Prevalence Is a Stubborn Source of Errors in Visual Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kenner, Naomi M.; Place, Skyler S.; Kibbi, Nour

    2007-01-01

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets in displays containing distractors. Likelihood that targets will be missed varies with target prevalence, the frequency with which targets are presented across trials. Miss error rates are much higher at low target prevalence (1%-2%) than at high prevalence (50%). Unfortunately, low prevalence is…

  17. Stroke survivors in Nigeria: A door-to-door prevalence survey from the Niger Delta region.

    PubMed

    Ezejimofor, Martinsixtus C; Uthman, Olalekan A; Maduka, Omosivie; Ezeabasili, Aloysius C; Onwuchekwa, Arthur C; Ezejimofor, Benedeth C; Asuquo, Eme; Chen, Yen-Fu; Stranges, Saverio; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2017-01-15

    The burden of stroke has been projected to increase in low-and middle-income countries due to the ongoing epidemiological transition. However, community-based stroke prevalence studies are sparse in sub-Saharan Africa particularly in Nigeria. This study aimed to provide a comparative estimate of the prevalence of stroke survivors in the rural Niger Delta region. A three-phased door-to-door survey was conducted using WHO modified instruments. In the first-phase, 2028 adults (≥18years) participants randomly selected from two rural communities were screened by trained health research assistants for probable stroke. In the second phase, suspected cases were screened with stroke-specific tool. Positive cases were made to undergo complete neurological evaluation by two study neurologist in phase-three. Stroke diagnosis was based on clinical evaluation using WHO criteria. Overall, 27 (8 first-ever and 19 recurrent cases) stroke survivors with crude prevalence of 13.31/1000 (95% CI, 8.32-18.31) and a non-significant difference in prevalence between the two study communities were found, (P=0.393I). In addition, age-adjusted prevalence of stroke survivors was 14.6/1000 person, about 7-folds higher than previous estimates outside the Niger Delta region. The prevalence increases significantly with advancing in age, P<0·001. Among others, hypertension (92.59%) was the commonest risk factor and comorbidity found. Improved stroke surveillance and care, as well as better management of the underlying risk factors, primarily undetected or uncontrolled high blood pressure, remains a public health priority.

  18. Relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health among adolescents in Germany. Do socio-economic status and type of school have an impact on that relation?

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003‒2006). For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11‒17 years) was raised with the question: "How would you describe your health in general?" The response categories were "very good", "good", "fair", "poor", and "very poor". We dichotomized these responses into: "very good/good" vs. "fair/poor/very poor". Socio-economic status (SES) in the family of origin and adolescents' school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents.

  19. Low rates of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, surrounded by villages with high prevalence of multiresistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in people and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Papousek, Ivo; De Nys, Helene; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Metzger, Sonya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Wittig, Roman M; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Leendertz, Fabian H; Literak, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife.

  20. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  1. Estimated prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bezzini, Daiana

    2017-03-01

    Italy is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis (MS) as confirmed by the numerous prevalence and incidence studies conducted in several regions/districts of the country. Nevertheless, there are no recent published epidemiological data, nor studies about the total prevalence of MS in Italy. Our aim was to update as of 2015 the prevalence rates of MS in different geographical areas using already published epidemiological studies, and to estimate the overall prevalence of the disease in Italy. We made a search in MEDLINE database of all published studies on epidemiology of MS in Italy. Then, we applied, to the already published prevalence data, the last published incidence and mortality rates to recalculate, as of 2015, the prevalence of MS. So, we calculated the mean prevalence rate from our extrapolations, and we applied it to the population in 2015 to estimate the number of MS patients in Italy. Our prevalence extrapolations ranged from 122 to 232 cases/100,000 in the mainland and Sicily, with an average of 176/100,000, and from 280 to 317 cases/100,000 in Sardinia with an average of 299/100,000. Applying these media to the Italian population in 2015, we obtained an estimate of more than 109,000 MS patients in Italy. Our estimates were higher than the latest published rates but consistent with the annual increase of prevalence due to incidence that exceeds mortality, with the increase of survival and, maybe, with the probable increase of incidence.

  2. Synthetic Cannabinoids and Cathinones: Prevalence and Markets.

    PubMed

    Bretteville-Jensen, A L; Tuv, S S; Bilgrei, O R; Fjeld, B; Bachs, L

    2013-03-01

    Over the past few years, the phenomenon of new designer drugs has attracted much attention. Synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones are the two main classes of these drugs. Both are potent drugs of abuse, and several cases of severe toxicity and deaths are reported. The present work is based on a systematic review of studies that have assessed the market and prevalence of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones, and integrates pharmacological, sociological, and epidemiological aspects of these two groups of emerging synthetic drugs. The review reflects that the Internet has made synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones widely available. Furthermore, aggressive and widespread marketing, as well as the low price level of these drugs, their juridical status and their lack of detection on standard drug tests may serve as major motivations for drug use. The number of prevalence studies is small and derived from a limited number of countries. In spite of the many methodological shortcomings, some conclusions may be cautiously drawn. Taken together, the results point toward higher prevalence of use for synthetic cathinones than for synthetic cannabinoids. In the general population, the prevalence of use of synthetic cathinones is reported to be around 4% compared to figures lower than 1% for synthetic cannabinoids. Among students, the prevalence varies from 1-20% for synthetic cathinones and 2-10% for synthetic cannabinoids. Among groups with high rates of drug use, the prevalence varies between 4% to more than 60% for synthetic cathinones and around 10% for synthetic cannabinoids.

  3. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebresilassie, Lidya

    2015-01-01

    Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Result. The overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus was 40.9% (n = 157). The prevalence in medium body condition 27.3% (n = 105) varies significantly from that of good body condition 13.5% (n = 52) (P < 0.05). Moreover, there was significant variation (P < 0.05) in the prevalence in young and adult sheep with rates of 21.9% (n = 84) and 19% (n = 73), respectively. At the same time, there is significant variation (P < 0.05) in male and female sheep with prevalence of 29.7% (n = 114) and 11.2% (n = 43), respectively. The prevalence of 25.3% (n = 97) in sheep that originated from Negash compared to Wukro and Agulae showed no significant variation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented. PMID:25688297

  4. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  5. Association between genetic taste sensitivity, 2D:4D ratio, dental caries prevalence, and salivary flow rate in 6-14-year-old children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chintamaneni Raja; Radhika, Doppalapudi; Prabhat, Mpv; Bhavana, Sujana mulk; Sai Madhavi, Nallamilli

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Student’s t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D), non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.000). Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48) than non-tasters (0.29), which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index. PMID:27651879

  6. Association between genetic taste sensitivity, 2D:4D ratio, dental caries prevalence, and salivary flow rate in 6-14-year-old children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chintamaneni Raja; Radhika, Doppalapudi; Prabhat, Mpv; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sai Madhavi, Nallamilli

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 6‒14-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 6‒14 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D), non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.000). Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48) than non-tasters (0.29), which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index.

  7. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  8. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004–2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008–2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity. PMID

  9. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Obana, Kyle K

    2016-01-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai‘i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65–79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45–54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m2 greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  10. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Linda S; Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  11. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Shawn D; Gershon, Andrea S; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Jenna; Whitmore, GA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain to be investigated. PMID:27698561

  12. Prevalence and influencing factors of chronic back pain among staff at special schools with multiple and severely handicapped children in Germany: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Germany, about 70,000 teachers and educational staff were teaching at more than 3,000 special schools during the school year 2010/2011. Nursing services like lifting pupils form a substantial part of the work content of the staff at special schools. Since nursing care often involves carrying and lifting pupils, there is a reason to assume an adverse effect on the musculoskeletal health of teachers and other professionals. With the present study we aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic back pain among employees at this type of school. Methods The cross-sectional survey was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 special schools focusing on motoric and/or holistic development of handicapped children in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany). Teachers and educational staff were interviewed using a questionnaire. We applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify influencing factors of chronic back pain. Results Altogether 395 persons (response rate: 59.7%) participated in our study. Respondents were mostly female (86.8%) with a mean age of 45 years. The prevalence of chronic back pain was 38.7%. More than 40% reported frequently carrying and lifting heavy loads (>20 kg). Age [adjusted OR = 1.03 (95%-CI 1.00-1.05) for 1-year increase in age], current smoking [adjusted OR = 2.31 (95%-CI 1.27-4.23)], depression/depressive mood [adjusted OR = 1.85 (95%-CI 1.12-3.06)], frequently carrying and lifting heavy loads [adjusted OR = 2.69 (95%-CI 1.53-4.75)], and frequent exposure to environmental impacts [adjusted OR = 2.18 (95%-CI 1.26-3.76)] were influencing factors of chronic back pain in the final multivariable regression model. Conclusions A large proportion of teachers and educational staff suffered from chronic back pain in our study, indicating a high need for treatment in this professional group. Increasing age, current smoking, a diagnosed depression/depressive mood, carrying and lifting

  13. National sex-specific trends in hospital-based stroke rates.

    PubMed

    Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Mounting regional and national evidence suggests a decline in primary in-hospital stroke diagnoses. However, these data do not include secondary diagnoses of stroke, and little is known about whether this decline varies significantly by sex. Compared with men, women are less likely to have optimal control of stroke risk factors, which may be leading to less impressive declines in stroke incidence in women. This study evaluated sex trends in hospital-based stroke diagnoses in the United States. The study was a time-trend analysis by sex of national age-adjusted rates of primary or secondary hospital-based stroke diagnosis per 100,000 persons (identified by ICD-9 procedure codes) among patients for 1997-2006 using data from all US states contributing to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adjustments were made to correct for some inaccuracies in diagnostic codes. Between 1997 and 2006, total hospital-based stroke diagnoses decreased from 680,607 to 609,359. The age-adjusted hospital-based stroke diagnosis rate per 100,000 persons decreased in a roughly linear pattern from 282.7 to 210.4 in men (26%; P < .001) and from 240.5 to 184.7 in women (23%; P < .05). The average rate of decrease (slope) in hospital-based stroke diagnosis rates was greater in men than in women (-8.7 vs -7.5 per 100,000 persons; P = .003). Age-adjusted rates of hospital-based stroke diagnoses have decreased substantially in the United States during the last decade, but slightly less so in women. These results are generally encouraging, but nonetheless indicate that more intensive preventive efforts are warranted to completely eliminate sex disparities in stroke occurrence.

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Partner Violence among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Myer, Landon; Merais, Adele; Lombard, Carl; Reddy, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of partner violence among adolescents, nor of the factors with which it is associated. The objectives of this study were to document prevalence rates for partner violence among high school students in Cape Town, and to explore factors that are associated with such violence. Method: The sample…

  16. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Cancer.gov

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and two-phase stratified sampling. Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  17. Increased Prevalence of Controlled Viremia and Decreased Rates of HIV Drug Resistance Among HIV-Positive People Who Use Illicit Drugs During a Community-wide Treatment-as-Prevention Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M.-J.; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hogg, Bob; Guillemi, Silvia; Harrigan, P. Richard; Montaner, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although treatment-as prevention (TasP) is a new cornerstone of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–AIDS strategies, its effect among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) has yet to be evaluated. We sought to describe longitudinal trends in exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) and HIV drug resistance during a community-wide TasP intervention. Methods. We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services study, a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD linked to HIV clinical monitoring records. We estimated longitudinal changes in the proportion of individuals with VL <50 copies/mL and rates of HIV drug resistance using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and extended Cox models. Results. Between 1 January 2006 and 30 June 2014, 819 individuals were recruited and contributed 1 or more VL observation. During that time, the proportion of individuals with nondetectable VL increased from 28% to 63% (P < .001). In a multivariable GEE model, later year of observation was independently and positively associated with greater likelihood of nondetectable VL (adjusted odds ratio = 1.20 per year; P < .001). Although the proportion of individuals on ART increased, the incidence of HIV drug resistance declined (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.78 per year; P = .011). Conclusions. We observed significant improvements in several measures of exposure to ART and virologic status, including declines in HIV drug resistance, in this large long-running community-recruited cohort of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users during a community-wide ART expansion intervention. Our findings support continued efforts to scale up ART coverage among HIV-positive PWUD. PMID:26553011

  18. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately. PMID:25628080

  19. Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in developing countries: prevalence, management, and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, Raj N; Maestre, Gladys E; Arizaga, Raul; Friedland, Robert P; Galasko, Doug; Hall, Kathleen; Luchsinger, José A; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Perry, Elaine K; Potocnik, Felix; Prince, Martin; Stewart, Robert; Wimo, Anders; Zhang, Zhen-Xin; Antuono, Piero

    2010-01-01

    Despite mortality due to communicable diseases, poverty, and human conflicts, dementia incidence is destined to increase in the developing world in tandem with the ageing population. Current data from developing countries suggest that age-adjusted dementia prevalence estimates in 65 year olds are high (≥5%) in certain Asian and Latin American countries, but consistently low (1–3%) in India and sub-Saharan Africa; Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60% whereas vascular dementia accounts for ∼30% of the prevalence. Early-onset familial forms of dementia with single-gene defects occur in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Illiteracy remains a risk factor for dementia. The APOE ε4 allele does not influence dementia progression in sub-Saharan Africans. Vascular factors, such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes, are likely to increase the burden of dementia. Use of traditional diets and medicinal plant extracts might aid prevention and treatment. Dementia costs in developing countries are estimated to be US$73 billion yearly, but care demands social protection, which seems scarce in these regions. PMID:18667359

  20. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    López-Velázquez, Jorge A; Silva-Vidal, Karen V; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Arrese, Marco; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an alarming public health problem. The disease is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and is directly linked to the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the general population. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated at 20-30%, but the prevalence is unknown in the Americas because of a lack of epidemiological studies. However, given the trends in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD and its consequences are expected to increase in the near future. The aim of the present study is to present the current data on the prevalence of NAFLD in the Americas. We performed an electronic search of the main databases from January 2000 to September 2013 and identified 356 reports that were reviewed. We focused on the epidemiology and prevalence of known NAFLD risk factors including obesity, T2DM, and the metabolic syndrome (MS). The prevalence of the MS was highest in the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, and Venezuela. In addition, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and Mexico have the highest prevalence of T2DM in the Americas, while USA has the most people with T2DM. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of NAFLD and obesity were highest in the United States, Belize, Barbados, and Mexico.

  1. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oneş, U; Sapan, N; Somer, A; Dişçi, R; Salman, N; Güler, N; Yalçin, I

    1997-05-01

    In order to determine the asthma prevalence in 6-12-year-old schoolchildren in Istanbul, we issued 2350 questionnaires, according to ISAAC criteria, in six randomly selected city primary schools to be completed at home by parents. A total of 2232 of the questionnaires were completed, an overall response rate of 94.9%, and 2216 questionnaires were taken into consideration. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 9.8% and wheezing 15.1%. To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of asthma, we evaluated the heating system at home, the place of residence, the educational levels of the mother and father, the number of people living in the house, the sharing of bedrooms, and the annual family income. In conclusion, the prevalence of childhood asthma was not affected by any of these factors. Atopic family history, food allergy, eczema, and frequent otitis media and sinusitis attacks were evaluated and found to be significant in asthma prevalence.

  2. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K

    1993-10-01

    The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.

  3. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  4. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, K

    2009-11-01

    Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is <8 g/dl. Intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight inevitably lead to poor growth trajectory in infancy, childhood and adolescence and contribute to low adult height. Parental height and maternal weight are determinants of intrauterine growth and birth weight. Thus maternal anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  5. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  6. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  7. Is asthma prevalence still increasing?

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Bo; Backman, Helena; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of asthma in society and altered diagnostic practices makes evaluation of data on prevalence change difficult. In most parts of the world the asthma prevalence seems to still be increasing. The increase is associated with urbanization and has been documented particularly among children and teenagers in urban areas of middle- and low-level income countries. Use of validated questionnaires has enabled comparisons of studies. Among adults there are few studies based on representative samples of the general population which allow evaluation of time trends of prevalence. This review focuses mainly on studies of asthma prevalence and symptoms among adults. Parallel with increased urbanization, we can assume that the increase in asthma prevalence in most areas of the world will continue. However, in Australia and North-West Europe studies performed, particularly among children and adolescents, indicate that the increase in asthma prevalence may now be leveling off.

  8. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  9. A community study of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Olson, L G; King, M T; Hensley, M J; Saunders, N A

    1995-08-01

    We conducted a study of the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in subjects derived from a random sample of the population. A total of 2,202 subjects 35 to 69 yr of age were approached. Four hundred forty-one answered a questionnaire concerning their sleep symptoms, general health, and habits such as alcohol consumption, and they were monitored for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The sample was biased in favor of snorers and those with other subjective sleep complaints. Fifty-six percent of the subjects were men. Of the 441 subjects 79 (17.9%) had SDB (more than 15 episodes of apnea or hypopnea per hour: respiratory distress index [RDI] > or = 15), 289 were snorers but had RDI < 15, and 73 were nonsnorers. The prevalence of SDB in this sample was therefore at least 3.6% (79 of 2,204). The minimum prevalence in men was 5.7%, and in women it was 1.2%. Logistic regression identified only male sex as an independent predictor of snoring without SDB (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% CI, 1.33 to 7.82), body mass index (adjusted OR for an increase of 5 kg/m2, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05), and alcohol consumption (adjusted OR for an increase of 10 g/day, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.37) were not significant predictors of snoring. The independent predictors of SDB among snorers were age (adjusted OR for an increase of 5 yr, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.47) and neck circumference (adjusted OR for an increase of 2 cm, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.00).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Paternal investment affects prevalence of malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Richner, H; Christe, P; Oppliger, A

    1995-01-01

    Both reproduction and parasite defense can be costly, and an animal may face a trade-off between investing in offspring or in parasite defense. In contrast to the findings from nonexperimental studies that the poorly reproducing individuals are often the ones with high parasite loads, this life-history view predicts that individuals with high reproductive investment will show high parasite prevalence. Here we provide an experimental confirmation of a positive association between parental investment levels of male great tits Parus major and the prevalence of Plasmodium spp, a hematozoa causing malaria in various bird species. We manipulated brood size, measured feeding effort of both males and females, and assessed the prevalence of the hemoparasite from blood smears. In enlarged broods the males, but not the females, showed significantly higher rates of food provisioning to the chicks, and the rate of malarial infection was found to be more than double in male, but not female, parents of enlarged broods. The findings show that there may be a trade-off between reproductive effort and parasite defense of the host and also suggest a mechanism for the well documented trade-off between current reproductive effort and parental survival. PMID:7862659

  11. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  12. Dynamic Model Predicting Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Prevalence Trends

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Martin, Corby K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity prevalence in the United States (US) appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. Design and Methods A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and non-social influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. Results The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birth rate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of obesity, overweight, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. PMID:23804487

  13. Prevalence estimates of overweight in Head Start preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Bonnie L; Bounds, Wendy; Kolbo, Jerome; Molaison, Elaine; Zhang, Lei

    2009-10-01

    This study estimates prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight among low-income predominately non-Hispanic Black Head Start Mississippi preschoolers. A two-stage stratified probability design produced a representative sample of 1,250 preschoolers aged 3 to 5 years. Height, weight, age, gender, and race data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight (20.6%) and at risk of overweight (17.9%) combined was 38.5%. Moreover, highest rates were found in boys, non-Hispanic Blacks, and 5-year-olds. The prevalence of overweight in Mississippi Head Start children exceeds national averages, reinforcing the need for early-childhood health promotion and prevention.

  14. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  15. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  16. An unknown quantity--the worldwide prevalence of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bell, Gail S; Neligan, Aidan; Sander, Josemir W

    2014-07-01

    The reported incidence (rate of new cases in a population) of epilepsy is consistently lower in high-income than in lower-income economies, whereas opinions vary regarding comparative prevalence rates (proportion of the population with epilepsy). For any condition that does not influence mortality, lifetime prevalence should approximate to the cumulative incidence. We suspected that epilepsy prevalence might be uniform throughout the world, whereas incidence is higher in resource-poor countries. To test whether our suspicion was reasonable, we conducted a Medline search to estimate the prevalence of active and lifetime epilepsy in different economic areas throughout the world. We found that the range of estimated prevalence of epilepsy may be broadly similar throughout the world, but comparison is limited by lack of door-to-door studies in high-income economies and by variations in the definitions of active epilepsy. We contend that any inconsistencies between incidence and prevalence are due largely to the excess premature death rate in people with epilepsy in lower-income economies. Much of the variability in epidemiologic indices arises from differences in study methodology, definitions, and risk factors. The epidemiology of epilepsy, and particularly its mortality, needs thorough investigation using uniform definitions that do not include antiepileptic drug use; causes of death should be identified and actions, including treatment and education, should be taken to avoid preventable deaths.

  17. Low target prevalence is a stubborn source of errors in visual search tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Van Wert, Michael J.; Kenner, Naomi M.; Place, Skyler S.; Kibbi, Nour

    2009-01-01

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets in displays containing distractors. Likelihood that targets will be missed varies with target prevalence, the frequency with which targets are presented across trials. Miss error rates are much higher at low target prevalence (1–2%) than at high prevalence (50%). Unfortunately, low prevalence is characteristic of important search tasks like airport security and medical screening where miss errors are dangerous. A series of experiments show this prevalence effect is very robust. In signal detection terms, the prevalence effect can be explained as a criterion shift and not a change in sensitivity. Several efforts to induce observers to adopt a better criterion fail. However, a regime of brief retraining periods with high prevalence and full feedback allows observers to hold a good criterion during periods of low prevalence with no feedback. PMID:17999575

  18. Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

  19. Correlation of mutagenic assessment of Houston air particulate extracts in relation to lung cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.D.; Connor, T.H.; MacDonald, E.J.; Trieff, N.M.; Legator, M.S.; MacKenzie, K.W. Jr.; Dobbins, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    Air particulate extracts from a series of solvents were tested in the Ames mutagen detection system and were found to be mutagenic in varying degrees as a function of the particulate collection site in Houston, Texas. The mutagenicity level at seven sites was compared with age-adjusted mortality rates in the same areas. Significant correlation was found with the lung cancer mortality rates but not with mortality rates for other causes. These findings support the hypothesis of a contribution of urban air particulate to the lung cancer rates. Furthermore, these findings suggest that an index of the mutagenicity of air particulate is a more powerful measure of the human health hazard of air pollution than the traditional indices of particulate concentration.

  20. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  1. Current and projected rates of hip fracture in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitropoulos, E A; Coyte, P C; Josse, R G; Greenwood, C E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the current values and estimate the projected values (to the year 2041) for annual number of proximal femoral fractures (PFFs), age-adjusted rates of fracture, rates of death in the acute care setting, associated length of stay (LOS) in hospital, and seasonal variation by sex and age in elderly Canadians. DESIGN: Hospital discharge data for fiscal year 1993-94 from the Canadian Institute for Health Information were used to determine PFF incidence, and Statistics Canada population projections were used to estimate the rate and number of PFFs to 2041. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Canadian patients 65 years of age or older who underwent hip arthroplasty. OUTCOME MEASURES: PFF rates, death rates and LOS by age, sex and province. RESULTS: In 1993-94 the incidence of PFF increased exponentially with increasing age. The age-adjusted rates were 479 per 100,000 for women and 187 per 100,000 for men. The number of PFFs was estimated at 23,375 (17,823 in women and 5552 in men), with a projected increase to 88,124 in 2041. The rate of death during the acute care stay increased exponentially with increasing age. The death rates for men were twice those for women. In 1993-94 an estimated 1570 deaths occurred in the acute care setting, and 7000 deaths were projected for 2041. LOS in the acute care setting increased with advancing age, as did variability in LOS, which suggests a more heterogeneous case mix with advancing age. The LOS for 1993-94 and 2041 was estimated at 465,000 and 1.8 million patient-days respectively. Seasonal variability in the incidence of PFFs by sex was not significant. Significant season-province interactions were seen (p < 0.05); however, the differences in incidence were small (on the order of 2% to 3%) and were not considered to have a large effect on resource use in the acute care setting. CONCLUSIONS: On the assumption that current conditions contributing to hip fractures will remain constant, the number of PFFs will rise

  2. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors in Britain: findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, Kaye; Jones, Kyle G; Mercer, Catherine H; Tanton, Clare; Clifton, Soazig; Datta, Jessica; Copas, Andrew J; Erens, Bob; Gibson, Lorna J; Macdowall, Wendy; Sonnenberg, Pam; Phelps, Andrew; Johnson, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Unplanned pregnancy is a key public health indicator. We describe the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy, and associated factors, in a general population sample in Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales). Method We did a probability sample survey, the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), of 15 162 men and women aged 16–74 years in Britain, including 5686 women of child-bearing age (16–44 years) who were included in the pregnancy analysis, between Sept 6, 2010, and Aug 31, 2012. We describe the planning status of pregnancies with known outcomes in the past year, and report the annual population prevalence of unplanned pregnancy, using a validated, multicriteria, multi-outcome measure (the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy). We set the findings in the context of secular trends in reproductive health-related events, and patterns across the life course. Findings 9·7% of women aged 16–44 years had pregnancies with known outcome in the year before interview, of which 16·2% (95% CI 13·1–19·9) scored as unplanned, 29·0% (25·2–33·2) as ambivalent, and 54·8% (50·3–59·2) as planned, giving an annual prevalence estimate for unplanned pregnancy of 1·5% (1·2–1·9). Pregnancies in women aged 16–19 years were most commonly unplanned (45·2% [30·8–60·5]). However, most unplanned pregnancies were in women aged 20–34 years (62·4% [50·2–73·2]). Factors strongly associated with unplanned pregnancy were first sexual intercourse before 16 years of age (age-adjusted odds ratio 2·85 [95% CI 1·77–4·57], current smoking (2·47 [1·46–4·18]), recent use of drugs other than cannabis (3·41 [1·64–7·11]), and lower educational attainment. Unplanned pregnancy was also associated with lack of sexual competence at first sexual intercourse (1·90 [1·14–3·08]), reporting higher frequency of sex (2·11 [1·25–3·57] for five or more times in the past 4 weeks), receiving sex education mainly

  3. Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Hu, Yichun; Mao, Deqian; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jing; Li, Weidong; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Lichen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our methodology included data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010–2012, where samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size. The study objects were from 150 sites in provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities in China. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the anemia standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), combined with elevation correction standard. The level of blood hemoglobin, the prevalence of anemia, and the 95% CI (Confidence interval) value were analyzed using complex sampling weighted processing, combined with the population figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. Our results indicate that the level of blood hemoglobin of the Chinese rural area population was 145.92 ± 0.83 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population at 9.7% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.0%). The prevalence of anemia in children 6–11 years old was 5.5% (95% CI: 5.0%–6.0%), 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–8.7%) for 12–17-year-old teenagers, 10.0% (95% CI: 9.4%–10.6%) for 18–44-year-old adults, 9.6% (95% CI: 9.0%–10.1%) for 45–59-year-old adults, and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.9%–13.3%) for the elderly above 60 years old. Our conclusion shows that the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population in 2010–2012 had obviously decreased compared to the last decade; however, women of reproductive age and the elderly still had a high prevalence of anemia. PMID:28245576

  4. Comparison of age- and sex-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemia complex in the cat and the dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    1983-05-01

    Data on cancer cases in cats and dogs were collected systematically by the Animal Neoplasm Registry of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, Calif., a population-based animal tumor registry. Etiologic relationships were evaluated on the basis of comparisons of age-specific, sex-specific, and age-neutered-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemias. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates for all leukemias per 100,000 cats or dogs were 224.3 and 30.5, respectively. The cat had 6.1 times more malignant lymphomas and 15.7 times more myeloproliferative disease than the dog. Feline age-specific rates indicated a bimodal age pattern for all leukemias and for malignant lymphoma alone and a single early peak for myeloproliferative disease. In the dog, all age-specific patterns increased with age and peaked later in life. Feline sex-specific, age-adjusted rates showed that the neutered female was at lowest risk, followed by the neutered male, entire female, and entire male. In the dog, the neutered male was at lowest risk while the other three sex categories were clustered. However, the magnitude of expression within each species separately was the same for the neutered male, entire male, and entire female, but not for the neutered female. Neutering decreased the risk of leukemias in the female cat by approximately one-half but did not affect the risk of leukemias in the female dog.

  5. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  6. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-02-09

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  7. Prevalence of bruxism awareness in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen; Yengin, Esengun; Evlioglu, Gulumser; Ceyhan, Arzu; Ocak, Ozlem; Issever, Halim

    2010-04-01

    The reported prevalence of symptoms related to bruxism varies in the general population because of different investigative methodologies, operational definitions, clinical criteria, and samples of population. Awareness of bruxism in the general population is 15% to 23%, however, this rate increases to 50% to 90% in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with bruxism in Istanbul, Turkey and to analyze the correlation between bruxism and factors such as age, gender, marital status, and occupation. Seven-hundred-ninety-five (795) adult subjects who resided in the city of Istanbul were interviewed by telephone about their age, gender, marital status, occupation, and description of the prevalence of bruxism awareness. The overall prevalence of clenching teeth was 45.7% and that of grinding teeth was 21.6%. Women responded positively to the questions more often than men. The data showed significant differences between males and females, regarding clenching teeth OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.87), difficulty opening OR: 2.64 (95% CI: 1.63-4.26), headache on awakening OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.58-3.27) joint sounds OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.38), sore on awakening OR: 2.97 (95% CI: 1.91-4.61), influence in daily activity (OR: 2.26 CI: 1.38-3.67). Tooth wear in the married group was higher than the single group. Age distribution showed significant differences related to grinding teeth, tooth wear and joint sounds. There were statistically significant differences between bruxism and job categories. As a conclusion, this study suggest an association between bruxism and stressful events such as marital status and job problems.

  8. The prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population.

    PubMed

    Brewin, James; Hill, Martin; Ellis, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Cervical ribs are an important cause of neurovascular compression at the thoracic outlet. Previous studies have shown the prevalence of cervical ribs to be between 0.05 and 3%, depending on the sex and race of the population studied. We examined 1,352 chest radiographs to determine the prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population of mixed sex and ethnicity. Our study found that the overall prevalence of cervical ribs was 0.74% with a higher rate in females compared with males (1.09 and 0.42%, respectively). Of the 10 individuals with a cervical rib, five were on the left, three were on the right and two were bilateral. The presence of elongated C7 transverse processes (transverse apophysomegaly) was also noted. We found a total of 30 elongated transverse processes with an overall prevalence of 2.21%. They were also more common in females (3.43%) than males (1.13%).

  9. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: a comparison of county and state cancer mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, L.D.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tietjen, G.L.; Acquavella, J.F.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. This report considers cancer mortality rates in the region surrounding the Pantex nuclear weapons facility. The working hypothesis was that increased cancer mortality rates would exist in counties proximal to the Pantex Plant. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared age-adjusted cancer mortality rates for the six surrounding counties with Texas state rates for three time periods: 150 to 1959, 1960 to 1969, and 1970 to 1978. These comparisons showed that cancer mortality rates for Carson County (where the plant is located) and the five adjacent and downwind counties were not significantly different from rates for the State of Texas.

  10. Prevalence Estimates of Combat-Related PTSD: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa K.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Acierno, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. Method We examined MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. Results The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranges from about 2 – 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4 – 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3 – 6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. Conclusions The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. However, further carefully conceptualized research is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs. PMID:20073563

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FINDINGS ON PREVALENCE OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen epidemiological studies on psychiatric morbidity in India have been analysed. National all-India prevalence rates for ‘all mental disorders’ and five specific disorders have been worked out The national prevalence rates for ‘all mental disorders’ arrived at are 70.5 (rural), 73 (urban) and 73 (rural + urban) per 1000 population. Prevalence of schizophrenia is 2.5/1000 and this seems to be the only disorder whose prevalence is consistent across cultures and over time. Rates for depression, anxiety neurosis, hysteria and mental retardation are provided. Urban morbidity in India is 3.5 percent higher than the rural rate, but rural-urban differences are not consistent for different disease categories. In Hindi speaking north India, mental morbidity amongst factory workers is two and half times that of the non-industrial urban inhabitants and five times the rural morbidity. The present data are expected to serve as baseline rates for mental health planners and for psychiatrists interested in epidemiological studies. PMID:21407903

  12. Prevalence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with consequences.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-12-30

    Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kinjo, Nagisa; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Fujita, Jiro

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Ryukyu University Hospital, Okinawa, Japan, between January 2004 and November 2006. Stool samples collected from 3,292 patients were examined by the direct smear method, formalin-ether sedimentation method, and agar plate culture method. The prevalence rate of B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection was 1.0 and 3.4%, respectively. The prevalence rate of B. hominis infection in patients aged >80 years old was significantly higher than that in patients <80 years old (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in patients with B. hominis infection compared with those without (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated a prevalence rate for B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection and an association between B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

  14. Disease, parasite, and commensal prevalences for blue crab Callinectes sapidus at shedding facilities in Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Schott, Eric J; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-01-15

    Blue crab diseases, parasites, and commensals are not well studied in the Gulf of Mexico, and their prevalence rates have only been sporadically determined. Commercial soft shell shedding facilities in Louisiana experience high mortality rates of pre-molt crabs, and some of these deaths may be attributable to diseases or parasites. During the active shedding season in 2013, we determined the prevalence of shell disease, Vibrio spp., Lagenophrys callinectes, and Hematodinium perezi at 4 commercial shedding facilities along the Louisiana coast. We also detected Ameson michaelis and reo-like virus infections. Shell disease was moderately prevalent at rates above 50% and varied by shedding facility, collection month, and crab size. Vibrio spp. bacteria were prevalent in the hemolymph of 37% of the pre-molt crabs. Lagenophrys callinectes was highly prevalent in the pre-molt crabs, but because it is a commensal species, it may not cause high mortality rates. Hematodinium perezi was absent in all pre-molt crabs.

  15. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  16. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  17. Is diabetes color-blind? Growth of prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in children through 2030.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omolola E; Bolin, Jane N; Booth, Eric A; Zhao, Hongwei; Lin, Szu-Hsuan; Phillips, Charles D; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes knows no age and affects millions of individuals. Preventing diabetes in children is increasingly becoming a major health policy concern and focus. The objective of this study is to project the number of children, aged 0-17 years, with diagnosed diabetes in the United States through 2030, accounting for changing demography, and diabetes and obesity prevalence rates. The study team combined historic diabetes and obesity prevalence data with US child population estimates and projections. A times-series regression model was used to forecast future diabetes prevalence and to account for the relationship between the forecasted diabetes prevalence and the lagged prevalence of childhood obesity. Overall, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes is projected to increase 67% from 0.22% in 2010 to 0.36% in 2030. Lagged obesity prevalence in Hispanic boys and non-Hispanic black girls was significantly associated with increasing future diabetes prevalence. The study results showed that a 1% increase in obesity prevalence among Hispanic boys from the previous year was significantly associated with a 0.005% increase in future prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in children (P ≤ 0.01). Likewise, a unit increase in obesity prevalence among non-Hispanic black girls was associated with a 0.003% increase in future diabetes prevalence (P < 0.05). Obesity rates for other race/ethnicity combinations were not associated with increasing future diabetes prevalence. To mitigate the continued threat posed by diabetes, serious discussions need to focus on the pediatric population, particularly non-Hispanic black girls and Hispanic boys whose obesity trends show the strongest associations with future diabetes prevalence in children.

  18. Individual differences predict low prevalence visual search performance.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    Critical real-world visual search tasks such as radiology and baggage screening rely on the detection of rare targets. When targets are rare, observers search for a relatively short amount of time and have a high miss rate, a pattern of results known as the low prevalence effect. Attempts to improve the search for rare targets have been unsuccessful or resulted in an increase in detections at the price of more false alarms. As an alternative to improving visual search performance through experimental manipulations, an individual differences approach found that those with higher working memory capacity were better at finding rare targets. We build on the individual differences approach and assess 141 observers' visual working memory capacity (vWMC), vigilance, attentional control, big five personality traits, and performance in both high and low prevalence search tasks. vWMC, vigilance, attentional control, high prevalence visual search performance, and level of introversion were all significant predictors of low prevalence search accuracy, and together account for more than 50% of the variance in search performance. With the exception of vigilance, these factors are also significant predictors of reaction time; better performance was associated with longer reaction times, suggesting these factors identify observers who maintain relatively high quitting thresholds, even with low target prevalence. Our results suggest that a quick and easy-to-administer battery of tasks can identify observers who are likely to perform well in low prevalence search tasks, and these predictor variables are associated with higher quitting thresholds, leading to higher accuracy.

  19. The Prevalence of Elder Abuse: A Random Sample Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Finkelhor, David

    1988-01-01

    Conducted interviews with 2,020 community-dwelling elderly persons in Boston regarding their experience of physical violence, verbal aggression, and neglect. Prevalence rate of overall maltreatment was 32 elderly persons per 1,000. Spouses were found to be most likely abusers, and similar numbers of men and women were victims, although women…

  20. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  1. Prevalence of Childhood Disabilities in Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qirbi, Azza

    1987-01-01

    A survey of childhood disabilities was conducted in Yemen covering the three main cities and 37 towns and villages. Results indicated a disability prevalence rate of approximately 13% of which over 30% were oral or auditory based and over 20% were visual. (Author/DB)

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibody Among Navajo School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A serologic investigation of prevalence of immunity to hepatitis A (anti-HAV) was conducted in a rural school adjacent to a Navajo reservation in New Mexico. The results show rates of anti-HAV that are the highest reported at the ages tested in any subpopulation in the United States, comparable only with those in developing countries. (KH)

  3. Prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium in human populations worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis has been reported in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa, especially, but not exclusively, the malnourished and those positive for HIV infection. Infection rates are highest during the rainy season. Cryptosporidium hominis, which is transmitted ...

  4. The Prevalence of Bruising Among Infants in Pediatric Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Magana, Julia N.; Kaczor, Kim; Lorenz, Douglas J.; Meyers, Gabriel; Bennett, Berkeley L.; Kanegaye, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bruising can indicate abuse for infants. Bruise prevalence among infants in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) setting is unknown. Our objective was to determine prevalence of bruising, associated chief complaints (CC), and frequency of abuse evaluations in previously healthy infants presenting to PEDs. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, multi-center study of infants ≤12 months old presenting to PEDs. Structured sampling was utilized. Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) clinicians performed complete skin examinations to screen for bruising. Study investigators documented skin findings, date of visit, patient's age, CC, and abuse evaluation. The primary outcome was prevalence of bruising. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of bruising based on CC and frequency of abuse evaluation. Point estimates of bruise prevalence and differences in bruise prevalence between patient subgroups were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Bruising was identified in 88 of 2488 infants (3.5%, 95% CI: [2.9%, 4.4%]). Rates of bruising for infants ≤5 and >5 months old were 1.3% and 6.4%, respectively (difference 5.1%, 95% CI: [3.6%, 6.8%]). For infants ≤5 months old, 83% of bruising was associated with a trauma CC and only 0.2% of infants presenting with a medical CC had bruising. PEM clinicians obtained abuse evaluations on 23% of infants with bruising and that rate increased to 50% for infants ≤ 5 months of age. Conclusions Bruising prevalence in children ≤ 12 months of age evaluated in PEDs was low, increased within age strata, and was most often associated with a trauma CC. Most bruised infants did not undergo an abuse evaluation. PMID:26233923

  5. HHV-8 prevalence, immunosuppression and Kaposi's sarcoma in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Crispo, A; Tamburini, M; De Marco, M R; Ascierto, P; Silvestro, P; Ronga, D; Tridente, V; Desicato, S; Carbone, S; Fabbrocini, G; Spiteri, D; Montella, M

    2001-05-01

    The identification of HHV-8 has opened the way for numerous epidemiological studies aimed at determining both the prevalence of HHV-8 in various sub-groups of the population (affected or not by KS) and at identifying possible cofactors necessary for the development of KS. We set up a study to evaluate the prevalence of HHV-8 in the South of Italy in KS cases, hospital patients and blood donors and to verify the role of immunosuppression in KS. In KS patients the prevalence of lytic and latent antigens were both 91% (29 positive cases). Lytic and latent antigens have prevalence rates of 20% and 15% respectively in hospital patients. In the donor group the rates were 16% for lytic antigens and 2% for latent antigens. The most recurrent chronic pathology in KS patients was cardiopathy (5 cases). The pathological case histories report 4 cases of Herpes Zoster, 6 of diabetes, one case of hepatitis C who had also had gonorrea. There was also a case, negative to HHV-8, who had had malaria after residing for three years in Oristano in Sardinia (a zone with high endemic malaria). Our study confirms that in Southern Italy there are relatively high prevalences of HHV-8 both in the general population and in blood donors and that immunodysregulation may be involved in the pathogenesis of KS. Other studies are necessary to confirm the sexual transmission of the HHV-8 virus and to better understand the natural history of HHV-8 infection.

  6. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  7. HPV prevalence in a multi-ethnic screening population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K.; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P.; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal was to determine prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, MI. Materials and Methods Real time quantitative PCR was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for HPV positivity were: >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests (p<0.05). Results At cut point >0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of over 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower, 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (<0.001) and significantly higher in the oropharynx (OP) than larynx or site as other after Hochberg’s adjustment. At >0, females in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than males (p=0.010) and at >0.001, prevalence was higher for males in the HNC group than females (p=0.035). In the screening group, at >0, only AA had higher prevalence than CA (p=0.025). Conclusions In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut-points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV. PMID:23300223

  8. The Prevalence of Vitiligo: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhui; Cai, Yunfei; Shi, Meihui; Jiang, Shibin; Cui, Shaoshan; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the prevalence of vitiligo. Methods Literatures that reported prevalence rates of vitiligo were identified using EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database and Weipu database for the period from inception to May 2016. We performed stratified analyses on possible sources of bias, including areas difference, years of publication, gender and age. Publication bias was assessed with Egger’s test method. Results A total of 103 studies were eligible for inclusion. The pooled prevalence of vitiligo from 82 population- or community-based studies was 0.2% (95%CI: 0.1%–0.2%) and from 22 hospital-based studies was 1.8% (95%CI: 1.4%–2.1%). A relatively high prevalence of vitiligo was found in Africa area and in female patients. For population- or community-based studies, the prevalence has maintained at a low level in recent 20 years and it has increased with age gradually. For hospital-based studies, the prevalence has showed a decreased trend from 60s till now or from young to old. No significant publication bias existed in hospital-based studies (t = 0.47, P = 0.643), while a significant publication bias existed in population- or community-based studies (t = 2.31, P = 0.026). Conclusion A relatively high prevalence of vitiligo was found in Africa area and in female patients. The prevalence has maintained at a low level in recent years. It showed an inverse trend with age increment in population- or community-based studies and hospital-based studies. PMID:27673680

  9. Prevalence of Bipolar I and II Disorder in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Keltie C; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Duffy, Anne; Bresee, Lauren; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Current epidemiologic knowledge about bipolar disorder (BD) in Canada is inadequate. To date, only 3 prevalence studies have been conducted: only 1 was based on a national sample, and none distinguished between BD I and II. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BD I and II in Canada in 2012. Method: Data were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-being, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of household residents ages 15 years and older (n = 25 113). The survey response rate was 68.9%. Interviews were based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Prevalence was estimated using generalized linear modelling. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of BD and use of lithium were also estimated. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of BD I and II (based on the CIDI) in Canada in 2012 was 0.87% (95% CI 0.67% to 1.07%) and 0.57% (95% CI 0.44% to 0.71%), respectively. Prevalence did not differ by sex. The estimated prevalence of self-reported BD was 0.87% (95% CI 0.65% to 1.07%). There was a lack of congruence between CIDI-defined and self-reported BD, and few people taking lithium were positive for BD on the CIDI, which raises some concerns about the validity of the CIDI’s assessment of BD. Conclusions: These prevalence estimates align with those reported in prior literature. However, caution should be exercised when interpreting general population studies that use CIDI-defined BD owing to the possibility of misclassification. PMID:25886691

  10. Metabolic syndrome in the Philippine general population: prevalence and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Morales, Dante D; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth; Sy, Rody G; Duante, Charmaine A

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its component risk factors among Filipinos using three sets of criteria and to evaluate the association between MS and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The study utilised a multi-staged cluster sampling design. The prevalence of MS was found to be 11.9% by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATP III) criteria, 14.5% by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 18.6% by NCEP/ATP III criteria modified by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NCEP/ATP III-AHA/NHLBI) criteria. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) occurred in 60.2% of men and 80.9% of women. Abdominal obesity was noted in 17.7% of men and 35.1% of women. Blood pressure (BP) > or = 130/85 mmHg was seen in 33.3%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 20.6% and fasting blood sugar > or = 100 mg/dL (5.55 mmol/L) in 7.1%. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that MS, by all three definitions, predisposed an individual to diabetes mellitus (DM) and stroke while MS by the IDF definition predisposed an individual to myocardial infarction (MI). Individuals with MS did not have a significant predisposition to angina and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Thus, the metabolic syndrome is common in Filipinos, with low HDL-C as the most prevalent component. The metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes mellitus and stroke, with a tendency to MI using the IDF criteria.

  11. High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Harati, Hadi; Saadat, Navid; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years. Methods The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4). Conclusion In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient. PMID:18501007

  12. Filling the Void: A Multi-Component, Culturally Adapted Smoking Cessation Program Integrating Western and Non-Western Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Sheila; Washburn, Anuenue; Ka'aha'aina, Darlene; Bradley, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is especially prevalent among Native Hawaiians. The 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System revealed that 33.8% of Hawaiians were current smokers. Native Hawaiians have the highest age-adjusted lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and the highest prevalence of asthma among all ethnicities. Purpose: This study…

  13. Prevalence of fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.; Robinson, H.; Wake, S.; Webb, T.

    1996-07-12

    The much-quoted prevalence figure of 1:1,000 males for fragile X syndrome is an overestimate in a mixed ethnic population. A reexamination of the individuals from whom those data were derived using molecular diagnostic techniques demonstrates a more realistic figure of 1:4,000 males. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

  15. The effects of local prevalence and explicit expectations on search termination times

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Shinichi; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the relative proportions of target-present and -absent trials have important effects on behavior. Miss error rates rise as target prevalence decreases (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, Nature 435, 439–440, 2005). At the same time, search termination times on target-absent trials become shorter (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology 20, 121–124, 2010). These effects must depend on some implicit or explicit knowledge of the current prevalence. What is the nature of that knowledge? In Experiment 1, we conducted visual search tasks at three levels of prevalence (6%, 50%, and 94%) and analyzed performance as a function of “local prevalence,” the prevalence over the last n trials. The results replicated the usual effects of overall prevalence but revealed only weak or absent effects of local prevalence. In Experiment 2, the overall prevalence in a block of trials was 20%, 50%, or 80%. However, a 100%-valid cue informed observers of the prevalence on the next trial. These explicit cues had a modest effect on target-absent RTs, but explicit expectation could not explain the full prevalence effect. We conclude that observers predict prevalence on the basis of an assessment of a relatively long prior history. Each trial contributes a small amount to that assessment, and this can be modulated but not overruled by explicit instruction. PMID:22006528

  16. Impact of lactoferrin supplementation on growth and prevalence of Giardia colonization in children.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Campos, Miguel; Pecho, Iris; Prada, Ana; McMahon, Robert J; Cleary, Thomas G

    2008-06-15

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing supplementation with bovine lactoferrin versus placebo for the prevention of diarrhea in children. Comparison of overall diarrhea incidence and prevalence rates found no significant difference between the 2 groups. However, there was a lower prevalence of colonization with Giardia species and better growth among children in the lactoferrin group.

  17. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  18. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability in a French County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, M.; Dieterich, K.; Billette de Villemeur, A.; Jouk, P.-S.; Counillon, J.; Larroque, B.; Bloch, J.; Cans, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted on mild intellectual disability (MID) in children are infrequent and the prevalence rates vary widely. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MID in children in a French county (Isère), to describe the clinical signs and associated comorbidities, and to specify the aetiologies of this disability. Methods: The…

  20. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  1. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

  2. Prevalence of ADHD Diagnosis and Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Jeffrey P.; Scheurich, Neil E.; Ranseen, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of medical students. Methods: An anonymous survey was administered to 388 medical students (84.0% return rate) across all 4 years of education at a public medical college. Results: Eighteen medical…

  3. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  4. BRAIN MYELINATION IN PREVALENT NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    BARTZOKIS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    Current concepts of addiction focus on neuronal neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters and are largely based on animal model data, but the human brain is unique in its high myelin content and extended developmental (myelination) phase that continues until middle age. The biology of our exceptional myelination process and factors that influence it have been synthesized into a recently published myelin model of human brain evolution and normal development that cuts across the current symptom-based classification of neuropsychiatric disorders. The developmental perspective of the model suggests that dysregulations in the myelination process contribute to prevalent early-life neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to addictions. These disorders share deficits in inhibitory control functions that likely contribute to their high rates of comorbidity with addiction and other impulsive behaviors. The model posits that substances such as alcohol and psychostimulants are toxic to the extremely vulnerable myelination process and contribute to the poor outcomes of primary and comorbid addictive disorders in susceptible individuals. By increasing the scientific focus on myelination, the model provides a rational biological framework for the development of novel, myelin-centered treatments that may have widespread efficacy across multiple disease states and could potentially be used in treating, delaying, or even preventing some of the most prevalent and devastating neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18668184

  5. Dispersing hemipteran vectors have reduced arbovirus prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy T.; Brown, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in managing vector-borne zoonotic diseases in human and wildlife populations is predicting where epidemics or epizootics are likely to occur, and this requires knowing in part the likelihood of infected insect vectors dispersing pathogens from existing infection foci to novel areas. We measured prevalence of an arbovirus, Buggy Creek virus, in dispersing and resident individuals of its exclusive vector, the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), that occupies cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colonies in western Nebraska. Bugs colonizing new colony sites and immigrating into established colonies by clinging to the swallows’ legs and feet had significantly lower virus prevalence than bugs in established colonies and those that were clustering in established colonies before dispersing. The reduced likelihood of infected bugs dispersing to new colony sites indicates that even heavily infected sites may not always export virus to nearby foci at a high rate. Infected arthropods should not be assumed to exhibit the same dispersal or movement behaviour as uninfected individuals, and these differences in dispersal should perhaps be considered in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as arboviruses. PMID:24694692

  6. Geographic disparity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality rates among the Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999-2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran's I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males' COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females'. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran's I of the GWR's residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas.

  7. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    PubMed Central

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data. PMID:8270011

  8. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and risk factors for its progression: A cross-sectional comparison of Indians living in Indian versus U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shuchi; Kondal, Dimple; Montez-Rath, Maria; Zheng, Yuanchao; Shivashankar, Roopa; Singh, Kalpana; Gupta, Priti; Gupta, Ruby; Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Ali, Mohammed K.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kandula, Namratha; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2017-01-01

    Background While data from the latter part of the twentieth century consistently showed that immigrants to high-income countries faced higher cardio-metabolic risk than their counterparts in low- and middle-income countries, urbanization and associated lifestyle changes may be changing these patterns, even for conditions considered to be advanced manifestations of cardio-metabolic disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease [CKD]). Methods and findings Using cross-sectional data from the Center for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS, n = 5294) and Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n = 748) studies, we investigated whether prevalence of CKD is similar among Indians living in Indian and U.S. cities. We compared crude, age-, waist-to-height ratio-, and diabetes- adjusted CKD prevalence difference. Among participants identified to have CKD, we compared management of risk factors for its progression. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was similar in MASALA (14.0% [95% CI 11.8–16.3]) compared with CARRS (10.8% [95% CI 10.0–11.6]). Among men the prevalence difference was low (prevalence difference 1.8 [95% CI -1.6,5.3]) and remained low after adjustment for age, waist-to-height ratio, and diabetes status (-0.4 [-3.2,2.5]). Adjusted prevalence difference was higher among women (prevalence difference 8.9 [4.8,12.9]), but driven entirely by a higher prevalence of albuminuria among women in MASALA. Severity of CKD—-i.e., degree of albuminuria and proportion of participants with reduced glomerular filtration fraction-—was higher in CARRS for both men and women. Fewer participants with CKD in CARRS were effectively treated. 4% of CARRS versus 51% of MASALA participants with CKD had A1c < 7%; and 7% of CARRS versus 59% of MASALA participants blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg. Our analysis applies only to urban populations. Demographic—-particularly educational attainment—-differences among participants in the two

  9. HIV and viral hepatitis co-infection in New York City, 2000-2010: prevalence and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Prussing, C; Chan, C; Pinchoff, J; Kersanske, L; Bornschlegel, K; Balter, S; Drobnik, A; Fuld, J

    2015-05-01

    Using surveillance data, we describe the prevalence and characteristics of individuals in New York City (NYC) co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Surveillance databases including persons reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene with HIV, HBV, and HCV by 31 December 2010 and not known to be dead as of 1 January 2000, were matched with 2000-2011 vital statistics mortality data. Of 140 606 persons reported with HIV, 4% were co-infected with HBV only, 15% were co-infected with HCV only, and 1% were co-infected with HBV and HCV. In all groups, 70-80% were male. The most common race/ethnicity and HIV transmission risk groups were non-Hispanic blacks and men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV/HBV infection, and non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and injection drug users for HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV infections. The overall age-adjusted 2000-2011 mortality was higher in co-infected than HIV mono-infected individuals. Use of population-based surveillance data provided a comprehensive characterization of HIV co-infection with HBV and HCV. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting HIV and viral hepatitis testing and prevention efforts to populations at risk for co-infection, and of integrating HIV and viral hepatitis care and testing services.

  10. Factors Associated with Diarrhoea Prevalence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Khan, Moslem U.; Aziz, Khwaja M.S.; Farid, Samir M.

    1995-01-01

    The weather of Saudi Arabia is hot and dry for most of the year. The country is devoid of surface water which often help the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. Nevertheless, this country is not free from diarrhoeal diseases. The role of such factors as crowding, patterns of water use, sanitation, quality of housing, feeding practices and region of residence have not been adequately studied. The 1987 National Child Health Survey data were used to earmark the roles of the aforementioned determinants of diarrhoea in Saudi children aged below six. A stratified and representative sample of 8,566 married women living in rural and urban areas were interviewed by 120 female nurses. There were about two episodes of diarrhoea per child per year. Children aged 6 to 23 months had nearly double the prevalence rate of the older children. Children from rural areas and the southern region had higher rates than children from other areas. Children who were both breast and bottle fed, children of 1-4 member families and of families with 3 or more persons per room had higher prevalence rates. Children of families whose homes had earthen floors, those who used well water and those without toilet facilities who used open fields for defecation had significantly higher rates. In spite of adverse climate and little use of surface water these factors were significantly associated with higher prevalence rates of diarrhoea in Saudi children under six years of age. PMID:23012207

  11. An international perspective on youth gambling prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Rachel A; Gupta, Rina; Griffiths, Mark D; Olason, Daniel T; Delfabbro, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of rapid expansion of legal gambling internationally, studies of adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling prevalence have been carried out in numerous jurisdictions. This paper reviews adolescent gambling prevalence studies that have been carried out in North America, Europe, and Oceania. Based on this review, work is clearly needed to assess the impact of survey methods on identified prevalence rates and to improve the measurement of problem gambling among adolescents. From a substantive perspective, several clear demographic and behavioral characteristics are associated with gambling involvement and problem gambling among youth. However, early assumptions about youth gambling and problem gambling must give way to more nuanced understandings of how these phenomena change in response to changes in the social and cultural environment. We may have traveled some distance down the road toward understanding the determinants as well as the distribution of youth gambling and problem gambling, but we still have a long way to go.

  12. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    PubMed

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  13. Embryonic development period and the prevalence of avian blood parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, R E

    1992-01-01

    Variation in prevalence of avian hematozoa is related to taxonomic affiliation at the level of the family or subfamily but not of the genus within families. Prevalence is comparatively insensitive to the influences of habitat and season; however, temperate species have higher incidences of infection than tropical species belonging to the same families. Among taxa of nonraptorial altricial landbirds, hematozoan prevalence is inversely related to the length of the incubation period but shows little relationship to body size and rate of postnatal development. This finding suggests a possible link between the duration of embryonic development and the ability to resist or control infection, possibly due to maturational processes in the avian immune system. PMID:1584808

  14. Cancer prevalence in United States, Nordic Countries, Italy, Australia, and France: an analysis of geographic variability

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, E; De Angelis, R; Buzzoni, C; Mariotto, A; Storm, H; Colonna, M; Zanetti, R; Serraino, D; Michiara, M; Cirilli, C; Iannelli, A; Mazzoleni, G; Sechi, O; Sanoja Gonzalez, M E; Guzzinati, S; Capocaccia, R; Dal Maso, L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to quantitatively assess the geographic heterogeneity of cancer prevalence in selected Western Countries and to explore the associations between its determinants. Methods: For 20 cancer sites, 5-year cancer prevalence, incidence, and survival were observed and age standardised for the mid 2000s in the United States, Nordic European Countries, Italy, Australia, and France. Results: In Italy, 5-year crude prevalence for all cancers was 1.9% in men and 1.7% in women, while it was ∼1.5% in all other countries and sexes. After adjustment for the different age distribution of the populations, cancer prevalence in the United States was higher (20% in men and 10% in women) than elsewhere. For all cancers combined, the geographic heterogeneities were limited, though relevant for specific cancers (e.g., prostate, showing >30% higher prevalence in the United States, or lung, showing >50% higher prevalence in USA women than in other countries). For all countries, the correlations between differences of prevalence and differences of incidence were >0.9, while prevalence and survival were less consistently correlated. Conclusion: Geographic differences and magnitude of crude cancer prevalence were more strongly associated with incidence rates, influenced by population ageing, than with survival rates. These estimates will be helpful in allocating appropriate resources. PMID:23799856

  15. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana P.; Estrella, Mayra; Valle, Yari; Pérez, Naydi; Haddock, Lillian; Suárez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do other ethnic groups. We assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Puerto Rican adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study that used a probability cluster design to select a sample of households of the San Juan metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A total of 859 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and waist circumference measurements, and blood sampling. Our primary outcome measure was metabolic syndrome as defined by the updated NCEP-ATP criteria. Results Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 43.3%; 45.3% for men and 42.2% for women (P>.05). Prevalence significantly rose with age, from 12.8% among participants aged 21–29 years to 58.2% for participants aged 70–79 years (P<.001). Corresponding increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in both men and women were also observed; the prevalence peaked in men aged 50–59 years (62.6%) and in women aged 70–79 years (65.2%). Elevated glucose (49.8%) and abdominal obesity (49.0%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by elevated blood pressure (46.1%), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.0%), and elevated triglycerides (31.3%). Substantial variations were found between men and women in the prevalence of individual components. Conclusions Puerto Ricans have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. This health disparity has implications for diabetes and cardiovascular prevention programs. PMID:19157247

  16. Prevalence of kidney stones in mainland China: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenying; Fan, Jingyuan; Huang, Guifeng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Xi; Tian, Ye; Su, Li

    2017-01-01

    The data on the prevalence of kidney stones in mainland China are still lacking. We performed the present meta-analysis to assess the stone prevalence in mainland China from 1990 through 2016. A total of 18 articles were included. The pooled overall prevalence was 7.54% (95% CI, 5.94–9.15). The prevalence in age groups of <20 years, 20–29 years, 30–39 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, and 60 years and older was 0.27%, 3.15%, 5.96%, 8.18%, 9.14%, and 9.68%, respectively, showing that it increased with age. Moreover, the prevalence was 10.34% in males and 6.62% in females, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.63 [95% CI: 1.51–1.76], indicating that males are more likely to suffer from this disease than females. However, urban areas (6.03%, 95% CI: 3.39–8.68) and rural areas (7.48%, 95% CI: 3.39–11.57) did not differ in the stone prevalence rate (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.42–1.68). The prevalence in the year groups of 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011 to date was 5.95%, 8.86%, and 10.63%, respectively, which indicated an increasing trend. Further high-quality surveys throughout mainland China are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:28139722

  17. Prevalence of Psychiatric Diagnoses and Challenging Behaviors in a Community-Based Population of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Pollard, Jill; McClean, Brian; MacAuley, Niall; Hastings, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested substantial variation in prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and also differential patterns of associations between psychiatric disorders and challenging behaviors in people with ID. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of specific…

  18. Prevalence of low back pain in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is common in children and adolescents, and it is becoming a public health concern. In recent years there has been a considerable increase in research studies that examine the prevalence of LBP in this population, but studies exhibit great variability in the prevalence rates reported. The purpose of this research was to examine, by means of a meta-analytic investigation, the prevalence rates of LBP in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, MedLine, PEDro, IME, LILACS, and CINAHL) and other sources. The search period extended to April 2011. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to report a prevalence rate (whether point, period or lifetime prevalence) of LBP in children and/or adolescents (≤ 18 years old). Two independent researchers coded the moderator variables of the studies, and extracted the prevalence rates. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for the different types of prevalence in order to avoid dependence problems. In each meta-analysis, a random-effects model was assumed to carry out the statistical analyses. Results A total of 59 articles fulfilled the selection criteria. The mean point prevalence obtained from 10 studies was 0.120 (95% CI: 0.09 and 0.159). The mean period prevalence at 12 months obtained from 13 studies was 0.336 (95% CI: 0.269 and 0.410), whereas the mean period prevalence at one week obtained from six studies was 0.177 (95% CI: 0.124 and 0.247). The mean lifetime prevalence obtained from 30 studies was 0.399 (95% CI: 0.342 and 0.459). Lifetime prevalence exhibited a positive, statistically significant relationship with the mean age of the participants in the samples and with the publication year of the studies. Conclusions The most recent studies showed higher prevalence rates than the oldest ones, and studies with a better methodology exhibited higher lifetime prevalence rates than studies that were methodologically poor

  19. Disparity in smoking prevalence by education: can we reduce it?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Hebert, Kiandra; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon; Gamst, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Can an intervention program that is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of an unhealthy behavior in the general population also reduce the disparity among its subgroups? That depends on what measure of disparity is used. Using simple algebraic models, this study demonstrates that disparity measured in terms of relative difference between two groups tends to increase when the prevalence of the behavior is in decline. The study then shows an empirical example, by analyzing the effects of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence of two education groups, the lowest (less than 12 years) and the highest (16 years or more). It examines the data from four California Tobacco Surveys covering the years 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005. The effects of three components of the tobacco control program known to be effective in decreasing prevalence (media, worksite policy, and price) on the two education groups are assessed. The smoking prevalence for the two groups is obtained from these four surveys and a regression line is computed for each education group from 1996 to 2005. Results show that the California program is effective with both low education and high education groups and that the rate of decline in smoking prevalence from 1996 to 2005 is no smaller for the low education group than for the high education group. The paper then discusses that an analysis of disparity based on relative difference, however, could result in misleading recommendations that an intervention like the California tobacco program needs to change from its current whole-population approach to one that focuses on targeting subgroups because it has not reduced disparity. It proposes that research should focus more on increasing the rate of change among less advantage groups and less on the relative disparity compared to some other group.

  20. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    PubMed

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported.

  1. What is the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Debbie L; Doris, Michael; Shannon, Ciaran; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2017-01-07

    There is increasing evidence to suggest both a symptomatic overlap and a clinically significant degree of co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia but the nature of such relationships remain unclear. We reviewed the literature reporting prevalence rates of Autistic-like Traits (ALTs) and ASD in populations with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. A search of three large databases was conducted and from this seven studies met the criteria for inclusion. The point prevalence rates for ALTs ranged from 9.6% to 61%, whilst the prevalence rates for diagnosed ASD ranged from <1% to 52% across outpatient and inpatient populations. This suggests that prevalence rates of ALTs and ASD in psychosis populations are much higher than in the general population. This has important implications regarding future research, and clinical implications in terms of ensuring that patients receive the most appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Korean adults using the new International Diabetes Federation definition and the new abdominal obesity criteria for the Korean people.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Dae Jung; Jung, In Hyun; Park, Chanwang; Park, Jong

    2007-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definitions, and abdominal obesity criteria of WHO and the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) in Korean adults. A total of 4452 adults aged > or =20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 were analyzed. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome estimated by NCEP definition with WHO criteria, NCEP with KSSO, IDF with WHO, and IDF with KSSO were 26.7%, 23.7%, 23.8% and 17.5%, respectively. The agreement percent among the four definitions ranged from 88.7% to 100% in men, and from 85.6% to 94.9% in women. The NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome was more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes than the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome (age-adjusted odds ratio: 5.1 versus 3.6 for hypertension and 6.4 versus 3.2 for diabetes in men, respectively; 5.4 versus 3.4-4.3 for hypertension and 11.1 versus 3.8-4.2 for diabetes in women, respectively). Both definitions of the metabolic syndrome were associated with coronary heart disease or stroke only in women. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the predictive ability of the new definition of the metabolic syndrome and the new criteria of abdominal obesity for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Korean adults.

  3. Schizophrenia in Croatia: interregional differences in prevalence and a comment on constant incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Folnegović, Z; Folnegović-Smalc, V

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine why differences exist in schizophrenia prevalence and risk in some areas of Croatia, when schizophrenia incidence rates do not appear to vary. DESIGN--Areas differing by schizophrenia admission rates in patients born in 1953 and admitted by the age of 31 years are compared using a number of indicators relating both to general population characteristics and to those of schizophrenic cases in these populations. SETTING--The study covers the whole of Croatia (4,601,469 inhabitants, 1981 census). SUBJECTS--By the age of 31 years, out of 80,445 individuals born in Croatia in 1953, 464 were admitted for and diagnosed as having schizophrenia. MAIN RESULTS--Admission risk rates are higher in those parts of Croatia where emigration rates are high and lower where immigration rates are high. There is also a positive correlation with schizophrenia prevalence and manic depressive psychosis rates. There is a negative correlation with age of onset of schizophrenia and with schizophrenic reproduction rates. In the study areas, hospital incidence rates are not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Economic migration and negative selection in the domestic population are likely to be the most significant factors leading to differences in schizophrenia prevalence. The approximately equal incidence rates in the population, with different prevalence and admission risks, are linked to differences in the disease onset among schizophrenics with a positive family history for this condition. In other words, these patients, when part of the population with a greater prevalence and a greater hereditary loading, experience the onset more often at an earlier age. Thus they have a lower reproduction rate than in a population with a lower prevalence and a lower hereditary loading. Thus incidence rates in populations with different prevalences and different hereditary loads are maintained roughly equal over generations. Images PMID:1645081

  4. High Malaria Prevalence among Schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Kuboza, Josephat; Mnyeshi, Peter; Changalucha, John M.; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the status of malaria among schoolchildren on Kome Island (Lake Victoria), near Mwanza, Tanzania, a total of 244 schoolchildren in 10 primary schools were subjected to a blood survey using the fingerprick method. The subjected schoolchildren were 123 boys and 121 girls who were 6-8 years of age. Only 1 blood smear was prepared for each child. The overall prevalence of malaria was 38.1% (93 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable. However, the positive rate was the highest in Izindabo Primary School (51.4%) followed by Isenyi Primary School (48.3%) and Bugoro Primary School (46.7%). The lowest prevalence was found in Muungano Primary School (16.7%) and Nyamiswi Primary School (16.7%). These differences were highly correlated with the location of the school on the Island; those located in the peripheral area revealed higher prevalences while those located in the central area showed lower prevalences. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (38.1%; 93/244), with a small proportion of them mixed-infected with Plasmodium vivax (1.6%; 4/244). The results revealed that malaria is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania, and there is an urgent need to control malaria in this area. PMID:26537036

  5. Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, Prevalence of Malaria and Nutritional Status of School Going Children in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Conclusions Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease. PMID:25330010

  6. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  7. Cardiovascular, muscular and perceptual contributions to physical fatigue in prevalent kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie; Jones, David; Bosch, Jos A; McPhee, Jamie; Crabtree, Nicola; McTernan, Philip G; Kaur, Okdeep; Inston, Nicholas; Moore, Sue; McClean, Andrew; Harper, Lorraine; Phillips, Anna C; Borrows, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Physical fatigue is debilitating and common among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). This study investigated the mechanistic aetiology of physical fatigue in this setting through examinations of muscle mass, muscular and cardiovascular function, and perceived exertion. The incidence of physical fatigue, its association with quality of life (QoL), and the predictors of perceived exertion, were evaluated. This single-centre observational cross-sectional study enrolled 55 KTRs. Muscle mass was quantified using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Muscular function was assessed by jumping mechanography. Cardiovascular function (maximal oxygen consumption and oxygen pulse) was estimated during submaximal exercise testing, with perceived exertion determined using age-adjusted Borg scale-ratings. Physical fatigue was measured using Multi-Dimensional Fatigue Inventory-20. QoL was assessed using Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. Demographic, clinical, nutritional, psychosocial and behavioural predictors of perceived exertion were assessed. Of clinical importance, increased perceived exertion was the only independent predictor of physical fatigue (P = 0.001), with no association found between physical fatigue and muscular or cardiovascular parameters. Physical fatigue occurred in 22% of KTRs, and negatively impacted on QoL (P < 0.001). Predictors of heightened perception included anxiety (P < 0.05) and mental fatigue (P < 0.05). Perception is a key determinant of physical fatigue in KTRs, paving the way for future interventions.

  8. Prevalence of the female athlete triad in edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Vardar, Erdal; Altun, Gülay Durmus; Kurt, Cem; Oztürk, Levent

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the female athlete triad, which is a clinical condition defined as the simultaneous occurrence of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteopenia and/or osteoporosis in female athletes. A total number of 224 female athletes from Edirne city participated in our study. Eating attitudes test (EAT 40) and a self-administered questionnaire were used to assess disordered eating behavior and menstrual status respectively. The participants having both disordered eating and amenorrhea were performed dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate bone mineral density. Thirty seven subjects (16.8%) had disordered eating behavior and 22 subjects (9.8%) were reported to have amenorrhea. Six athletes (2.7%) met two criteria (disordered eating and amenorrhea) of the triad. Of these, only three athletes met all components of the triad. We have found that the prevalence rate of female athlete triad was 1.36% among young Turkish female athletes. Female athletes have under considerable risk for the disordered eating and amenorrhea components of the triad. Key PointsThe prevalence rate of the occurrence of whole criteria of the female athlete triad was 1.36 % in young Turkish athletes in Edirne.Female athletes who met whole criteria of female athlete triad are more prone to the eating disorders.The occurrence of disordered eating behavior was higher in female athletes according to general population.Amenorrhea prevalence was significantly higher in female athletes who had disordered eating.

  9. Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been…

  10. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women's social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion were significant predictors of national HIV prevalence in the multivariate analysis. The present study identified nation-level factors that capture social, economic, and political contexts to explain between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Findings extend current literature on the social-structural foundation of HIV-risk and the relationship between human rights and health. National safeguards that afford individuals the power to promote general quality of life and protection from structural violence may be most important to lowering overall rates of HIV transmission.

  11. A small area analysis estimating the prevalence of addiction to opioids in Barcelona, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Brugal, M. T.; Domingo-Salvany, A.; Maguire, A.; Cayla, J. A.; Villalbi, J. R.; Hartnoll, R.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of opioid use prevalence in small areas and its relation with socioeconomic indicators. DESIGN: Capture-recapture was applied using data from the Barcelona Drug Information System for 1993 (treatment demands, hospital emergency room visits, deaths from heroin acute adverse reaction and pre-trial prison admissions). To avoid dependence between sources, a log-linear regression model with interactions was fitted. For small neighbourhoods, where capture-recapture estimates were not obtainable, the Heroin Problem Index (HPI) was used to predict prevalence rates from a regression model. The correlation between estimated opioid use prevalence by neighbourhoods and their socioeconomic level was computed. MAIN RESULTS: The city's estimated prevalence was 12.9 opioid addicts per 1000 inhabitants aged 15 to 44 years (95% CI: 10.1, 17.2), which represents 9176 persons. The highest rate was found in the inner city neighbourhood. Comparing rates obtained for each neighbourhood with their unemployment rates, a high correlation coefficient was obtained (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study is that of combining capture-recapture with the HPI to produce small area prevalence estimates, which would not have been possible using only one method. Areas with higher socioeconomic status showed proportionally low addiction prevalences, but in depressed areas, prevalences varied widely.   PMID:10562867

  12. Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Judy Y; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Pratto, Felicia; Rosenthal, Lisa; Kalichman, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Research emphasises the role that social structures play in shaping national HIV prevalence. This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women’s social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion were significant predictors of national HIV prevalence in the multivariate analysis. The present study identified nation-level factors that capture social, economic, and political contexts to explain between-nation differences in HIV prevalence. Findings extend current literature on the social-structural foundation of HIV-risk and the relationship between human rights and health. National safeguards that afford individuals the power to promote general quality of life and protection from structural violence may be most important to lowering overall rates of HIV transmission. PMID:24700198

  13. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  14. Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Lindsey A.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer killed approximately 1,590,000 persons in 2012 and currently is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is large variation in mortality rates across the world in both males and females. This variation follows trend of smoking, as tobacco smoking is responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases. In this article, we present estimated worldwide lung cancer mortality rates in 2012 using the World Health Organization (WHO) GLOBOCAN 2012 and changes in the rates during recent decades in select countries using WHO Mortality Database. We also show smoking prevalence and trends globally and at the regional level. By region, the highest lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) in 2012 were in Central and Eastern Europe (47.6) and Eastern Asia (44.8) among males and in Northern America (23.5) and Northern Europe (19.1) among females; the lowest rates were in sub-Saharan Africa in both males (4.4) and females (2.2). The highest smoking prevalence among males is generally in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe, and among females is in European countries, followed by Oceania and Northern and Southern America. Many countries, notably high-income countries, have seen a considerable decrease in smoking prevalence in both males and females, but in many other countries there has been little decrease or even an increase in smoking prevalence. Consequently, depending on whether or when smoking prevalence has started to decline, the lung cancer mortality trend is a mixture of decreasing, stable, or increasing. Despite major achievements in tobacco control, with current smoking patterns lung cancer will remain a major cause of death worldwide for several decades. The main priority to reduce the burden of lung cancer is to implement or enforce effective tobacco control policies in order to reduce smoking prevalence in all countries and prevent an increase in smoking in sub-Saharan Africa and women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). PMID

  15. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  16. Blastomycosis mortality rates, United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Diana; Shafir, Shira; Bristow, Benjamin; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal fungal infection endemic to parts of North America. We used national multiple-cause-of-death data and census population estimates for 1990-2010 to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios (RRs). We modeled trends over time using Poisson regression. Death occurred more often among older persons (RR 2.11, 95% confidence limit [CL] 1.76, 2.53 for those 75-84 years of age vs. 55-64 years), men (RR 2.43, 95% CL 2.19, 2.70), Native Americans (RR 4.13, 95% CL 3.86, 4.42 vs. whites), and blacks (RR 1.86, 95% CL 1.73, 2.01 vs. whites), in notably younger persons of Asian origin (mean = 41.6 years vs. 64.2 years for whites); and in the South (RR 18.15, 95% CL 11.63, 28.34 vs. West) and Midwest (RR 23.10, 95% CL14.78, 36.12 vs. West). In regions where blastomycosis is endemic, we recommend that the diagnosis be considered in patients with pulmonary disease and that it be a reportable disease.

  17. [Prevalence and socio-economic relevance of allergies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böcking, C; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I

    2012-03-01

    Within the last five decades, the worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, or food allergies has increased dramatically. Germany follows a similar trend; several studies have shown increased numbers of allergic diseases in this period. Although allergic diseases do not exhibit high mortality rates, the loss of quality of life as shown by studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) is considerable. Additional health-economical analyses documented that allergic patients more frequently occupy services of the health care system in Germany. The treatment of allergies and the increasing consultation rates cause rising costs and an increasing burden for the national economy. Currently it is possible to control allergic diseases such as asthma by a precise diagnosis or identification of the causative allergen. However, a considerable reduction in the prevalence of allergic disease and its therapy costs can only be expected if causative therapies and effective prevention strategies are available.

  18. Bullying among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence and perception.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H J; Didden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study examined: (a) the prevalence of bullying and victimization among adolescents with ASD, (b) whether they correctly perceived bullying and victimization, and (c) whether Theory of Mind (ToM) and bullying involvement were related to this perception. Data were collected among 230 adolescents with ASD attending special education schools. We found prevalence rates of bullying and victimization between 6 and 46%, with teachers reporting significantly higher rates than peers. Furthermore, adolescents who scored high on teacher- and self-reported victimization were more likely to misinterpret non-bullying situations as bullying. The more often adolescents bullied, according to teachers and peers, and the less developed their ToM, the more they misinterpreted bullying situations as non-bullying. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  19. [Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in surface water].

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Rodríguez de García, R

    1997-03-01

    Some Aeromonas strains are well recognized enteropathogens according to microbiological, clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence. The main source of infection seems to be untreated water, these microorganisms can be found in virtually all aquatic environments. Additionally, some Aeromonas, which include enterotoxigenic strains, are capable of rapid growth at 5 degrees C and even of producing toxins. Vegetable products irrigated with contaminated water may reach critical Aeromonas levels after being kept under refrigeration, this could represent a public health risk when they are consumed as uncooked salads. This study was pursued to evaluate such risk. Surface water samples were streaked on starch ampicillin and inositol-brilliant green-bile salts agar dishes. In addition, 100 ml of each sample were filtered through a 0.45 micron Millipore membrane filter. The filters were incubated on alkaline peptone water as enrichment media during 24 h at 35 degrees C. Enrichment broth was then streaked on the selective agars above mentioned. Isolates from both tests were identified using the API 20 E System. The prevalence of Aeromonas strains in the analyzed samples was 17.8%. A higher isolation rate was observed after the enrichment technique. Starch ampicillin agar showed a higher recuperation rate. A Veronii biotype sobria (formerly A. sobria) was isolated with higher frequency. Since this species has been associated with the greatest virulence, the use of contaminated water to irrigate vegetable products that are to be kept under refrigeration and consumed without ulterior cooking may represent a risk to the public health.

  20. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. Results 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). Conclusion 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation. PMID:27703540

  1. Use of Geospatial Modeling to Predict Schistosoma mansoni Prevalence in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Dana M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Wellman, Michael; Matey, Elizabeth; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Mwinzi, Pauline M. N.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Secor, W. Evan

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people, can lead to significant morbidity and mortality; distribution of single dose preventative chemotherapy significantly reduces disease burden. Implementation of control programs is dictated by disease prevalence rates, which are determined by costly and labor intensive screening of stool samples. Because ecological and human factors are known to contribute to the focal distribution of schistosomiasis, we sought to determine if specific environmental and geographic factors could be used to accurately predict Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings A spatial mixed model was fit to assess associations with S. mansoni prevalence in schools. Data on S. mansoni prevalence and GPS location of the school were obtained from 457 primary schools. Environmental and geographic data layers were obtained from publicly available sources. Spatial models were constructed using ArcGIS 10 and R 2.13.0. Lower S.mansoni prevalence was associated with further distance (km) to Lake Victoria, higher day land surface temperature (LST), and higher monthly rainfall totals. Altitude, night LST, human influence index, normalized difference vegetation index, soil pH, soil texture, soil bulk density, soil water capacity, population, and land use variables were not significantly associated with S. mansoni prevalence. Conclusions Our model suggests that there are specific environmental and geographic factors that influence S. mansoni prevalence rates in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Validation and use of schistosomiasis prevalence maps will allow control programs to plan and prioritize efficient control campaigns to decrease schistosomiasis burden. PMID:23977096

  2. Nursing Students' Experience of Bullying: Prevalence, Impact, and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Bowllan, Nancy Meierdierks

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining nursing students' unique experience of bullying are increasingly evident. This article explores national and international literature over the past decade on prevalence rates, potential impact on nursing students, and relevance to socialization to the profession of nursing. Historical considerations are provided along with policies and interventions to empower nursing leaders, academicians, clinicians, and students to prevent or minimize the destructive nature of bullying.

  3. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fitted to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person, relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent). Variations in SBS symptom types, building features, and outdoor air quality may cause the relationship ofSBS symptom prevalence with ventilation rate in specific situations to differ from the average relationship predicted in this paper.

  4. Effects of prevalence on visual search and decision making in fracture detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethell, Susan C.; Manning, David

    2001-06-01

    Research concerning disease prevalence has inferred that indices of observer performance become, in part, a function of predetermined prevalence. The cause of this modified performance and decision-making is not fully understood, although the alteration of the criterion level of the observer may be a feature. Novice radiography students were randomly assigned to one of three digitised test banks of 72 wrist images. Test bank A, B and C represented a fracture prevalence of 50%, 83% and 22% respectively. Half of the observers from each group were made aware of the prevalence of their respective test bank. Observers recorded their decisions on an operator rating scale. Results showed significant differences in overall Az between the 50% and 83% prevalence sets (p equals 0.04) and the 50% and 22% prevalence sets (p equals 0.005). Knowledge of the prevalence influenced both sensitivity and specificity values at the 83% prevalence level (p equals 0.03 and 0.02) but not at the lower levels. For test bank A sensitivity was 87%; specificity 53%; Az 0.80, test bank B sensitivity 81%; specificity 48%; Az 0.71 and test bank C sensitivity 85%; specificity 43%; Az 0.68. Analysis of the eye movement patterns of observers under conditions of varying prevalence is in progress.

  5. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in northern populations of Siberia.

    PubMed

    Dogadin, S A; Mashtakov, B P; Taranushenko, T E

    2001-04-01

    In the first part of the study the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed Type 2 diabetes among adult rural populations of southern, central and northern areas of the Krasnoyarsk region of Siberia is compared. The six-year mean incidence of diabetes in the southern area was 0.86 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.66-1.06), in the central area this incidence was 0.79 (0.57-1.01). In contrast, in the northern area the mean Type 2 incidence among indigenous population was 0.16 per 1000 (0-0.43) and among aliens it was 0.38 (0.22-0.54). The age-standardised Type 2 diabetes prevalence in the population of southern and central areas were 10.23 (9.55-10.-92) and 10.77 (9.99-11.55), respectively. In the northern area among aliens it was 8.98 (8.18-9.78) and among indigenous peoples only 2.54 per 1000 (1.46-3.62). The second part of this study consists of a population based survey to determine the prevalence rate of Type 2 diabetes among 596 Evenks and 306 alien inhabitants in Evenkia (82% eligible participants of Baikit district). No cases of glucose intolerance were found among Evenks in this study and one case of Type 2 diabetes was confirmed among aliens (prevalence rate 3.27 per 1000). These data indicate that Type 2 diabetes is still rare among northern indigenous populations of Siberia and that diabetes in northern alien populations is less prevalent than among peoples of central and southern areas of Siberia.

  6. Changing Trends in Asthma Prevalence Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Lara J.; Simon, Alan E.; Rossen, Lauren M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood asthma prevalence doubled from 1980 to 1995 and then increased more slowly from 2001 to 2010. During this second period, racial disparities increased. More recent trends remain to be described. METHODS We analyzed current asthma prevalence using 2001–2013 National Health Interview Survey data for children ages 0 to 17 years. Logistic regression with quadratic terms was used to test for nonlinear patterns in trends. Differences between demographic subgroups were further assessed with multivariate models controlling for gender, age, poverty status, race/ethnicity, urbanicity, and geographic region. RESULTS Overall, childhood asthma prevalence increased from 2001 to 2009 followed by a plateau then a decline in 2013. From 2001 to 2013, multivariate logistic regression showed no change in prevalence among non-Hispanic white and Puerto Rican children and those in the Northeast and West; increasing prevalence among 10- to 17-year-olds, poor children, and those living in the South; increasing then plateauing prevalence among 5- to 9-year-olds, near-poor children, and non-Hispanic black children; and increasing then decreasing prevalence among 0- to 4-year-olds, nonpoor, and Mexican children and those in the Midwest. Non-Hispanic black-white disparities stopped increasing, and Puerto Rican children remained with the highest prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Current asthma prevalence ceased to increase among children in recent years and the non-Hispanic black-white disparity stopped increasing due mainly to plateauing prevalence among non-Hispanic black children. PMID:26712860

  7. Biases in Ratings of Disruptive Behavior in Children: Effects of Sex and Negative Halos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Cynthia M.; Van Pelt, Jill C.; Armendariz, Monica L.; Knight, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Behavior disorders are more prevalent among boys than girls, but the etiology of this difference is unclear. Studies have not tested for sex bias in ratings as a contributing factor to the differential sex prevalence rates. However, there are several studies showing "negative halo effects" in ratings of boys (i.e., the presence of one…

  8. Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, A; Midha, V; Sood, N; Bhatia, A S; Avasthi, G

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Ulcerative colitis occurs worldwide. It is considered common in most of Europe and North America and uncommon in most of the developing Asian countries. The incidence/prevalence of ulcerative colitis varies not only according to geographical region but also with race and ethnicity. There are no reported data from India on the incidence of the disease and its prevalence. Material and methods: A house to house survey was conducted by questionnaire, formulated to enquire about symptoms that are suggestive of ulcerative colitis. Those with prolonged diarrhoea with or without rectal bleeding were considered as suspected cases. These suspected cases were subjected to video sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. In addition, patients already diagnosed and receiving treatment for ulcerative colitis, encountered during the survey, were reviewed. Resurvey of the same areas was conducted after a one year interval to detect new cases. Using direct methods, standardised rates were calculated using world standard population weights 22, 18, 16, 12, 12, 9, 7, 3, and 1 for each 10 year age group. Standardised rates were also obtained separately for males, females, and combined populations, using the Punjab state 1991 population census data. Rates were also estimated according to UK 2000 population data. Ninety five per cent confidence intervals (95% CI) of prevalence and incidence rates of ulcerative colitis were estimated under the assumption that the distribution of cases followed a Poisson probability model. Results: A total population of 51 910 were screened from January to March 1999. We identified 147 suspected cases and of these 23 were finally established as ulcerative colitis cases, giving a crude prevalence rate of 44.3 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 29.4–66.6). A second visit to the same areas after one year identified 10 suspected cases in a population of 49 834. Of these, three were confirmed as “definite” ulcerative colitis giving a crude

  9. Has smoking cessation ceased? Expected trends in the prevalence of smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-08-01

    From 1965 to 1990, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among US adults (aged > or = 18 years) fell steadily and substantially. Data for the 1990s suggest that the smoking initiation rate is increasing and that the decline in the prevalence of smoking may have stalled, raising the fear that the historical 25-year decline will not continue. The authors used a new dynamic forecasting model to show that although the decline may slow down, the demographics of smoking imply that prevalence will inexorably continue to decline over the next several decades, even without any intensified efforts aimed at tobacco control. The authors estimated and validated the model using historical (1965-1993) data collected by the National Health Interview Surveys on the prevalence of smoking among adults. Their results indicate that the current increase in the smoking initiation rate partially explains the fact that the prevalence of smoking has apparently leveled off, but even if the most grim assumptions about future initiation rates are used, the prevalence of smoking among adults will continue to decline for several more decades. The authors predict that if current initiation and cessation behaviors persist, the prevalence of smoking among adults will automatically decline from its current level of 25% to 15-16% by the second quarter of the next century. Even so, smoking will remain the nation's leading cause of premature death.

  10. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89), Mexicans (18.78), and Puerto Ricans (19.04), and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15). With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations. PMID:27672394

  11. Prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy amongst high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal: a bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Quarraisha, ABDOOL KARIM; Ayesha, BM KHARSANY; Kerry, LEASK; Fanelisibonge, NTOMBELA; Hilton, HUMPHRIES; Janet, A FROHLICH; Natasha, SAMSUNDER; Anneke, GROBLER; Rachael, DELLAR; Salim, ABDOOL KARIM

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents in southern African high schools are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. We report on the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy as indicators of high risk sexual behavior amongst high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Design Bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey Methods Students completed a self-administered structured, standardized demographic and sexual behavioral questionnaire. Dried blood spot specimens were collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Urine specimens were used for pregnancy testing in female students. Results A total of 2675 (1423 females, 1252 males) consenting students were enrolled from 14 high schools between September and November 2010. The median age of students was 16 years [interquartile range (IQR) 15–18]. HIV prevalence was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–1.9) in males and 6.4% (95% CI 4.6–8.3) in females (p < 0.001). HSV-2 prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 1.6–3.7) in males and 10.7% (95% CI 8.8–12.6) in females (p < 0.001). Pregnancy prevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 2.6–4.5). Risk factors for prevalent HIV infection in female students included being over 18 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.67, 95% CI 1.67–4.27; p<0.001], prevalent HSV-2 infection (aOR=4.35, 95% CI 2.61–7.24; p<0.001), previous pregnancy (aOR=1.66, 95%CI 1.10–2.51; p=0.016) and experience of two or more deaths in the household in the previous year (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.13–3.44; p=0.016). Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy underscore the need for school-based sexual and reproductive health services, and provide further impetus for the inclusion of adolescents in behavioral and biomedical trials with HIV incidence endpoints. PMID:24873967

  12. The prevalence of childhood victimization experienced outside of the family: Findings from an English prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Vicki; Browne, Kevin; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research carried out in the United Kingdom (UK) aimed at providing a holistic exploration of the victim experiences of young people within the school and community environments (extrafamilial victimization). This study therefore examined the prevalence of 24 different types of extrafamilial victimization experienced by a sample of 730 young people, aged 13-16 years (mean 13.8 years), from one county in the UK. The findings show that the vast majority of young people experienced some form of extrafamilial victimization over their lifetime (84.1%) and past year (67.2%). Looking at individual categories of victimization experienced over the lifetime, 7 out of 10 young people witnessed or experienced indirect victimization, 1 in 3 experienced property victimization, more than 1 in 4 physical victimization, almost 1 in 2 experienced bullying, 1 in 28 dating violence and 1 in 7 experienced sexual victimization. The findings also suggest that victimization is not an isolated event; participants experienced an average 2.8 different types of victimization across their lifetime. These research findings are compared to those from national victimization surveys in the USA and UK to compile a picture of the victimization prevalence rates across studies. The findings highlight the importance of adopting a holistic approach to the exploration of extrafamilial victimization in future research, assessment of victim experiences, and prevention of extrafamilial victimization.

  13. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Dominique; Jordaan, Jacob A

    2007-01-01

    Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be multidisciplinary in nature. Finally

  14. Prevalence of mental disorders in a Greek island.

    PubMed

    Stylianidis, S; Pantelidou, S; Chondros, P; Roelandt, J L; Barbato, A

    2014-01-01

    In Greece, the need for epidemiological data became evident at the beginning of the mental health reform during 1983 with the emergence of the necessity to develop community-based mental health services. This survey was conducted in 2005 by the Association for Regional Development and Mental Health (EPAPSY), supported by the local authorities. It followed the methodology of the survey "Mental Health in the General Population: Images and Realities" (MHGP), a large scale multisite epidemiological research conducted by the World Health Organization Collaborative Centre of Lille in France and other countries. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, sociodemographic and comorbidity patterns of mental disorders in the general adult population of Evia Island, Greece. This was a cross-sectional survey investigating point, period and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. The target population was the non-institutionalized adult population of island of Evia (population 230,000 people). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a sociodemographic data questionnaire were administered by trained interviewers to 900 residents of Evia. The quota sampling method was used to obtain a sample representative of the target population. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder, as identified by the MINI, was 29%. The prevalence of depression was high, with 17.5% of women and 14.6% of men currently meeting the criteria for diagnosis. Affective and anxiety disorders were found to be more frequent in women than men, except for dysthymia, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder which were slightly more frequent in men. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Evia was much higher than the prevalence found by other epidemiological studies in Greece and among the highest in Southern Europe. The high prevalence of mental disorders found in Evia means that almost one third of the population will suffer from a clinically significant disorder in their lifetime

  15. The prevalence of tic disorders for children in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunsong; Zhang, Lingli; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tic disorders (TD) are common neuropsychiatric disorders among children and adolescents. Still, there is great uncertainty regarding their epidemiology in China. We aim to depict the prevalence of TD for children in China and explore the influence of sex, age, geographic distribution, and diagnostic criteria on the prevalence rates. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, four Chinese electronic databases, and relevant lists. Two reviewers independently selected trials, assessed trial quality, and extracted the data. Results: We included 13 studies investigating 269,571 participants. The sample size ranged from 563 to 216,005 participants. The age of participants ranged from 3 to 16 years. The meta-analysis of the prevalence of TD was 6.1% [95% CI: 0.036–0.100, I2 = 49.7%]. The prevalence of transient tic disorder (TTD), chronic tic disorder (CTD), and Tourette syndrome (TS) was 1.7% [95% CI = 0.009–0.031, I2 = 49%], 1.2% [95% CI = 0.007–0.022, I2 = 48.3%], and 0.3% [95% CI = 0.001–0.008, I2 = 49.5%], respectively. The prevalence of TD in boys [5.1%, 95% CI = 0.026–0.098, I2 = 49.3%] was higher than that in girls [2.4%, 95% CI = 0.009–0.065, I2 = 49.4%]. The prevalence of TD in urban area [2.6%, 95% CI = 0.019–0.034, I2 = 35.5%] was higher than that in rural area [2.2%, 95% CI = 0.016–0.030, I2 = 33.9%]. The prevalence of TD in central China [10.7%, 95% CI = 0.043–0.242, I2 = 49.2%] was higher than that in North China [7.8%, 95% CI = 0.007–0.522, I2 = 49.9%] and East China [4.4%, 95% CI = 0.015–0.120, I2 = 49.8%]. Conclusion: TD is a common disease in China, with prevalence differing based on sex, age, and region. PMID:27472724

  16. Prevalence of Taurodont molars in a North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Arya, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is very important for dentists to be familiar with anomalies of teeth not only for the clinical complications but also their management. Taurodontism also provides a valuable clue in detecting its association with various syndromes and other systemic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taurodont molars among a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 patients’ full-mouth periapical radiographs were screened. The radiographs were evaluated under optimal conditions using double magnifying glasses. A total of 7615 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of Taurodont teeth (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-eight patients were found to have a Taurodont molar (11 women and 17 men [P = 0.250]). The prevalence of Taurodont molar was 2.8%. Males had a higher prevalence rate than females (3.4% vs. 2.2%, respectively). A cluster analysis of total Taurodonts in the mandible (45%) versus maxilla (55%) of both males and females combined showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The occurrence of Taurodontism is basically based on racial expression in different populations. These variations in prevalence between different populations may be due to ethnic variations. The occurrence of Taurodont molars among this Indian population was rare. PMID:25767357

  17. High prevalence of Human Herpesvirus 8 in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hannachi, Neila; El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Nakhli, Jaafar; Letaief, Leila; Gaabout, Samia; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

    2014-05-15

    Many studies have reported an association between Herpes family viruses and an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the role of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has never been investigated. This study aimed to assess HHV8 prevalence in schizophrenic patients as well as the possible association between HHV8 infection and schizophrenia clinical features. We consecutively enrolled 108 patients meeting fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria of schizophrenia and 108 age and sex matched controls. Data about a number of demographic characteristics and potential HHV8 risk factors of infection were collected. Standardized psychopathology measures, disease severity and functioning level were obtained using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and Global Assessment of functioning (GAF). The presence of anti-HHV8 antibodies was analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. A higher prevalence of HHV8 infection in schizophrenic patients than in controls was found. Marital status, having children, sexual behavior and risk factors of blood transmission were not associated with HHV8 prevalence. However, among schizophrenic patients, HHV8 prevalence was statically associated with positive symptoms. To our knowledge, this would be the first report of a possible role of HHV8 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To prove this hypothesis, further investigation of HHV8 in schizophrenia with larger samples is needed.

  18. Prevalence of anemia in First Nations children of northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, E. A.; Caulfield, L. E.; Harris, S. B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among First Nations children of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective review of all hemoglobin determinations between 1990 and 1992 in the Sioux Lookout Zone. SETTING: The Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital, a secondary care referral hospital for 28 remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, affiliated with the University of Toronto's Sioux Lookout Program. PARTICIPANTS: All First Nations children age 3 to 60 months who had produced venipuncture or fingerprick blood samples between 1990 and 1992 (614 children had a total of 1223 hemoglobin determinations). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of anemia by age, sex, geographical location, and diagnosis. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin value less than 110g/L. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia peaked in the age range of 6 to 24 months with prevalence rates of 51.7% to 79.3%. Conditions most commonly associated with anemia were respiratory tract infections. Children living in communities in the western part of the Sioux Lookout Zone were 1.64 times more likely to have anemia (95% confidence interval 1.15, 2.35) than children in the other communities. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia appears to be a serious public health problem among preschool children in the Sioux Lookout Zone. PMID:9111982

  19. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. Methods A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8–8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1–5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1–25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Conclusions Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination. PMID:23978220

  20. The prevalence and natural history of hepatitis B in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Carey, William D

    2009-05-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection varies by geographic region. Most of North America is a low-prevalence (< 2%) area. Certain high-prevalence pockets exist, especially areas with a high proportion of Asian immigrants and Alaskan and northern Canadian native populations, where rates of chronic HBV are as high as 5% to 15%. In most low-prevalence areas, HBV infection is acquired mainly during adolescence and midadulthood, whereas perinatal transmission is the main route in high-prevalence (> or = 8%) areas. Up to 40% of patients with chronic HBV infection develop liver complications. Age at acquisition affects the likelihood of chronicity and the development of liver complications. The risk of each is greatest with perinatal transmission; the disease is usually self-limiting when exposure to HBV occurs during adolescence or young adulthood. Viral load predicts progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; therefore, reducing viral load is the major goal of treatment.

  1. [Visual, hearing, and physical disability: prevalence and associated factors in a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Barros, Marilisa Berti Azevedo; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Goldbaum, Moises

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of disabilities according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as to determine the main causes. The research used data from two population-based health surveys in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2002 and 2003, designed with complex sampling techniques. Interviewees that reported disabilities comprised the study sample, according to the database variables. Prevalence of any disability was 110.8; visual disability, 62; hearing disability, 44; and physical disability, 13.3. Prevalence rates for disabilities varied according to age, gender, and schooling. Prevalence of hearing and physical disability was higher among men. The principal cause of disabilities was the disease itself. External causes were also one of the causative factors in disabilities. Disabilities increased with age and were more prevalent among women and persons with less schooling, and the principal causes were diseases and injuries.

  2. Rates of hospital admissions for primary angle closure glaucoma among Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wong, T. Y.; Foster, P.; Seah, S.; Chew, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To estimate the rates of hospital admissions for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore
METHODS—A population-wide hospital discharge database in Singapore was used to identify all hospital admissions with a primary discharge diagnosis of PACG (International Classification of Disease—CM code: 365.2). The Singapore census was used for denominator data.
RESULTS—Between 1993 and 1997 there were 894 hospital admissions for PACG. The mean annual rate of PACG admissions was 11.1 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 10.4, 11.8) among people aged 30 years and over. The annual rate was highest for Chinese (age and sex adjusted rate: 12.2 per 100 000), which was twice that of Malays (6.0 per 100 000) and Indians (6.3 per 100 000). Females had two times higher rates than males in all three races (age adjusted relative risk: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 2.3).
CONCLUSION—Malay and Indian people had identical rates of hospital admissions for PACG, which were only half the rates compared with Chinese.

 PMID:10966951

  3. Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates Among US Men and Women, 1981–2013

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between state-level firearm ownership rates and gender-specific, age-adjusted firearm and total suicide rates across all 50 US states from 1981 to 2013. Methods. We used panel data for all 50 states that included annual overall and gender-specific suicide and firearm suicide rates and a proxy for state-level household firearm ownership. We analyzed data by using linear regression and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Results. State-level firearm ownership was associated with an increase in both male and female firearm-related suicide rates and with a decrease in nonfirearm-related suicide rates. Higher gun ownership was associated with higher suicide rates by any means among male, but not among female, persons. Conclusions. We found a strong relationship between state-level firearm ownership and firearm suicide rates among both genders, and a relationship between firearm ownership and suicides by any means among male, but not female, individuals. Policy implications. For male persons, policies that reduce firearm ownership will likely reduce suicides by all means and by firearms. For female persons, such policies will likely reduce suicides by firearms. PMID:27196643

  4. Maryland's high cancer mortality rate: a review of contributing demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D M

    1999-01-01

    For many years, Maryland has ranked among the top states in cancer mortality. This study analyzed mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (CDC-Wonder) to help explain Maryland's cancer rate and rank. Age-adjusted rates are based on deaths per 100,000 population from 1991 through 1995. Rates and ranks overall, and stratified by age, are calculated for total cancer mortality, as well as for four major sites: lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal. Because states differ in their racial/gender mix, race/gender rates among states are also compared. Although Maryland ranks seventh in overall cancer mortality, its rates and rank by race and gender subpopulation are less high. For those under 75, white men ranked 26th, black men ranked 20th, and black and white women ranked 12th and 10th, respectively. Maryland's overall rank, as with any state, is a function of the rates of its racial and gender subpopulations and the relative size of these groups in the state. Many of the disparities between Maryland's overall high cancer rank and its lower rank by subpopulation also characterize the major cancer sites. Although a stratified presentation of cancer rates and ranks may be more favorable to Maryland, it should not be used to downplay the attention cancer mortality in Maryland deserves.

  5. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (p<0.01). Usually, cleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  6. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update.

    PubMed

    Marques, Amelia Pasqual; Santo, Adriana de Sousa do Espírito; Berssaneti, Ana Assumpção; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Yuan, Susan Lee King

    2016-12-18

    The present study aimed to update the literature review on the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) published in 2006. A bibliographical survey was carried out from 2005 to 2014 in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, LILACS and SciELO databases and 3274 records were identified. Five researchers selected the studies, following the inclusion criteria: studies that obtained the prevalence of FM. FM studies in associated diseases were excluded. When screening by title and abstract, 2073 irrelevant articles were excluded. The full texts of 210 articles were evaluated for eligibility and this review included 39 studies, described in 41 articles. The selected studies were grouped into four categories: a) prevalence of FM in the general population; B) prevalence of FM in women; C) prevalence of FM in rural and urban areas; D) prevalence of FM in special populations. The literature shows values of FM prevalence in the general population between 0.2 and 6.6%, in women between 2.4 and 6.8%, in urban areas between 0.7 and 11.4%, in rural areas between 0.1 and 5.2%, and in special populations values between 0.6 and 15%. This literature review update shows a significant increase in FM prevalence studies in the world. The new 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria have not been widely used yet and the COPCORD (Community-oriented program for control of Rheumatic Diseases) methodology has increased the quality of studies on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in general.

  7. Quantification of the association of ventilation rates with sick building syndrome symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2009-06-01

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fit to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slope-ventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23percent (12percent to 32percent) as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s-person and relative prevalence decreases approximately 29percent (15percent to 42percent) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

  8. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  9. [Elderly residents in homes for the aged: adjustment in the light of Callista Roy].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Maria Célia de; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; de Galiza, Francisca Tereza; Nogueira, Jéssica de Menezes; Onofre, Marília Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adaptation of elderly individuals voluntarily reside in Institution for the Aged (LTCF) in the city of Fortaleza-CE, based on the theoretical model of Roy. Descriptive study, in a IPLI involving thirteen elderly residents. Data collect was through interviews in the months of October and December 2011 and organized by thematic content analysis. The following themes has emerged: I Physical subdivided into body sensation and body image; Staff and I, subdivided into self-consistency and auto ideal be moral-ethical-spiritual. Thus, the option to live in ILPI not effectively changed the lives of elderly people. They managed to adapt to the local and coexist well with internal and external stimuli.

  10. Perimenstrual symptoms: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Logue, C M; Moos, R H

    1986-01-01

    This article provides an overview of information on the prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Overall, at least 40% of women experience some cyclical perimenstrual symptoms. Although most women rate their symptoms as mild, approximately 2%-10% report severe symptoms. Prospective studies of perimenstrual symptoms indicate that retrospective reports are reasonably accurate among women who experience moderate to severe symptoms. However, among the majority of women with few or minimal symptoms, retrospective reports may amplify the cyclicity of variation in comparison to concurrent reports. A variety of risk factors are associated with patterns of symptom reporting and may provide clues to the etiology of perimenstrual symptoms and help to identify women most vulnerable to them. A woman's age and cycle characteristics are predictors of the type and severity of perimenstrual symptoms she experiences. In addition, a history of affective illness may be associated with increased reporting of perimenstrual symptoms. Future research should focus on developing new diagnostic criteria for subtypes of perimenstrual syndromes, exploring positive symptoms and experiences associated with the menstrual cycle, and formulating holistic treatment approaches that view perimenstrual syndromes as psychosomatic conditions.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Harazi, Talal; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abd; Othman, Hidayatulfathi

    2013-12-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among the Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. The overall intestinal protozoan infection rate was 85% (261 out of 307). The highest prevalence rates were due to Entamoeba coli (24.4%), Giardia lamblia (21.8%), Blastocystis hominis (21.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica (15.0%). The prevalence of Iodamoeba butschlii was only 2.9%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with B. hominis and E. histolytica was 3.3%, B. hominis and G. lamblia was 2.9%, G. lamblia and E. histolytica was 2.0% and triple infections (B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. histolytica) was 1.0 %. The prevalence of the infection was high in all age groups (6-14 years old). Thus, we can conclude that intestinal protozoan infections are still representing a serious public health problem in aboriginal communities, especially among children.

  12. Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: prevalence, correlates and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses recent findings from epidemiological surveys of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) globally, including their prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in the community. Recent findings A number of studies on the epidemiology of PTSD have recently been published from diverse countries, with new methodological innovations introduced. Such work has not only documented the prevalence of PTSD in different settings, but has also shed new light on the PTSD conditional risk associated with specific traumatic events, and on the morbidity and comorbidities associated with these events. Summary Recent community studies show that trauma exposure is higher in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries. PTSD prevalence rates are largely similar across countries, however, with the highest rates being found in postconflict settings. Trauma and PTSD-risk factors are distributed differently in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries, with sociodemographic factors contributing more to this risk in high-income than low-income countries. Apart from PTSD, trauma exposure is also associated with several chronic physical conditions. These findings indicate a high burden of trauma exposure in low-income countries and postconflict settings, where access to trained mental health professionals is typically low. PMID:26001922

  13. Prevalence of Sleepwalking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleepwalking is thought to be a common arousal disorder; however, the epidemiology of this disorder has not yet been systematically examined. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted for ‘sleepwalking’ OR ‘somnambulism’ in any field, to identify studies that reported the epidemiology of sleepwalking or sleepwalking disorders. Fifty-one studies assessed the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a total sample of 100 490. The meta-analysis showed the estimated lifetime prevalence of sleepwalking was 6.9% (95% CI 4.6%–10.3%). The current prevalence rate of sleepwalking—within the last 12 months—was significantly higher in children 5.0% (95% CI 3.8%–6.5%) than adults 1.5% (95% CI 1.0%–2.3%). There was no evidence of developmental trends in sleepwalking across childhood. The significant risk of bias across all studies suggests these results should be used cautiously. Further epidemiological research that addresses methodological problems found in studies of sleepwalking to date is needed. PMID:27832078

  14. Prevalence of Sleepwalking: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stallman, Helen M; Kohler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleepwalking is thought to be a common arousal disorder; however, the epidemiology of this disorder has not yet been systematically examined. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted for 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism' in any field, to identify studies that reported the epidemiology of sleepwalking or sleepwalking disorders. Fifty-one studies assessed the prevalence rates of sleepwalking in a total sample of 100 490. The meta-analysis showed the estimated lifetime prevalence of sleepwalking was 6.9% (95% CI 4.6%-10.3%). The current prevalence rate of sleepwalking-within the last 12 months-was significantly higher in children 5.0% (95% CI 3.8%-6.5%) than adults 1.5% (95% CI 1.0%-2.3%). There was no evidence of developmental trends in sleepwalking across childhood. The significant risk of bias across all studies suggests these results should be used cautiously. Further epidemiological research that addresses methodological problems found in studies of sleepwalking to date is needed.

  15. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission.

  16. Comparison of techniques for the estimation of the prevalence of poliomyelitis in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, B.; Ravikumar, R.; John, M.; Natarajan, K.; Steinhoff, M. C.; John, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Although reliable data on the prevalence and trends of paralytic poliomyelitis are necessary for health planning, they are often difficult to obtain in developing countries. Comparisons were made of the cost and the time taken to obtain prevalence rates of residual poliomyelitis paralysis in a single community by (1) a surveillance and reporting system using physicians and other practitioners, (2) a school survey covering grades 1 to 12, (3) annual surveys of grade 1 schoolchildren, and (4) a house-to-house questionnaire survey. These techniques gave poliomyelitis prevalence rates of 3-5 per 1000 school-age children, and poliomyelitis incidence rates of 12-29 per 100 000 population per year. The annual grade 1 school survey was the cheapest and easiest to carry out and appears reliable in areas with a high rate of school enrolment. PMID:6606499

  17. The prevalence of lice infesting students of primary, preparatory and secondary schools in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el-Ela, R G; Mawla, M Y; Khalaf, S A

    2001-04-01

    Human lice (head and body) are among the arthropod-ectoparasites of worldwide distribution. Examining students in primary, preparatory and secondary schools recorded prevalence rates of 21.86%, 30.38% and 12.94% respectively. The overall rate of the lice infestation in the three schools was 384 out of 1772 or 21.67%. The prevalence rate of lice infestation among males and females were 17.02% & 37.8% (primary school), 27.8% & 33.1% (preparatory school), and 12.0% & 13.9% (secondary school). These totaled 17.7% (males) and 30.26% (females). The overall ratio of head to body lice was 18.2:1. Consequently, lice mainly the head louse, are still a public health problem particularly among female students in the primary and preparatory schools. In the secondary school prevalence rate of the lice infestation was low. So human lice is still a community health problem.

  18. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-02-17

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  19. A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Jennifer S A M; Ehrt, Uwe; Weber, Wim E J; Aarsland, Dag; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2008-01-30

    Prevalence rates of depressive disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) vary widely across studies, ranging from 2.7% to more than 90%. The aim of this systematic review was to calculate average prevalences of depressive disorders taking into account the different settings and different diagnostic approaches of studies. Using Medline on Pubmed, a systematic literature search was carried out for studies of depression in Parkinson's disease. A total of 104 articles were included and assessed for quality; 51 articles fulfilled the quality criteria. Multiple publications from the same database were not included in the meta-analysis. In the remaining 36 articles, the weighted prevalence of major depressive disorder was 17% of PD patients, that of minor depression 22% and dysthymia 13%. Clinically significant depressive symptoms, irrespective of the presence of a DSM defined depressive disorder, were present in 35%. In studies using a (semi) structured interview to establish DSM criteria, the reported prevalence of major depressive disorder was 19%, while in studies using DSM criteria without a structured interview, the reported prevalence of major depressive disorder was 7%. Population studies report lower prevalence rates for both major depressive disorder and the clinically significant depressive symptoms than studies in other settings. This systematic review suggests that the average prevalence of major depressive disorder in PD is substantial, but lower than generally assumed.

  20. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio; Mengoli, Carlo; Peron, Antonella; Benedetti, Paolo; Palu', Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical samples collected from 1335 women with abnormal Pap test and analysed the degree of association of HPV genotype with cervical cytological abnormality and also with patient age. The study was principally aimed at providing some cross-sectional figures on the epidemiology of HPV in our area, where the ethnic background is expected to rapidly evolve due to extensive immigration from overseas. 471 (35.3%) of the 1335 patients screened were positive for HPV DNA. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive HPV PCR, namely 24.0% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 48.7% in LSIL group (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), and 71.9% in HSIL group (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (p-value < 0.001). High-risk (HR) HPV prevalence appeared to be different from other areas of the world; we have detected a high prevalence rate of HPV-16, 31, and 58 and a low prevalence rate of HPV-18 and 11. The prevalence of both HR and low risk (LR) genotype groups was clearly related to age (p-value < 0.001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend.

  1. The prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in mainland China: evidence from epidemiological surveys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenying; Guo, Yuwen; Zhang, Daoxin; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Xiaonan

    2015-08-26

    The epidemiological characteristics of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in mainland China are not completely understood. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BPH from 1989 through 2014. A total of 14 articles and 19 datasets were included. The pooled overall prevalence of BPH among men aged 40 years and older was 36.6% [95% CI, 32.3-44.8]. The occurrence rate of BPH in the age groups 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years and 80 years and older was 2.9%, 29.0%, 44.7%, 58.1% and 69.2%, respectively. The pooled occurrence rate of BPH was 41.5% [95% CI, 34.5-48.4] in urban areas and 38.6% [95% CI, 22.7-54.6] in rural areas; this difference in prevalence was not statistically significant [OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97-2.36]. BPH is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increased with age. The trend in the prevalence of BPH in mainland China was not steady; the prevalence map based on a geographic information system (GIS) showed an unequal geographic distribution. High-quality surveys on BPH with a larger sample size are needed throughout mainland China to confirm these findings.

  2. [The prevalence of chronic drinkers in Mexico: an ecologic analysis].

    PubMed

    Borges, G

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is an important element in the epidemiologic profile of Mexico. This can be confirmed observing the increased per capita consumption of certain alcoholic beverages (like beer and wine), alcohol related medical problems (e.g. liver cirrhosis), social problems (i.e. violence) and by the data provided by household surveys of prevalence of alcohol consumption in Mexico since the 60's. The population's consumption of alcoholic beverages has generated concern, as the Simple Distribution Theory (SDT) predicts that an increment in the per capita alcohol consumption is likely to be accompanied by an increment of heavy drinkers. This increment is, then, related to a theoretical increment in alcohol related damages. In order to partially test the SDT data from a series of surveys done in the country, six surveys of the 70's were used. Those surveys were executed in six cities, the capital of five states and the capital of the Republic, with a comparable methodology and definition of alcohol consumption. We used prevalence data of heavy drinkers in those cities as an independent variable for a series of medical and social problems, in a multiple-group comparison study. In general, the results do not support the SDT in the case of mortality by liver cirrhosis, suicide and traffic deaths, or for alcohol related offenses at the Federal Courts. Nevertheless, the results seem to support the SDT for some groups in Common Court offenses and for the rate of traffic accidents. In a comparison with other independent variables (prevalence of abstainers, per capita bars, illiteracy, unemployment, and population density), the prevalence of heavy drinkers and population density were the best. Both obtained the largest number of statistically significant correlations with the problems studied. For the prevalence of heavy drinkers some of those correlations were in the inverse sense as predicted by the SDT.

  3. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  4. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in U.S. states are associated with well water use

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Gary G.; Klug, Marilyn G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown cause and invariably fatal outcome. We sought to evaluate a correlation between motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates and residential radon levels that was previously reported for counties in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationships between age-adjusted MND mortality rates in U.S. states with residential radon levels, well water use, and other variables using structural equation modeling. We observed a significant correlation between MND mortality rates and radon levels. However, in structural equation models, radon did not have a significant, direct effect on MND mortality rates. Conversely, MND mortality rates were significantly and directly predicted by race and by the percentage of the population of each state using well water (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022). We observed similar, significant effects for well water use and MND mortality for males and females separately (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we hypothesize that the association of MND mortality rates with well water use reflects contamination of wells with Legionella, a bacterium common in well water that is known to cause neurologic disease. A Legionella hypothesis is a biologically plausible cause of ALS and suggests new avenues for etiologic research. PMID:27324739

  5. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in U.S. states are associated with well water use.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary G; Klug, Marilyn G

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with an unknown cause and invariably fatal outcome. We sought to evaluate a correlation between motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates and residential radon levels that was previously reported for counties in the United Kingdom. We examined the relationships between age-adjusted MND mortality rates in U.S. states with residential radon levels, well water use, and other variables using structural equation modeling. We observed a significant correlation between MND mortality rates and radon levels. However, in structural equation models, radon did not have a significant, direct effect on MND mortality rates. Conversely, MND mortality rates were significantly and directly predicted by race and by the percentage of the population of each state using well water (p < 0.001 and p = 0.022). We observed similar, significant effects for well water use and MND mortality for males and females separately (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we hypothesize that the association of MND mortality rates with well water use reflects contamination of wells with Legionella, a bacterium common in well water that is known to cause neurologic disease. A Legionella hypothesis is a biologically plausible cause of ALS and suggests new avenues for etiologic research.

  6. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p < 0.001), between 2002 (10.6 per 1000) and 2006. The rise in autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates of Lifetime Substance Use among a Rural and Diverse Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Michael J.; Drescher, Christopher F.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Tull, Matthew T.; Heiden, Laurie; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.; Young, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: Data are limited regarding the prevalence of substance use among adolescents in rural and ethnically diverse communities. This study examined rates and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime substance use among adolescents in Mississippi, a rural state that is the poorest in the country (21.3% poverty rate) and has the largest…

  8. Prevalence of Behavior Disorder and Disturbance to Family and Staff in a Sample of Adult Day Health Care Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Holmes, Douglas; Dichter, Elizabeth; Koren, Mary Jane; Ramirez, Mildred; Fairchild, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the prevalence of behavior disorders in a sample of residents (N=360) in adult day health care programs. Findings indicate relatively high rates of behavior disorders. Most prevalent were the affective disorders (seeking reassurance, depression, crying) and verbal-vocal agitation. Differences between formal and informal caregivers'…

  9. Prevalence of Elevated Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in a Rural School-Aged Population: Implications for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Carol Ann; Meadows, Beth Bender; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight in students and adolescents has become a matter of national concern and is linked to a rise in chronic health conditions in students who previously had low prevalence rates, such as cardiovascular disease. This study examined the relationships between age, ethnicity, race, body mass index (BMI), and elevated…

  10. Behavioral Problems in Children with Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Associations with Maladaptive Personality and Marital Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrijmoeth, Cis; Monbaliu, Elegast; Lagast, Emmy; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence rates of behavioral problems in children with motor disabilities are commonly based on questionnaires developed for a general population (e.g., Child Behavior CheckList). These questionnaires do not take into account lower levels of intellectual functioning. The first aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of parent-reported…

  11. [Prevalence of undernutrition in 143 patients before liver transplantation. The Lausanne experience between 1997 and 2005].

    PubMed

    Guex, E; Cheseaux, M; Bertrand, P Coti; Piquet, M A; Bouvry, S; Pilon, N; Halkic, N; Pascual, M; Roulet, M

    2008-04-09

    The prevalence of undernutrition was prospectively studied in 143 patients before liver transplantation between 1997 and 2005. Nutritional assessment is a particularly tricky problem in cirrhosis and mid-arm muscle circumference is considered as the best reliable anthropometric tool. In this prospective study, prevalence rate is very high (61%) and undernutrition is more frequent in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. In conclusion, these patients should benefit from an early dietician intervention before liver transplantation.

  12. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes in Dalseong-gun, Daegu City, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Jung, Sung-Chang; Jung, Gui-Hwa; Ha, Sung-Woo; Kim, Bo-Wan; Chae, Shung-Chull; Park, Wee-Hyun; Lim, Ji-Sun; Yang, Jin-Hoon; Kam, Sin; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Lee, Jung-Jeung; Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Ahn, Moon-Young; Kim, Young-Ae

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the population-based prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes in a rural district of Daegu City, Korea. Methods Between August and November 2003, a community-based health survey of adults aged 20 years and older was performed in the rural district of Dalseong-gun in Daegu City. A total of 1,806 of all eligible individuals agreed to participate. Fasting plasma glucose was measured in all participants. Two hour oral glucose tolerance was measured in the 1,773 participants for whom there was neither an established diagnosis of DM nor evidence of DM according to fasting glucose levels. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes was determined according to the 2003 criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with prediabetes were classified into one of three categories of glucose intolerance: isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG); isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); or combined IFG and IGT. Results The prevalence of DM was 12.2%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in subjects in their seventies. A total of 34.7% of all subjects who were assigned a diagnosis of DM in the present study had not been diagnosed previously. The prevalence of prediabetes was 22.7%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in subjects in their fifties. Conclusion The present study identified prevalence rates of 12.2% for DM (age-standardized prevalence rate [ASR], 6.8%), and 22.7% for prediabetes (ASR 18.5%). These results emphasize the need for community health promotion strategies to prevent or delay the onset of DM in individuals with prediabetes. PMID:21785746

  13. Seasonal affective disorder in college students: prevalence and latitude.

    PubMed

    Low, K G; Feissner, J M

    1998-11-01

    The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to evaluate a convenience sample of college students in northern New England for winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subsyndromal SAD. Seventy-six students filled out the questionnaire and the inventory in mid-fall, then completed the inventory again in mid-February. The students who had moved from southern latitudes to northern New England were the most likely to experience increased depression in winter. Prevalence rates for SAD and sub-SAD combined (winter 13.2 and 19.7%, respectively) were slightly higher than those reported in previous research. The prevalence of SAD was also higher in female students, which was consistent with findings in previous research.

  14. A prevalence study of autism in tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A; Shepherd, C

    1993-06-01

    An estimate of the prevalence of autism in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) was made by interviewing the parents of 21 children between ages 3 and 11 ascertained during a previous population study of the condition in the West of Scotland. Five of the children (24%) were rated autistic and a further four (19%), all of whom were girls, had socially impaired behavior categorized as pervasive developmental disorder, without fulfilling all the DSM-III-R criteria for autism. One further boy had disruptive attention-seeking behavior that had excluded him from his normal school. The estimated prevalence from this study of autism in TSC is 1 in 4 children in general, and 1 in 2 of those with mental retardation. Tuberous sclerosis could be a significant cause of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, particularly in girls.

  15. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  16. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  17. Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, S D; Goodman, L A; Osher, F C; Swartz, M S; Essock, S M; Butterfield, M I; Constantine, N T; Wolford, G L; Salyers, M P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed seroprevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among individuals with severe mental illness. METHODS: Participants (n = 931) were patients undergoing inpatient or outpatient treatment in Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, or North Carolina. RESULTS: The prevalence of HIV infection in this sample (3.1%) was approximately 8 times the estimated US population rate but lower than rates reported in previous studies of people with severe mental illness. Prevalence rates of HBV (23.4%) and HCV (19.6%) were approximately 5 and 11 times the overall estimated population rates for these infections, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV were found. Of particular concern are the high rates of HCV infection, which are frequently undetected. Individuals with HCV infection commonly fail to receive appropriate treatment to limit liver damage and unknowingly may be a source of infection to others. PMID:11189820

  18. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P < .001). Only 3 studies provided prevalence data, including 62% prevalence of lumbosacral pain, 58% painful snapping hip, and 29% patellofemoral pain. Lower extremity injuries comprised 66% to 91% of all injuries, with the foot and ankle accounting for 14% to 57%. Conclusion The overall incidence of injury

  19. International prevalence of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and deliberate self-harm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The behaviours of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) are prevalent among adolescents, and an increase of rates in recent years has been postulated. There is a lack of studies to support this postulation, and comparing prevalence across studies and nations is complicated due to substantial differences in the methodology and nomenclature of existing research. Methods We conducted a systematic review of current (2005 - 2011) empirical studies reporting on the prevalence of NSSI and DSH in adolescent samples across the globe. Results Fifty-two studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were obtained for analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between NSSI (18.0% SD = 7.3) and DSH (16.1% SD = 11.6) studies. Assessment using single item questions led to lower prevalence rates than assessment with specific behaviour checklists. Mean prevalence rates have not increased in the past five years, suggesting stabilization. Conclusion NSSI and DSH have a comparable prevalence in studies with adolescents from different countries. The field would benefit from adopting a common approach to assessment to aide cross-cultural study and comparisons. PMID:22462815

  20. Prevalence and Mortality of Melanoma in Oklahoma Among Racial Groups, 2000-2008

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Jonathan; Janitz, Amanda E.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie; Snider, Cuyler; Campbell, Janis E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed the period prevalence (2000-2008) and mortality rates of melanoma, in Oklahoma, among different racial/ethnic strata. Methods We analyzed incident cases of melanoma from 2000-2008 from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and determined disease duration using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to calculate period prevalence of melanoma in Oklahoma. Using a series of Chi-Square tests, we compared period prevalence and mortality rates among the racial groups and compared mortality between Oklahoma and the US. Results White non-Hispanics in Oklahoma have the highest period prevalence (p<0.0001) among the racial strata. American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals have the second highest period prevalence in Oklahoma (p<0.0001). Furthermore, white non-Hispanics (p<0.0001) and AI/AN individuals (p=0.0003) in Oklahoma had higher mortality rates compared to the US. Conclusions There are disparities in the prevalence and mortality of melanoma among the AI/AN population in Oklahoma, and prevention and education programs should focus on this population. PMID:27885301

  1. Potential Impact of Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities Prevalent in Africa on Influenza Severity and Frequency: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adam L; McMorrow, Meredith; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Cheryl; Tempia, Stefano; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases and underlying medical conditions common to Africa may affect influenza frequency and severity. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on influenza and the following co-infections or co-morbidities that are prevalent in Africa: dengue, malaria, measles, meningococcus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), hemoglobinopathies, and malnutrition. Articles were identified except for influenza and PCP. Very few studies were from Africa. Sickle cell disease, dengue, and measles co-infection were found to increase the severity of influenza disease, though this is based on few studies of dengue and measles and the measles study was of low quality. The frequency of influenza was increased among patients with sickle cell disease. Influenza infection increased the frequency of meningococcal disease. Studies on malaria and malnutrition found mixed results. Age-adjusted morbidity and mortality from influenza may be more common in Africa because infections and diseases common in the region lead to more severe outcomes and increase the influenza burden. However, gaps exist in our knowledge about these interactions.

  2. Potential Impact of Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities Prevalent in Africa on Influenza Severity and Frequency: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adam L.; McMorrow, Meredith; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Cheryl; Tempia, Stefano; Alexander-Scott, Marissa; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases and underlying medical conditions common to Africa may affect influenza frequency and severity. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on influenza and the following co-infections or co-morbidities that are prevalent in Africa: dengue, malaria, measles, meningococcus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), hemoglobinopathies, and malnutrition. Articles were identified except for influenza and PCP. Very few studies were from Africa. Sickle cell disease, dengue, and measles co-infection were found to increase the severity of influenza disease, though this is based on few studies of dengue and measles and the measles study was of low quality. The frequency of influenza was increased among patients with sickle cell disease. Influenza infection increased the frequency of meningococcal disease. Studies on malaria and malnutrition found mixed results. Age-adjusted morbidity and mortality from influenza may be more common in Africa because infections and diseases common in the region lead to more severe outcomes and increase the influenza burden. However, gaps exist in our knowledge about these interactions. PMID:26068416

  3. Favorable cardiovascular risk factor profile is associated with reduced prevalence of coronary artery calcification and inflammation in asymptomatic nondiabetic white men.

    PubMed

    Michos, Erin D; Santos, Raul D; Narla, Venkata; Pandey, Shivda; Meneghelo, Romeu; Carvalho, Jose A; Budoff, Matthew J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2008-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals with favorable levels of all major cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) have much lower age-specific risks for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of the absence of CVRFs with subclinical CVD and inflammation is not well described. We classified 440 asymptomatic Brazilian men (aged 46+/-7 years) based on the number of CVRFs (smoking, systolic blood pressure > or =130 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > or =130 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL, triglycerides > or =150 mg/dL, fasting glucose > or =100 mg/dL, and waist circumference >102 cm). Only 7% had no CVRFs, whereas 1, 2, 3, and > or =4 CVRFs were observed in 18%, 24%, 21%, and 29%, respectively. In age-adjusted analysis, each lower CVRF profile was associated with lower odds of prevalent coronary artery calcium (odds ratio, 0.75; P=.002) and elevated white blood cell count (odds ratio, 0.70; P<.001). Our study supports the notion that a favorable CVD profile is associated with less underlying atherosclerosis and inflammation and further highlights the importance of primary prevention of CVRFs.

  4. Prevalence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Adults--23 States and the District of Columbia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Xu, Fang; Town, Machell; Blanck, Heidi M

    2016-02-26

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that the daily intake of calories from added sugars not exceed 10% of total calories. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant sources of added sugars in the diet of U.S. adults and account for approximately one third of added sugar consumption. Among adults, frequent (i.e., at least once a day) SSB intake is associated with adverse health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. According to the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), an in-person and phone follow-up survey, 50.6% of U.S. adults consumed at least one SSB on a given day. In addition, SSB intake varies by geographical regions: the prevalence of daily SSB intake was higher among U.S. adults living in the Northeast (68.4%) and South (66.7%) than among persons living in the Midwest (58.8%). In 2013, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone survey, revised the SSB two-item optional module to retain the first question on regular soda and expand the second question to include more types of SSBs than just fruit drinks. Using 2013 BRFSS data, self-reported SSB (i.e., regular soda, fruit drinks, sweet tea, and sports or energy drinks) intake among adults (aged ≥18 years) was assessed in 23 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of SSB intake ≥1 time per day was 30.1% and ranged from 18.0% in Vermont to 47.5% in Mississippi. Overall, at least once daily SSB intake was most prevalent among adults aged 18-24 years (43.3%), men (34.1%), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) (39.9%), unemployed adults (34.4%), and persons with less than a high school education (42.4%). States can use the data for program evaluation and monitoring trends, and information on disparities in SSB consumption could be used to create targeted intervention efforts to reduce SSB consumption.

  5. The Prevalence of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Marfan syndrome (MFS) in Korean adults. Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2013. The data consisted of primary diagnoses related to MFS (Q87.4) diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The age-standardized prevalence of MFS in adults was calculated using the estimated Korean population in 2010 as a reference. Overall, the prevalence of MFS was 0.90 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 2.27 in 2013. For males in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 2.61 in overall and 4.32 in 15–19 years-old. For females in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 1.92 in overall and 3.02 in 10–14 years-old. In conclusion, currently, the age-standardized overall prevalence of MFS was 2.27 persons per 100,000 persons. And the overall age-standardized prevalence of MFS increased between 2006 and 2013 especially in 15–19 years-old males and 10–14 years-old females. PMID:28244281

  6. Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalf, J G; de Swart, B J M; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M

    2012-05-01

    Dysphagia is a potentially harmful feature, also in Parkinson's disease (PD). As published prevalence rates vary widely, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in PD in a meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic literature search in February 2011 and two independent reviewers selected the papers. We computed the estimates of the pooled prevalence weighted by sample size. Twelve studies were suitable for calculating prevalence rates. Ten studies provided an estimate based on subjective outcomes, which proved statistically heterogeneous (p < 0.001), with a pooled prevalence estimate with random effect analysis of 35% (95% CI 28-41). Four studies provided an estimate based on objective measurements, which were statistically homogeneous (p = 0.23), with a pooled prevalence estimate of 82% (95% CI 77-87). In controls the pooled subjective prevalence was 9% (95% CI 2-17), while the pooled objective prevalence was 23% (95% CI 13-32). The pooled relative risk was 3.2 for both subjective outcomes (95% CI 2.32-4.41) and objective outcomes (95% CI 2.08-4.98). Clinical heterogeneity between studies was chiefly explained by differences in disease severity. Subjective dysphagia occurs in one third of community-dwelling PD patients. Objectively measured dysphagia rates were much higher, with 4 out of 5 patients being affected. This suggests that dysphagia is common in PD, but patients do not always report swallowing difficulties unless asked. This underreporting calls for a proactive clinical approach to dysphagia, particularly in light of the serious clinical consequences.

  7. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Manes, Harvey R

    2012-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is prevalent in patients who have a repetitive motion, vibration, or pressure exerted on the wrist joint for an extended period of time. The prevalence of this condition in the general population is approximately 5%. Motorcyclists subject themselves to high levels of vibration from the road and use their wrists to control the motorcycle's brakes, gas intake, and gears via the handlebars. Under these conditions, the author hypothesized that an increased prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome would be observed in this population.

  8. Prevalence of Malocclusion in Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Chugh, Vinay K; Sharma, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in Jaipur city, India. A total of 700 subjects, in the age group of 16-26 years were divided into five groups of normal occlusion, Angle’s Class I, Class II Div 1, Class II Div 2 and Class III malocclusion. The results revealed that the prevalence of malocclusion was 66.3%, with the majority of them having Class I malocclusion (57.9%), while the prevalence of Class III malocclusion was found to be the least (1.4%). There was no statistically significant gender difference among the subjects studied. PMID:25206094

  9. Estimating Contraceptive Prevalence Using Logistics Data for Short-Acting Methods: Analysis Across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Marc; Brown, Niquelle; Sacher, Suzy; Hatch, Benjamin; Inglis, Andrew; Aronovich, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a vital indicator used by country governments, international donors, and other stakeholders for measuring progress in family planning programs against country targets and global initiatives as well as for estimating health outcomes. Because of the need for more frequent CPR estimates than population-based surveys currently provide, alternative approaches for estimating CPRs are being explored, including using contraceptive logistics data. Methods: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 30 countries, population data from the United States Census Bureau International Database, and logistics data from the Procurement Planning and Monitoring Report (PPMR) and the Pipeline Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), we developed and evaluated 3 models to generate country-level, public-sector contraceptive prevalence estimates for injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and male condoms. Models included: direct estimation through existing couple-years of protection (CYP) conversion factors, bivariate linear regression, and multivariate linear regression. Model evaluation consisted of comparing the referent DHS prevalence rates for each short-acting method with the model-generated prevalence rate using multiple metrics, including mean absolute error and proportion of countries where the modeled prevalence rate for each method was within 1, 2, or 5 percentage points of the DHS referent value. Results: For the methods studied, family planning use estimates from public-sector logistics data were correlated with those from the DHS, validating the quality and accuracy of current public-sector logistics data. Logistics data for oral and injectable contraceptives were significantly associated (P<.05) with the referent DHS values for both bivariate and multivariate models. For condoms, however, that association was only significant for the bivariate model. With the exception of the CYP

  10. Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Prevalence, Unique Aspects, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Carroll, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex domestic violence vary because of methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation. However, such prevalence rates are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex prevalence rates. Research has identified differences between same-sex domestic violence and other-sex domestic violence, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with domestic violence to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding same-sex domestic violence.

  11. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Lopes, Juarez Silva; Noal, Janaína; Finkelsztejn, Juliana M

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the leading causes of neurologic deficits in young adults and can lead to physical, intellectual and emotional problems. Approved treatments are expensive and are among the 10 highest budgets of the Brazilian Health Ministry. Given the diverse prevalence of MS among Brazilian regions, it is important to determine prevalence rates across the country. Seven studies have assessed MS in Brazil and reported rates ranging from 15 cases to 18 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It has been hypothesized that this rate is even higher in southern Brazil, which has a high proportion of European heritage (mostly German and Italian) immigrants. Here, we report that the prevalence of MS in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is 27.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants.

  12. A survey of the prevalence of selected bacteria in wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittingham, M.C.; Temple, S.A.; Duncan, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of six genera of bacteria from a sample of 387 cloacal swabs from 364 passerines and woodpeckers. The prevalence of bacteria were as follows: Escherichia coli (1%), Pseudomonas spp. (22%), Salmonella spp. (0%), Staphylococcus spp. (15%), Streptococcus spp. (18%), and Yersinia spp. (1%). The prevalence of Streptococcus spp. was higher in omnivorous species than in granivorous species (20% versus 8%). Individuals captured at feeders had a lower prevalence of both Streptococcus spp. (15% versus 33%) and Escherichia coli (0.5% versus 4%) than birds that did not have access to feeders. These differences are probably not due to the feeder per se, but instead to other site related differences. The prevalence of bacteria did not differ between male and female black-capped chickadees, Parus atricapillus. For 279 color marked black-capped chickadees, we calculated the cumulative mortality rate during 12 wk following swabbing. Although the cumulative mortality rates of infected birds were consistently higher than the rates of non-infected birds, none of these differences were significant. Infections may cause slight reductions in survival rates, but we were not able to confirm this with our data.

  13. Type 1 diabetes prevalence increasing globally and regionally: the role of natural selection and life expectancy at birth

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Peng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Research design and methods Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Results Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, p<0.001 and r=0.722, p<0.001, respectively) and Spearman's r (r=0.724, p<0.001 and r=0.689, p<0.001, respectively). T1D prevalence was not correlated to longevity increase measured as life expectancy at 50 years old. T1D prevalence was significantly associated with Ibs (r=0.307, p<0.001) and newborn life expectancy (r=0.349, p<0.001) independent of per capita total sugar consumption, per capita GDP, urbanization and obesity prevalence in partial correlation. Globally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Conclusions Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D prevalence. PMID:26977306

  14. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning.

  15. Prevalence of Mental Illness among Homeless People in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man

    2015-01-01

    Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889

  16. Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Berghold, Christian; Herzog, Sereina Annik; Jakse, Heidelinde; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-08-18

    In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45-0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67-0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits.

  17. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Nakorn, Thanyaphong Na; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Lawasut, Panisinee; Intragumtornchai, Tanin

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) develop multiple myeloma and related malignancies at the rate of 1% per year. Given differences in ethnicity, data on prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in Thai population will be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of plasma cell disorders and designing an early cancer detection strategy. Subjects of 50 years or older were included. Demographic data and suspected risk factors were collected. Monoclonal proteins were detected using serum protein electrophoresis. Serum was obtained from 3,260 participants; 1,104 males (33.9%) and 2,156 females (66.1%). The median age was 57 years (range 50-93 years). Monoclonal proteins were detectable in 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.8). M spikes were found in gamma- and beta-globulin regions in 50 (1.5%) and 25 (0.8%) subjects, respectively. The prevalence of MGUS in subjects 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years or older was 2.0% (41/1,975), 2.6% (22/851), and 2.8% (12/434), respectively. By multivariate analysis, MGUS was associated with living outside Bangkok (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.58). The overall prevalence of MGUS in the Thai population was 2.3%, which was lower than that in Western countries, but comparable to that in Japan.

  18. Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Berghöfer, Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Reinhold, Thomas; Apovian, Caroline M; Sharma, Arya M; Willich, Stefan N

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity has been recognised as an important contributing factor in the development of various diseases, but comparative data on this condition are limited. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in European countries. Methods We identified relevant published studies by means of a MEDLINE search (1990–2008) supplemented by information obtained from regulatory agencies. We only included surveys that used direct measures of weight and height and were representative of each country's overall population. Results In Europe, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) in men ranged from 4.0% to 28.3% and in women from 6.2% to 36.5%. We observed considerable geographic variation, with prevalence rates in Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe being higher than those in Western and Northern Europe. Conclusion In Europe, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The data presented in our review emphasise the need for effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. PMID:18533989

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Italian and immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Paba, P; Morosetti, G; Criscuolo, A A; Chiusuri, V; Marcuccilli, F; Sesti, F; Piccione, E; Perno, C F; Ciotti, M

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent worldwide. Prevalence varies according to the geographic regions, and is highest in developing countries. Geographic differences exist also in the detection rate of oncogenic types in malignant cervical lesions. In this study, the prevalence of HPV infection as well as the spectrum of HPV types was evaluated in Italian and immigrant women of the urban area of Rome. Several risk factors (age at first intercourse, number of partners, smoking, pregnancy, age at first pregnancy, contraception, education, and menarche) were taken into consideration. Overall, there was a high prevalence of HPV infection in the two groups studied. No significant differences were observed in the spectrum of HPV types detected. HPV 16 and 18 were the types detected more frequently in both groups. Interestingly, HPV 54 and 70 were found only in the immigrants. Whether this finding reflects a recent introduction of these HPV types in the population studied remains to be established. Monitoring of HPV types in the population is advisable, especially in countries like Italy which is a destination and a gateway for immigrants directed towards north and central Europe. The introduction of high risk HPV variants may have a clinical impact and affect the diagnostic procedures.

  20. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  1. Altitude-Dependent Prevalence of Canine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Lefkaditis, Menelaos; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is an important tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution. The importance of this disease resides in the ability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect humans and several animal species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of CGA in different altitudinal areas of Romania. A total of 357 canine blood samples were collected during 2010-2013 from eight counties. To assess the influence of the altitude on A. phagocytophilum prevalence, the samples were collected from four different altitude areas (coastal 0-5 meters; lowland 6-100 meters; hilly areas 200-300 meters; low mountain areas >500 meters). These samples were evaluated for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by amplifying part of the Ankyrin repeat protein (AnkA) gene. A higher prevalence was obtained for coastal compared with remaining areas, suggesting an influence of altitude on the CGA. Moreover, the results suggest an influence of climate and rainfall. In the present research work, we highlight the risk of granulocytic anaplasmosis in Central and Southern Romania, with a greater risk associated to Southern lowland region, especially in coastal areas. The importance of these results resides in the zoonotic potential of the canine A. phagocytophilum strains. In conclusion, the altitude and precipitation level may be risk factors for A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs and other hosts, including humans.

  2. Prevalence and differentiation of diseases in Maryland backyard flocks.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-09-01

    Several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. To evaluate this concern, the prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Salmonella was determined in 39 Maryland backyard flocks. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in Maryland. Through PCR and ELISA analysis, disease prevalence and seroprevalence were determined in flocks, respectively, for the following: ND (0%, 23%); ILT (26%, 77%); MG (3%, 13%); and Salmonella (0%, not done). Vaccine status could not be accurately confirmed. Premise positives were further differentiated and identified by partial nucleotide sequencing. Screening of the 10 ILT premise positives showed that most were live attenuated vaccines: eight matched a tissue culture origin vaccine, one matched a chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine, and one was CEO related. The single MG-positive flock, also positive for the CEO-related sequence, was identified as the infectious S6 strain. The prevalence rates for these economically important poultry diseases ranged from none to relatively low, with the vast majority of sampled flocks presenting no clinical signs.

  3. Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits. Methods A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates. Results Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N = 2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05). Conclusion Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops. PMID:22909128

  4. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  5. Mixed species flock, nest height, and elevation partially explain avian haemoparasite prevalence in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Angie D; Matta, Nubia E; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Miller, Eliot T; Ricklefs, Robert E; Gutiérrez, H Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.

  6. Mixed Species Flock, Nest Height, and Elevation Partially Explain Avian Haemoparasite Prevalence in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    González, Angie D.; Matta, Nubia E.; Ellis, Vincenzo A.; Miller, Eliot T.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Gutiérrez, H. Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system. PMID:24950223

  7. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a country with a high occurrence of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Serhat; Kitapcioglu, Gul; Kasap, Elmas

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with additional symptoms, relationship with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) of this country-wide study. METHODS Data from 3214 adults were obtained with validated questionnaire. Eight hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized to be tested for H. pylori via the urea breath test. "Frequent symptoms" were defined heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring at least weekly. RESULTS The prevalence of GERD was 22.8%, frequent and occasional heartburn were 9.3%-12.7%, regurgitation were 16.6%-18.7%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 showed a prevalence of 15%, BMI > 30 was 28.5%. The GERD prevalence was higher in women (26.2%) than men (18.9%) (P < 0001). Overall prevalence of H. pylori was 75.7%. The prevalence was 77.1% in subjects without symptoms vs 71.4% in subjects with GERD (χ2 = 2.6, P = 0.27). Underprivileged with the lowest income people exhibit a higher risk. CONCLUSION GERD is common in Turkey which reflects both Western and Eastern lifestyles with high rate of H. pylori. The presence of H. pylori had no effect on either the prevalence or the symptom profile of GERD. Subjects showing classical symptoms occasionally exhibit more additional symptoms compared with those without classical symptoms. PMID:28210089

  8. Prevalence of exposure to suicide: A meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl; Rahman, Bayzidur; Draper, Brian; Dudley, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-05-01

    Those exposed to suicide are at increased risk of adverse outcomes including mental illness, impaired social functioning, and fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior. However, it is unclear how many people are exposed to suicide in the general community. This first meta-analysis of population-based studies aimed to provide pooled estimates of past-year and lifetime prevalence of exposure to suicide among family, friends/peers, and all relationships. In addition, the study examined prevalence of exposure to suicide by age group: adolescents and adults. Systematic searches of the literature in Embase, Medline and PsycINFO identified eighteen studies that were included in the analysis. Pooled past-year prevalence was 4.31% (CI: 2.50 to 6.58) and life-time prevalence 21.83% (CI: 16.32 to 27.90). Both past-year and lifetime prevalences of exposure to suicide among friends and peers were significantly higher than the prevalence of exposure within families; there were no differences in the prevalence of exposure to suicide between adolescents and adults. Heterogeneity was highly significant. Future research should be conducted with large national representative samples and use standardised assessment instruments. Given the increased risks of adverse outcomes among those exposed to suicide, the high rate of exposure to suicide reported here has important ramifications for public health and mental health service delivery.

  9. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  10. Update knowledge on cervical cancer incidence and prevalence in Asia.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Naheed; Ahmad, Saeed; Fatima, Urooj; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, with over 500,000 new cases diagnosed annually and 50% mortality rate in Asia. In the United States, approximately 10,370 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed annually, and estimated 3,710 deaths occur from the disease, making it the sixth most common cause of malignancy among American women. This study aims to provide awareness about cervical cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence and incidence of cervical cancer in Asia.

  11. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Mestre, Vincent; Schomer, Paul; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level."

  12. Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Baskale, Turkey: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Hacer; Gokalp, Mehmet A; Hanagasi, Hasmet A

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and its prevalence rate varies between 15 and 250/100.000. The data on the prevalence of PD in Turkey are limited. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PD in Baskale, Turkey. The study area is a rural small area in the eastern part Turkey, with a population of 26.991 inhabitants. The first stage of the study was undertaken between February and October 2011. Field workers performed a door to door population screening for the cardinal symptoms of PD and identified cases were reevaluated by an experienced movement disorders specialist. In this population based study, 19 PD patients were identified in the screened population, indicating that the estimated age standardized prevalence of PD in Turkey was 202/100.000. This study is the first large population based study for identifying prevalence of PD in Turkey. Our prevalence rate is slightly lower than those of European countries, which may be caused by ethnical differences or environmental factors.

  13. Migration intensity has no effect on peak HIV prevalence: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Correctly identifying the determinants of generalized HIV epidemics is crucial to bringing down ongoing high HIV incidence in these countries. High rates of migration are believed to be an important determinant of HIV prevalence. This study has two aims. Firstly, it evaluates the ecological association between levels of internal and international migration and national peak HIV prevalence using thirteen variables from a variety of sources to capture various aspects of internal and international migration intensity. Secondly, it examines the relationship between circular migration and HIV at an individual and population-level in South Africa. Methods Linear regression was used to analyze the association between the various measures of migration intensity and peak national HIV prevalence for 141 countries and HIV prevalence by province and ethnic group in South Africa. Results No evidence of a positive ecological association between national migration intensity and HIV prevalence was found. This remained the case when the analyses were limited to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. On the whole, countries with generalized HIV epidemics had lower rates of internal and external migration. Likewise, no association was found between migration and HIV positivity at an individual or group-level in South Africa. Conclusion These results do not support the thesis that migration measured at the country level plays a significant role in determining peak HIV prevalence. PMID:24961725

  14. Prevalence of Cataract in an Older Population in India

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Praveen; Talwar, Badrinath; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V.; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E.; John, Neena; Chakravarthy, Usha; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D.; Fletcher, Astrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of cataract in older people in 2 areas of north and south India. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants Randomly sampled villages were enumerated to identify people aged ≥60 years. Of 7518 enumerated people, 78% participated in a hospital-based ophthalmic examination. Methods The examination included visual acuity measurement, dilatation, and anterior and posterior segment examination. Digital images of the lens were taken and graded by type and severity of opacity using the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III). Main Outcome Measures Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of cataract and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We defined type of cataract based on the LOCS III grade in the worse eye of: ≥4 for nuclear cataract, ≥3 for cortical cataract, and ≥2 for posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Any unoperated cataract was based on these criteria or ungradable dense opacities. Any cataract was defined as any unoperated or operated cataract. Results The prevalence of unoperated cataract in people aged ≥60 was 58% in north India (95% CI, 56–60) and 53% (95% CI, 51–55) in south India (P = 0.01). Nuclear cataract was the most common type: 48% (95% CI, 46–50) in north India and 38% (95% CI, 37–40) in south India (P<0.0001); corresponding figures for PSC were 21% (95% CI, 20–23) and 17% (95% CI, 16–19; P = 0.003), respectively, and for cortical cataract 7.6% (95% CI, 7–9) and 10.2% (95% CI, 9–11; P<0.004). Bilateral aphakia/pseudophakia was slightly higher in the south (15.5%) than in the north (13.2%; P<0.03). The prevalence of any cataracts was similar in north (73.8%) and south India (71.8%). The prevalence of unoperated cataract increased with age and was higher in women than men (odds ratio [OR], 1.8). Aphakia/pseudophakia was also more common in women, either unilateral (OR, 1.2; P<0.02) or bilateral (OR, 1.3; P<0.002). Conclusions We found high rates of unoperated

  15. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  16. Prevalence of Paget's disease of bone in hospital patients in Jerusalem: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, R A; Libson, E; Blank, P; Nubani, N

    1985-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed the widely varied prevalence of Paget's disease of bone. The highest rates have been found in parts of England. The disease has been reported only infrequently in Jews and no previous studies of prevalence have been performed in the Middle East or Asia. In the present study an age- and sex-standardized rate of 1% was found among Jews, which is similar to that in many southern European populations. No case of Paget's disease of bone was found among Arabs in this study.

  17. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Giovanna Rincon; Radice, Marcela; Sennati, Samantha; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian María; Gutkind, Gabriel; Conza, Jose Alejandro Di

    2013-01-01

    High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers. PMID:24037111

  18. Rates and causes of end-stage renal disease in Navajo Indians, 1971-1985.

    PubMed

    Megill, D M; Hoy, W E; Woodruff, S D

    1988-08-01

    The rates of end-stage renal disease are much increased in American Indians, but no longitudinal study of its rates and causes has been undertaken in any tribe. This 15-year study of rates and causes of treated end-stage renal disease in the Navajo, the largest Indian tribe, supplies an important model on which to base projections and plan interventions. Treated end-stage renal disease in Navajos has increased to an age-adjusted incidence 4 times that in whites in the United States. Diabetic nephropathy accounted for 50% of all new cases in 1985, with an incidence 9.6 times that in US whites, and was due entirely to type II disease. Glomerulonephritis caused end-stage renal disease in Navajos at a rate at least 1.8 times that in US whites and afflicted a much younger population. The predominant form was mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with an immune complex deposition. Renal disease of unknown etiology, which probably includes much silent glomerulonephritis, accounted for 20% of all new cases. The aggregate Navajo population with end-stage renal disease was 9 years younger than its US counterpart. These observations reflect the genesis of the epidemic of diabetic nephropathy afflicting many tribes. Urgent measures are needed to contain this. In addition, the etiology and control of mesangiopathic, immune-complex glomerulonephritis of unusual severity, a previously unrecognized problem, need to be addressed.

  19. Squirrelpox Virus: Assessing Prevalence, Transmission and Environmental Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, David G.; McInnes, Colin; Everest, David; Montgomery, W. Ian; Scantlebury, Mike; Marks, Nikki; Dick, Jaimie T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) declined in Great Britain and Ireland during the last century, due to habitat loss and the introduction of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), which competitively exclude the red squirrel and act as a reservoir for squirrelpox virus (SQPV). The disease is generally fatal to red squirrels and their ecological replacement by grey squirrels is up to 25 times faster where the virus is present. We aimed to determine: (1) the seropositivity and prevalence of SQPV DNA in the invasive and native species at a regional scale; (2) possible SQPV transmission routes; and, (3) virus degradation rates under differing environmental conditions. Grey (n = 208) and red (n = 40) squirrel blood and tissues were sampled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques established seropositivity and viral DNA presence, respectively. Overall 8% of squirrels sampled (both species combined) had evidence of SQPV DNA in their tissues and 22% were in possession of antibodies. SQPV prevalence in sampled red squirrels was 2.5%. Viral loads were typically low in grey squirrels by comparison to red squirrels. There was a trend for a greater number of positive samples in spring and summer than in winter. Possible transmission routes were identified through the presence of viral DNA in faeces (red squirrels only), urine and ectoparasites (both species). Virus degradation analyses suggested that, after 30 days of exposure to six combinations of environments, there were more intact virus particles in scabs kept in warm (25°C) and dry conditions than in cooler (5 and 15°C) or wet conditions. We conclude that SQPV is present at low prevalence in invasive grey squirrel populations with a lower prevalence in native red squirrels. Virus transmission could occur through urine especially during warm dry summer conditions but, more notably, via ectoparasites, which are shared by both species. PMID

  20. Prevalence of obesity and its associated factors in Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mf; Rastam, S; Ward, Kd; Maziak, W

    2006-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and its related adverse health effects have become major public health problems in developing countries. It has been increasing more rapidly in low-income and transitional than in industrialized countries. This study aims to provide the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of obesity in Aleppo, Syria, and to examine its association with a number of risk factors in the adult population. METHODS: An interviewer-administered survey of adults 18-65 years of age, residing in Aleppo, Syria was conducted in 2004, involving a representative sample of 2038 participants (54.8% female, mean age 35.3±12.1, age range 18-65 years) with a response rate of 86%. Demographic factors and anthropometric measurements were obtained for all participants. The main outcome was prevalence of obesity which was defined as BMI≥ 30 kg/m(2). RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 38.2%, higher in women than in men (46.3% and 28.4% respectively). It increased with age being highest in the 46-65 year-old age group. Obesity was highest among Arabs (40.1%), the unemployed (49.8%), illiterate (50.4%), married (44%) especially women with multiparity, low socio-economic status(45.4%), and those with a low physical activity score (40.3%). Obesity was seen among 48.2% of ex-smokers, 39.3% of non-users of alcohol and 57.5% of participants treated for depression. An association was observed between obesity and an increasing frequency intake of certain food items. Among women, an association was observed between obesity and the number of births. CONCLUSION: Our data show that obesity is a major health problem in Aleppo, Syria especially among women. It is related to age, marital status, and consumption of certain food items and it shows a significant prevalence among women with repeated pregnancies.

  1. [Anemia and iron deficiency in the elderly. Prevalence, diagnostics and new therapeutic options].

    PubMed

    Röhrig, G; Doehner, W; Schaefer, R M; Schulz, R J

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of anemia in geriatric patients is high. With some variation in different patient cohorts, prevalence of anemia can reach 40%. Anemia is not an age-related disease on its own, but is a symptom with multifactorial genesis and high risk potential. It directly influences mortality, morbidity, and the rate of hospitalization, particularly in older patients suffering from chronic heart failure or chronic kidney disease. The high prevalence of anemia in chronic kidney disease is explained by a combination of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. This review summarizes the recommendations of the iron symposium at the 2010 German Geriatric Society Meeting in Potsdam, Germany. It intends to provide current information on prevalence, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic options for anemia in the rapidly growing group of elderly patients.

  2. Decision processes in visual search as a function of target prevalence.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2016-09-01

    The probability of missing a target increases in low target prevalence search tasks. Wolfe and Van Wert (2010) propose 2 causes of this effect: reducing the quitting threshold, and conservatively shifting the decision making criterion used to evaluate each item. Reducing the quitting threshold predicts that target absent responses will be made without fully inspecting the display, increasing misses due to never inspecting the target (selection errors). The shift in decision criterion increases the likelihood of failing to recognize an inspected target (identification errors). Though there is robust evidence that target prevalence rates shift quitting thresholds, the proposed shift in decision making criterion has little support. In Experiment 1 we eye-tracked participants during searches of high, medium, and low prevalence. Eye movements were used to classify misses as selection or identification errors. Identification errors increased as prevalence decreased, supporting the claim that decision criterion becomes more conservative as prevalence decreases. In addition, as prevalence decreased, the dwell time on targets increased while dwell times on distractors decreased. We propose that the effect of prevalence on decision making for individual items is best modeled as a shift in criterion in a drift diffusion model, rather than signal detection, as drift diffusion accounts for this pattern of decision times. In Experiment 2 we replicate these findings while presenting stimuli in an rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Experiments 1 and 2 were consistent with the conclusion that prevalence rate influences the item-by-item decision criterion, and are consistent with a drift diffusion model of this decision process. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Fetal magnetocardiography: time intervals and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, P

    2004-11-30

    Biomagnetism in the perinatal domain has been dominated by fetal cardiology, and early work pointed out the potential of both fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI) and heart rate variability (HRV) for future clinical applications. Recent improvements in instrumentation have permitted numerous groups to investigate a substantial number of healthy fetuses in these two areas and to lay the groundwork for a delineation of normal ranges. With respect to fetal CTI it is now clear that in particular the duration of P wave, PR interval and QRS complex reflect fetal growth and development. Preliminary studies have shown that the age-adjusted CTI are shorter in growth-retarded fetuses and altered in cases of structural cardiac defects and in specific types of arrhythmia. Less work has been published on MCG-determined fetal HRV although parameters from both the time and frequency domains as well as complexity have been examined. Concomitant with the gradual change in heart rate during pregnancy, increases in time domain variables and complexity have been described for normal pregnancies. Furthermore, gestational age-related changes in specific spectral bands have been noted and increases in power have been documented at frequencies which are associated with fetal breathing movements. The fact that little has been reported to date on discriminatory power with respect to pathological states may be due to the lack of extended data acquisition in a clinical setting documenting acute states. Nonetheless, it may be expected that both fetal HRV and CTI will supplement standard fetal surveillance techniques in the near future.

  4. Geographic and racial variation in asthma prevalence and emergency department use among Medicaid-enrolled children in 14 southern states

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Khusdeep; Baltrus, Peter; Zhang, Shun; McRoy, Luceta; Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Rust, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence-based prevention and practice guidelines, asthma prevalence, treatment, and outcomes vary widely at individual and community levels. Asthma disproportionate/ly affects low-income and minority children, who comprise a large segment of the Medicaid population. Methods 2007 Medicaid claims data from 14 southern states was mapped for 556 counties to describe the local area variation in 1-year asthma prevalence rates, emergency department (ED) visit rates, and racial disparity rate ratios. Results One-year period prevalence of asthma ranged from 2.8% in Florida to 6.4% in Alabama, with a median prevalence rate of 4.1%. At the county level, the prevalence was higher for Black children and ranged from 1.03% in Manatee County, FL, to 21.0% in Hockley County, TX. Black–White rate ratios of prevalence ranged from 0.49 in LeFlore County, MS, to 3.87 in Flagler County, FL. Adjusted asthma ED visit rates ranged from 2.2 per 1000 children in Maryland to 16.5 in Alabama, with a median Black–White ED-visit rate ratio of 2.4. Rates were higher for Black children, ranging from 0.80 per 1000 in Wicomico County, MD, to 70 per 1000 in DeSoto County, FL. Rate ratios of ED visits ranged from 0.25 in Vernon Parish, LA, to 25.28 in Nelson County, KY. Conclusions and relevance Low-income children with Medicaid coverage still experience substantial variation in asthma prevalence and outcomes from one community to another. The pattern of worse outcomes for Black children also varies widely across counties. Eliminating this variation could substantially improve overall outcomes and eliminate asthma disparities. PMID:24915006

  5. Rapid rise and subsequent decline in prostate cancer incidence rates for New Mexico, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, F D; Welsh, D J; Hoffman, R M; Key, C R

    1995-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1980s, a large increase in incidence rates for prostate cancer occurred in association with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. In New Mexico, the increased screening was associated with earlier detection of cancers and decreased prostate cancer mortality, suggesting that PSA screening may be effective. PSA screening has become a controversial topic of public debate, and anecdotal reports from physicians indicated that prostate cancer screening practice patterns were changing in New Mexico. To assess whether PSA-associated trends in prostate cancer incidence were continuing, we examined incidence rates from 1989 to 1993 among men in New Mexico. From 1989 to 1992, age-adjusted rates increased substantially for non-Hispanic whites (77%), Hispanics (50%), and American Indians (27%). Although rates increased for all stages combined, incidence rates decreased for distant-stage disease, especially for non-Hispanic whites, indicating a continuing trend toward earlier detection. In 1993, incidence rates unexpectedly decreased from 203 to 158/100,000 in non-Hispanic whites, largely as a result of changes in rates in men over age 65 years. Although incidence rates decreased, the trend toward earlier detection was maintained for non-Hispanic whites. In contrast, among Hispanic and American Indians, rates did not change substantially between 1992 and 1993. Because the epidemic in prostate cancer was associated with increased PSA screening, it is likely that the trends for non-Hispanic whites are also related to PSA screening. We suggest that the decrease in rates and the continued stage shift are consistent with repeated screening of men in the population at risk.

  6. Prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among children in united Germany: a descriptive comparison.

    PubMed Central

    von Mutius, E.; Fritzsch, C.; Weiland, S. K.; Röll, G.; Magnussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among children in Munich, western Germany, and Leipzig, eastern Germany, where environmental exposure, particularly air concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, and living conditions have differed over the past 45 years. DESIGN--Prevalence surveys among school-children aged 9-11 years in Leipzig and Munich. Self completion of written questionnaire by the children's parents and lung function measurements. SUBJECTS--1051 children in Leipzig and 5030 in Munich. SETTING--Primary schools. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Reported lifetime prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness assessed by cold air inhalation challenge. RESULTS--The lifetime prevalence of asthma diagnosed by a doctor was 7.3% (72) in Leipzig and 9.3% (435) in Munich; prevalence of wheezing were 20% (191) and 17% (786) respectively. The prevalence of diagnosed bronchitis was higher in Leipzig than Munich (30.9% (303) v 15.9% (739); p < 0.01). A significant drop in forced expiratory volume (> 9%) after cold air challenge was measured in 6.4% (57) of children in Leipzig and in 7.7% (345) of those in Munich. Hay fever (2.4% (24) v 8.6% (410); p < 0.01) and typical symptoms of rhinitis (16.6% (171) v 19.7% (961); p < 0.05) were reported less often in Leipzig than in Munich. CONCLUSIONS--No significant differences were seen in the lifetime prevalence of asthma, wheezing, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between children in Leipzig and Munich. The lifetime prevalence of bronchitis was higher in Leipzig than in Munich. The lower prevalence rates of allergic disorders in Leipzig could point toward aetiological factors that are associated with Western lifestyle and living conditions. PMID:1486303

  7. Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying.

    PubMed

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Minchin, Jeannie; Harbaugh, Allen G; Guerra, Nancy G; Runions, Kevin C

    2014-11-01

    Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional-cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education.

  9. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions

  10. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among Mississippi public school students, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Kolbo, Jerome R; Kirkup, Melissa; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Harbaugh, Bonnie L; Werle, Nichole; Walker, Evelyn

    2014-03-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mississippi public school students in grades K-12 and assessed changes in the prevalence between 2005 and 2013. In 2013, Body Mass Index was calculated using measured height and weight data for a weighted representative sample of 4,402 public school students. Additional analyses compared 2013 prevalence estimates by gender, race, and grade levels and for changes between 2005 and 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among public school students no longer appears to be increasing although no significant downward trend was observed (p = 0.0862), and rates remain higher than national averages. In 2013, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity for all students in grades K-12 was 41.8%, as compared to 40.9% in 2011, 42.4% in 2009, 42.1% in 2007 and 43.9% in 2005. Significant decreases in overweight and obesity were found among white students and elementary school students from 2005 to 2013. White students' combined rates fell from 40.6% in 2005 to 36.8% in 2013 (p = 0.0007). Similarly, combined rates in elementary school students dropped from 43.0% in 2005 to 38.0% in 2013 (p = 0.0002). Additionally, 2013 marked the first year that a significant decline in obesity prevalence was noted among elementary school students, from 25.0% in 2005 to 22.0% in 2013 (p = 0.0163). In 2013, the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among black students (p < 0.001) and middle school students (p = 0.048). These findings are discussed in light of recent state-wide educational and policy initiatives and on health disparities. Implications for future practice, policy and research are presented.

  11. The relationship of ethnicity to the prevalence and management of hypertension and associated chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of ethnicity on the prevalence and management of hypertension and associated chronic kidney (CKD) disease in the UK is unknown. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of 49,203 adults with hypertension to establish the prevalence and management of hypertension and associated CKD by ethnicity. Routinely collected data from general practice hypertension registers in 148 practices in London between 1/1/07 and 31/3/08 were analysed. Results The crude prevalence of hypertension was 9.5%, and by ethnicity was 8.2% for White, 11.3% for South Asian and 11.1% for Black groups. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 among those with hypertension was 22%. Stage 3 CKD was less prevalent in South Asian groups (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67 - 0.88) compared to Whites (reference population) with Black groups having similar rates to Whites. The prevalence of severe CKD (stages 4-5) was higher in the South Asian group (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.17 - 2.0) compared to Whites, but did not differ between Black and White groups. In the whole hypertension cohort, achievement of target blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) was better in South Asian (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.28 - 1.60) and worse in Black groups (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.74 - 0.84) compared to White patients. Hypertensive medication was prescribed unequally among ethnic groups for any degree of blood pressure control. Conclusions Significant variations exist in the prevalence of hypertension and associated CKD and its management between the major ethnic groups. Among those with CKD less than 50% were treated to a target BP of ≤ 130/80 mmHg. Rates of ACE-I/ARB prescribing for those with CKD were less than optimal, with the lowest rates (58.5%) among Black groups. PMID:21896189

  12. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family.

  13. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes in two seasons in Semnan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Mahdavi, Ali; Moezifar, Melika

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one dairy ewe flocks selected by stratified random sampling were subjected to study the prevalence and etiology of subclinical intramammary infections and to assess the influence of parity on the prevalence of intramammary infections. Also, spontaneous cure rates were determined over study period. A total of 1192 milk samples were collected at 2 weeks after lambing until tenth-week postpartum. All flocks had hand milking; those which were classified by bacterial culture and California Mastitis Test (CMT) as positive were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). Of 1192 halves examined, 791 samples were collected during spring and 401 samples were collected during summer. Prevalence rate of SCM in spring was 14.7 %; and spontaneous cure that occurred in this season was 88.8 %; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most common isolates (66.6 %). Samples collected in spring showed higher prevalence rate of SCM than summer samples. This rate was 8.9 % in summer. Spontaneous cure rate in this season was 69.4 %, and Staphylococcus aureus (72.2 %) was the most common isolates. SCM was seen at significantly lower rates in left half than in right one (p < 0.05). Multiparous ewes had significantly higher (p < 0.05) SCM prevalence rates than primiparous ewes. The incidence of clinical mastitis (defined as number of clinical cases per 100 ewe-months) was 0.21 and 0.74 in spring and summer, respectively. The isolates from clinical cases in spring were fungi and, from summer, were S. aureus. Also, S. aureus SCM cases were not significantly severe than other SCM cases. In conclusion, multiparous ewes were most at risk, and severity of infection was higher in summer.

  14. Applying a correction procedure to the prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity in the German part of the HBSC study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence rates for overweight and obesity based on self-reported height and weight are underestimated, whereas the prevalence rate for underweight is slightly overestimated. Therefore a correction is needed. Aim of this study is to apply correction procedures to the prevalence rates developed on basis of (self-reported and measured) data from the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) to (self-reported) data from the German Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study to determine whether correction leads to higher prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity as well as lower prevalence rates for underweight. Methods BMI classifications based on self-reported and measured height and weight from a subsample of the KiGGS study (2,565 adolescents aged 11–15) were used to estimate two different correction formulas. The first and the second correction function are described. Furthermore, the both formulas were applied to the prevalence rates from the HBSC study (7,274 adolescents aged 11–15) which are based on self-reports collected via self-administered questionnaires. Results After applying the first correction function to self-reported data of the HBSC study, the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity increased from 5.5% to 7.8% (compared to 10.4% in the KiGGS study) and 2.7% to 3.8% (compared to 7.8% in the KiGGS study), respectively, whereas the corrected prevalence rates of underweight and severe underweight decreased from 8.0% to 6.7% (compared to 5.7% in the KiGGS study) and from 5.5% to 3.3% (compared to 2.4% in the KiGGS study), respectively. Application of the second correction function, which additionally considers body image, led to further slight corrections with an increase of the prevalence rates for overweight to 7.9% and for obese to 3.9%. Conclusion Subjective BMI can be used to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and

  15. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    KARAKOÇ, Berna; GÜLSEREN, Leyla; ÇAM, Birmay; GÜLSEREN, Şeref; TENEKECİ, Nermin; METE, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner physical violence among depressive Turkish women, as well as the association of intimate partner physical violence with attachment patterns, childhood traumas, and socio-demographic factors. Methods The study included 100 women diagnosed with depressive disorder and 30 healthy women. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV axis I disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were used for clinical assessment. Results It was found that 64% of the women diagnosed with depression were suffering from intimate partner physical violence. In these women, the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms was higher, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more common, and the diagnosis of double depression was more prevalent. These women also achieved higher scores in the avoidant and ambivalent subscales of AASQ and higher total scores and higher scores in the physical abuse subscale of CTQ. The partner’s and the woman’s experiences of physical violence in their families during their childhood predicted intimate partner physical violence for women suffering from depression. Conclusion The investigation of domestic violence contributes to the treatment of depression and also to the recognition and prevention of domestic violence that has profound effects on successive generations.

  16. A prevalence study of recurrent shoulder dislocations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Mann, G; Finestone, A

    1998-01-01

    The computerized database of the Israeli Defence Forces Medical Corps monitors recurrent shoulder dislocations before citizens are eligible for military induction, during the years of regular military service, and during the time of eligibility for reserve army service. With the computerized database of the Israeli Defence Forces Medical Corps, between the years of 1978 to 1995 the prevalence rate of subjects with recurrent shoulder dislocations less than or equal to 21 years of age was found to be 19.7 of 10,000 for men and 5.01 of 10,000 for women. The prevalence rate of subjects with a history of shoulder dislocations in the male population between the ages of 22 and 33 years was 42.4 of 10,000. Forty-four percent were judged to be sufficiently unstable to warrant surgery, but only 55% of these actually underwent surgery. These epidemiologic data may be important if arthroscopic shoulder surgery is being considered after a first shoulder dislocation.

  17. Prevalence<