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Sample records for age-adjusted relative risk

  1. Age-adjusted recipient pretransplantation telomere length and treatment-related mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Rodrigo T.; Busson, Marc; Abrams, Jeffrey; Adoui, Nadir; Robin, Marie; Larghero, Jérôme; Dhedin, Nathalie; Xhaard, Alienor; Clave, Emmanuel; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine; Loiseau, Pascale; Socié, Gérard; Young, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    Telomere attrition induces cell senescence and apoptosis. We hypothesized that age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere length might predict treatment-related mortality (TRM) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between 2000 and 2005, 178 consecutive patients underwent HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after myeloablative conditioning regimens, mainly for hematologic malignancies (n = 153). Blood lymphocytes' telomere length was measured by real-time quantitative PCR before HSCT. Age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere lengths were analyzed for correlation with clinical outcomes. After age adjustment, patients' telomere-length distribution was similar among all 4 quartiles except for disease stage. There was no correlation between telomere length and engraftment, GVHD, or relapse. The overall survival was 62% at 5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 54-70). After a median follow-up of 51 months (range, 1-121 months), 43 patients died because of TRM. The TRM rate inversely correlated with telomere length. TRM in patients in the first (lowest telomere length) quartile was significantly higher than in patients with longer telomeres (P = .017). In multivariate analysis, recipients' age (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, .0-1.1; P = .0001) and age-adjusted telomere length (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI; 0.2-0.8; P = .01) were independently associated with TRM. In conclusion, age-adjusted recipients' telomere length is an independent biologic marker of TRM after HSCT. PMID:22948043

  2. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  3. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); p<0.001). In elderly (aged ≥75 years) patients, an age-optimised hsTnT cut-off value of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged <75 years and ≥45 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged ≥75 years) provided additive and independent prognostic information on top of the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) and echocardiography (OR 4.56 (1.30-16.01); p=0.018, C-index=0.77). A three-step approach based on the sPESI, hsTnT and echocardiography identified 16.6% of all patients as being at higher risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy.

  4. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Rigi, Mohammed; Feldman, Robert M.; Bell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Methods Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18–35, 36–45, 46–55, 56–65, and 66–79 years). ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL), length of scleral spur landmark (SSL) to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM), iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM), pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe), and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter. Results Mean (±SD) values were 2.24 mm (±0.46), 4.06 mm (±0.27), 3.65 mm (±0.48), 4.16 mm (±0.47), 1.14 (±0.04), 1.51 mm2 (±0.23), and 38.42 μL (±4.91) for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002) and RICe (P = 0.027) decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002) and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001). ICR (P = 0.54) and iris volume (P = 0.49) were not affected by age. Conclusion This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states. PMID:26815917

  5. Fetal Risks, Relative Risks, and Relatives' Risks.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2016-01-01

    Several factors related to fetal risk render it more or less acceptable in justifying constraints on the behavior of pregnant women. Risk is an unavoidable part of pregnancy and childbirth, one that women must balance against other vital personal and family interests. Two particular issues relate to the fairness of claims that pregnant women are never entitled to put their fetuses at risk: relative risks and relatives' risks. The former have been used-often spuriously-to advance arguments against activities, such as home birth, that may incur risk; the latter implicate the nature of relationships in determining the acceptability of coercing or precluding activities. Motivated reasoning by clinicians and judges leads to inaccurate risk assessments, and judgments based on false claims to objectivity. Such judgments undermine the moral and legal standing of pregnant women and do not advance the interests of fetuses, pregnant women, families, or states. PMID:26832079

  6. Fetal Risks, Relative Risks, and Relatives' Risks.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2016-01-01

    Several factors related to fetal risk render it more or less acceptable in justifying constraints on the behavior of pregnant women. Risk is an unavoidable part of pregnancy and childbirth, one that women must balance against other vital personal and family interests. Two particular issues relate to the fairness of claims that pregnant women are never entitled to put their fetuses at risk: relative risks and relatives' risks. The former have been used-often spuriously-to advance arguments against activities, such as home birth, that may incur risk; the latter implicate the nature of relationships in determining the acceptability of coercing or precluding activities. Motivated reasoning by clinicians and judges leads to inaccurate risk assessments, and judgments based on false claims to objectivity. Such judgments undermine the moral and legal standing of pregnant women and do not advance the interests of fetuses, pregnant women, families, or states.

  7. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  8. An age-adjusted seroprevalence study of Toxoplasma antibody in a Malaysian ophthalmology unit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sujaya; Khang, Tsung Fei; Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2012-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a public health risk in developing countries, especially those located in the tropics. Widespread infection may inflict a substantial burden on state resources, as patients can develop severe neurological defects and ocular diseases that result in lifelong loss of economic independence. We tested sera for IgG antibody from 493 eye patients in Malaysia. Overall age-adjusted seroprevalence was estimated to be 25% (95% CI: [21%, 29%]). We found approximately equal age-adjusted seroprevalence in Chinese (31%; 95% CI: [25%, 38%]) and Malays (29%; 95% CI: [21%, 36%]), followed by Indians (19%; 95% CI: [13%, 25%]). A logistic regression of the odds for T. gondii seroprevalence against age, gender, ethnicity and the occurrence of six types of ocular diseases showed that only age and ethnicity were significant predictors. The odds for T. gondii seroprevalence were 2.7 (95% CI for OR: [1.9, 4.0]) times higher for a patient twice as old as the other, with ethnicity held constant. In Malays, we estimated the odds for T. gondii seroprevalence to be 2.9 (95% CI for OR: [1.8, 4.5]) times higher compared to non-Malays, with age held constant. Previous studies of T. gondii seroprevalence in Malaysia did not explicitly adjust for age, rendering comparisons difficult. Our study highlights the need to adopt a more rigorous epidemiological approach in monitoring T. gondii seroprevalence in Malaysia.

  9. Hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub consumption.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Kearney, M P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub on monthly hospital antibiotic usage, retrospectively. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate the monthly use of all antibiotics grouped together with age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub over a 5-year period (April 2005-March 2010). The results showed that monthly antibiotic use was positively related to the age-adjusted comorbidity index (concomitant effect, coefficient 1·103, P = 0·0002), and negatively related to the use of alcohol-based hand rub (2-month delay, coefficient -0·069, P = 0·0533). Alcohol-based hand rub is considered a modifiable factor and as such can be identified as a target for quality improvement programmes. Time-series analysis may provide a suitable methodology for identifying possible predictive variables that explain antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Future research should examine the relationship between infection control practices and antibiotic use, identify other infection control predictive factors for hospital antibiotic use, and evaluate the impact of enhancing different infection control practices on antibiotic use in a healthcare setting. PMID:23657218

  10. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  11. Healthy aging and age-adjusted nutrition and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Mats; Ostgren, Carl Johan

    2013-10-01

    Expected life span is gradually increasing worldwide. Healthy dietary and exercise habits contribute to healthy ageing. Certain types of diet can prevent or reduce obesity, and may reduce the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease). Exercise also reduces the risk of diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, some cancers and some mental disturbances). A less sedentary life style seems at least as important as regular exercise. Exercise can probably be tailored to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and extent of bone loss. To ensure adherence, it is important to increase slowly the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise, and to find activities that suit the individual. More research is needed to find ideal modes and doses of exercise, and to increase long-term adherence. Dietary and exercise modification seem to be strong promoters of healthy ageing.

  12. The risk to relatives of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hanby, Martha F; Scott, Kirsten M; Scotton, William; Wijesekera, Lokesh; Mole, Thomas; Ellis, Catherine E; Leigh, P Nigel; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2011-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons with a median survival of 2 years. Most patients have no family history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but current understanding of such diseases suggests there should be an increased risk to relatives. Furthermore, it is a common question to be asked by patients and relatives in clinic. We therefore set out to determine the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to first degree relatives of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis attending a specialist clinic. Case records of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis seen at a tertiary referral centre over a 16-year period were reviewed, and pedigree structures extracted. All individuals who had originally presented with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but who subsequently had an affected first degree relative, were identified. Calculations were age-adjusted using clinic population demographics. Probands (n = 1502), full siblings (n = 1622) and full offspring (n = 1545) were identified. Eight of the siblings and 18 offspring had developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The unadjusted risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis over the observation period was 0.5% for siblings and 1.0% for offspring. Age information was available for 476 siblings and 824 offspring. For this subset, the crude incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.11% per year (0.05-0.21%) in siblings and 0.11% per year (0.06-0.19%) in offspring, and the clinic age-adjusted incidence rate was 0.12% per year (0.04-0.21%) in siblings. By age 85, siblings were found to have an 8-fold increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in comparison to the background population. In practice, this means the risk of remaining unaffected by age 85 dropped from 99.7% to 97.6%. Relatives of people with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have a small but definite increased risk of being affected.

  13. The prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, Z; Yu, Q; Wu, C; Lu, Z; Zhu, F; Zhang, H; Liao, M; Li, T; Chen, W; Xian, X; Tan, A; Mo, Z

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis-like symptoms and its relation to erectile dysfunction (ED) among southern Chinese men. Data were collected from 2790 men attending the Fangchenggang Area Male Healthy and Examination Survey from September 2009 to December 2009. The prostatitis-like symptoms were assessed by the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and ED was assessed using the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Lifestyle and demographic characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire. Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms was 12.4% among 2790 Chinese men aged 20-84 years. In smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes per day (age-adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.00-1.66; p = 0.04), physical inactivity (age-adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.03-1.66; p = 0.02) was a significant risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms. Alcohol consumption (daily drinking) also was a risk factor for prostatitis-like symptoms, although the differences were not statistically significant (age-adjusted OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.96-1.92; p = 0.07). Those with diabetes may also be at higher risk for prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.85-2.21; p = 0.19). In addition, men with ED were more likely to have had prostatitis-like symptoms (age-adjusted OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.47-2.36; p < 0.0001), and the ORs increased with increasing severity of ED status (mild ED, mild to moderate ED, and moderate to severe ED were 1.57, 2.62, and 3.24, respectively. Test for trend, p = 0.0001). Our results show that prostatitis-like symptoms are prevalent in Southern China affecting men of all ages. Smoking, drinking, lack of physical activity, and elevated plasma glucose level were associated with an increased risk of prostatitis-like symptoms. In addition, our results reveal that ED accounted for a large proportion (61.5%) among men with prostatitis-like symptoms; we also confirm the magnitude of ED associated with

  14. Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, C.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A significant dose-response relation between ingested arsenic and several cancers has recently been reported in four townships of the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral artery disease related to the chronic arsenic exposure in southwestern Taiwan. This study was carried out to examine ecological correlations between arsenic level of well water and mortality from various malignant neoplasms in 314 precincts and townships of Taiwan. The arsenic content in water of 83,656 wells was determined by a standard mercuric bromide stain method from 1974 to 1976, while mortality rates of 21 malignant neoplasms among residents in study precincts and townships from 1972 to 1983 were standardized to the world population in 1976. A significant association with the arsenic level in well water was observed for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney in both males and females as well as for the prostate cancer in males. These associations remained significant after adjusting for indices of urbanization and industrialization through multiple regression analyses. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient indicating an increase in age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 person-years for every 0.1 ppm increase in arsenic level of well water was 6.8 and 2.0, 0.7 and 0.4, 5.3 and 5.3, 0.9 and 1.0, 3.9 and 4.2, as well as 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, in males and females for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient for the prostate cancer was 0.5. These weighted regression coefficients were found to increase or remain unchanged in further analyses in which only 170 southwestern townships were included.

  15. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  16. Age-adjusted dengue haemorrhagic fever morbidity in Thailand 1983-1987.

    PubMed

    Kitayaporn, D; Singhasivanon, P; Vasuvat, C

    1989-06-01

    Age-adjusted morbidity rates of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Thailand during the period 1983-1987 were analysed. The 1983 data were used as standard baseline rates. The age-adjusted rates showed increasing trend in the disease morbidity, i.e., 60.2, 138.2, 159.6, 55.2 and 344.7 (per 100,000 capita) respectively. These rates were consistently higher than the crude rates. The Standardised Morbidity Ratios (SMRs) as compared with the baseline 1983 were 1.00, 2.30, 2.65, 0.92 and 5.73 respectively. Regional comparisons revealed annual increases in Bangkok areas, other Central provinces, the North and the Northeast with fluctuations observed in the South. The epidemic was most of the time higher in the Central provinces other than Bangkok areas. The authors suggest that age-adjusted rates (or possibly sex) should be applied in the study of DHF morbidity data, since there were discrepancies in the age distribution among different regions of the country.

  17. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  18. Association between Variants in Atopy-Related Immunologic Candidate Genes and Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Lowcock, Elizabeth; Bider-Canfield, Zoe; Lemire, Mathieu; Greenwood, Celia; Gallinger, Steven; Hudson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry), and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR) for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants. Results 18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA) were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted)=0.04). Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007). Conclusions Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:25945796

  19. Site-specific relative risk of fractures in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Visentin, P; Ciravegna, R; Uscello, L; Molaschi, M; Fabris, F

    1995-01-01

    A 3-year prospective study was performed to evaluate the incidence of fractures in institutionalized elderly and associated risk factors. A total of 197 subjects (47 males and 150 females, mean age 81.5 +/- 8.0 years) were included in the study. The annual fracture incidence was 7.8%. All hip fractures occurred in female subjects (annual incidence = 3.7%). As expected, the incidence of fractures is higher in walking subjects. In walking subjects (n = 128) logistic regression analysis showed falls [adjusted relative risk (RR) = 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-8.4] and age (adjusted RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3) to be variables independently and significantly associated with fractures, after adjusting for baseline bone mineral density (BMD) and sex. Hip fractures were associated with age (RR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3), and non-hip fractures with falls (RR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.3-13.4). The importance of low BMD as a risk factor for fractures is reduced in the institutionalized elderly. However, other fracture-site-specific risk factors exert a greater influence.

  20. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Elder, Matthew S.

    2004-03-20

    The relative hazard (RH) and risk measure (RM) methodology and computer code is a health risk-based tool designed to allow managers and environmental decision makers the opportunity to readily consider human health risks (i.e., public and worker risks) in their screening-level analysis of alternative cleanup strategies. Environmental management decisions involve consideration of costs, schedules, regulatory requirements, health hazards, and risks. The RH-RM tool is a risk-based environmental management decision tool that allows managers the ability to predict and track health hazards and risks over time as they change in relation to mitigation and cleanup actions. Analysis of the hazards and risks associated with planned mitigation and cleanup actions provides a baseline against which alternative strategies can be compared. This new tool allows managers to explore “what if scenarios,” to better understand the impact of alternative mitigation and cleanup actions (i.e., alternatives to the planned actions) on health hazards and risks. This new tool allows managers to screen alternatives on the basis of human health risk and compare the results with cost and other factors pertinent to the decision. Once an alternative or a narrow set of alternatives are selected, it will then be more cost-effective to perform the detailed risk analysis necessary for programmatic and regulatory acceptance of the selected alternative. The RH-RM code has been integrated into the PNNL developed Framework for Risk Analysis In Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) to allow the input and output data of the RH-RM code to be readily shared with the more comprehensive risk analysis models, such as the PNNL developed Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) model.

  1. Relating space radiation environments to risk estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.B.

    1991-10-01

    This lecture will provide a bridge from the physical energy or LET spectra as might be calculated in an organ to the risk of carcinogenesis, a particular concern for extended missions to the moon or beyond to Mars. Topics covered will include (1) LET spectra expected from galactic cosmic rays, (2) probabilities that individual cell nuclei in the body will be hit by heavy galactic cosmic ray particles, (3) the conventional methods of calculating risks from a mixed environment of high and low LET radiation, (4) an alternate method which provides certain advantages using fluence-related risk coefficients (risk cross sections), and (5) directions for future research and development of these ideas.

  2. Relative risk regression models with inverse polynomials.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark

    2013-08-30

    The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.

  3. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  4. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period.

  5. Statistical analyses of the relative risk.

    PubMed Central

    Gart, J J

    1979-01-01

    Let P1 be the probability of a disease in one population and P2 be the probability of a disease in a second population. The ratio of these quantities, R = P1/P2, is termed the relative risk. We consider first the analyses of the relative risk from retrospective studies. The relation between the relative risk and the odds ratio (or cross-product ratio) is developed. The odds ratio can be considered a parameter of an exponential model possessing sufficient statistics. This permits the development of exact significance tests and confidence intervals in the conditional space. Unconditional tests and intervals are also considered briefly. The consequences of misclassification errors and ignoring matching or stratifying are also considered. The various methods are extended to combination of results over the strata. Examples of case-control studies testing the association between HL-A frequencies and cancer illustrate the techniques. The parallel analyses of prospective studies are given. If P1 and P2 are small with large samples sizes the appropriate model is a Poisson distribution. This yields a exponential model with sufficient statistics. Exact conditional tests and confidence intervals can then be developed. Here we consider the case where two populations are compared adjusting for sex differences as well as for the strata (or covariate) differences such as age. The methods are applied to two examples: (1) testing in the two sexes the ratio of relative risks of skin cancer in people living in different latitudes, and (2) testing over time the ratio of the relative risks of cancer in two cities, one of which fluoridated its drinking water and one which did not. PMID:540589

  6. [Operative risk related to tobacco in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Yaribakht, S; Malartic, C; Grange, G; Morel, O

    2014-05-01

    If tobacco has been recognized for many years as a major risk factor for cardiovascular, lung diseases and cancer in the general population, women are insufficiently aware of the consequences and the specific gynecological operative risks related to this intoxication. Thus, a regular tobacco consumption increases the risk for many gynecological conditions may require surgical treatment with in addition a significant negative impact on the healing process and the risk of postoperative complications. The operative risk must be explained by surgeons in daily practice gynecological, pelvic surgery or breast screening. The issue of smoking cessation should precede surgery has been established by a consensus conference of experts on perioperative smoking held in 2005. The implementation of these recommendations during the preoperative period requires improvement of staff training and better practices to allow smoking cessation effective and sustainable. It is lawful in this context to delay scheduled surgery of 6 to 8 weeks to allow an optimal smoking cessation and to continue smoking cessation for the time necessary for healing to reduce the excess operative risk associated with smoking. PMID:24787606

  7. Age-related deficit accumulation and the risk of late-life dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many age-related health problems have been associated with dementia, leading to the hypothesis that late-life dementia may be determined less by specific risk factors, and more by the operation of multiple health deficits in the aggregate. Our study addressed (a) how the predictive value of dementia risk varies by the number of deficits considered and (b) how traditional (for example. vascular risks) and nontraditional risk factors (for example, foot problems, nasal congestion) compare in their predictive effects. Methods Older adults in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who were cognitively healthy at baseline were analyzed (men, 2,902; women, 4,337). Over a 10-year period, 44.8% of men and 33.4% of women died; 7.4% of men and 9.1% of women without baseline cognitive impairment developed dementia. Self-rated health problems, including, but not restricted to, dementia risk factors, were coded as deficit present/absent. Different numbers of randomly selected variables were used to calculate various iterations of the index (that is, the proportion of deficits present in an individual. Risks for 10-year mortality and dementia outcomes were evaluated separately for men and women by using logistic regression, adjusted for age. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by using C-statistics. Results Age-adjusted odds ratios per additional deficit were 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18 to 1.26) in men and 1.14 (1.11 to 1.16) in women in relation to death, and 1.18 (1.12 to 1.25) in men and 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11) in women in relation to dementia. The predictive value increased with the number (n) of deficits considered, regardless of whether they were known dementia risks, and stabilized at n > 25. The all-factor index best predicted dementia (C-statistics, 0.67 ± 0.03). Conclusions The variety of items associated with dementias suggests that some part of the risk might relate more to aberrant repair processes, than to specifically toxic results

  8. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  9. Occupation-related risks for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegelman, D.; Wegman, D.H.

    1985-11-01

    Several population data bases were used to generate hypotheses about associations between colorectal cancer and workplace exposures. The Third National Cancer Survey interview sample was used to select 343 male and 208 female cases and 626 male and 1,235 female cancer controls. Potential work exposures were assigned with the use of data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Hazard Survey. Dietary factors were modeled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Work-related stress was considered with the use of a model based on the U.S. Department of Labor's Quality of Employment Survey. Other risk factors included age, race, ponderosity, and menopausal status. Logistic analysis yielded hypotheses for colon cancer risk in males with potentially high exposure to solvents, abrasives, and fuel oil and in those in jobs with high demand and low control (high stress). Hypotheses emerged for females with potentially high exposure to dyes, solvents, and grinding wheel dust.

  10. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  11. Disability and risk of school related injury

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, M; Peek-Asa, C; Kraus, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Approximately six million children with disabilities attend school in the United States. Cognitive and physical limitations may compromise their ability to handle environmental hazards and hence increase their risk for injury. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of school related injury among children enrolled in 17 special education schools in one large, urban school district. Design: Altogether 6769 schoolchildren with disabilities were followed up from 1994–98. Injury and population data were collected from pupil accident reports and existing school records. Associations were estimated through generalized estimating equations. Results: A total of 697 injuries were reported for a rate of 4.7/100 students per year. Children with multiple disabilities had a 70% increased odds of injury compared with the developmentally disabled (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.3). The physically disabled (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) had a modest increased odds of injury. Cuts, bruises, and abrasions composed almost three fourths of all injuries; almost half of these injuries were to the face. Falls (34%) and insults by other students (31%) were the most common external causes. More than a fourth of injuries were sports related, and 21% occurred on the playground/athletic field. Injury patterns differed across disabilities. Conclusions: Although limited to one school district, the population studied is the largest cohort thus far of schoolchildren with disabilities. With this large study base, potentially high risk groups were identified and circumstances of injury described. This information is imperative for developing and improving school based injury prevention measures. PMID:14760022

  12. Relationships among three popular measures of differential risks: relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio.

    PubMed

    Feng, Changyong; Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Bokai; Lu, Xiang; Sun, Hao; Tu, Xin M

    2016-02-25

    The relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio are the three most commonly used measures for comparing the risk of disease between different groups. Although widely popular in biomedical and psychosocial research, the relationship among the three measures has not been clarified in the literature. Many researchers incorrectly assume a monotonic relationship, such that higher (or lower) values in one measure are associated with higher (or lower) values in the other measures. In this paper we discuss three theorems and provide examples demonstrating that this is not the case; there is no logical relationship between any of these measures. Researchers must be very cautious when implying a relationship between the different measures or when combining results of studies that use different measures of risk. PMID:27688647

  13. Relationships among three popular measures of differential risks: relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Changyong; WANG, Hongyue; WANG, Bokai; LU, Xiang; SUN, Hao; TU, Xin M.

    2016-01-01

    The relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio are the three most commonly used measures for comparing the risk of disease between different groups. Although widely popular in biomedical and psychosocial research, the relationship among the three measures has not been clarified in the literature. Many researchers incorrectly assume a monotonic relationship, such that higher (or lower) values in one measure are associated with higher (or lower) values in the other measures. In this paper we discuss three theorems and provide examples demonstrating that this is not the case; there is no logical relationship between any of these measures. Researchers must be very cautious when implying a relationship between the different measures or when combining results of studies that use different measures of risk. PMID:27688647

  14. Relative risks of oral contraceptive usage.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, C; Reid, R L

    1987-04-01

    Women seeking safe, reliable contraception must weigh the risks associated with such methods with their benefits. To make this assessment process more meaningful, the authors have prepared a chart that sets forth the risks of oral contraceptive (OC) use by different user factors (e.g., age, cigarette smoking) in proportion to the risks inherent in a variety of sporting activities and types of accidents. Mortality rates reported for OC use include those due to the method and those due to pregnancies resulting from method failure. Scrutiny of this chart reveals that the risk of death associated with swimming, boating, and automobile use exceeds the risk of death for nonsmokers who use OCs up to 34 years of age (1.6 deaths/100,000 population). OC use by women 15-24 years of age who smoke carries a lower mortality risk (3.0/1000) than scuba diving or falling, while OC users 25-34 years old who smoke are more likely to die as a result of homicide, suicide, or automobile accidents than they are as a result of their use of OCs (mortality rate, 10.2/1000). On the other hand, OC use by smokers 35-44 years of age is associated with a mortality rate of 84.5/1000, which is a higher risk than that associated with the sport of hang-gliding.

  15. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  16. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary.

  17. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012

  18. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  19. Relating space radiation environments to risk estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    A number of considerations must go into the process of determining the risk of deleterious effects of space radiation to travelers. Among them are (1) determination of the components of the radiation environment (particle species, fluxes and energy spectra) which will encounter, (2) determination of the effects of shielding provided by the spacecraft and the bodies of the travelers which modify the incident particle spectra and mix of particles, and (3) determination of relevant biological effects of the radiation in the organs of interest. The latter can then lead to an estimation of risk from a given space scenario. Clearly, the process spans many scientific disciplines from solar and cosmic ray physics to radiation transport theeory to the multistage problem of the induction by radiation of initial lesions in living material and their evolution via physical, chemical, and biological processes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels to produce the end point of importance.

  20. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  1. Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Jiří; Hekelová, Edita

    2012-12-01

    Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

  2. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  3. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  4. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  5. Lung cancer risk associated with cancer in relatives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G L; Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Mason, T J; Buffler, P A

    1991-01-01

    Family history data from an incident case-control study of lung cancer conducted in the Texas Gulf Coast region between 1976 and 1980 were analyzed to evaluate the contribution of cancer in first-degree relatives to lung cancer risk. Odds ratios (OR) increased slightly as the number of relatives with any cancer increased (reaching 1.5 with 4 or more relatives with cancer). Risks were higher for tobacco-related cancers (OR = 1.5 for 2 or more relatives with these tumors) and greatest for first-degree relatives with lung cancer (OR = 2.8 for lung cancer in 2 or more relatives). For cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung, risks with 3 or more relatives with any cancer were increased 2-fold (OR = 1.8 and 1.9 respectively), and a significantly elevated risk was found for having a first-degree relative with lung cancer for each histologic type (ORs from 1.7-2.1). Having a spouse with lung cancer increased lung cancer risk (OR = 2.5), and cases with lung cancer reported in a first-degree relative were diagnosed at an earlier age, as were case siblings with lung cancer.

  6. Study finds increases in risk of leukemias related to treatment

    Cancer.gov

    A new study describes the pattern of risk for chemotherapy-related acute myeloid leukemia among adult cancer survivors over the past three decades who have previously been treated with chemotherapy for other cancers. These patterns coincide with major shi

  7. Relative risk factors in the treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Cummings, B J

    1980-01-01

    The potentially fatal complications associated with surgery and radiation therapy in the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are analyzed. Quantitative risk factors established from review of the literature suggest a risk of potentially fatal complications of 1 in 3,000 from general anesthesia, 1 in 1,600 from arteriography, 1 in 160 from blood transfusion, and 1 in 500 from the surgical procedure itself. The total of these risks is comparable to the 1% lifetime risk of developing a radiation-induced tumor after radiation therapy. The time pattern of these complications differs in that fatal radiation-induced complications are delayed, whereas the risks associated with surgery, general anesthesia, and blood transfusion are more immediate. However, it is suggested that treatment-related risks of fatal complications are of a similar order of magnitude for surgery and for radiation therapy in the management of JNA.

  8. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  9. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas.

  10. [Application of spatial relative risk estimation in communicable disease risk evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Guo, Qing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Meng; Su, Xuemei; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Chunxi

    2015-05-01

    This paper summaries the application of adaptive kernel density algorithm in the spatial relative risk estimation of communicable diseases by using the reported data of infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) in Ludian county and surrounding area in Yunnan province in 2013. Statistically significant fluctuations in an estimated risk function were identified through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and finally these data were visualized though disease mapping. The results of spatial relative risk estimation and disease mapping showed that high risk areas were in southeastern Shaoyang next to Ludian. Therefore, the spatial relative risk estimation of disease by using adaptive kernel density algorithm and disease mapping technique is a powerful method in identifying high risk population and areas. PMID:26080648

  11. A systematic review of patient-related risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Amy; Heal, Clare; Perera, Marlon; Pretorius, Casper

    2015-10-01

    To identify patient-related risk factors for venous thrombosis in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) or peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC). We performed a systematic review of the literature assessing patient-related risk factors for thrombosis related to CVC or PICC. The databases PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane library were searched for observational studies pertaining to patient-related risk factors for CVC and PICC-related thrombosis. The initial search through PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane library yielded 516 results. After 71 duplicates were removed, 445 articles were assessed for eligibility based on title and abstract. Four hundred and eleven articles were then excluded and 33 full text articles were manually assessed for eligibility. Eight articles were eliminated as they did not contain content relevant to the review. Twenty-five studies were then selected to assess 20 risk factors. There were no consistent significant associations for catheter-related thrombosis across the twenty-five studies. Multiple studies identified age, malignancy, diabetes, obesity, chemotherapy, thrombophilia and a history of thrombosis as significant risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis. Inconsistent findings among studies make it difficult to establish which patient-related risk factors are associated with catheter-related thrombosis. Future studies could include larger sample sizes and more cases of catheter-related thrombosis to produce more significant results. Identification of patient-related risk factors could lead to early recognition of upper limb deep vein thrombosis in patients with catheters, thereby preventing complications.

  12. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  13. Nighttime Parenting Strategies and Sleep-Related Risks to Infants

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Lane E.; Ball, Helen L.; McKenna, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004.Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may help

  14. Relation of vigorous exercise to risk of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anthony; Gaziano, J Michael; Cook, Nancy R; Manson, Joann E; Buring, Julie E; Albert, Christine M

    2009-06-01

    Limited data suggest that athletes may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF); however, there has been no large prospective assessment of the relation between vigorous exercise and AF. Logistic regression analyses stratified by time were used to assess the association between frequency of vigorous exercise and risk of developing AF in 16,921 apparently healthy men in the Physicians' Health Study. During 12 years of follow-up, 1,661 men reported developing AF. With increasing frequency of vigorous exercise (0, 1, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 7 days/week), multivariate relative risks for the full cohort were 1.0 (referent), 0.90, 1.09, 1.04, and 1.20 (p = 0.04). This risk was not significantly increased when exercise habits were updated or in models excluding variables that may be in the biological pathway through which exercise influences AF risk. In subgroup analyses, this increased risk was observed only in men <50 years of age (1.0, 0.94, 1.20, 1.05, 1.74, p <0.01) and joggers (1.0, 0.91, 1.03, 1.30, 1.53, p <0.01), where risks remained increased in all analyses. In conclusion, frequency of vigorous exercise was associated with an increased risk of developing AF in young men and joggers. This risk decreased as the population aged and was offset by known beneficial effects of vigorous exercise on other AF risk factors.

  15. SELECTED ESTROGEN RECEPTOR 1 AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN RELATION TO RISK OF BREAST CANCER AND FIBROCYSTIC BREAST CONDITIONS AMONG CHINESE WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Sakoda, Lori C.; Blackston, Christie R.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Ray, Roberta M.; Lin, Ming Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Stalsberg, Helge; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B.; Chen, Chu

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in sex hormone receptor-encoding genes may alter the activity of sex hormone receptors and thereby affect susceptibility to breast cancer and related outcomes. Methods In a case-control study of women from Shanghai, China, we examined the risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions associated with the ESR1 PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) and AR CAG repeat ((CAG)n) and GGC repeat ((GGC)n) polymorphisms among 614 women with breast cancer, 467 women with fibrocystic conditions, and 879 women without breast disease. We also evaluated whether risk differed by the presence/absence of proliferative changes (in the extratumoral epithelium or fibrocystic lesion), menopausal status, or body mass index (BMI). Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results Only associations with AR (CAG)n and (GGC)n genotypes were detected. Allocating AR (CAG)n genotypes into six categories, with the (CAG)22–24/(CAG)22–24 genotype category designated as the reference group, the (CAG)>24/(CAG)>24 genotype category was associated with an increased risk of fibrocystic breast conditions (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0). Relative to the AR (GGC)17/(GGC)17 genotype, the (GGC)17/(GGC)14 genotype was associated with elevated risks of incident breast cancer (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3–5.4) and fibrocystic conditions (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1–4.5). Results did not differ according to proliferation status, menopausal status, or BMI. Conclusion Although these data lend support for a link between AR variation and breast disease development, given the low frequency of the putative risk-conferring genotypes and other constraints, further confirmation of our results is needed. PMID:20846920

  16. Are All Risks Equal? Early Experiences of Poverty-Related Risk and Children’s Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amanda L.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, this research examines how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio <.50) and four poverty-related risks (single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children’s future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head-Start enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed four risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e. risks co-vary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differ. African American families were over-represented in the ‘deep poverty and single’ profile while Latino and White families were over-represented in the ‘deep poverty and crowded’ profile. Finally, children’s third grade functioning in three domains (academic performance, behavior problems, self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, the LCA also revealed that children who experienced ‘single and stressed’ family settings had more behavior problems than low risk children while children who experienced ‘deep poverty and crowded’ family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children’s development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations. PMID:24749652

  17. Are all risks equal? Early experiences of poverty-related risk and children's functioning.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amanda L; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-06-01

    Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, we examined how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio <0.50) and 4 poverty-related risks (i.e., single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children's future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head Start-enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed 4 risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that, although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e., risks covary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differs. African American families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and single" profile while Latino and White families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and crowded" profile. Finally, children's third grade functioning in 3 domains (i.e., academic performance, behavior problems, and self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA-identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, LCA also revealed that children who experienced "single and stressed" family settings had more behavior problems than low-risk children while children who experienced "deep poverty and crowded" family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children's development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations. PMID:24749652

  18. Are all risks equal? Early experiences of poverty-related risk and children's functioning.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amanda L; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-06-01

    Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, we examined how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio <0.50) and 4 poverty-related risks (i.e., single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children's future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head Start-enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed 4 risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that, although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e., risks covary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differs. African American families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and single" profile while Latino and White families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and crowded" profile. Finally, children's third grade functioning in 3 domains (i.e., academic performance, behavior problems, and self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA-identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, LCA also revealed that children who experienced "single and stressed" family settings had more behavior problems than low-risk children while children who experienced "deep poverty and crowded" family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children's development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations.

  19. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, Pedro M; Englehardt, James D; Olascoaga, Josefina; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Brand, Larry; Lirman, Diego; Rogge, Wolfgang F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tchobanoglous, George

    2011-10-01

    A relative risk assessment of biosolids disposal alternatives for cruise ships is presented in this paper. The area of study encompasses islands and marine waters of the Caribbean Sea. The objective was to evaluate relative human health and ecological risks of (a) dewatering/incineration, (b) landing the solids for disposal, considering that in some countries land-disposed solids might be discharged in the near-shore environment untreated, and (c) deep ocean disposal. Input to the Bayesian assessment consisted of professional judgment based on available literature and modeling information, data on constituent concentrations in cruise ship biosolids, and simulations of constituent concentrations in Caribbean waters assuming ocean disposal. Results indicate that human health and ecological risks associated with land disposal and shallow ocean disposal are higher than those of the deep ocean disposal and incineration. For incineration, predicted ecological impacts were lower relative to deep ocean disposal before considering potential impacts of carbon emissions.

  20. Time perspective and perceived risk as related to mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the relation of time perspective to perceived risk for breast cancer and mammography screening. Women free from breast cancer (N = 194), eligible for mammography screening in terms of age, completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) and measures of perceived risk, attitude toward performing mammography screening, intention to get a mammogram, and mammography screening behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived risk of breast cancer (β= .18, p < .01) and intention to be screened (β = .35, p < .01) were significantly associated with mammography screening, after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic (e.g., age, education, and economic level) and health-related variables (e.g., family history of breast cancer and previous benign breast disease). Path analyses including the main psychological variables indicated that perceived risk was indirectly related to intention via attitude (β = .17, p < .01), and to mammography screening through attitude and intention (β = .06, p < .01). Attitude was indirectly related to mammography screening via intention (β = .20, p < .01). Also, a significant indirect association was observed between future orientation and mammography screening, via perceived risk (β = .10, p < .01). Theoretical implications of study findings and suggestions for future research on use of mammography are presented.

  1. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Groundwater-Related Risks at Excavation Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, A.; de Gaspari, F.; Vilarrasa, V.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.; Bolster, D.

    2010-12-01

    Excavation sites such as those associated with the construction of subway lines, railways and highway tunnels are hazardous places, posing risks to workers, machinery and surrounding buildings. Many of these risks can be groundwater related. In this work we develop a general framework based on a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to quantify such risks. This approach is compatible with standard PRA practices and it employs many well-developed risk analysis tools, such as fault trees. The novelty and computational challenges of the proposed approach stem from the reliance on stochastic differential equations, rather than reliability databases, to compute the probabilities of basic events. The general framework is applied to a specific case study in Spain. It is used to estimate and minimize risks for a potential construction site of an underground station for the new subway line in the Barcelona metropolitan area.

  2. Ecological risk assessment of water environment for Luanhe River Basin based on relative risk model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Li, Yongli

    2010-11-01

    The relative risk model (RRM) was applied in regional ecological risk assessments successfully. In this study, the RRM was developed through increasing the data of risk source and introducing the source-stressor-habitat exposure filter (SSH), the endpoint-habitat exposure filter (EH) and the stressor-endpoint effect filter (SE) to reflect the meaning of exposure and effect more explicit. Water environment which include water quality, water quantity and aquatic ecosystems was selected as the ecological risk assessment endpoints. The Luanhe River Basin located in the North China was selected as model case. The results showed that there were three low risk regions, one medium risk region and two high risk regions in the Luanhe River Basin. The results also indicated habitat destruction was the largest stressor with the risk scores as high as 11.87 for the Luanhe water environment, the second was oxygen consuming organic pollutants (9.28) and the third was nutrients (7.78). So these three stressors were the main influencing factors of the ecological pressure in the study area. Furthermore, animal husbandry was the biggest source with the risk scores as high as 20.38, the second was domestic sewage (14.00), and the third was polluting industry (9.96). For habitats, waters and farmland were enduring the bigger pressure and should be taken considerable attention. Water deterioration and ecological service values damaged were facing the biggest risk pressure, and secondly was biodiversity decreased and landscape fragmentation. PMID:20683654

  3. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  4. Increased morbid risk for schizophrenia-related disorders in relatives of schizotypal personality disordered patients.

    PubMed

    Siever, L J; Silverman, J M; Horvath, T B; Klar, H; Coccaro, E; Keefe, R S; Pinkham, L; Rinaldi, P; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1990-07-01

    To evaluate whether probands from a clinical sample diagnosed as having DSM-III schizotypal and/or paranoid personality disorder have a familial relationship to the schizophrenia-related disorders, the morbid risk for schizophrenia-related disorders and other psychiatric disorders were evaluated in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizotypal and/or paranoid personality disorder and compared with the corresponding risk for these disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with other non-schizophrenia-related personality disorders. The morbid risk for all schizophrenia-related disorders, and specifically for schizophrenia-related personality disorders, was significantly greater among the relatives of the probands with schizotypal and/or paranoid personality disorder than among the relatives of probands with other personality disorder. The morbid risk for other psychiatric disorders did not differ significantly between the first-degree relatives of the schizotypal/paranoid personality disorder and the other personality disorder control proband samples. These results suggest a specific familial association between schizophrenia-related disorders, particularly schizophrenia-related personality disorders, and clinically diagnosed schizotypal patients.

  5. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  6. Atrial fibrillation: relation between clinical risk factors and transoesophageal echocardiographic risk factors for thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Illien, S; Maroto-Järvinen, S; von der Recke, G; Hammerstingl, C; Schmidt, H; Kuntz-Hehner, S; Lüderitz, B; Omran, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To correlate clinical risk factors for thromboembolism with transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) markers of a thrombogenic milieu. Design: Clinical risk factors for thromboembolism and TOE markers of a thrombogenic milieu were assessed in consecutive patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. The following TOE parameters were assessed: presence of spontaneous echo contrast, thrombi, and left atrial appendage blood flow velocities. A history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or thromboembolic events, patient age > 65 years, and chronic heart failure were considered to be clinical risk factors for thromboembolism. Setting: Tertiary cardiac care centre. Patients: 301 consecutive patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation scheduled for TOE. Results: 255 patients presented with clinical risk factors. 158 patients had reduced left atrial blood flow velocities, dense spontaneous echo contrast, or both. Logistic regression analysis showed that a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and age > 65 years were the only independent predictors of a thrombogenic milieu (both p < 0.0001). The probability of having a thrombogenic milieu increased with the number of clinical risk factors present (p < 0.0001). 17.4% of the patients without clinical risk factors had a thrombogenic milieu whereas 41.2% of the patients presenting one or more clinical risk factors had none. Conclusion: There is a close relation between clinical risk factors and TOE markers of a thrombogenic milieu. In addition, TOE examination allows for the identification of patients with a thrombogenic milieu without clinical risk factors. PMID:12527668

  7. Practical approaches to the assessment of work-related risks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1993-01-01

    The control of work-related risks calls for practical improvements in job content and the working environment. For assessment of risks, it is essential to resort to the most practical methods in the local context. Important common methods are examination of the process, equipment and organisation of work, walk-through surveys, evaluation of risk factors in the working environment, inquiries and questionnaires as well as monitoring of various health indicators. Biological tests and other health indicators can thus only be regarded as components of overall occupational health-risk assessment strategy, with their advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Important are the validity of biological tests and the ethical aspects related to their use, such as confidentiality of data and the individual worker's informed consent, preference being given to noninvasive-methods. Occupational health services should thus play a positive role by providing practical advice, training and information for participatory risk assessment keeping in view such an overall strategy that facilitates immediate preventive action. Biological monitoring should be applied when the additional guidance it provides on preventive action is essential. Proposals to use biological monitoring must emphasise this justification aspect.

  8. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Schwieren, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  9. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  10. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  11. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders.

  12. Genetics and alcoholism among at-risk relatives I: perceptions of cause, risk, and control.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Jennifer L; Nussbaum, Robert L; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2004-07-15

    Genetic factors influence a person's risk for developing alcoholism. In other common disorders with a genetic component, a belief in a genetic cause can lead to less perceived control or fatalism among those at risk that may adversely affect undertaking health-promoting behaviors. This study explores beliefs about the cause of alcoholism and risk perception among individuals with affected relatives. In-depth interviews including both open-ended questions and several quantitative measures were conducted with participants to explore the relationships between causal beliefs and perceptions of personal risk and control. Twenty-seven individuals with at least one first-degree relative affected with alcoholism participated. Transcript analysis of interviews revealed that all participants attribute multiple factors to the cause of alcoholism in their families, often as a combination of biological, genetic, environmental factors, and personal characteristics. Many perceived themselves as being 'at-risk,' and this concern often stemmed from a belief in a genetic or biological cause of alcoholism. However, participants also had a strong sense of personal control, rooted in beliefs about environmental causes or personal characteristics influencing alcoholism risk. A participant's strong belief in a genetic cause was associated with a significantly increased risk perception, but not a fatalistic outlook towards developing alcoholism.

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  14. Workplace strategies for the control of work-related risks.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1993-10-01

    The prevention of work-related diseases and disorders, including those of neuropsychobehavioral nature, calls for integrated action to improve both job content and the working environment. Recent international labor standards have highlighted the importance of a good safety and health management system that ensures the assessment of risks and the appropriate control of these risks. Internationally, programs to cope with work-related risks place an increasing emphasis on participatory management of preventive measures, practical methods of risk assessment, and immediate improvements with the support of action-oriented training and information. Psychosocial factors, work performance, and job content need special attention. Workplace strategies must be developed by active participation of employers and workers, with their informed consent. These strategies and linked training activities should build on local practice and achievements rather than administrative models and be geared to the real local needs. In coping with the neurobehavioral effects, international sharing of positive experiences is useful especially with respect to: (i) providing information on potential neurobehavioral effects including labeling, safety datasheets, and precautions; (ii) providing practical advice about locally achieved improvements; (iii) providing action-oriented training; and (iv) creating opportunities for participatory workplace improvements.

  15. Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Guymer, Robyn H; Chong, Elaine Wei-Tinn

    2006-05-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in Australia and other Western countries. As there is no cure for AMD, and treatments to stop its progression have met with limited success, there is an interest in identifying modifiable risk factors to prevent or slow disease progression. To date, smoking is the only proven modifiable risk factor for AMD. Other factors under study include (i) cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, body mass index, and atherosclerosis; and (ii) dietary risk factors including fat and antioxidant intake, but so far these studies have produced conflicting results. Dietary fat in relation to AMD has recently attracted media attention. Despite very limited work supporting an association between vegetable fat and AMD, widespread publicity advocating margarine as a cause of AMD and encouraging use of butter instead has caused confusion and anxiety among sufferers of AMD and the general public, as well as concern among health professionals. The antioxidant carotenoids--lutein and zeaxanthin--found in dark green or yellow vegetables exist in high concentrations in the macula and are hypothesised to play a protective role. Of nine controlled trials of supplementation with carotenoids and other antioxidants, three suggested that various combinations of antioxidants and carotenoids were protective. While a low-fat diet rich in dark green and yellow vegetables is advocated in general, any specific recommendations regarding certain fats or antioxidant supplementation and AMD are not based on consistent findings at this stage. PMID:16646746

  16. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  17. Spatial relative risk patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for ASD, or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities (URADD). Each ASD case was gender-matched to 20 birth cohort controls. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of children born inside versus outside ASD hotspots were compared. ASD hotspots were found in the surveillance area for all but one birth cohort and age group sample; maximum relative risk in these hotspots ranged from 1.8 to 3.0. Associations were found between higher socioeconomic status (SES) and birth residence in an ASD hotspot in five out of six birth cohort and age group samples. PMID:25241009

  18. Quasi-likelihood estimation for relative risk regression models.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rickey E; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Tilley, Barbara C

    2005-01-01

    For a prospective randomized clinical trial with two groups, the relative risk can be used as a measure of treatment effect and is directly interpretable as the ratio of success probabilities in the new treatment group versus the placebo group. For a prospective study with many covariates and a binary outcome (success or failure), relative risk regression may be of interest. If we model the log of the success probability as a linear function of covariates, the regression coefficients are log-relative risks. However, using such a log-linear model with a Bernoulli likelihood can lead to convergence problems in the Newton-Raphson algorithm. This is likely to occur when the success probabilities are close to one. A constrained likelihood method proposed by Wacholder (1986, American Journal of Epidemiology 123, 174-184), also has convergence problems. We propose a quasi-likelihood method of moments technique in which we naively assume the Bernoulli outcome is Poisson, with the mean (success probability) following a log-linear model. We use the Poisson maximum likelihood equations to estimate the regression coefficients without constraints. Using method of moment ideas, one can show that the estimates using the Poisson likelihood will be consistent and asymptotically normal. We apply these methods to a double-blinded randomized trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver (Markus et al., 1989, New England Journal of Medicine 320, 1709-1713). PMID:15618526

  19. Estimating relative risks for common outcome using PROC NLP.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbing; Wang, Zhuoqiao

    2008-05-01

    In cross-sectional or cohort studies with binary outcomes, it is biologically interpretable and of interest to estimate the relative risk or prevalence ratio, especially when the response rates are not rare. Several methods have been used to estimate the relative risk, among which the log-binomial models yield the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the parameters. Because of restrictions on the parameter space, the log-binomial models often run into convergence problems. Some remedies, e.g., the Poisson and Cox regressions, have been proposed. However, these methods may give out-of-bound predicted response probabilities. In this paper, a new computation method using the SAS Nonlinear Programming (NLP) procedure is proposed to find the MLEs. The proposed NLP method was compared to the COPY method, a modified method to fit the log-binomial model. Issues in the implementation are discussed. For illustration, both methods were applied to data on the prevalence of microalbuminuria (micro-protein leakage into urine) for kidney disease patients from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. The sample SAS macro for calculating relative risk is provided in the appendix.

  20. Relative risk for concussions in young female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p < .001, α = .05, CI = 95%). This demonstrates that the relative risk of probable concussions in young female soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.

  1. Relation Between Hepatitis C Virus Exposure and Risk of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure on bone mineral density without advanced liver disease remains debated. Thus, we assessed the relation between HCV exposure and the risk of osteoporosis. From 2000 to 2011, patients aged >20 years with HCV exposure were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Of the 51,535 sampled patients, 41,228 and 10,307 patients were categorized as the comparison and the HCV exposure cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence of osteoporosis in the HCV exposure cohort was higher than in the comparison cohort (8.27 vs 6.19 per 1000 person-years; crude hazard ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.20–1.47). The incidence of osteoporosis, higher in women than in men, increased with age and comorbidity of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart failure. The risk of developing osteoporosis was significantly higher in the HCV exposure cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart failure, stroke, and cirrhosis. However, the risk of osteoporosis contributed by HCV decreased with age and the presence of comorbidity. Furthermore, the risk of osteoporotic fracture did not differ significantly between patients exposed to HCV and the comparison cohorts. HCV increases the risk of osteoporosis, but no detrimental effect on osteoporotic fracture was observed in this study. Furthermore, HCV may be less influential than other risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart failure, in contributing to the development of osteoporosis. PMID:26632720

  2. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  3. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M; Perez, Jose I A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Kristensen, Vessela N; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects. PMID:25390939

  4. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M; Perez, Jose I A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Kristensen, Vessela N; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.

  5. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L.; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura J. V. a. n't.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05) located in the 3′ UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects. PMID:25390939

  6. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. PMID:26311416

  7. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies.

  8. Nutritional Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Lebriz; Lechanteur, Yara T.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of nutritional factors, serum lipids, and lipoproteins in late age-related macular degeneration (late AMD). Methods. Intake of red meat, fruit, fish, vegetables, and alcohol, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) were ascertained questionnaire-based in 1147 late AMD cases and 1773 controls from the European Genetic Database. Serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were determined. The relationship between nutritional factors and late AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Based on multivariate analysis, area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC). Results. In a multivariate analysis, besides age and smoking, obesity (odds ratio (OR): 1.44, P = 0.014) and red meat intake (daily: OR: 2.34, P = 8.22 × 10−6; 2–6x/week: OR: 1.67, P = 7.98 × 10−5) were identified as risk factors for developing late AMD. Fruit intake showed a protective effect (daily: OR: 0.52, P = 0.005; 2–6x/week: OR: 0.58, P = 0.035). Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels showed no significant association with late AMD. ROC for nutritional factors, smoking, age, and BMI revealed an AUC of 0.781. Conclusion. Red meat intake and obesity were independently associated with increased risk for late AMD, whereas fruit intake was protective. A better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for the prevention of AMD. PMID:25101280

  9. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  10. Flexible regression models for rate differences, risk differences and relative risks.

    PubMed

    Donoghoe, Mark W; Marschner, Ian C

    2015-05-01

    Generalized additive models (GAMs) based on the binomial and Poisson distributions can be used to provide flexible semi-parametric modelling of binary and count outcomes. When used with the canonical link function, these GAMs provide semi-parametrically adjusted odds ratios and rate ratios. For adjustment of other effect measures, including rate differences, risk differences and relative risks, non-canonical link functions must be used together with a constrained parameter space. However, the algorithms used to fit these models typically rely on a form of the iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm, which can be numerically unstable when a constrained non-canonical model is used. We describe an application of a combinatorial EM algorithm to fit identity link Poisson, identity link binomial and log link binomial GAMs in order to estimate semi-parametrically adjusted rate differences, risk differences and relative risks. Using smooth regression functions based on B-splines, the method provides stable convergence to the maximum likelihood estimates, and it ensures that the estimates always remain within the parameter space. It is also straightforward to apply a monotonicity constraint to the smooth regression functions. We illustrate the method using data from a clinical trial in heart attack patients. PMID:25781711

  11. Do Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Relative Risks Differ for the Occurrence of Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Aalami Harandi, Samaneh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Talaei, Mohammad; Dianatkhah, Mino; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Pourmoghaddas, Ali; Salehi, Asma; Sedighifard, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of the risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke on the occurrence of these diseases differ between different populations. Objectives: To study the difference in the effects of different cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors on the incidence of IHD and stroke in an Iranian adult population. Patients and Methods: The Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) is a longitudinal study that followed up 6323 subjects older than 35 years with no history of CVD since 2001. Of the original sample, only 5431 participants were contacted and followed up until 2011. The end points were the occurrence of IHD (defined as fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and sudden cardiac death) and stroke. After 10 years of follow-up, 564 new cases of IHD and 141 new cases of stroke were detected. The relative risks (RRs) of cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, current smoking, obesity, high waist-to-hip ratio, family history of CVD, and metabolic syndrome were compared between IHD and stroke patients. The ratio of relative risks (RRR) was calculated for comparing two RRs and estimated adjusted RRR was calculated by using generalized linear regression with a log link and binomial distribution. Results: The RRs of the occurrence of IHD and stroke in diabetic patients were 1.94 and 3.26, respectively, and the difference was statistically different (P = 0.016). The RR of high LDL-C was significantly higher for IHD than for stroke (P = 0.045), while all the other risk factors showed similar RRs for IHD and stroke, with no significant difference in their RRR, including hypertension. Diabetes and hypertension had the highest RRs for IHD, followed by diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension for stroke. Conclusions: The effect of diabetes mellitus on stroke was more

  12. Risk factors of hand climbing-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Lion, A; van der Zwaard, B C; Remillieux, S; Perrin, P P; Buatois, S

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective mechanisms or risk factors that can be related to the occurrence of hand climbing-related injuries (CRIH ). CRIH (tendon, pulley, muscle, and joint injuries) were retrospectively screened in 528 adult climbers. The questionnaire contained anthropometric items (e.g., body mass index - BMI), as well as items regarding climbing and basic training activities (warm-up, cool-down and session durations, number of session per week, hydration, practice level, climbing surface, and duration of the cardiovascular training). Higher skilled climbers and climbers with BMI above 21 kg/m(2) were more likely to have experienced CRIH (P < 0.01). Climbers with BMI above 20 kg/m(2) were more likely to have tendon injuries while those with a BMI above 21 kg/m(2) were more likely to have pulley injuries (P < 0.01). Skilled climbers, who climb more difficult routes, may use smaller grip size and a reduced number of fingers. Higher BMI will require a higher force to climb. Both high level and elevated BMI may increase the demands to the hands and fingers leading to CRIH . These risk factors are difficult to address as we cannot recommend the climbers to climb easier routes and decrease their BMI below 20 kg/m(2) . PMID:26105683

  13. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the

  14. Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the

  15. The relation of leptin and insulin with obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Macera, Caroline A; Wingard, Deborah L; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Lindsay, Suzanne P; Marshall, Simon J

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies of leptin with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been limited by clinical samples or lack of representation of the general population. This cross-sectional study, designed to examine whether leptin or insulin may mediate the endogenous relation of obesity with metabolic, inflammatory, and thrombogenic cardiovascular risk factors, included 522 men and 514 women aged >or=40 years who completed a physical examination during the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of existing CVD, cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer), diabetes, or respiratory disease. In multivariable analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and lifestyle factors, waist circumference (WC) was positively associated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen concentrations, and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels. The associations of WC with the metabolic CVD risk factors were largely attenuated after adjustment for insulin levels, while the associations of WC with the inflammatory and thrombogenic factors (CRP and fibrinogen, respectively) were largely explained by adjustment for leptin concentrations. However, leptin levels were not independently associated with CRP and fibrinogen in men and CRP in women when adjusted for WC. Positive associations of leptin and insulin with fibrinogen in women, independent of WC, were noted. These results suggest that insulin may be an important mediator of the association of obesity with metabolic but not inflammatory or thrombogenic CVD risk factors, while leptin does not appear to influence cardiovascular risk through a shared association with these risk factors. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that leptin and insulin influence cardiovascular risk in women through independent effects on fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:18160070

  16. [Relative risk of pneumoconiosis in welders in metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Rabenda, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The values of pneumoconiosis risk in welders calculated against the dust doses that induce this pathology do not show linear relationship. In the group of electrical welders, relative risk (RR) was found statistically significant at the doses of 251-500 g; 1001-1500 g and 5501-6000 g. In the group of semi-automatic welders, similar results were observed. Odd ratio, calculated at workposts of semi-automatic welding with CO2 shield, showed that, depending on the size of a daily dose of dust, statistically significant RR was found at the doses of 1.6-2.0; 2.1-2.5; and 2.6-3.0 mg/kg/day. In the group of electric welders, statistically significant RR was observed at the doses of 2.1-2.5; 6.1-6.5; and 9.1-9.5 mg/kg/day. This may suggest that welding dust at workposts of semi-automatic welding is more aggressive. The division of welders by their dates of birth showed that in the group of welders born by 1945, the mean age at which they developed pneumoconiosis was almost 50 +/- 0.4 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 25 +/- 0.3 years. In the group of welders born after 1945, these values were 36 +/- 0.6 years and 12.8 +/- 0.2 years, respectively.

  17. Risk is relative: risk aversion yields cooperation rather than defection in cooperation-friendly environments.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-06-01

    Previous findings concerning the relation of risk aversion and cooperation in repeated prisoner's dilemma games have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that this was due to an interaction between personality and environment. Specifically, we argued that in cooperation-friendly environments--given certain beliefs--defection is more risky than cooperation. The main reason for this is that, in such a situation, defection potentially yields outcomes of higher variance (and vice versa, for cooperation-unfriendly environments). In line with this hypothesis, we showed, in two experiments and a reanalysis of a study by Fudenberg, Rand, and Dreber (American Economic Review, in press), that the degree of cooperation increases with dispositional risk aversion in cooperation-friendly environments, but not in cooperation-unfriendly environments. We also found similar person-situation interactions for neuroticism and extraversion.

  18. Relative risk in the news media: a quantification of misrepresentation.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, K; Frank, E; Maibach, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study quantifies the representativeness with which the print news media depict mortality. METHODS: The proportion of mortality-related copy in samples of national print media was compared with the proportion of actual deaths attributable to the leading causes of US mortality over a 1-year period. RESULTS: For every tested cause of death, a significant disproportion was found between amount of text devoted to the cause and the actual number of attributable deaths. Underrepresented causes included tobacco use (23% of expected copy) and heart disease (33%); overrepresented causes included illicit use of drugs (1740%), motor vehicles (1280%), and toxic agents (1070%). CONCLUSIONS: The news media significantly misrepresent the prevalence of leading causes of death and their risk factors. This misrepresentation may contribute to the public's distorted perceptions of health threats. PMID:9184517

  19. Australian Adolescents' Perceptions of Health-Related Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the perceptions of adolescents (n=189) of their risks and ascertains the relationship between risk perception and actual risky behavior in five areas: AIDS, STDs, serious car accidents, lung cancer, and skin cancer. Results indicated that although late-adolescent students underestimated risk behavior, they were able to make judgments…

  20. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  2. [Harm related to medical device use - legal and organisational risks].

    PubMed

    Hölscher, U M

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of the risk management systems established by medical device manufacturers and health-care facilities is clearly mitigated by European and national legal provisions. Laws, regulations and authorities prevent the systematic exchange of much safety-relevant information. The obligation to report adverse events is suspended for many relevant risks associated with medical device use. Reporting into the vigilance system is of little avail for users. Reporting even may endanger the information provider. The federal fragmentation of the German vigilance system poses a risk for patients. Risk management in health-care facilities without risk policy is dangerously incomplete.

  3. [Harm related to medical device use - legal and organisational risks].

    PubMed

    Hölscher, U M

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of the risk management systems established by medical device manufacturers and health-care facilities is clearly mitigated by European and national legal provisions. Laws, regulations and authorities prevent the systematic exchange of much safety-relevant information. The obligation to report adverse events is suspended for many relevant risks associated with medical device use. Reporting into the vigilance system is of little avail for users. Reporting even may endanger the information provider. The federal fragmentation of the German vigilance system poses a risk for patients. Risk management in health-care facilities without risk policy is dangerously incomplete. PMID:24824355

  4. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  5. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. PMID:22385001

  6. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    PubMed

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives.

  7. About some aspects of weather related risks in Spanish Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Grau, J. B.; Saa, A.; Diaz, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    aggressive floods in 1500-1800 era, and actual added trends of "climate change" are towards higher temperatures, less water and higher perturbations. These long term risks are rather poorly predictable and will be handled mostly by improvements in agriculture and also by social and economic adaptations, but at shorter delays and specific areas active policies are possible and exist. An agribusiness can set his production plans lowering his global risk. Sometimes it might use prudently some financial instruments, such as "orange juice futures". When using decision making models, some utility functions may consider that severe losses have higher effects than good profits, letting ranges for business margins for insurers to be limited by concurrence at correct levels. Correct availability of credits is necessary for bad periods, and also state policies for rare bad situations, concerning agribusiness survival and also alimentary safety. Insurance products are effective aids for a growing variety of well definite natural risks, such as in cases of hailstorm, that have probabilities of occurrence measurable from previous events data, and a variety of adequate professional models are continuously made for them. Related to Universidad Politecnica de Madrid the CEIGRAM institute has started recently and is involved in agricultural insurance, being connected with insurers through ENESA and AGROMUTUA. That world is active, important, evolving, and is regulated by diverse laws.

  8. Relative risk site evaluations for Yakima Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1996-11-01

    All 20 U.S. Army Yakima Training Center (YTC) sites evaluated were given a `low` relative risk. At Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 22, a `minimum` soils contaminant hazard factor was assigned even though 6,700 mg/kg TPH-diesel was found in surface soil. SWMU 22 is physically located on top of and with the fence surrounding Area of Concern (AOC) 4. Because the diesel is most likely associated with AOC 4, and plans are to clean up AOC 4, any further actions regarding these contaminated soils should be addressed as part of the planned actions for AOC 4. Contaminant hazard factors of `moderate` were assigned to the soil pathway for SWMUs 4 and 7 because dieldrin and arsenic, respectively, were found in surface soil samples at concentrations exceeding standards. A `moderate` contaminant hazard factor was also assigned to the sediment pathway for AOC 1 because arsenic detected in sediments in `Larry`s Swimming Pool` exceeded the standard. All other contaminant hazard factors were rated as minimal. The receptor factor for all sites and pathways was rated `limited,` except for SWMU 54 in which the groundwater receptor factor was rated `potential.` A `potential` rating was assigned to the groundwater pathway at this site to be conservative. The site is located on the south side of the syncline axis where the unconfined aquifer may be present and there are no monitoring wells at the site to confirm or deny the presence of groundwater contamination.

  9. Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented.

  10. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  11. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  12. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk.

  13. Novelty seeking is related to individual risk preference and brain activation associated with risk prediction during decision making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Gu, Feng; Li, Xiaoming; Zha, Rujing; Wei, Zhengde; Pei, Yakun; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-01-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) is a personality trait reflecting excitement in response to novel stimuli. High NS is usually a predictor of risky behaviour such as drug abuse. However, the relationships between NS and risk-related cognitive processes, including individual risk preference and the brain activation associated with risk prediction, remain elusive. In this fMRI study, participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire to measure NS and performed a probabilistic decision making task. Using a mathematical model, we estimated individual risk preference. Brain regions associated with risk prediction were determined via fMRI. The NS score showed a positive correlation with risk preference and a negative correlation with the activation elicited by risk prediction in the right posterior insula (r-PI), left anterior insula (l-AI), right striatum (r-striatum) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Within these brain regions, only the activation associated with risk prediction in the r-PI showed a correlation with NS after controlling for the effect of risk preference. Resting-state functional connectivity between the r-PI and r-striatum/l-AI was negatively correlated with NS. Our results suggest that high NS may be associated with less aversion to risk and that the r-PI plays an important role in relating risk prediction to NS. PMID:26065910

  14. Risk for trisomy 21 in offspring of individuals who have relatives with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, D; Barsel-Bowers, G; Busch, W; Pueschel, S; Pezzullo, J

    1986-10-01

    This study was performed to determine if sibs and other relatives of individuals with trisomy 21 are themselves at increased risk for having offspring with trisomy 21. The results suggest that the reproductive risk to these relatives is not increased beyond the risk to the general population.

  15. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... consider the impact of supply chain risk in specified types of procurements related to national security... supply chain risk in specified types of procurements related to national security systems. Section 806... referred to in the definition of supply chain risk. Section 806 actions are permitted in...

  16. Relation between nutritional risk and metabolic syndrome in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Kang Soo; Eom, Jin-Sup; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Kwan Woo; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is regarded as a major factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Undernutrition or nutritional imbalance, rather than overnutrition, can be associated with MS. We evaluated the relationship between nutritional risk and MS in the elderly. We analyzed 2284 Koreans aged over 60 years (689 men and 1595 women) from baseline data of a large prospective study called the Gwangju Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment Study (GDEMCIS). MS was determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, and nutritional risk was evaluated using the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. Among 2284 subjects, 1219 (53.4%) had MS. NSI score was higher in subjects with MS than in those without MS (2.46 ± 1.89 vs. 2.18 ± 1.87, p<0.001). The risks of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated glucose, and MS were higher in subjects with moderate or high nutritional risk compared to subjects in a good nutritional state. Nutritional risk was independently associated with MS for subjects in their 60s, but not in their 70s or 80s and above. In conclusion, high nutritional risk is associated with increased risk of MS in the elderly. Measurement of nutritional status in the elderly may serve as a marker for MS, especially for the younger elderly.

  17. Exposure corrected risk estimates for childhood product related injuries.

    PubMed

    Senturia, Y D; Binns, H J; Christoffel, K K; Tanz, R R

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses the effect of exposure correction on injury risk estimates for children, using Chicago-area survey data on age-specific exposure of children to seven products: amusement park rides, sleds, bunkbeds, skateboards, fireworks, toboggans, and air guns and rifles. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System estimates for 1987 were used as numerators with two denominators: (i) uncorrected age-specific U.S. Census estimates for 1987 and (ii) these estimates corrected for exposure. Except for bunkbeds, skateboards and sleds, corrected injury risk decreased as age increased. Uncorrected population injury rates underestimated the risk posed to product-using children, especially those who are youngest and those who use skateboards.

  18. Objectively measured second hand smoke exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: what is the mediating role of inflammatory and haemostatic factors?

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kivimaki, Mika; Lowe, Gordon D; Batty, G. David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between objectively measured second–hand-smoke (SHS) exposure and incident CVD death, and assess the extent to which this association can be explained through novel circulating markers of inflammation and haemostasis. Background Existing evidence suggests there is an association between SHS and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Methods In a prospective study of 13,443 participants living in England and Scotland [aged 53.5, (SD 12.6 yrs), 52.3% women] we measured salivary cotinine (an objective marker of SHS exposure) and novel CVD biomarkers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen) at baseline. Results 20.8% of the sample had high SHS exposure based on elevated levels of salivary cotinine (0.71 – 14.99 ng/mL). During a mean follow-up of 8 years, there were 1221 all-cause deaths and 364 CVD deaths. High SHS was associated with all-cause (age adjusted HR= 1.25, 95% CI, 1.02 – 1.53) and CVD death (age adjusted HR= 1.21, 95% CI, 0.85 – 1.73). High SHS was also associated with elevated CRP, which explained 48% of the association between SHS and CVD death. The excess risk of CVD associated with active smoking was exaggerated in relation to self report (age adjusted HR= 3.27, 95% CI, 2.48 – 4.31) compared with objective assessment (age adjusted HR= 2.44, 95% CI, 1.75 – 3.40). Conclusion Among a large representative sample of British adults we observed elevated levels of low grade inflammation in otherwise healthy participants exposed to high SHS, and this partly explained their elevated risk of CVD death. PMID:20620712

  19. [Risk communication of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment during a food-related outbreak].

    PubMed

    Lohmann, M; Epp, A; Röder, B; Böl, G-F

    2013-01-01

    Information about and explanation of risks as well as the initiation of behavioral changes and preventive actions are core tasks of risk communication. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak in spring 2011, the governmental agencies responsible for risk communication mainly focused on these tasks. In general, risk communication is understood as a continuous, long-term process that aims at an adequate handling of risks. In contrast, crisis communication is focused rather on an acute event and aims at timely information and behavioral measures. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak, risk communication partly changed over to crisis communication. The risk communication activities of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitüt für Risikobewertung, BfR) during the EHEC/HUS outbreak are presented here. The results of a representative survey that was conducted in Germany shortly after the outbreak show details of the success of these risk communication activities. Finally, the necessity of communication about scientific uncertainty is addressed and new ways in risk communication with regard to new media are highlighted.

  20. Behavioral economic decision making and alcohol-related sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Celio, Mark A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kahler, Christopher W; Operario, Don; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior.

  1. Infant mortality and related risk factors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, H W; Chávez, G F; Giannoni, P P; Shah, R S

    1994-01-01

    To examine differences in perinatal health among nine Asian ethnic subgroups, a descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using linked birth/infant death certificates for 1982 to 1987. When compared with Whites, Asians had a lower proportion of young mothers, unmarried mothers, and women who received first trimester prenatal care; a higher proportion of foreign-born mothers; and a different birthweight distribution. A great deal of heterogeneity was found in risk factors and infant mortality rates among the various Asian ethnic subgroups. Paradoxically, although Asian ethnic subgroups had a higher perinatal risk profile, they had more favorable birth outcomes than did Whites. PMID:8092381

  2. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  3. Cannabis use and the risk behavior syndrome in Italian university students: are they related to suicide risk?

    PubMed

    Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Tamburello, Antonino; Lester, David

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of cannabis use with risky behaviors and suicide risk in university students. A convenience sample of 246 students was recruited from four universities in Rome during the 2004 academic year. Participants completed the Zung scales for anxiety and depression, the Suicide Score Scale, and an ad hoc questionnaire assessing risky behaviors. The findings indicated a widespread use of cannabis among students and its association with risky behaviors, anxiety and depression, and suicide risk. A regression tree analysis resulted in 3 splits indicating that the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale is a good predictor of suicide risk, discriminating individuals at lower risk from those at higher risk. Individuals at higher risk for suicide could also be discriminated by self-reported lifetime drug use. Limitations of the study are related to the small sample size and use of a convenience sample. PMID:18567227

  4. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    PubMed

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  5. A comparison of egg consumption with other modifiable coronary heart disease lifestyle risk factors: a relative risk apportionment study.

    PubMed

    Barraj, Leila; Tran, Nga; Mink, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    Guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that healthy adults limit their intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg per day. Since a large egg contains about 71% of that amount, the AHA recommends restricting egg consumption unless dietary cholesterol intakes from other sources are limited. We applied a risk apportionment approach to estimate the contribution of egg consumption and other modifiable lifestyle risk factors (e.g., smoking, poor diet, minimal exercise, and alcohol intake) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk at the population level. Specifically, we categorized the U.S. adult population ages 25+ into distinct risk groups based on the prevalence of modifiable lifestyle risk factors and applied an apportionment model, typically used to assess risk contribution at the individual level, to estimate the contribution of egg intake to CHD risk. Our analysis shows that the combination of modifiable lifestyle risk factors accounts for less than 40% of the population CHD mortality. For the majority of U.S. adults age 25+, consuming one egg a day accounts for <1% of CHD risk. Hence, focusing on decreasing egg intake as an approach to modify CHD risk would be expected to yield minimal results relative to changing other behaviors such as smoking and other dietary habits.

  6. Risk prediction of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the era of antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Il Han; Kim, So Mi; Choo, Young Kwang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a grave primary liver cancer that has a limited therapeutic option because it is generally diagnosed later in an advanced stage due to its aggressive biologic behavior. The early detection of HCC has a great impact on the treatment efficacy and survival of patients at high risk for cancer. Potential host, environmental, and virus-related risk factors have been introduced. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis or HCC in endemic areas, and its serologic or virologic status is considered an important risk factor. HCC risk prediction derived from the identification of major risk factors is necessary for providing adequate screening/surveillance strategies to high-risk individuals. Several risk prediction models for HBV-related HCC have been presented recently with simple, efficient, and readily available to use parameters applicable to average- or unknown-risk populations as well as high-risk individuals. Predictive scoring systems of risk estimation to assess HCC development can provide the way to an evidence-based clinical approach for cost- and effort-effective outcomes, capable of inducing a personalized surveillance program according to risk stratification. In this review, the concepts and perspectives of the risk prediction of HCC are discussed through the analysis of several risk prediction models of HBV-related HCC. PMID:24379609

  7. Individual differences in risk-related behaviors and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Sharif, Mana; Agren, Greta; Roman, Erika

    2014-06-01

    Some personality traits and comorbid psychiatric diseases are linked to a propensity for excessive alcohol drinking. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual differences in risk-related behaviors, voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Outbred male Wistar rats were tested in a novel open field, followed by assessment of behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. Animals were classified into high risk taking and low risk taking on the basis of open-field behavior and into high risk-assessing (HRA) and low risk-assessing (LRA) on the basis of the MCSF profile. Finally, voluntary alcohol intake was investigated using intermittent access to 20% ethanol and water for 5 weeks. Only minor differences in voluntary alcohol intake were found between high risk taking and low risk taking. Differences between HRA and LRA rats were more evident, with higher intake and increased intake over time in HRA relative to LRA rats. Thus, individual differences in risk-assessment behavior showed greater differences in voluntary alcohol intake than risk taking. The findings may relate to human constructs of decision-making and risk taking associated with a predisposition to rewarding and addictive behaviors. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk-related behaviors, including risk-assessment behavior, and liability for excessive alcohol intake.

  8. Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Relative Risk from 10 Societal and Environmental Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riechard, Donald E.; McGarrity, Jean

    1994-01-01

    In this exploratory study, perceptions of relative risk held by 120 early adolescents (11-14 years) were examined for 10 hazards: wild animals, fire, nuclear energy, pollution, storms, war, car accidents, people, no food, and drugs. Dissonance was found between perceptions of risk and computed risk associated with factual data. (LZ)

  9. Using a GIS to perform relative risk site evaluations at Air Force installations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Mardini, K.; Aengenheyster, M.J.; Meng, Q.

    1996-12-31

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has developed the Relative Risk Site Evaluation Framework as a means for categorizing sites and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) into High, Medium, and Low relative risk groups. This framework is being pursued, in concert with regulators and communities to sequence work in the DERP. Its goal is to ensure that sites with higher risk (relative to other sites) are generally considered first in the priority setting process. DoD is pursuing the use of relative risk, in conjunction with other risk management concerns to help in the sequencing of remedial work. The Acquisition Environmental Management Directorate of the USAF Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC/EM) is charged with the environmental restoration at 12 major industrial plants (AFPs) in the US. At ASC/EM, the Relative Risk MapInfo Interface (RRMI), a MapInfo based GIS application, has been developed to implement relative risk site evaluation for sites on AFPs. The RRMI accesses IRPIMS in a real-time mode to integrate contaminant information for the evaluation of relative risk at sites. Users evaluate sites using point and click commands with the mouse. Site evaluations are done in accordance with the framework and relative risk is depicted pictorially on the base map of the respective installation.

  10. Development of a relative risk model for evaluating ecological risk of water environment in the Haihe River Basin estuary area.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Jingling; Ho, Kin Chung; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-03-15

    Ecological risk assessment for water environment is significant to water resource management of basin. Effective environmental management and systems restoration such as the Haihe River Basin require holistic understanding of the relative importance of various stressor-related impacts throughout the basin. As an effective technical tool for evaluating the ecological risk, relative risk model (RRM) was applied in regional scale successfully. In this study, the risk transfer from upstream of basin was considered and the RRM was developed through introducing the source-stressor-habitat exposure filter (SSH), the endpoint-habitat exposure filter (EH) and the stressor-endpoint effect filter (SE) to reflect the meaning of exposure and effect more explicit. Water environment which includes water quality, water quantity and aquatic ecosystems was selected as the assessment endpoints. We created a conceptual model which depicting potential and effect pathways from source to stressor to habitat to endpoint. The Haihe River Basin estuary (HRBE) was selected as the model case. The results showed that there were two low risk regions, one medium risk region and two high risk regions in the HRBE. The results also indicated that urbanization was the biggest source, the second was shipping and the third was industry, their risk scores are 5.65, 4.71 and 3.68 respectively. Furthermore, habitat destruction was the largest stressor with the risk scores (2.66), the second was oxygen consuming organic pollutants (1.75) and the third was pathogens (1.75). So these three stressors were the main influencing factors of the ecological pressure in the study area. For habitats, open waters (9.59) and intertidal mudflat were enduring the bigger pressure and should be taken considerable attention. Ecological service values damaged (30.54) and biodiversity decreased were facing the biggest risk pressure.

  11. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  12. Leukocyte Telomere Length-Related rs621559 and rs398652 Genetic Variants Influence Risk of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juan; Lu, Chao; Wei, Jinyu; Li, Lichao; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308 healthy controls at the discovery stage. The associations of HCC risk with these SNPs were further confirmed in an independent case-control set. We found that 1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 were significantly associated with HBV-related HCC risk (both P<0.005 after Bonferroni corrections). There was no significant difference of either rs621559 or rs398652 genotypes between chronic HBV carriers and healthy controls, demonstrating that the association was not due to predisposition to HBV infection. In the pooled analyses (1806 HBV-related HCC cases and 1954 controls), we observed a decreased HCC risk, 0.72-times, associated with the 1p34.2 rs621559 AA genotype compared to the GG genotype (P = 1.6×10−6). Additionally, there was an increased HCC risk, 1.27-fold, associated with the rs398652 GG genotype (P = 3.3×10−6). A statistical joint effect between the rs621559 GG and rs398652 GG genotypes may exist in elevating risk of HBV-related HCC. We show, for the first time, that rs398652 and rs621559 might be marker genetic variants for risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population. PMID:25365256

  13. Quantitative relations between risk, return and firm size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Petersen, A. M.; Stanley, H. E.

    2009-03-01

    We analyze —for a large set of stocks comprising four financial indices— the annual logarithmic growth rate R and the firm size, quantified by the market capitalization MC. For the Nasdaq Composite and the New York Stock Exchange Composite we find that the probability density functions of growth rates are Laplace ones in the broad central region, where the standard deviation σ(R), as a measure of risk, decreases with the MC as a power law σ(R)~(MC)- β. For both the Nasdaq Composite and the S&P 500, we find that the average growth rate langRrang decreases faster than σ(R) with MC, implying that the return-to-risk ratio langRrang/σ(R) also decreases with MC. For the S&P 500, langRrang and langRrang/σ(R) also follow power laws. For a 20-year time horizon, for the Nasdaq Composite we find that σ(R) vs. MC exhibits a functional form called a volatility smile, while for the NYSE Composite, we find power law stability between σ(r) and MC.

  14. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and age at exposure (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060).

  15. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P < 0.001) variations of relative risk by cancer type, and statistically significant variations by cancer type in the adjustments for sex (P = 0.010) and age at exposure (P = 0.013) to the relative risk. There is no statistically significant (P > 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060). PMID:19471953

  16. Evaluating the safety risk in relation to the energetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela; Vătăsescu, Mihail; Lemle, Ludovic Dan; Vasilescu, Gabriel Dragoş

    2015-03-10

    This paper presents an approach in compliance with the European and national requirments aiming at increasing OHS level in the compaines involved in water construction works an dat providing sustainability of the related environment.

  17. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842

  18. The psychology of ongoing threat: relative risk appraisal, the September 11 attacks, and terrorism-related fears.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Randall D; Bryant, Richard A; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M; Neria, Yuval

    2007-01-01

    There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic "bull's eye" disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11- or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology.

  19. Adolescent physical activity in relation to breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Oh, Hannah; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent physical activity may protect against premenopausal breast cancer. Whether it also prevents postmenopausal breast cancer, and whether associations are independent of adult activity, is unclear. We evaluated this association among 75,669 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. In 1997, participants reported strenuous, moderate, and walking activity (hours/week) at ages 12–13, 14–17, 18–22, and 23–29 years. We estimated metabolic equivalent task hours (MET-h)/week. Participants also reported current physical activity over follow-up. Breast cancer diagnoses (n = 2,697; premenopausal = 1,351; postmenopausal = 965) through 2011 were reported by participants and confirmed with medical records. We additionally stratified analyses by median age at diagnosis. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for adolescent characteristics, physical activity from ages 14–22 was modestly inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer [e.g., hazard ratio (HR) comparing 72+ to <21 MET-h/week 0.81 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.69–0.95; p-trend = 0.10) for ages 14–17 and 0.85 (95 % CI 0.71–1.02; p-trend = 0.06 for ages 18–22]. However, adjustment for adult activity and additional breast cancer risk factors attenuated the associations [ages 14–17: 0.85 (95 % CI 0.73–1.00; p-trend = 0.33)]. Associations were stronger among women diagnosed at younger ages [e.g., ages 18–22, HR 0.77 (95 % CI 0.60–0.99; p-trend = 0.05) for women diagnosed before 46.9 years; HR 1.02 (95 % CI 0.79–1.32; p-trend = 0.94) for those diagnosed at/after 46.9 years]. Early life physical activity was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer. Overall, adolescent physical activity was not associated with breast cancer risk. However, we observed a suggestive inverse association of physical activity at ages 14–22 years with premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:24682675

  20. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  1. Perceptions of Smoking-Related Risks and Benefits as Predictors of Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cornell, Jodi L.; Ramos, Malena E.; Biehl, Michael; Kropp, Rhonda Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive value of perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits with regard to adolescent smoking initiation has not been adequately established. We used prospective, longitudinal data to directly test whether smoking-related perceptions predict smoking initiation among adolescents. Methods. We administered surveys assessing perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits to 395 high school students, beginning at the start of their ninth-grade year. We conducted follow-up assessments every 6 months until the end of 10th grade, obtaining 4 waves of data. Results. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of long-term smoking-related risks were 3.64 times more likely to start smoking than were adolescents who held the highest perceptions of risk. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of short-term smoking-related risks were 2.68 times more likely to initiate. Adolescents who held the highest perceptions of smoking-related benefits were 3.31 times more likely to initiate. Conclusions. Findings from this study provide one of the first sets of empirical evidence to show that smoking initiation is directly related to smoking-related perceptions of risks and benefits. Thus, efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should continue to communicate the health risks of smoking and counteract perceptions of benefits associated with smoking. PMID:19106420

  2. Implementing relative risk site evaluation at USAF and Corps of Engineers (FUDS) installations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Edwards, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has developed the Relative Risk Site Evaluation Framework as a means for categorizing sites and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) into High, Medium, and Low relative risk groups. This framework is being pursued, in concert with regulators and communities to sequence work in the DERP. Its goal is to ensure that sites with higher risk (relative to other sites) are generally considered first in the priority setting process. DoD is pursuing the use of relative risk, in conjunction with other risk management concerns (e.g., regulatory agreement status of sites, public health recommendations), to help in the sequencing of remedial work.

  3. Risks associated with melamine and related triazine contamination of food.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Re; Riviere, Je

    2010-01-01

    Recent adulteration of milk products with melamine (ME) in several countries caused adverse health effects and even deaths in infants. Earlier, in 2007, contamination of pet food with ME and its related contaminants was associated with many clinical cases of canine and feline nephrotoxicity, and in some cases mortality. ME is a triazine compound that is often detected with other triazine analogs such as cyanuric acid. As is the custom in some livestock operations, the contaminated pet food was mixed with feed intended for the swine and poultry industry. This practice has raised several questions as to whether ME and its related triazines would adversely affect the health of these food animals, and whether meat products derived from swine and poultry could contain high-enough levels of these contaminants to warrant public health concern. Data for this review article were obtained from recent research efforts in our laboratory, peer-reviewed publications cited in PubMed, and information available at USDA, US FDA, and WHO websites. The primary issues discussed are related to (1) the chemistry and interactions between ME and its triazine analogs; (2) reported animal and human exposures with possible pathways through which ME can enter the human food chain; (3) mammalian toxicology; (4) comparative pharmacokinetics (PK) and modeling strategies used to predict residue levels; and (5) emerging issues and management strategies.

  4. Evaluation of Cholangiocarcinoma Risk and its Related Factors in Wetland Geographical Communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Bureelerd, Onanong; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Wetland geographical areas have a higher incidence of Opisthorchis viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), confirmed by data from geographic information systems, than other areas. Behavioral data also indicate that people in these areas traditionally eat uncooked freshwater fish dishes, a vehicle for O. viverrini infection. The best approach to reducing CCA incidence is decreasing risk factors together with behavior alteration. Evaluation of CCA risk and its related factors are first needed for planning the prevention and control programs in the future. We therefore aimed to evaluate the CCA risk and explore its related factors among people in wetland communities of Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and August 2014. In total 906 participants, with informed consent, completed questionnaires. Overall risk of CCA was determined by multiplying odds ratios (ORs) of the risk factors for CCA from literature reviews. A mean score of 5.95 was applied as the cut-off point. Assessment of factors related to overall risk of CCA was accomplished using conditional logistic regression. Of all participants, 60.15% had a high level of the overall risk of CCA. Factors related to the overall risk of CCA were gender (<0.001), marital status (<0.001), perceived susceptibility (p=0.043) and prevention behavior for CCA (<0.001). In conclusion, most participants in this community had a high level of overall risk of CCA. Therefore, integrated prevention and control programs continue to be urgently required. PMID:27221857

  5. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  6. Relative risk analysis of the use of radiation-emitting medical devices: A preliminary application

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a risk analysis approach for evaluating the use of radiation-emitting medial devices. This effort was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The assessment approach has bee applied to understand the risks in using the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis for developing regulations and quality assurance requirements in the use of nuclear medical devices. The risk approach identifies and assesses the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance for the medical system. The approach uses expert screening techniques and relative risk profiling to incorporate the type, quality, and quantity of data available and to present results in an easily understood form.

  7. Assessment of arsenic (As) occurrence in arable soil and its related health risk in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xinhui

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major global environmental pollutant due to its high toxicity on human and animal health. This study collected 427 relevant papers to study As concentrations in Chinese arable soil and evaluate the health risk of exposure to As for humans. Results showed that the average of As concentration was 9.46 mg/kg in Chinese arable soil. Soil As concentrations in Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region posed high carcinogenic and non-cancer risks on human health through diet, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, and Xinjiang provinces had relative high health risks, while As concentrations in the other provinces posed low health risks on humans. The physical factors controlled the spatial pattern of health risk on a provincial scale, but the As-related human activities introduced high health risk on people, particularly the agricultural activities such as sewage irrigation and fertilizer application should be given more attention due to its large area. PMID:26209282

  8. Patient-related medical risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee

    PubMed Central

    Eka, Aleeson

    2015-01-01

    Despite advancements and improvements in methods for preventing infection, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a significant complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Prevention is the most important strategy to deal with this disabling complication, and prevention should begin with identifying patient-related risk factors. Medical risk factors, such as morbid obesity, malnutrition, hyperglycemia, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), preoperative anemia, cardiovascular disorders, chronic renal failure, smoking, alcohol abuse and depression, should be evaluated and optimized prior to surgery. Treating patients to get laboratory values under a specified threshold or cessation of certain modifiable risk factors can decrease the risk of PJI. Although significant advances have been made in past decades to identify these risk factors, there remains some uncertainty regarding the risk factors predisposing TJA patients to PJI. Through a review of the current literature, this paper aims to comprehensively evaluate and provide a better understanding of known medical risk factors for PJI after TJA. PMID:26539450

  9. Examining suicide-risk individuals who go online for suicide-related purposes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better help those in suicidal crisis by examining the types of suicide-risk individuals who make use of the Internet in relation to their suicidal problems. An anonymous online survey examined suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes (n = 165) and a reference group of suicide-risk individuals with no such experience (n = 125). Suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes, compared with online users who did not, reported greater suicide-risk symptoms, were less likely to seek help, and perceived less social support. Online, many reported more support, felt less alienated, believed they reduced their suicidality, but also sought suicide methods and were likely to visit "pro suicide" sites. Implications include designing help sites that allow peer-to-peer communications and anonymous professional support.

  10. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  11. Alcohol-Related Risk of Driver Fatalities: An Update Using 2007 Data

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relative risk of being involved in an alcohol-related crash has changed over the decade from 1996 to 2007, a period during which there has been little evidence of a reduction in the percentage of all fatal crashes involving alcohol. Method: We compared blood-alcohol information for the 2006 and 2007 crash cases (N = 6,863, 22.8% of them women) drawn from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control blood-alcohol data from participants in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey (N = 6,823). Risk estimates were computed and compared with those previously obtained from the 1996 FARS and roadside survey data. Results: Although the adult relative risk of being involved in a fatal alcohol-related crash apparently did not change from 1996 to 2007, the risk for involvement in an alcohol-related crash for underage women has increased to the point where it has become the same as that for underage men. Further, the risk that sober underage men will become involved in a fatal crash has doubled over the 1996–2007 period. Conclusions: Compared with estimates obtained from a decade earlier, young women in this study are at an increased risk of involvement in alcohol-related crashes. Similarly, underage sober drivers in this study are more at risk of involvement in a crash than they were a decade earlier. PMID:22456239

  12. The perils of picky eating: dietary breadth is related to extinction risk in insectivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Storm, Jonathan J

    2007-01-01

    Several recent papers evaluate the relationship between ecological characteristics and extinction risk in bats. These studies report that extinction risk is negatively related to geographic range size and positively related to habitat specialization. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that extinction risk is also related to dietary specialization in insectivorous vespertilionid bats using both traditional and phylogenetically-controlled analysis of variance. We collected dietary data and The World Conservation Union (IUCN) rankings for 44 Australian, European, and North American bat species. Our results indicate that species of conservation concern (IUCN ranking near threatened or above) are more likely to have a specialized diet than are species of least concern. Additional analyses show that dietary breadth is not correlated to geographic range size or wing morphology, characteristics previously found to correlate with extinction risk. Therefore, there is likely a direct relationship between dietary specialization and extinction risk; however, the large variation in dietary breadth within species of least concern suggests that diet alone cannot explain extinction risk. Our results may have important implications for the development of predictive models of extinction risk and for the assignment of extinction risk to insectivorous bat species. Similar analyses should be conducted on additional bat families to assess the generality of this relationship between niche breadth and extinction risk. PMID:17653286

  13. The Perils of Picky Eating: Dietary Breadth Is Related to Extinction Risk in Insectivorous Bats

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Justin G.; Storm, Jonathan J.

    2007-01-01

    Several recent papers evaluate the relationship between ecological characteristics and extinction risk in bats. These studies report that extinction risk is negatively related to geographic range size and positively related to habitat specialization. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that extinction risk is also related to dietary specialization in insectivorous vespertilionid bats using both traditional and phylogenetically-controlled analysis of variance. We collected dietary data and The World Conservation Union (IUCN) rankings for 44 Australian, European, and North American bat species. Our results indicate that species of conservation concern (IUCN ranking near threatened or above) are more likely to have a specialized diet than are species of least concern. Additional analyses show that dietary breadth is not correlated to geographic range size or wing morphology, characteristics previously found to correlate with extinction risk. Therefore, there is likely a direct relationship between dietary specialization and extinction risk; however, the large variation in dietary breadth within species of least concern suggests that diet alone cannot explain extinction risk. Our results may have important implications for the development of predictive models of extinction risk and for the assignment of extinction risk to insectivorous bat species. Similar analyses should be conducted on additional bat families to assess the generality of this relationship between niche breadth and extinction risk. PMID:17653286

  14. Parental risk management in relation to offspring defence: bad news for kids

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, Katharina; Riegler, Georg; Hoi, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Do parents defend their offspring whenever necessary, and do self-sacrificing parents really exist? Studies recognized that parent defence is dynamic, mainly depending on the threat predators pose. In this context, parental risk management should consider the threat to themselves and to their offspring. Consequently, the observed defence should be a composite of both risk components. Surprisingly, no study so far has determined the influence of these two threat components on parental decision rules. In a field experiment, we investigated parental risk taking in relation to the threat posed to themselves and their offspring. To disentangle the two threat components, we examined defence behaviours of parent blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus towards three different predators and during different nestling developmental stages. Nest defence strategies in terms of alarm call intensity and nearest predator approach differed between the three predators. Defence intensity was only partly explained by threat level. Most importantly, parental risk management varied in relation to their own, but not offspring risk. Parent defence investment was independent of nestling risk when parents followed a high-risk strategy. However, parents considered nestling as well as parental risk when following a low-risk strategy. Our findings could have general implications for the economy of risk management and decision-making strategies in living beings, including humans. PMID:25392467

  15. Joint effect of hypertension and lifestyle-related risk factors on the risk of brain microbleeds in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hara, Megumi; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Nannri, Hinako; Sasaki, Satoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Nishiyama, Masanori; Hirotsu, Tatsumi; Nakajima, Junko; Hara, Hideo

    2013-09-01

    Brain microbleeds (MBs) are potential risk factors for future stroke, and hypertension is an established risk factor for MBs. However, data on other lifestyle-related risk factors and their joint effects with hypertension are limited. We enrolled 860 adults who underwent 1.5-T brain magnetic resonance imaging and had no history of stroke. Information on clinical risk factors was obtained from health-screening tests, and dietary history was assessed using a validated, brief, self-administered dietary questionnaire. Subjects were divided into three groups (no MBs, deep MBs and lobar MBs), which were compared for the potential risk factors; their joint effects with hypertension were assessed by logistic regression. Biologic interaction was estimated with the synergy index. After adjustment for possible confounders, age and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were found to be associated with the presence of MBs in a dose-dependent manner, especially in the case of deep MBs. With regard to lifestyle-related factors, current smoking status was significantly associated with deep MBs, and the odds ratio was 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-6.48). We found that hypertension and current smoking status, higher alcohol consumption or lower calcium intake had joint effects on the risk of MBs and that hypertension and current smoking status had synergistic additive action (synergy index, 6.30; 95% CI 1.07-37.13). These results suggest that approaches combining lowering blood pressure and smoking cessation may greatly reduce the risk of MBs and contribute to preventing stroke.

  16. Epidemiology: work-related stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-08-01

    A new cohort study links work-related stress to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in women, but the findings are less clear in men. Randomized controlled studies are now needed to determine whether management of stress could be used to reduce the risk of developing T2DM.

  17. Temperature-Related Risk Factors for the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broilers in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...

  18. Chronic disease-related lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Canadian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Karunamuni, Nandini; Spence, John C; Storey, Kate; Forbes, Laura; Raine, Kim; Cameron Wild, T; McCargar, Linda

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence, clustering, age trends, and gender differences of chronic-disease related risk factors among a large sample of adolescents (N = 4932) in Alberta, Canada. Approximately 43% of boys and 53% of girls displayed two or more risk factors. Age trends and gender differences were also observed.

  19. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  20. Perception of Doping-Related Risks by Junior and Senior Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroczkowska, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the degree of acceptance of risk by experienced and inexperienced athletes. Material and methods: Two male teams participated in the study: juniors (football; n = 9) aged 16-18 years and seniors (volleyball; n = 13) aged 20-32 years. The subjects were requested to assess the doping-related risk of losing every of 6 values:…

  1. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... July 15, 2011 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 153 Patient Protection and... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  2. School-Related Stress Experience as a Risk Factor for Bullying Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natvig, Gerd Karin; Albrektsen, Grethe; Qvarnstrom, Ulla

    2001-01-01

    Studied associations between bullying behavior and school-related stress experience, self-efficacy, social support, and decision control in a sample of 885 Norwegian adolescents aged 13-15 years. Increasing school alienation was associated with an increased risk of bullying, while increasing support from teachers and peers decreased the risk.…

  3. From Risk to Resiliency: The Role of Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Norma D.

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore those characteristics of at-risk youth who have succeeded in overcoming adverse environmental conditions and to focus on the role of law-related education (LRE) in promoting the development of those characteristics that lead to healthy behavior. At-risk youth are defined as those who have been…

  4. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  5. Risk Taking and Performance in Relation to Achievement-Related Motives, Defensiveness and Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damm, John T.; Bloxom, Anne

    The effects of two social contexts on the risk -taking behavior of elementary boys on a shuffleboard task were investigated. It was predicted that Atkinson's motive-probability-incentive (M-P-I) model would be supported in the peer-competitive context, in that the success-oriented subjects would choose more goals with median Ps values than the…

  6. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-10-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  7. Worry about skin cancer mediates the relation of perceived cancer risk and sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M

    2014-12-01

    Preventive health behaviors are believed to be motivated in part by a person's perception of risk for a particular health problem. Risk contains a cognitive component, beliefs about the chances of a health problem occurring, and an affective component, fear or worry about the health problem. Although both have been shown to influence behavior, the nature of their interrelation as an influence on behavior has not been examined. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a US nationally-representative telephone survey was analyzed. Participants reported perceived absolute and comparative risk for skin cancer, feelings of worry about skin cancer, and sunscreen use behavior. Analyses examined main effects models for the relation between perceived risk, worry, and sunscreen use, as well as both moderated and mediated models. For both absolute and comparative risk, the relation between cognitively-based perceived risk for skin cancer and sunscreen use was fully mediated by feelings of worry, as evidenced by significant direct effects of worry (bs > 0.046, ps < 0.01) and indirect effects of risk through worry (bs > 0.19, ps < 0.01). When worry was included in the models, direct effects of risk perceptions were non-significant (bs < 0.11, ps < 0.10). No evidence was found for moderated effects of worry on the relation between risk and behavior. While cognitive risk appraisals do influence decision making and may be addressed by interventions, these findings demonstrate that affectively-based risk components play a key role in behavior regulation. Affectively-based risk might be an effective target for interventions and should be incorporated more fully in decision-making models.

  8. Bayesian spatial modeling of disease risk in relation to multivariate environmental risk fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-in; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy and early childhood development is an important issue that has a spatial risk component. In this context, we have examined mental retardation and developmental delay (MRDD) outcome measures for children in a Medicaid population in South Carolina and sampled measures of soil chemistry (e.g. As, Hg, etc.) on a network of sites that are misaligned to the outcome residential addresses during pregnancy. The true chemical concentration at the residential addresses is not observed directly and must be interpolated from soil samples. In this study, we have developed a Bayesian joint model that interpolates soil chemical fields and estimates the associated MRDD risk simultaneously. Having multiple spatial fields to interpolate, we have considered a low-rank Kriging method for the interpolation that requires less computation than the Bayesian Kriging. We performed a sensitivity analysis for a bivariate smoothing, changing the number of knots and the smoothing parameter. These analyses show that a low-rank Kriging method can be used as an alternative to a full-rank Kriging, reducing the computational burden. However, the number of knots for the low-rank Kriging model needs to be selected with caution as a bivariate surface estimation can be sensitive to the choice of the number of knots.

  9. Radiologists Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Radiologists Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study Efforts to improve monitoring and ... death from chronic exposure to low levels of radiation, a new study reports. The researchers, from the ...

  10. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  11. Using Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations to Risk Factors Priority of Metropolitan Underground Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih-Tong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    To execute a large and complex underground project in metropolis will involve more risky factors. It is the successful implementation of such project depends on effective management of the key risk factors. This study cites the key risk factors of underground rail-way project identified by Ghosh and Jintanapakanont (2004) and uses the consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR) to deal with the degree of impact of these risk factors. It reveals that the CFPR is an easy and practical way to provide rankings of more risk factors in making decision and yields consistent requirement from only n - 1 pairwise comparisons.

  12. Considerations regarding online methods for suicide-related research and suicide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Matthew S; Chu, Carol; Silva, Caroline; Schulman, Brittany E; Joiner, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Frequent advances in technology provide new and exciting opportunities for conducting suicide research and suicide risk assessments. However, to the authors' knowledge, best practices for using technology, specifically the Internet, to conduct research protocols involving suicide risk assessments have not been examined. In research contexts, the use of technology for research on suicidal behavior and suicide risk assessment can offer benefits relative to other forms of data collection. These advantages, which include increased validity, feasibility, and efficiency, as well as improvements in data collection and management, are presented. Considerations regarding the implementation of an online system for suicide risk assessment as well as limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24863047

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  14. Behavioral Economic Decision Making and Alcohol-related Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Celio, Mark A.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Operario, Don; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Monti, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior. PMID:25267115

  15. Waterborne disease-related risk perceptions in the Sonora River basin, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S

    2011-05-01

    Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region.

  16. Factors Related to Coronary Heart Disease Risk Among Men: Validation of the Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Jennifer; Hazlett, Linda J; Cai, Bo; Hébert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of death in the United States. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was developed to help clinicians in determining their patients’ CHD risk. We hypothesize that the FRS will be significantly predictive of CHD events among men in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) population. Methods Our study consisted of 34,557 men who attended the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, for a baseline clinical examination from 1972 through 2002. CHD events included self-reported myocardial infarction or revascularization or death due to CHD. During the 12-year follow-up 587 CHD events occurred. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios generated from ACLS analysis were compared with the application of FRS to the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Results The ACLS cohort produced similar hazard ratios to the FHS. The adjusted Cox proportional hazard model revealed that men with total cholesterol of 280 mg/dL or greater were 2.21 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.59–3.09) times more likely to have a CHD event than men with total cholesterol from 160 through 199mg/dL; men with diabetes were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.35–1.98) times more likely to experience a CHD event than men without diabetes. Conclusion The FRS significantly predicts CHD events in the ACLS cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a large, single-center cohort study to validate the FRS by using extensive laboratory and clinical measurements. PMID:25121352

  17. Analysis of the height dependence of site-specific cancer risk in relation to organ mass

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer risks at multiple cancer sites have been shown to correlate positively with height. An existing idea is that taller people have more cells and thus more prone to mutations that will lead to cancer, and the hypothesis is that cancer risk is proportional to the organ mass. In this study we quantitatively test this hypothesis. Methods We perform an analysis of large-scale data on the height dependence of site-specific cancer risks. We also perform an analysis of the height dependence of measured organ masses. We then compare the cancer risk data with the expectations based on the organ mass hypothesis. Our study includes 16 cancer sites of women and 14 cancer sites of men. Results For the relative risk (RR) per 10 cm increase in height for cancer incidence, the averaged expected value is within the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the averaged cancer risk data for 8 out of the 15 cancer sites for which the comparison can be made. Also, a large proportion of the sex difference of cancer risks for pancreas and lungs could come from the sex difference of the organ mass. Conclusions The hypothesis that cancer risk is proportional to the organ mass partially explains the height dependence of cancer risks. It also helps explain the sex difference of cancer risks, especially for pancreas and lungs. PMID:27047947

  18. A case–control study of risk of leukaemia in relation to mobile phone use

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R; Laing, S; Swerdlow, A J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mobile phone use is now ubiquitous, and scientific reviews have recommended research into its relation to leukaemia risk, but no large studies have been conducted. Methods: In a case–control study in South East England to investigate the relation of acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemia risk to mobile phone use, 806 cases with leukaemia incident 2003–2009 at ages 18–59 years (50% of those identified as eligible) and 585 non-blood relatives as controls (provided by 392 cases) were interviewed about mobile phone use and other potentially aetiological variables. Results: No association was found between regular mobile phone use and risk of leukaemia (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76, 1.46). Analyses of risk in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative number of calls and cumulative hours of use produced no significantly raised risks, and there was no evidence of any trends. A non-significantly raised risk was found in people who first used a phone 15 or more years ago (OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.96, 3.63). Separate analyses of analogue and digital phone use and leukaemia subtype produced similar results to those overall. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of mobile phones does not increase leukaemia risk, although the possibility of an effect after long-term use, while biologically unlikely, remains open. PMID:20940717

  19. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Kirpal S

    2003-12-01

    The nutritional benefits of fish consumption relate to the utilization of proteins of high biological value, as well as certain minerals and vitamins that fish provide. Fish or fish oil contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that appear to play several useful roles for human health. Conversely, some carcinogenic contaminants are also stored in the adipose tissue of fish. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential health benefits and risks related to the consumption of fish or fish oil. Health benefits related to the consumption of fish or omega-3 PUFAs were obtained by an extensive literature search. Potential health risks related to carcinogenic contaminants (e.g., dioxin, PCB, etc.) in fish were estimated using the U.S. EPA-approved cancer risk assessment guidelines. Potential health risk estimates were evaluated by comparing them with the acceptable excess risk level of 10(-6)-10(-4). Scientific data indicate that the consumption of fish or fish oil containing omega-3 PUFAs reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, decreases mild hypertension, and prevents certain cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Risk estimates in humans for carcinogenic environmental contaminants in fish ranged from an excess risk level of 3x10(-6)-9x10(-4). These risk estimates appeared to meet the acceptable excess risk level criteria. Therefore, consumption of fish in accordance with the State of Michigan Fish Advisory Guidelines is safe and should be encouraged. The top 11 fish species [e.g., sardines, mackerel, herring (Atlantic and Pacific), lake trout, salmon (Chinook, Atlantic, and Sockeye), anchovy (European), sablefish, and bluefish] provide an adequate amount of omega-3 PUFAs (2.7-7.5g/meal) and appear to meet the nutritional recommendation of the American Heart Association.

  20. Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity as Mediators in the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and HIV-Related Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…

  1. Patient, Surgery, and Hospital Related Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections following Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios; Memtsoudis, Stavros; Poultsides, Lazaros A.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) have a significantly adverse impact on patient outcomes and pose a great challenge to the treating surgeon. Therefore, timely recognition of those patients at risk for this complication is very important, as it allows for adopting measures to reduce this risk. This review discusses literature reported risk factors for SSI after THA. These can be classified into patient-related factors (age, gender, obesity, comorbidities, history of infection, primary diagnosis, and socioeconomic profile), surgery-related factors (allogeneic blood transfusion, DVT prophylaxis and coagulopathy, duration of surgery, antibiotic prophylaxis, bearing surface and fixation, bilateral procedures, NNIS index score, and anesthesia type), and hospital-related factors (duration of hospitalization, institution and surgeon volume, and admission from a healthcare facility). All these factors are discussed with respect to potential measures that can be taken to reduce their effect and consequently the overall risk for infection. PMID:26075298

  2. Determination of risk factors for drug-related problems: a multidisciplinary triangulation process

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Carole P; Stämpfli, Dominik; Hersberger, Kurt E; Lampert, Markus L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Drug-related problems (DRPs) constitute a frequent safety issue among hospitalised patients leading to patient harm and increased healthcare costs. Because many DRPs are preventable, the specific risk factors that facilitate their occurrence are of considerable interest. The objective of our study was to assess risk factors for the occurrence of DRPs with the intention to identify patients at risk for DRPs to guide and target preventive measures where they are needed most in patients. Design Triangulation process using a mixed methods approach. Methods We conducted an expert panel, using the nominal group technique (NGT) and a qualitative analysis, to gather risk factors for DRPs. The expert panel consisted of two consultant hospital physicians (internal medicine and geriatrics), one emergency physician, one independent general practitioner, one clinical pharmacologist, one clinical pharmacist, one registered nurse, one home care nurse and two independent community pharmacists. The literature was searched for additional risk factors. Gathered factors from the literature search and the NGT were assembled and validated in a two-round Delphi questionnaire. Results The NGT resulted in the identification of 33 items with 13 additional risk factors from the qualitative analysis of the discussion. The literature search delivered another 39 risk factors. The 85 risk factors were refined to produce 42 statements for the Delphi online questionnaire. Of these, 27 risk factors were judged to be ‘important’ or ‘rather important’. Conclusions The gathered risk factors may help to characterise and identify patients at risk for DRPs and may enable clinical pharmacists to guide and target preventive measures in order to limit the occurrence of DRPs. As a further step, these risk factors will serve as the basis for a screening tool to identify patients at risk for DRPs. PMID:25795686

  3. Social support and HIV-related risk behaviors: a systematic review of the global literature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-02-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  4. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

  5. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads.

  6. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    Hooftman, Wendela E; van Poppel, Mireille N M; van der Beek, Allard J; Bongers, Paulien M; van Mechelen, Willem

    2004-08-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints. Several electronic databases were searched. The strength of the evidence was determined on the basis of the methodological quality and consistency of the study results. For lifting, strong evidence was found that men have a higher risk of back complaints than women. The same was found for the relation between hand-arm vibration and neck-shoulder complaints. For arm posture, strong evidence was found that women have a higher risk of neck-shoulder complaints than men. For social support, no evidence of a gender difference was found for either neck-shoulder or back complaints. For hand-wrist and lower-extremity complaints, inconclusive evidence was found due to a lack of high-quality studies.

  7. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    Hooftman, Wendela E; van Poppel, Mireille N M; van der Beek, Allard J; Bongers, Paulien M; van Mechelen, Willem

    2004-08-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints. Several electronic databases were searched. The strength of the evidence was determined on the basis of the methodological quality and consistency of the study results. For lifting, strong evidence was found that men have a higher risk of back complaints than women. The same was found for the relation between hand-arm vibration and neck-shoulder complaints. For arm posture, strong evidence was found that women have a higher risk of neck-shoulder complaints than men. For social support, no evidence of a gender difference was found for either neck-shoulder or back complaints. For hand-wrist and lower-extremity complaints, inconclusive evidence was found due to a lack of high-quality studies. PMID:15458009

  8. Emotional Distress May Increase Risk for Self-Medication and Lower Risk for Mood-related Drinking Consequences in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Hussong, Andrea M.; Hersh, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines indicators of emotional distress and coping that may define sub-populations of adolescents at risk for two potential affect-related mechanisms underlying substance misuse: self-medication and mood-related drinking consequences. Although theory and empirical evidence point to the salience of affect-related drinking to current and future psychopathology, we have little knowledge of whether or for whom such mood-related processes exist in adolescents because few studies have used methods that optimally match the phenomenon to the level of analysis. Consequently, the current study uses multilevel modeling in which daily reports of negative mood and alcohol use are nested within individuals to examine whether adolescents with more emotional distress and poorer coping skills are more likely to evidence self-medication and mood-related drinking consequences. Seventy-five adolescents participated in a multi-method, multi-reporter study in which they completed a 21-day experience sampling protocol assessing thrice daily measures of mood and daily measures of alcohol use. Results indicate that adolescents reporting greater anger are more likely to evidence self-medication. Conversely, adolescents displaying lower emotional distress and more active coping are more likely to evidence mood-related drinking consequences. Implications for identifying vulnerable sub-populations of adolescents at risk for these mechanisms of problematic alcohol use are discussed. PMID:24358457

  9. Relative risk of lung obstruction in relation to PM10 concentration as assessed by pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Łukasz; Gayer, Anna; Mucha, Dominika; Badyda, Artur J; Dąbrowiecki, Piotr; Grabski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that long-term exposure to air pollution may increase the relative risk of obstructive lung diseases such as COPD or asthma. The risk of increased obstruction is higher among residents living in close proximity to high traffic routes where there are high concentrations of PM(10). The present study consists of two parts: the measurement of the concentration of air pollutants and of pulmonary function in selected groups of people. The study was conducted in Warsaw, Poland, in seven localizations with typical urban canyon characteristics and roads with high traffic. The control group consisted of people living in other regions of Poland with a significantly lower (p < 0.05) concentration of air pollutants. The study was performed in the years 2008-2012. The incidence of obstructive lung disease was determined according to the GOLD guidelines. The study subjects were all non-smokers. The relative risk of disease took into account different exposure times to air pollutants. The findings indicate that an increase in PM(10) concentration by each 10 μg/m(3) caused an increase in the relative risk of lung obstruction by a factor of 1.27, 1.24, and 1.19 for the residence period in the vicinity to heavy traffic city roads for 20, 30, and 40 years, respectively as compared with the residence of rural unpolluted areas. A decrease in the number of people with lung obstruction with the length of residence actually indicates that people exposed to high concentrations of PM(10) become affected by lung obstruction at a lower age. The study shows a positive relative risk of lung obstruction due to an exposure to high PM(10) emission.

  10. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

  11. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  12. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  13. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sparkle M.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Toben, Alexandra C.; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB’s can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community. PMID:27616974

  14. Perception of risk for Domoic Acid related health problems: A Cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sparkle M.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Toben, Alexandra C.; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB’s can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.

  15. Personal and environmental factors in relation to injury risk in downhill skiing.

    PubMed

    Bouter, L M; Knipschild, P G; Volovics, A

    1989-08-01

    A case-control study was conducted among Dutch downhill skiers. This article presents data on the circumstances of the accident leading to injury and on personal and environmental risk factors for both cases (n = 572) and controls (n = 576). Most accidents (84%) happened on the pistes and ski lifts were involved in about 6% of them. Bad condition of the ski run (30%) and lost balance (24%) were the direct causes most frequently mentioned. Risk seemed to be constant for particular days and moments of the day. Injury risk for the individual appeared to rise with increasing duration of exposure, although very small durations had an elevated risk as well. A relatively low risk was observed for skiers who reported to be only moderately rested (OR = 0.4) and for those who admitted a certain fear of having a ski accident (OR = 0.6). A relatively high risk was observed for the presence of icy spots (OR = 1.4), while poor visibility (OR = 0.4), the presence of clouds (OR = 0.5), and perceived coldness (OR = 0.5) were associated with a relatively low injury risk. No recommendations for prevention can be based on these results. Most factors mentioned are not open to manipulation and further quantification should involve prospective study designs and independent measurements of these factors.

  16. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-03-01

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  17. Paraffin-related injury in low-income South African communities: knowledge, practice and perceived risk

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Dehran; Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Simpson, Jennifer; Hobe, Phumla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore what individuals at risk of injury from using paraffin (also known as kerosene) know about paraffin safety, what they do to protect themselves and their families from paraffin-related injury, and how they perceive their risk for such injury. Also, to explore interrelations between these factors and age, sex, education and income. Methods A sample of 238 individuals was randomly recruited from low-income housing districts near Cape Town, South Africa in 2007. Trained research assistants interviewed participants to explore their knowledge about paraffin-related safety and their perceived risk of injury from using paraffin. Researchers inspected participants’ homes to evaluate paraffin safety practices. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Findings Participants had relatively low levels of knowledge about paraffin-related safety. They had high levels of unsafe practice and their perceived risk of injury was moderate. Knowledge of paraffin safety and safe practices were positively correlated with each other. Greater knowledge showed a negative correlation with the perception of being at risk for injury, but safe practices showed no correlation with perceived risk of injury. Formal education, the number of children in the home and frequency of paraffin use were positively correlated with knowledge but not with safe practices. The only significant correlate to safe practices was greater income, perhaps a reflection of the impact of financial resources on paraffin safety practices. Conclusion To develop successful paraffin safety interventions, it is necessary to understand baseline levels of knowledge, practice and perceived risk of injury among at-risk populations. Our findings could be of value for designing interventions that will increase knowledge, improve safe practices and lead to the accurate perception of the risk of injury from using paraffin. PMID:19784450

  18. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  19. Urban-Hazard Risk Analysis: Mapping of Heat-Related Risks in the Elderly in Major Italian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Objectives Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥65). Methods A long time-series (2001–2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using “Crichton’s Risk Triangle” hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). Results The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. Conclusions This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public

  20. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality: time-related factors in exposure and risk.

    PubMed

    Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Chang, Ellen T; Luebeck, Georg; Lau, Edmund C; Watson, Heather N; Crump, Kenny S; Boffetta, Paolo; McClellan, Roger

    2015-04-01

    To develop a quantitative exposure-response relationship between concentrations and durations of inhaled diesel engine exhaust (DEE) and increases in lung cancer risks, we examined the role of temporal factors in modifying the estimated effects of exposure to DEE on lung cancer mortality and characterized risk by mine type in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) cohort, which followed 12,315 workers through December 1997. We analyzed the data using parametric functions based on concepts of multistage carcinogenesis to directly estimate the hazard functions associated with estimated exposure to a surrogate marker of DEE, respirable elemental carbon (REC). The REC-associated risk of lung cancer mortality in DEMS is driven by increased risk in only one of four mine types (limestone), with statistically significant heterogeneity by mine type and no significant exposure-response relationship after removal of the limestone mine workers. Temporal factors, such as duration of exposure, play an important role in determining the risk of lung cancer mortality following exposure to REC, and the relative risk declines after exposure to REC stops. There is evidence of effect modification of risk by attained age. The modifying impact of temporal factors and effect modification by age should be addressed in any quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of DEE. Until there is a better understanding of why the risk appears to be confined to a single mine type, data from DEMS cannot reliably be used for QRA.

  1. Determining the Relative Criticality of Diverse Exploration Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle; Anton, Wilma; Robotham, Kwesi

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks, primarily in the context of Continuous Risk Management. Each risk is evaluated in terms of two missions (a six month stay on the Moon and a thirty month round trip to Mars) and three types of consequences (in-mission crew health, post-mission crew health, and in-mission performance). The lack of a common metric between the three consequence scales, such as financial costs or quality adjusted life years lost, makes it difficult to compare the relative criticality of the risks. We are, therefore, exploring the use of a ternary scale of criticality based on the common metric of influencing an operational decision. The three levels correspond to the level of concern the risk generates for a "go/no-go" decision to launch a mission: 1) no-go; 2) go with significant reservations; 3) go. The criticality of each of the 27 risks is scored for the three types of consequence in both types of mission. The scores are combined to produce an overall criticality rating for each risk. The overall criticality rating can then be used to guide the prioritization of resources to affect the greatest amount of risk reduction.

  2. Risk assessment for loader- and dozer-related fatal incidents in U.S. mining.

    PubMed

    Md-Nor, Zainalabidin; Kecojevic, Vladislav; Komljenovic, Dragan; Groves, William

    2008-06-01

    The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing a risk assessment process that can be used to more thoroughly characterise risks associated with loader- and dozer-related fatal incidents in US mining. The assessment is based on historical data obtained from the US Mine Safety and Health Administration investigation reports, which includes 77 fatal incidents that occurred from 1995 to 2006. The Preliminary Hazard Assessment method is used in identifying and quantifying risks. Risk levels are then developed using a pre-established risk matrix that ranks them according to probability and severity. The resulting assigned risk value can then be used to prioritise risk control strategies. A total of 10 hazards were identified for loaders. The hazards 'failure to follow adequate maintenance procedure' and 'failure of mechanical/electrical/hydraulic components' were the most severe and frequent hazards and they fell into the category of 'high' risk. The same number of hazards was identified for dozers. The hazard 'failure to identify adverse site/geological conditions' was the most severe and frequent hazard and it fell into the category of 'high' risk. PMID:18642163

  3. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  5. Weight-Related Sports Involvement in Girls: Who Is at Risk for Disordered Eating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Beuhring, Trish; Resnick, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight-related sport involvement, disordered eating, health behavior, and psycho-social factors in female adolescents. Survey data indicated that girls in weight-related sports were at increased risk for disordered eating, though the majority did not report disordered eating. This group was also at decreased risk…

  6. The Relational-Behavior Model: A Pilot Assessment Study for At-Risk College Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Perkins, Michele D.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as an HIV/AIDS assessment tool for at-risk college populations. Based on this theory, a survey was constructed to assess the six areas associated with HIV/AIDS prevention: personal awareness, knowledge deficiency, relational skills, HIV/STD stigmatization, community awareness, and…

  7. Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Relations among Family Risk Factors and Childhood Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…

  8. Motivational reserve: motivation-related occupational abilities and risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Bickel, Horst; Tebarth, Franziska; Luppa, Melanie; Wollny, Anja; Wiese, Birgitt; Wagner, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Midlife motivational abilities, that is, skills to initiate and persevere in the implementation of goals, have been related to mental and physical health, but their association with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been directly investigated. This relation was examined with data from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). A total of 3,327 nondemented participants (50.3% of a randomly selected sample) aged 75-89 years were recruited in primary care and followed up twice (after 1.5 and 3 years). Motivation-related occupational abilities were estimated on the basis of the main occupation (assessed at follow-up II) using the Occupational Information Network (O* NET) database, which provides detailed information on worker characteristics and abilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relative risk of developing MCI and AD in relation to motivation-related occupational abilities, adjusting for various covariates. Over the 3 years of follow-up, 15.2% participants developed MCI and 3.0% developed AD. In a fully adjusted model, motivation-related occupational abilities were found to be associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.92). Motivation-related occupational abilities were associated with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers (HR: 0.48; CI: 0.25-0.91), but not in noncarriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.65-1.53). These results suggest that midlife motivational abilities are associated with reduced risk of MCI in general and with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers. Revealing the mechanisms underlying this association may inform novel prevention strategies for decelerating cognitive decline in old age.

  9. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    West, Bethany A.; Swahn, Monica H.; McCarty, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: We used data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9–12 to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior, as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys). Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89). Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48), dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60), forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72), and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66), forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60), huffing glue (OR=1.63), hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18), and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide-prevention strategies directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention, clinical practice, and intervention

  10. Urinary bladder cancer in Wegener's granulomatosis: risks and relation to cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A; Askling, J; Granath, F; Sparen, P; Ekbom, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess and characterise the risk of bladder cancer, and its relation to cyclophosphamide, in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Methods: In the population based, nationwide Swedish Inpatient Register a cohort of 1065 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis, 1969–95, was identified. Through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register, all subjects in this cohort diagnosed with bladder cancer were identified. Nested within the cohort, a matched case-control study was performed to estimate the association between cyclophosphamide and bladder cancer using odds ratios (ORs) as relative risk. In the cohort the cumulative risk of bladder cancer after Wegener's granulomatosis, and the relative prevalence of a history of bladder cancer at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis, were also estimated. Results: The median cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide among cases (n = 11) and controls (n = 25) were 113 g and 25 g, respectively. The risk of bladder cancer doubled for every 10 g increment in cyclophosphamide (OR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 4.9). Treatment duration longer than 1 year was associated with an eightfold increased risk (OR = 7.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 69). The absolute risk for bladder cancer in the cohort reached 10% 16 years after diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis, and a history of bladder cancer was (non-significantly) twice as common as expected at the time of diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. Conclusion: The results indicate a dose-response relationship between cyclophosphamide and the risk of bladder cancer, high cumulative risks in the entire cohort, and also the possibility of risk factors operating even before Wegener's granulomatosis. PMID:15130900

  11. Cultural capital or relative risk aversion? Two mechanisms for educational inequality compared.

    PubMed

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G; Hofstede, Saskia

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we empirically examined two explanatory mechanisms for educational inequality: cultural reproduction and relative risk aversion, using survey data taken from secondary school pupils in Amsterdam. Cultural reproduction theory seeks to explain class variations in schooling by cultural differences between social classes. Relative risk aversion theory argues that educational inequalities can be understood by between-class variation in the necessity of pursuing education at branching points in order to avoid downward mobility. We showed that class variations in early demonstrated ability are for a substantial part cultural: cultural capital - measured by parental involvement in highbrow culture - affected school performance at the primary and secondary level. However, relative risk aversion - operationalized by being concerned with downward mobility - strongly affects schooling ambitions, whereas cultural capital had no effect. Thus, we conclude that 'primary effects' of social origin on schooling outcomes are manifested through cultural capital and not through relative risk aversion (in addition to other potential sources of class variations such as genetics). Relative risk aversion, and not cultural capital, affects schooling ambitions, which is relevant for our understanding of secondary effects.

  12. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  13. Relation of Temperature and Humidity to the Risk of Recurrent Gout Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara; Niu, Jingbo; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David J.; Choi, Hyon; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    Gout attack risk may be affected by weather (e.g., because of volume depletion). We therefore examined the association of temperature and humidity with the risk of recurrent gout attacks by conducting an internet-based case-crossover study in the United States (in 2003–2010) among subjects with a diagnosis of gout who had 1 or more attacks during 1 year of follow-up. We examined the association of temperature and humidity over the prior 48 hours with the risk of gout attacks using a time-stratified approach and conditional logistic regression. Among 632 subjects with gout, there was a significant dose-response relationship between mean temperature in the prior 48 hours and the risk of subsequent gout attack (P = 0.01 for linear trend). Higher temperatures were associated with approximately 40% higher risk of gout attack compared with moderate temperatures. There was a reverse J-shaped relationship between mean relative humidity and the risk of gout attacks (P = 0.03 for quadratic trend). The combination of high temperature and low humidity had the greatest association (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.30) compared with moderate temperature and relative humidity. Thus, high ambient temperature and possibly extremes of humidity were associated with an increased risk of gout attack, despite the likelihood that individuals are often in climate-controlled indoor environments. PMID:24993733

  14. Effects of residential mobility on individual versus population risk of radon-related lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, K.E.; Courant, P.N.; Mendez, D.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider the effects of normal patterns of residential mobility in estimating individual radon-related lung cancer risks. As a consequence, the EPA`s population risk estimates may have little hearing on individual risks, and remediation of high-radon homes may have only small health benefits for the individuals who remediate their homes. Through a simulation analysis, we examine the effects of residential mobility on radon exposure and lung cancer risk. Given normal mobility, only 7% of eventual radon-related mortality among current 30 year olds will occur in the 5% currently living in homes above 4 pCi/l (the EPA`s action level for remediation), in contrast with an estimate of 31% of deaths when mobility is ignored. Above 10 pCi/l, the no-mobility assumption implies 10.3% of deaths, compared to only 0.4% when mobility is taken into account. We conclude that knowledge of one`s current radon exposure is not necessarily a useful guide to one`s risk, especially for residents of the high-radon homes targeted for remediation by the EPA. The risk of such individuals is likely to be substantially lower than that implied in the EPA`S risk charts. If people currently living in high-radon homes remediate their houses, the majority of the resulting health benefits will accrue to future occupants of their homes. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Cultural-Related, Contextual, and Asthma-Specific Risks Associated with Asthma Morbidity in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Esteban, Cynthia A.; Ortega, Alexander N.; Seifer, Ronald; Garcia-Coll, Cynthia; Klein, Robert; Cespedes, Elizabeth; Canino, Glorisa; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between specific dimensions of the multidimensional cumulative risk index (CRI) and asthma morbidity in urban, school-aged children from African American, Latino and Non-Latino White backgrounds. An additional goal of the study was to identify the proportion of families that qualify for high-risk status on each dimension of the CRI by ethnic group. A total of 264 children with asthma, ages 7–15 (40% female; 76% ethnic minority) and their primary caregivers completed interview-based questionnaires assessing cultural, contextual, and asthma-specific risks that can impact asthma morbidity. Higher levels of asthma-related risks were associated with more functional morbidity for all groups of children, despite ethnic group background. Contextual and cultural risk dimensions contributed to more morbidity for African-American and Latino children. Analyses by Latino ethnic subgroup revealed that contextual and cultural risks are significantly related to more functional morbidity for Puerto Rican children compared to Dominican children. Findings suggest which type of risks may more meaningfully contribute to variations in asthma morbidity for children from specific ethnic groups. These results can inform culturally sensitive clinical interventions for urban children with asthma whose health outcomes lag far behind their non-Latino White counterparts. PMID:20157798

  16. Relation of temperature and humidity to the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

    PubMed

    Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara; Niu, Jingbo; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David J; Choi, Hyon; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-08-15

    Gout attack risk may be affected by weather (e.g., because of volume depletion). We therefore examined the association of temperature and humidity with the risk of recurrent gout attacks by conducting an internet-based case-crossover study in the United States (in 2003-2010) among subjects with a diagnosis of gout who had 1 or more attacks during 1 year of follow-up. We examined the association of temperature and humidity over the prior 48 hours with the risk of gout attacks using a time-stratified approach and conditional logistic regression. Among 632 subjects with gout, there was a significant dose-response relationship between mean temperature in the prior 48 hours and the risk of subsequent gout attack (P = 0.01 for linear trend). Higher temperatures were associated with approximately 40% higher risk of gout attack compared with moderate temperatures. There was a reverse J-shaped relationship between mean relative humidity and the risk of gout attacks (P = 0.03 for quadratic trend). The combination of high temperature and low humidity had the greatest association (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.30) compared with moderate temperature and relative humidity. Thus, high ambient temperature and possibly extremes of humidity were associated with an increased risk of gout attack, despite the likelihood that individuals are often in climate-controlled indoor environments.

  17. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J

    2015-11-01

    We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities.

  18. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined prospectively the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26505872

  19. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J

    2015-11-01

    We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26505872

  20. The relation between risk perceptions and physical activity among older adults: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Trouilloud, David; Deroche, Thomas; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Past studies have found that risk perceptions of suffering from diseases play an important role in the development of intentions to perform physical activity (PA). According to the behaviour motivation hypothesis, perceived risk could be positively and directly related to PA, but this possibility has been ignored and/or underestimated. Accounting for recent methodological developments on the importance of study design and risk perception assessment, the purpose of the present study was to examine the risk-perceptions-PA relationship among older adults. Participants (N=143) aged from 61 to 70 years initially underwent measurement of risk perceptions, baseline PA, socio-demographic and health factors. Six months later, they were asked about their PA participation. Multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived risk of suffering from diseases and conditions without regular PA participation was an independent positive predictor of later PA, over and beyond baseline behaviour, socio-demographic and health variables. This study fills a gap in the existing literature on the PAs of older adults and reveals that risk perceptions are directly linked to their participation. In addition, it extends existing knowledge in health psychology on the behaviour motivation hypothesis, and emphasises the necessity of methodological adjustments when assessing the risk-perception-behaviour relationship. PMID:21432732

  1. The role of building models in the evaluation of heat-related risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchin, Oliver; Jänicke, Britta; Meier, Fred; Scherer, Dieter; Ziegler, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Hazard-risk relationships in epidemiological studies are generally based on the outdoor climate, despite the fact that most of humans' lifetime is spent indoors. By coupling indoor and outdoor climates with a building model, the risk concept developed can still be based on the outdoor conditions but also includes exposure to the indoor climate. The influence of non-linear building physics and the impact of air conditioning on heat-related risks can be assessed in a plausible manner using this risk concept. For proof of concept, the proposed risk concept is compared to a traditional risk analysis. As an example, daily and city-wide mortality data of the age group 65 and older in Berlin, Germany, for the years 2001-2010 are used. Four building models with differing complexity are applied in a time-series regression analysis. This study shows that indoor hazard better explains the variability in the risk data compared to outdoor hazard, depending on the kind of building model. Simplified parameter models include the main non-linear effects and are proposed for the time-series analysis. The concept shows that the definitions of heat events, lag days, and acclimatization in a traditional hazard-risk relationship are influenced by the characteristics of the prevailing building stock.

  2. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Baguer, Carlos; Li, Yuelin; Orlow, Irene; Berwick, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening) in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs) after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic) and risk level (positive versus negative findings) were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required. PMID:22888347

  3. Association of Relatives of Hemodialysis Patients with Metabolic Syndrome, Albuminuria and Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiun-Chi; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Metabolic syndrome (MetS), albuminuria, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) are significant predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship and clinical significance of these CVD predictors in individuals with a family history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are unclear. We investigated the association of relatives of hemodialysis (HD) patients with MetS, albuminuria, and the FRS. Methods One hundred and sixty-six relatives of HD patients and 374 age- and sex- matched community controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. CVD risk was evaluated by the FRS. Results A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (19.9% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.026), albuminuria (12.7% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.002) and high FRS risk ≥10% of 10-year risk (15.7% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.013) was found in relatives of HD patients compared to their counterpart controls. In multivariate analysis, being relatives of HD patients (vs. controls) was an independent determinant for MetS (odds ratio [OR], 1.785; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.045 to 3.050), albuminuria (OR, 2.891; 95% CI, 1.431 to 5.841), and high FRS risk (OR, 1.863; 95% CI, 1.015 to 3.418). Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.034; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.052) and betel nut chewing (OR, 13.994; 95% CI, 3.384 to 57.871) were independent determinants for having a high FRS risk in relatives of HD patients. Conclusions Being relatives of HD patients was independently associated with MetS, albuminuria and high FRS risk, suggesting family members of ESRD patients may have higher CVD risks through the interactions of renal risk factors. Proactive surveillance of these CVD predictors and preventive strategies should be targeted to this high-risk population. PMID:24804770

  4. Alcohol drinking and risk of leukemia-a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relation.

    PubMed

    Rota, Matteo; Porta, Lorenzo; Pelucchi, Claudio; Negri, Eva; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bellocco, Rino; Corrao, Giovanni; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    The association between alcohol and leukemia risk has been addressed in several studies in the past two decades, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the dose-risk relation. Through the literature search up to August 2013, we identified 18 studies, 10 case-control and 8 cohorts, carried out in a total of 7142 leukemia cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we performed a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. Stratified analyses were carried out on leukemia subtypes and groups, in order to identify possible etiologic differences. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risks (RRs) for all leukemia were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.03], 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.02) for any, light (≤ 1 drink/day) and moderate to heavy (>1 drink/day) alcohol drinking, respectively. The summary RRs for any alcohol drinking were 1.47 (95% CI, 0.47-4.62) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0.94 (95% CI 0.77-1.15) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86-1.21) for acute myeloid leukemia and 0.93 (95% CI 0.75-1.14) for chronic myeloid leukemia. The subgroup analysis on geographical area for all leukemia combined showed RRs of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-1.01) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02-1.70) for studies conducted in America, Europe and Asia, respectively. We did not find an increased risk of leukemia among alcohol drinkers. If any, a modest favorable effect emerged for light alcohol drinking, with a model-based risk reduction of approximately 10% in regular drinkers.

  5. Discrepancy between Mother and Child Reports of Parental Knowledge and the Relation to Risk Behavior Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined discrepancies in mother and child reports of parental knowledge (PK) of a child’s whereabouts, activities, and companions, as well as the extent to which discrepancies in reports of PK are related to child risk-taking behavior concurrently and prospectively across two time points. The sample consisted of 219 mother and early adolescent youth (Mn age = 11.0, SD = .8) dyads. Mother and child reports of PK significantly differed and, at both waves, scores on the risk taking composite related negatively to both mother and child reports of PK and positively to the discrepancy between the two reports. A significant interaction between mother and child reports was found at wave 2, such that the relation between child reported PK and risk behavior was stronger when mothers reported high levels of parental knowledge versus low levels of parental knowledge. Prospective analyses indicated a main effect of mother report. PMID:21229444

  6. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  7. Work-related upper extremity injuries: prevalence, cost and risk factors in military and civilian populations.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Andrew J

    2002-01-01

    Persons with musculoskeletal-related disorders represent a prevalent source of outpatient visits, lost work time and disability in the military; however, research concerning the extent of work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) within this population is lacking. This literature review examined studies in civilian and military settings to ascertain the prevalence, cost and risk factors associated with WRUEDs. The results indicated that the prevalence and cost of WRUEDs in the civilian workforce are significant, justifying the need to research the military population. The literature also outlined physical, individual and psychosocial factors associated with WRUEDs that will help identify potential risk factors within military occupations.

  8. Fire-related cognitions moderate the impact of risk factors on adjustment following wildfire disaster.

    PubMed

    Scher, Christine D; Ellwanger, Joel

    2009-10-01

    This study builds upon current understanding of risk and protective factors for post-disaster adjustment by examining relationships between disaster-related cognitions, three empirically supported risk factors for poorer adjustment (i.e., greater disaster impact, female gender, and racial/ethnic minority status), and three common post-disaster outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints). Participants were 200 students exposed to wildfire disaster. Simultaneous hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, during the acute stress period: (1) disaster-related cognitions in interaction with fire impact and minority status, as well as gender, were related to anxiety symptoms, (2) cognitions were related to depression symptoms, and (3) cognitions in interaction with minority status, as well as fire impact, were related to somatic symptoms. No examined variables predicted symptom change.

  9. Relative risk of death from ejection by crash type and crash mode.

    PubMed

    Esterlitz, J R

    1989-10-01

    In virtually all circumstances, the chance of survival in a crash is much greater if the occupant is not ejected from the vehicle. Several estimates of the increased risk of death as a result of ejection (ranging from 2.5 to 25) have been made, but none were specific to the crash mode and most did not control for crash severity. The current study examined the relative risk of fatality due to ejection, by crash type and crash mode, using the Fatal Accident Reporting System data from the years 1982 through 1986. Crash type was defined as either single vehicle or multivehicle and crash mode included rollover, nonrollover, and/or direction of impact. Crash severity was controlled for using a paired comparison method of analysis. Both crash type and crash mode were found to have substantial effects on the relative risk of death due to ejection. In addition, risk differences across seating position exist. Depending on crash mode or type, the risks ranged from about 1.5 to 8. Single-vehicle rollover crashes have the highest increased risk of death due to ejection: about eightfold for the driver and sevenfold for the right front passenger. PMID:2619855

  10. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  11. Fatal Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Use of Unopposed Estrogen and Combined Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pocobelli, Gaia; Newcomb, Polly A.; Li, Christopher I.; Cook, Linda S.; Barlow, William E.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of combined hormone therapy (CHT) is associated with increased breast cancer incidence, but it is unclear whether this translates into increased breast cancer mortality. Methods We conducted a population-based nested case-control study in Saskatchewan, Canada, where a population-based prescription drug database has existed since 1975. We evaluated fatal breast cancer risk in relation to recency and duration of use of CHT and unopposed estrogen hormone therapy (EHT). Results A total of 1,288 cases and 12,535 controls were included in the analyses. Exclusive use of EHT was not associated with fatal breast cancer risk, either overall or within categories of recency or duration (odds ratio (OR) for current versus never use=1.1; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.8–1.3). Use of CHT (includes women who had also used EHT) was also not associated with fatal breast cancer risk (OR for current versus never use=0.9; 95% CI, 0.7–1.3), except for a suggestion of an increased risk with current long-term use. Conclusion Consistent with prior studies, we observed no increased risk of fatal breast cancer associated with use of EHT. To date only a few studies have evaluated fatal breast cancer risk in relation to use of CHT, and collectively the results are inconsistent. PMID:24671356

  12. Assessing the Risk of Disc Heniation Related to Landing Impact Following Long-duration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, J. T.; Newby, N..; Wells, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that crewmembers returning on the Space Shuttle have an increased incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus after spaceflight. This increased risk is thought to be related to disc volume expansion due to unloading and prolonged exposure to microgravity. Although there is an increased risk of disc herniation in Space Shuttle astronauts, it is unknown if dynamic landing loads further contribute to the risk of herniation. To determine if dynamic loads increase the risk of incidence, data from crewmembers (excluding cosmonauts) returning on the Soyuz spacecraft will be compared to Space Shuttle astronauts. These data will be obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Project at NASA. Severity and incidence after spaceflight will be mined from the data, and statistical analyses will be used to determine if Soyuz crewmembers have a higher incidence of disc herniation than Space Shuttle crewmembers. The results are expected to show no difference between Space Shuttle and Soyuz crewmembers, indicating that higher dynamic loads on landing and long-duration spaceflight do not significantly increase the risk of disc herniation. If no difference is shown between the two crewmember populations, then disc volume expansion due to microgravity does not significantly increase the risk of injury due to dynamic loads for deconditioned crewmembers. Any risk associated with deconditioning would be primarily due to bone structure changes and resulting bone strength changes. This study is an important first step in determining whether the spinal disc plays a role in injury due to dynamic loads.

  13. Factors Influencing Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Among U.S. Military Recruits.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Joseph M

    2016-06-01

    Running-related musculoskeletal injuries among U.S. military recruits negatively impact military readiness. Low aerobic fitness, prior injury, and weekly running distance are known risk factors. Physical fitness screening and remedial physical training (or discharging the most poorly fit recruits) before entry-level military training have tended to reduce injury rates while decreasing attrition, training, and medical costs. Incorporating anaerobic running sessions into training programs can offset decreased weekly running distance and decrease injury risk. Varying lower extremity loading patterns, stride length or cadence manipulation, and hip stability/strengthening programming may further decrease injury risk. No footstrike pattern is ideal for all runners; transitioning to forefoot striking may reduce risk for hip, knee, or tibial injuries, but increase risk for calf, Achilles, foot or ankle injuries. Minimal evidence associates running surfaces with injury risk. Footwear interventions should focus on proper fit and comfort; the evidence does not support running shoe prescription per foot type to reduce injury risk among recruits. Primary injury mitigation efforts should focus on physical fitness screening, remedial physical training (or discharge for unfit recruits), and continued inclusion of anaerobic running sessions to offset decreased weekly running distance. PMID:27244060

  14. Comparison of ergonomist, supervisor, and worker assessments of work-related musculoskeletal risk factors.

    PubMed

    Winnemuller, Lori L; Spielholz, Peregrin O; Daniell, William E; Kaufman, Joel D

    2004-06-01

    In primary prevention efforts to reduce the incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disease (MSD), many employers will use supervisor or worker assessments for initial evaluation of MSD risk factors. This cross-sectional study examined the ability of supervisors and workers to accurately assess the presence of MSD risk factors at four work sites in four different industries, examining five jobs that represented six primary categories of risk factors: posture, force, repetition, impact, lifting, and vibration. Thirty-seven supervisors and 55 workers assessed the jobs they oversee or perform through the use of a 14-item questionnaire. Their assessments were compared with detailed ergonomist job analyses to determine their accuracy in identifying the presence or absence of MSD risk factors. In assessing the absence or presence of all risk factors, agreement with the ergonomist was found 81% of the time for supervisors and 77% of the time for workers. Overall, supervisors and workers overestimated the presence of risk in assessing the jobs. Supervisors and worker assessments appear promising in recognizing risk in initial ergonomic assessments.

  15. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  16. Adverse Vascular Risk is Related to Cognitive Decline in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Hohman, Timothy J.; Liu, Dandan; Haj-Hassan, Shereen; Gifford, Katherine A.; Benson, Elleena M.; Skinner, Jeannine S.; Lu, Zengqi; Sparling, Jamie; Sumner, Emily C.; Bell, Susan; Ruberg, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This association is less well-defined in normal cognition (NC) or prodromal AD (mild cognitive impairment (MCI)). Objective Cross-sectionally and longitudinally relate a vascular risk index to cognitive outcomes among elders free of clinical dementia. Methods 3117 MCI (74±8 years, 56% female) and 6603 NC participants (72±8 years, 68% female) were drawn from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. A composite measure of vascular risk was defined using the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) score (i.e., age, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication, diabetes, cigarette smoking, CVD history, atrial fibrillation). Ordinary linear regressions and generalized linear mixed models related baseline FSRP to cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive outcomes, separately for NC and MCI, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, and follow-up time (in longitudinal models). Results In NC participants, increasing FSRP was related to worse baseline global cognition, information processing speed, and sequencing abilities (p-values<0.0001) and a worse longitudinal trajectory on all cognitive measures (p-values<0.0001). In MCI, increasing FSRP correlated with worse longitudinal delayed memory (p=0.004). In secondary models using an age-excluded FSRP score, associations persisted in NC participants for global cognition, naming, information processing speed, and sequencing abilities. Conclusions An adverse vascular risk profile is associated with worse cognitive trajectory, especially global cognition, naming, and information processing speed, among NC elders. Future studies are needed to understand how effective management of CVD and related risk factors can modify cognitive decline to identify the ideal timeframe for primary prevention implementation. PMID:25471188

  17. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M

    1993-05-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualistic, direct control of behavioral choices and deemphasize factors, such as racism and poverty, particularly relevant to that segment of the African American population most at risk for HIV infection. Applications of these models without taking into account the unique issues associated with behavioral choices within the African American community may fail to capture the relevant determinants of risk behaviors.

  18. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks related to depositing dredged materials from canals in northern France on soil.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Babut, Marc; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Bray, Marc; Clement, Bernard; Delolme, Cécile; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Montuelle, Bernard

    2006-08-01

    The implementation of an ecological risk assessment framework is presented for dredged material deposits on soil close to a canal and groundwater, and tested with sediment samples from canals in northern France. This framework includes two steps: a simplified risk assessment based on contaminant concentrations and a detailed risk assessment based on toxicity bioassays and column leaching tests. The tested framework includes three related assumptions: (a) effects on plants (Lolium perenne L.), (b) effects on aquatic organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Xenopus laevis) and (c) effects on groundwater contamination. Several exposure conditions were tested using standardised bioassays. According to the specific dredged material tested, the three assumptions were more or less discriminatory, soil and groundwater pollution being the most sensitive. Several aspects of the assessment procedure must now be improved, in particular assessment endpoint design for risks to ecosystems (e.g., integration of pollutant bioaccumulation), bioassay protocols and column leaching test design.

  19. Lung cancer risks in relation to vegetable and fruit consumption and smoking.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Ragnar; Axelsson, Gösta

    2006-02-01

    In a case-control study on lung cancer, risk was analysed in relation to smoking habits and frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption. Lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a questionnaire where the frequency of consumption of dietary items and smoking habits were assessed. The material presented comprises 177 female and 359 male confirmed cases of lung cancer and 916 population controls. There was a dose-response relationship in regard to the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years smoked, the latter factor being more important. After adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked/day and number of years smoked, the risk for those who seldom consumed vegetables was about twice of that among those who consumed vegetables frequently, both among nonsmokers, smokers and former smokers. This risk increase in relation to vegetable consumption also was present for different smoking categories. A similar tendency, although less pronounced, was found for fruit consumption. The results demonstrate that dietary factors are related to the risk for lung cancer, although smoking is the dominant risk factor.

  20. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency.

  1. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. PMID:25243992

  2. Barriers to human immunodeficiency virus related risk reduction among male street prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Simon, P M; Morse, E V; Balson, P M; Osofsky, H J; Gaumer, H R

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred eleven male street prostitutes between the ages of 18 and 51 years were interviewed and tested for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Economic, social, and emotional barriers to the reduction of HIV-related risk behavior were examined within the context of several concepts present in the Health Belief Model (HBM). Three lifestyle factors were found to function as barriers to engaging in risk reduction behavior. Subjects who were more economically dependent on prostitution, perceived less control over the hustling encounter, and reported increased pleasure from sexual activity with their customers were more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior. Prostitutes' perception of the severity of HIV infection was not significantly associated with their risk behavior. Unexpected findings indicated that increases in perceived susceptibility to HIV and perceived benefit of condom use for HIV prevention were significantly related to increased risk-taking behavior. Practical applications of findings in the design and implementation of future HIV-related preventive health education programs are discussed. PMID:8491637

  3. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. PMID:26956675

  4. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency.

  5. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  6. Suicide risk in relation to air pollen counts: a study based on data from Danish registers

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ping; Waltoft, Berit L; Mortensen, Preben B; Postolache, Teodor T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Since the well-observed spring peak of suicide incidents coincides with the peak of seasonal aeroallergens as tree-pollen, we want to document an association between suicide and pollen exposure with empirical data from Denmark. Design Ecological time series study. Setting Data on suicide incidents, air pollen counts and meteorological status were retrieved from Danish registries. Participants 13 700 suicide incidents over 1304 consecutive weeks were obtained from two large areas covering 2.86 million residents. Primary and secondary outcome measures Risk of suicide associated with pollen concentration was assessed using a time series Poisson-generalised additive model. Results We noted a significant association between suicide risk and air pollen counts. A change of pollen counts levels from 0 to ‘10–<30’ grains/m3 air was associated with a relative risk of 1.064, that is, a 6.4% increase in weekly number of suicides in the population, and from 0 to ‘30–100’ grains, a relative risk of 1.132. The observed association remained significant after controlling for effects of region, calendar time, temperature, cloud cover and humidity. Meanwhile, we observed a significant sex difference that suicide risk in men started to rise when there was a small increase of air pollen, while the risk in women started to rise until pollen grains reached a certain level. High levels of pollen had slightly stronger effect on risk of suicide in individuals with mood disorder than those without the disorder. Conclusions The observed association between suicide risk and air pollen counts supports the hypothesis that aeroallergens, acting as immune triggers, may precipitate suicide. PMID:23793651

  7. Prospective study of lutein/zeaxanthin intake and risk of age-related macular degeneration2

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunyoung; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A

    2008-01-01

    Background The association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk may differ by smoking status, vitamin C and E intakes, and body fatness. Objective The objective was to evaluate the association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and AMD risk by smoking status, intake of antioxidant vitamins, and body fatness. Design We conducted a prospective follow-up study of 71 494 women and 41 564 men aged ≥50 y and had no diagnosis of AMD or cancer. Diet was assessed with a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Results During up to 18 y of follow-up, we documented 673 incident cases of early AMD and 442 incident cases of neovascular AMD with a visual loss of 20/30 or worse due primarily to AMD. Lutein/zeaxanthin intake was not associated with the risk of self-reported early AMD. There was a statistically nonsignificant and nonlinear inverse association between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk; the pooled multivariate relative risks for increasing quintiles of intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.80, 0.84, 0.97, and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.99) (P for trend = 0.14). For early AMD, the association with lutein/zeaxanthin intake did not vary by smoking status, intakes of vitamins C and E, or body mass index. For neovascular AMD, a nonlinear inverse association was found among never smokers. Conclusions These data do not support a protective role of lutein/zeaxanthin intake on risk of self-reported early AMD. The suggestion of inverse associations related to the risk of neovascular AMD needs to be examined further. PMID:18541575

  8. Oxidative stress-related genotypes, fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulin; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCullough, Marjorie J; Ahn, Jiyoung; Stevens, Victoria L; Thun, Michael J; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2009-05-01

    Dietary antioxidants may interact with endogenous sources of pro- and antioxidants to impact breast cancer risk. A nested case-control study of postmenopausal women (505 cases and 502 controls) from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort was conducted to examine the interaction between oxidative stress-related genes and level of vegetable and fruit intake on breast cancer risk. Genetic variations in catalase (CAT) (C-262T), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (G-463A), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) (G894T) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) [(GT)(n) dinucleotide length polymorphism] were not associated with breast cancer risk. Women carrying the low-risk CAT CC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.11], NOS3 TT (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.26-1.12, P-trend = 0.10) or HO-1 S allele and MM genotype (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.55), however, were found to be at non-significantly reduced breast cancer risk among those with high vegetable and fruit intake (> or = median; P-interactions = 0.04 for CAT, P = 0.005 for NOS3 and P = 0.07 for HO-1). Furthermore, those with > or = 4 putative low-risk alleles in total had significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.88, P-interaction = 0.006) compared with those with < or = 2 low-risk alleles. In contrast, among women with low vegetable and fruit intake (< median), the low-risk CAT CC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.89-1.99), NOS3 TT (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.38-6.22) and MPO AA (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 0.73-5.95) genotypes appeared to be associated with raised breast cancer risk, with significantly increased risks observed in those with > or = 4 low-risk alleles compared with participants with < or = 2 low-risk alleles (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05-2.99, P-interaction = 0.006). Our results support the hypothesis that there are joint effects of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  9. Suicidal behavior in relatives or associates moderates the strength of common risk factors for suicide

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R.; Duberstein, Paul; Zhan, Weihai

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and odds ratios of different suicide risk factors were compared in three pairs of decedents: 80 suicides and 25 injury decedents with blood-relatives with suicidal behavior history (biologically-exposed); 259 suicides and 126 injury decedents with unrelated acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (socially-exposed); and 471 suicides and 523 injury decedents with neither relatives nor acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (unexposed). Negative life events and high psychological stress were more common in socially-exposed suicides than in other suicides. The adjusted odds ratios of most established suicide risk factors were higher in unexposed decedents than in biologically- or socially-exposed decedents, suggesting that the predictive value of established risk factors wanes in individuals who have been exposed to suicidal behavior in family or friends. PMID:25443455

  10. The risk of heat exhaustion at a deep underground metalliferous mine in relation to surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M; Bates, G P

    2000-07-01

    The risk of heat exhaustion at a deep underground metalliferous mine was assessed in relation to thermal conditions prevailing on the surface. For each day of a 1-year prospective case series of heat exhaustion, surface 24-h mean wet and dry bulb temperatures were recorded. From this data, 24-h mean wet bulb globe temperatures were derived using certain assumptions. The three surface temperature variables were significantly higher on those days on which heat exhaustion occurred, compared to those days on which it did not occur (P < 0.001). The relative risk of heat exhaustion on days when the 24-h mean wet bulb globe temperature was in the range 26.0-28.0 degrees C was 4.82 (95% confidence interval 2.12-10.96). Surface temperature data could be used at this mine to warn miners about the risk of heat exhaustion.

  11. Genotype relative risks: Methods for design and analysis of candidate-gene association studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-11-01

    Design and analysis methods are presented for studying the association of a candidate gene with a disease by using parental data in place of nonrelated controls. This alternating design eliminates spurious differences in allele frequencies between cases and nonrelated controls resulting from different ethnic origins and population stratification for these two groups. The authors present analysis methods which are based on two genetic relative risks: (1) the relative risk of disease for homozygotes with two copies of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene and (2) the relative risk for heterozygotes with one copy of the candidate gene versus homozygotes without the candidate gene. In addition to estimating the magnitude of these relative risks, likelihood methods allow specific hypotheses to be tested, namely, a test for overall association of the candidate gene with disease, as well as specific genetic hypotheses, such as dominant or recessive inheritance. Two likelihood methods are presented: (1) a likelihood method appropriate when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds and (2) a likelihood method in which the authors condition on parental genotype data when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not hold. The results for the relative efficiency of these two methods suggest that the conditional approach may at times be preferable, even when equilibrium holds. Sample-size and power calculations are presented for a multitiered design. Tier 1 detects the presence of an abnormal sequence for a postulated candidate gene among a small group of cases. Tier 2 tests for association of the abnormal variant with disease, such as by the likelihood methods presented. Tier 3 confirms positive results from tier 2. Results indicate that required sample sizes are smaller when expression of disease is recessive, rather than dominant, and that, for recessive disease and large relative risks, necessary sample sizes may be feasible. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in ultrasound: Can you reduce risk?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gill; Harris, Allison

    2015-11-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause of pain and sickness absence for ultrasound practitioners. This article aims to provide background information about factors increasing the chance of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders and potential ways to reduce risk. Factors influencing ultrasound professionals' likelihood of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders include poor posture, repetitive movements, transducer pressure and poor grip, stress, workload, limited support or sense of control and other psychosocial factors. The impact of these risk factors on the health and well being of ultrasound practitioners can be reduced by following recommendations published by professional bodies and the Health and Safety Executive. Ultrasound practitioners should remember that optimising the examination should not be at the detriment of their health. Some hints and tips to reduce the chance of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders are provided.

  13. Meningioma and schwannoma risk in adults in relation to family history of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Deirdre A.; Linet, Martha S.; Black, Peter M.; Fine, Howard A.; Selker, Robert G.; Shapiro, William R.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about factors that contribute to the development of meningioma and vestibular schwannoma, two intracranial nervous system tumors. We evaluated the risk of these tumors in relation to family history of malignant or benign tumors. Incident cases of meningioma (n = 197) or schwannoma (n = 96) were identified at three U.S. referral hospitals between June 1994 and August 1998. Controls (n = 799) admitted to the same hospitals for nonmalignant conditions were matched to cases on age, sex, race/ethnicity, hospital, and proximity of residence to hospital. We found that risk of meningioma was increased among persons reporting a family history of a benign brain tumor (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–21.0; n = 5) or melanoma (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.2–15.0; n = 5). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an elevated meningioma risk among participants aged 18 to 49 years (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4 –11.0; n = 8) but a reduced risk among older respondents (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1–0.7; n = 3). Family history of cancer did not differ between schwannoma cases and controls, although the statistical power to detect associations was limited. Some relative risk estimates were based on a small number of observations and may have arisen by chance. Inheritance of predisposing genes, shared environmental factors, or both within families with a history of benign brain tumors, melanoma, or possibly breast cancer may be related to altered meningioma risk. PMID:15494094

  14. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  15. Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

  16. Depression, Suicidal Ideation and STD-Related Risk in Homeless Older Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda; Seeley, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the frequency of depression and related constructs of suicidal ideation and hopelessness in a sample of homeless older adolescents and their associations with behaviors, such as infrequent condom use and homosexual experience, that may increase the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD). (BF)

  17. Discrepancy between Mother and Child Reports of Parental Knowledge and the Relation to Risk Behavior Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined discrepancies in mother and child reports of parental knowledge (PK) of a child's whereabouts, activities, and companions, as well as the extent to which discrepancies in reports of PK are related to child risk-taking behavior concurrently and prospectively across two time points. The sample consisted of 219 mother and early…

  18. 7 CFR 331.7 - Registration and related security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.7 Registration and related security risk assessments. (a) Unless exempted under § 331.5, an individual or entity shall not possess, use, or transfer any select agent or toxin without a... the entity's select agents or toxins or with regard to the individuals with access to the...

  19. 7 CFR 331.7 - Registration and related security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.7 Registration and related security risk assessments. (a) Unless exempted under § 331.5, an individual or entity shall not possess, use, or transfer any select agent or toxin without a... the entity's select agents or toxins or with regard to the individuals with access to the...

  20. 7 CFR 331.7 - Registration and related security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.7 Registration and related security risk assessments. (a) Unless exempted under § 331.5, an individual or entity shall not possess, use, or transfer any select agent or toxin without a... the entity's select agents or toxins or with regard to the individuals with access to the...

  1. 7 CFR 331.7 - Registration and related security risk assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.7 Registration and related security risk assessments. (a) Unless exempted under § 331.5, an individual or entity shall not possess, use, or transfer any select agent or toxin without a... the entity's select agents or toxins or with regard to the individuals with access to the...

  2. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  3. Hospitalizations for Students with an Alcohol-Related Sanction: Gender and Pregaming as Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…

  4. Weight-Related Issues and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine D.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with high body mass index (BMI), negative body image, and unhealthy weight control behaviors may be more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than others. Researchers have not fully investigated these relationships in a sample of college students. The authors collected data regarding several weight-related issues and…

  5. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  6. Parental Beliefs and Values Related to Family Risk, Educational Intervention, and Child Academic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Frances A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relation of child-rearing beliefs and values of parents of children entering kindergarten to children's academic achievements. Examined effects of a child-centered educational preschool program for socioeconomically disadvantaged children on parents' beliefs and values. Parents of children at risk differed from other parents in beliefs…

  7. Potential Mediating Pathways through Which Sports Participation Relates to Reduced Risk of Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2010-01-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The…

  8. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  9. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EVALUATING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA FOR USE IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For chemicals with a common mechanism of toxicity, relative potency factors (RPFs) allow dose and exposure measures to be normalized to an equivalent toxicity amount of a model chemical... In ecological risk assessments the large number of possible target species, variety of expo...

  10. Relative potency as a means of evaluating ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) health risks

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Glass, L.R.

    1990-09-01

    In the 1970's, a variety of developments took place to heightened public and scientific interest in electromagnetic fields. During this time, biological studies of nonionizing electromagnetic fields were taking place, but no clear evidence of risks to public health was identified. Then came the surprising epidemiological finding suggesting that 60 Hz magnetic fields may be related to some childhood leukemias. Our particular interest at ORNL was how to interpret the available data with respect to human exposures to the nearly ubiquitous fields. A review of the available data showed that consistent biological effects were difficult to identify. Classical toxicological tests used in chemical risk assessment had not been performed with Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fields but rather a wide range of mechanistic studies had been pursued. To evaluate the level of anticipated hazard or risk there was neither a mechanistic understanding nor a consistent phenomenological outcome. A risk evaluation normally requires one or the other of these two types of information. Two quite different approaches were pursued: meta-analysis and relative potency. The first of these is a method to combine data from similar experiments to enhance the relative statistical power of a collection of small sample size studies, and will not be discussed further. The second, relative potency, will be the focus of this paper. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  11. When performance and risk taking are related: Working for rewards is related to risk taking when the value of rewards is presented briefly.

    PubMed

    Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Valuable monetary rewards can boost human performance on various effortful tasks even when the value of the rewards is presented too briefly to allow for strategic decision making. However, the mechanism by which briefly-presented reward information influences performance has remained unclear. One possibility is that performance after briefly-presented reward information is primarily boosted via activation of the dopamine reward system, whereas performance after very visible reward information is driven more by strategic processes. To examine this hypothesis, we first presented participants with a task in which they could earn rewards of relatively low (1 cent) or high (10 cents) value, and the value information was presented either briefly (17 ms) or for an extended duration (300 ms). Furthermore, responsiveness of the dopamine system was indirectly estimated with a measure of risk taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Results showed that performance after high- compared to low-value rewards was indeed related to the BART scores only when reward information was presented briefly. These results are suggestive of the possibility that brief presentation of reward information boosts performance directly via activating the dopamine system, whereas extended presentation of reward information leads to more strategic reward-driven behavior. PMID:26575108

  12. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. Methods A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants’ socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All analyses were stratified by gender, and multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine associations between work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related risk factors. Results The risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 1.9 times higher among male workers in the kitchen department than males in the room department (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.79), and 2.5 times higher among male workers with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.04). All of the aforementioned cases demonstrated a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Moreover, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 3.3 times higher among female workers aged between 30 and 34 than those aged 24 or younger (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.56-7.04); 0.3 times higher among females in the back office department than those in the room department (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91); 1.6 times higher among females on shift schedules than those who were not (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59); 1.8 times higher among females who performed more intensive work than those who performed less intensive work (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.17-3.02), and; 2.1 times higher among females with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34-3.50). All of the aforementioned cases also displayed a statistically significant association with work-related

  13. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

    2011-01-01

    Background Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. Methods The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. Results It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. Conclusion From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk. PMID:22096411

  14. Relation Between Hepatitis C Virus Exposure and Risk of Osteoporosis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure on bone mineral density without advanced liver disease remains debated. Thus, we assessed the relation between HCV exposure and the risk of osteoporosis.From 2000 to 2011, patients aged >20 years with HCV exposure were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Of the 51,535 sampled patients, 41,228 and 10,307 patients were categorized as the comparison and the HCV exposure cohorts, respectively.The overall incidence of osteoporosis in the HCV exposure cohort was higher than in the comparison cohort (8.27 vs 6.19 per 1000 person-years; crude hazard ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.47). The incidence of osteoporosis, higher in women than in men, increased with age and comorbidity of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart failure. The risk of developing osteoporosis was significantly higher in the HCV exposure cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart failure, stroke, and cirrhosis. However, the risk of osteoporosis contributed by HCV decreased with age and the presence of comorbidity. Furthermore, the risk of osteoporotic fracture did not differ significantly between patients exposed to HCV and the comparison cohorts.HCV increases the risk of osteoporosis, but no detrimental effect on osteoporotic fracture was observed in this study. Furthermore, HCV may be less influential than other risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart failure, in contributing to the development of osteoporosis. PMID:26632720

  15. Relations among affect, abstinence motivation and confidence, and daily smoking lapse risk.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M; Bold, Krysten W; Chapman, Gretchen B; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12-24 hr using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. One hundred and three adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries postquit. Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hr later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours although momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hr. Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments.

  16. Relations among Affect, Abstinence Motivation and Confidence, and Daily Smoking Lapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; McCarthy, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12–24 hours using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. Method 103 adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries post-quit. Results Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hours later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours while momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hours. Conclusion Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  17. A framework for assessing relative risks associated with multiple stressors in Port Valdez, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegers, J.K.; Landis, W.G.; Mortensen, L.S.; Wilson, V.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this assessment is to develop a versatile process that will provide a mechanism for evaluating both present and future risks to this environment. Much of the regulatory and environmental interest in the port has centered around a Ballast Water Treatment facility that treats and discharges up to 30 mgd of oily ballast water brought in by crude oil tankers. However, six point discharges and other potential sources of pollution exist in the area. The authors have delineated eleven subareas in the port in order to identify the potential anthropogenic stressors, as well as the receptors that could be exposed to these stressors. Potential effects were then characterized for each exposure. Each component is ranked and integrated, resulting in a relative risk estimate in each subarea. Both the discernible risks, based on available data, and the data gaps are presented. Uncertainty is expressed as a range of high and low risk associated with each component. Results of the ranking indicate that hydrocarbons released through discharges, contaminated runoff and spills pose the most discernible risk to sediment quality and wildlife in the port. Undetermined, but potentially severe, risks to all ecological components include possible future oil spills, shoreline development, and the introduction of nonindigenous species. The final assessment provides a tool for current and future ecological monitoring efforts in the Port Valdez area.

  18. Estrogen-related genes and their contribution to racial differences in breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Lowe, Kimberly; Doody, David R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chen, Christina T.; Houck, John; Weiss, Linda K.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Spirtas, Robert; McDonald, Jill A.; Strom, Brian L.; Burkman, Ronald T.; Simon, Michael S.; Liff, Jonathan M.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial differences in breast cancer risk, including the risks of hormone receptor subtypes of breast cancer, have been previously reported. We evaluated whether variation in genes related to estrogen metabolism (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, ESR1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HSD17B1, SULT1A1, and UGT1A1) contributes to breast cancer risk and/or racial differences in risk within the CARE study, a multi-centered, population-based case–control study of breast cancer. Genetic variation was assessed as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes, and SNP–hormone therapy (HT) interactions within a subset of 1,644 cases and 1,451 controls, including 949 Black women (493 cases and 456 controls), sampled from the CARE study population. No appreciable associations with breast cancer risk were detected for single SNPs or haplotypes in women overall. We detected SNP–HT interactions in women overall within CYP1B1 (rs1800440; phet = 0.003) and within CYP17A1 (rs743572; phet = 0.009) in which never users of HT were at a decreased risk of breast cancer, while investigated among racial groups, we detected evidence of an SNP–HT interaction with CYP1B1 in White women (p value = 0.02) and with CYP17A1 in Black women (p value = 0.04). This analysis suggests that HT use may modify the effect of variation in estrogen-related genes on breast cancer risk, which may affect Black and White women to a different extent. PMID:22418777

  19. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrend<0.001). The ORs were 1.00, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.48 across quartiles. Associations persisted after the maternal-wGRS was included in the model. There was evidence of an additive contribution of placental and maternal genetic contributions to PA risk. Participants with placental- and maternal-wGRS in the highest quartile, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a 15.57-fold (95% CI 3.34-72.60) increased odds of PA. Placental variants in circadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome. PMID:27186326

  20. Employment and work schedule are related to telomere length in women

    PubMed Central

    Parks, C G; DeRoo, L A; Miller, D B; McCanlies, E C; Cawthon, R M; Sandler, D P

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment and work schedule with shorter DNA telomeres, a marker of cellular ageing and disease risk factor, and consider whether differences were related to health, behaviours and sociodemographic factors, or varied by stress levels or menopausal status. Methods This cross-sectional analysis of 608 women aged 35–74 in the Sister Study examined determinants of relative telomere length (rTL) measured by quantitative PCR in leucocyte DNA. Age-adjusted regression models estimated base pair (bp) rTL differences for current and lifetime schedule characteristics (ie, part-time, full-time or overtime hours; multiple jobs; irregular hours; shiftwork; work at night). Covariates included race, smoking, perceived stress, sleep, physical activity, health and menopausal status, education, marital status, live births, children under 18, measured body mass index and urinary stress hormones. Results Compared with non-employed women with moderate or substantial past work histories (n=190), those currently working full-time (n=247; median 40 h/week) had a shorter rTL, an age-adjusted difference of −329 bp (95% CI −110 to −548). Longer-duration full-time work was also associated with shorter rTL (age-adjusted difference of −472 bp, 95% CI −786 to −158 for 20+ vs 1–5 years). Findings were not explained by health and demographic covariates. However, rTL differences for working at least full-time were greater in women with higher stress and epinephrine levels. Conclusions Current and long-term full-time work were associated with shorter rTL, with differences of similar magnitude to smoking and history of heart disease or diabetes. Longitudinal data with specific stress measures are needed to further evaluate the impact of work schedule on rTL. PMID:21540175

  1. Representative and misrepresentative associations of birth defects in livebirths. Conditions under which relative risks greater than unity in livebirths necessarily imply relative risks greater than unity in all conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Hook, E B; Regal, R R

    1993-03-15

    One may express the relative risk of defect in all conceptuses, r(def), as a function of the relative risk of defect in livebirths, r(def,lb), and in embryonic and fetal deaths, r(def,efd), as r(def) = C(lb)r(def,lb) + C(efd)r(def,efd), where C(lb) and C(efd) are coefficients defined in terms of conceptus and defect viability and lethality. If the relative risk of birth defect in livebirths, r(def,lb), is greater than unity, but the relative risk of defect in all conceptuses, r(def), is equal to or less than unity (or the reverse pattern holds), then the relative risk of defects in livebirths may be said to be "distorting" or "misrepresentative" because it does not reflect the nature of the association in all conceptuses. The authors define and present an explicit expression for a boundary upon the relative risk of defect in livebirths. If the relative risk of defect in livebirths is (validly) greater than this boundary value, then the relative risk in all conceptuses must be greater than unity and the observed relative risk of defect in births is "representative" and not distorting. The authors show that the boundary value is equal to 1/C(lb), where C(lb) is a simple function of the lethality of all unexposed conceptuses, the lethality of unexposed conceptuses with defect, and the relative risk of any embryonic and fetal death. Tables of the boundary relative risk for various values of these variables are presented. Over a very wide range of reference variables, a (valid) relative risk of defect in livebirths of 3.5 or greater implies a positive association with defect in all (recognized) conceptuses in the population studied.

  2. Recent Skin Self-Examination and Doctor Visits in Relation to Melanoma Risk and Tumor Depth

    PubMed Central

    Titus, L.J.; Clough-Gorr, K.; Mackenzie, T.A.; Perry, A.; Spencer, S.K.; Weiss, J.; Abrahams-Gessel, S.; Ernstoff, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the potential benefit of skin self-examination for melanoma prevention and early detection. Objectives To determine whether skin self-examination is associated with reduced melanoma risk, self-detection of tumors, and reduced risk of deeper melanomas. Methods We used data from a population-based case-control study (423 cases, 678 controls) to assess recent skin self-examination in relation to self-detection, melanoma risk and tumor depth (<1 mm; ≥1 mm). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) for associations of interest. Results Skin self-examination conducted 1–11 times during a recent year was associated with a possible decrease in melanoma risk (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.02). Melanoma risk was decreased for those who conducted skin self-examination and saw a doctor (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.79). Among cases, those who examined their skin were twice as likely to self-detect the melanoma (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.38), but self-detection was not associated with shallower tumors. Tumor depth was reduced for those who conducted skin self-examination 1–11 times during a recent year (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.81), but was not influenced by seeing a doctor, or by conducting skin self-examination and seeing a doctor. Conclusions Risk of a deeper tumor and possibly risk of melanoma were reduced by skin self-examination 1–11 times annually. Melanoma risk was markedly reduced by skin self-examination coupled with a doctor visit. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that our findings reflect bias or confounding. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the potential benefits of skin self-examination for melanoma prevention and early detection. PMID:22897437

  3. Risk management regulations of 1996: Why is this a community relations issue?

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloux, S.

    1997-05-01

    The US EPA`s risk management regulations will require approximately 66,000 facilities nationwide to identify and disclose information about hazard assessments (including such worst-case scenarios as the off-site impact of accidental releases of cutely toxic or highly flammable materials), emergency response capabilities, and risk management efforts. These requirements were initiated to let information from these assessments drive action (prevention and preparedness) and stimulate dialogue on the local level. A brief summary of the major aspects of the final rule and their public relations implications is presented.

  4. Risk of fatal rollover in utility vehicles relative to static stability.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L S

    1989-01-01

    The risk of fatal rollover of utility vehicles per 100,000 registered vehicles relative to cars during 1982-87 was strongly correlated to the static stability of the vehicles. Distance between the center of the tires divided by twice the height of center of gravity explained 62 per cent of the variation in fatal rollover rates where rollover was the first harmful event. Statistical controls for 20 major risk factors indicated no correlations that would deflate the correlation between stability and rollover. Low stability utility vehicles roll over more often on the road suggesting that the lateral force of turning is often the tipping force. PMID:2916715

  5. Farm Work-Related Injuries and Risk Factors in South Korean Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyocher; Räsänen, Kimmo; Chae, Hyeseon; Kim, Kyungsu; Kim, Kyungran; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is known to be a risk-filled industry in South Korea, as it is worldwide. The aims of this study were to identify the magnitude of farm work-related injuries and evaluate the association between injury and possible risk factors. Farmers, including farm members (N = 16,160), were surveyed. After excluding 7 subjects with missing data in questions about injury, 16,153 farmer responses were used for the analysis. Of the 16,153 farmers, 3.6% answered having at least one farm work-related injury requiring outpatient treatment or hospitalization during 2012. The proportion of injured men (4.3%) was 1.5 times higher than women (2.9%). From an age perspective, the proportion was 1.3% of those aged 49 or below, 2.7% of those aged 50-59, 4.2% of those aged 60-69, 4.2% of those aged 70-79, and 3.1% of those aged 80 or above. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a stepwise model (forward) for risk factors (gender, age, farm ownership, farm type, work years in agriculture, work months during 2012, night work experience, and work experience under the influence of alcohol). The increased risk of farm work-related injuries significantly remained associated with age, farm ownership, and experience of night work. Further studies should be conducted to consistently identify injury characteristics, especially for old farmers, considering the crop cultivation in Asian countries. PMID:27428880

  6. A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.

    PubMed

    Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0  ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation.

  7. The haplotype-relative-risk (HRR) method for analysis of association in nuclear families

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, M.; Seuchter, S.A.; Baur, M.P. )

    1993-06-01

    One major problem in studying an association between a marker locus and a disease is the selection of an appropriate group of controls. However, this problem of population stratification can be circumvented in a quite elegant manner by family-based methods. The haplotype-relative-risk (HRR) method, which samples nuclear families with a single affected child and uses the parental haplotypes not transmitted to that child as a control individual, represents such a method for estimating the relative risk of a marker phenotype. In the special case of a recessive disease, it was already known that the equivalence of the HRR method with the classical relative risk (RR) obtained from independent samples holds only if the probability [theta] of a recombination between marker and disease locus is zero. The authors extend this result to an arbitrary mode of inheritance. Furthermore, they compare the distribution of the estimators for HRR and RR and show that, in the case of a positive linkage disequilibrium between a marker and disease allele, the distribution of the estimator for HRR is (stochastically) smaller than that for RR, irrespective of the recombination fraction. The practical implication of this result is that, for the HRR method, there is no tendency to give unduly high risk estimators, even for [theta] > 0. Finally, the authors give an expression for the standard error of the estimator for HRR by taking into account the nonindependence of transmitted and nontransmitted parental marker alleles in the case of [theta] > 0. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Police-Related Experiences and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests experiences with police are related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk among women working as sex workers. However, little is known about the links between specific police-related behaviors and HIV vulnerability. We examine whether 5 police-related experiences are associated with measures of HIV risk and violence among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India, and consider the implications for HIV prevention. FSWs at least 18 years of age (n = 835) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age at start of sex work, and sex work venue, we assessed police-related experiences reported by FSWs in relation to HIV risk behaviors and violence. Results showed having sex with police to avoid trouble, giving gifts to police to avoid trouble, having police take condoms away, experiencing a workplace raid, and being arrested were associated with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, inconsistent condom use, acceptance of more money for sex without a condom, and experience of client violence. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting police–FSW interactions to reduce HIV vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:22043036

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeon-Young; Shin, Jin-Young; Jo, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important outcome measure in chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is known to be associated with impaired HRQoL. However, few studies have examined HRQoL in individuals at high risk of CVD. Methods Using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, we analyzed data from 10,307 adults aged ≥30 years. The study subjects were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their Framingham risk score-a 10-year estimate of CVD risk: <10.0% (low risk), 10.0%-19.9% (moderate risk), and ≥20.0% (high risk). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Results A significantly higher proportion of high-risk subjects than low-risk participants had impaired HRQoL (defined as the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index); this held true even after adjustment for confounding factors in multivariable logistic regression analysis (men: odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.11; women: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08). In terms of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% was significantly associated with self-reported problems of mobility in men (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.02-4.90), and of mobility (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24), self-care (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09-4.22), and usual activity problems (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.78) in women. Conclusion A high CVD risk is associated with impaired HRQoL. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% is an independent predictor of impaired HRQoL in the general population; in particular, of mobility problems in men, and of mobility, self-care, and usual activity problems in women. PMID:26634104

  10. Genetic variants primarily associated with type 2 diabetes are related to coronary artery disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Henning; Loley, Christina; Lieb, Wolfgang; Pencina, Michael J; Nelson, Christopher P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Peloso, Gina M; Voight, Benjamin F; Reilly, Muredach P; Assimes, Themistocles L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hengstenberg, Christian; Laaksonen, Reijo; McPherson, Ruth; Roberts, Robert; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Thompson, John R; König, Inke R; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk are unclear. We aimed to assess this association by studying genetic variants that have been shown to associate with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). If the association between diabetes and CAD is causal, we expected to observe an association of these variants with CAD as well. Methods and Results We studied all genetic variants currently known to be associated with T2DM at a genome-wide significant level (p<5*10−8) in CARDIoGRAM, a genome-wide data-set of CAD including 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. Out of the 44 published T2DM SNPs 10 were significantly associated with CAD in CARDIoGRAM (OR>1, p<0.05), more than expected by chance (p=5.0*10−5). Considering all 44 SNPs, the average CAD risk observed per individual T2DM risk allele was 1.0076 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9973–1.0180). Such average risk increase was significantly lower than the increase expected based on i) the published effects of the SNPs on T2DM risk and ii) the effect of T2DM on CAD risk as observed in the Framingham Heart Study, which suggested a risk of 1.067 per allele (p=7.2*10−10 vs. the observed effect). Studying two risk scores based on risk alleles of the diabetes SNPs, one score using individual level data in 9856 subjects, and the second score on average effects of reported beta-coefficients from the entire CARDIoGRAM data-set, we again observed a significant - yet smaller than expected - association with CAD. Conclusions Our data indicate that an association between type 2 diabetes related SNPs and CAD exists. However, the effects on CAD risk appear to be by far lower than what would be expected based on the effects of risk alleles on T2DM and the effect of T2DM on CAD in the epidemiological setting. PMID:26074316

  11. Increased risk of cancer among relatives of patients with lung cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yongtang; Xu, Yingchun; Xu, Ming; Xue, Saoli

    2005-01-01

    Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression analysis model. Results The data revealed a significantly greater overall risk of cancer (OR = 1.82, P < 0.01) in the proband group. The relatives of lung cancer probands maintained an increased risk of non-lung cancer (P < 0.05) after adjusting for confounder factors. The crude odds ratio of a proband family having one family member with cancer was 1.67 compared with control families. Proband families were 2.56 times more likely to have two other family members with cancer. For three cancers and four or more cancers, the risk increased to 3.50 and 5.91, respectively. The most striking differences in cancer prevalence between proband and control families were noted for cancer risk among female relatives. The strongest effects were for not only lung cancer in any female relatives (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.60–3.64) and mothers (OR 2.78, 95%CI 1.23–5.12) and sisters (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.26–3.97), but also non-lung cancer in females and mothers (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.26–3.01, and OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.28–4.40, respectively). Conclusion These data support the hypothesis of a genetic susceptibility to cancer in families with lung cancer, and the female genetic susceptibility to cancer might be greater than male. PMID:16281985

  12. Oral health-related risk behaviours and attitudes among Croatian adolescents--multiple logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Spalj, Stjepan; Spalj, Vedrana Tudor; Ivanković, Luida; Plancak, Darije

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of oral health-related risk behaviours in relation to dental status, attitudes, motivation and knowledge among Croatian adolescents. The assessment was conducted in the sample of 750 male subjects - military recruits aged 18-28 in Croatia using the questionnaire and clinical examination. Mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and Significant Caries Index (SIC) were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were crated for analysis. Although models of risk behaviours were statistically significant their explanatory values were quite low. Five of them--rarely toothbrushing, not using hygiene auxiliaries, rarely visiting dentist, toothache as a primary reason to visit dentist, and demand for tooth extraction due to toothache--had the highest explanatory values ranging from 21-29% and correctly classified 73-89% of subjects. Toothache as a primary reason to visit dentist, extraction as preferable therapy when toothache occurs, not having brushing education in school and frequent gingival bleeding were significantly related to population with high caries experience (DMFT > or = 14 according to SiC) producing Odds ratios of 1.6 (95% CI 1.07-2.46), 2.1 (95% CI 1.29-3.25), 1.8 (95% CI 1.21-2.74) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.21-2.74) respectively. DMFT> or = 14 model had low explanatory value of 6.5% and correctly classified 83% of subjects. It can be concluded that oral health-related risk behaviours are interrelated. Poor association was seen between attitudes concerning oral health and oral health-related risk behaviours, indicating insufficient motivation to change lifestyle and habits. Self-reported oral hygiene habits were not strongly related to dental status.

  13. Gay-Related Rejection Sensitivity as a Risk Factor for Condomless Sex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Katie; Pachankis, John E

    2016-04-01

    Gay-related rejection sensitivity has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes, but its relationship to condomless sex remains unexamined. The present study investigated the role of gay-related rejection sensitivity as a predictor of condomless sex. Gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires measuring rejection sensitivity and condom use self-efficacy as well as a timeline followback interview regarding past 90-day sexual behaviors. Gay-related rejection sensitivity was positively associated with the number of condomless anal sex acts with casual partners, and condom use self-efficacy mediated this association. These findings have important implications for effective HIV prevention efforts among this at-risk population.

  14. Sport-related concussions: a review of epidemiology, challenges in diagnosis, and potential risk factors.

    PubMed

    Noble, James M; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2013-12-01

    Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a common mild traumatic brain injury among young, active individuals, affecting approximately 300,000 young American adults annually. In this review of the epidemiology of SRC, we describe the challenges in identifying concussion occurrence and review the studies describing concussion incidence in various sports. In high risk contact sports, American football, soccer (European football), hockey, lacrosse, and basketball athletes experience concussion unintentionally during the course of play. Among these, football concussion incidence is reviewed in greatest detail because it has the highest incidence among the contact sports, and some studies have shown long-term neurophysiologic and neurodegenerative outcomes. Mechanisms of injury differ significantly by sport and can be potential targets for concussion risk mitigation. Despite the apparent high incidence of SRC, risk factors determining initial concussion, recovery periods, recurrence, and long-term outcomes remain poorly understood and warrant further study exploring the influence of age, sex, genetics, and athletic factors.

  15. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  16. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  17. Impact of polygenic schizophrenia-related risk and hippocampal volumes on the onset of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Harrisberger, F; Smieskova, R; Vogler, C; Egli, T; Schmidt, A; Lenz, C; Simon, A E; Riecher-Rössler, A; Papassotiropoulos, A; Borgwardt, S

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in hippocampal volume are a known marker for first-episode psychosis (FEP) as well as for the clinical high-risk state. The Polygenic Schizophrenia-related Risk Score (PSRS), derived from a large case–control study, indicates the polygenic predisposition for schizophrenia in our clinical sample. A total of 65 at-risk mental state (ARMS) and FEP patients underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. We used automatic segmentation of hippocampal volumes using the FSL-FIRST software and an odds-ratio-weighted PSRS based on the publicly available top single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS). We observed a negative association between the PSRS and hippocampal volumes (β=−0.42, P=0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(−0.72 to −0.12)) across FEP and ARMS patients. Moreover, a higher PSRS was significantly associated with a higher probability of an individual being assigned to the FEP group relative to the ARMS group (β=0.64, P=0.03, 95% CI=(0.08–1.29)). These findings provide evidence that a subset of schizophrenia risk variants is negatively associated with hippocampal volumes, and higher values of this PSRS are significantly associated with FEP compared with the ARMS. This implies that FEP patients have a higher genetic risk for schizophrenia than the total cohort of ARMS patients. The identification of associations between genetic risk variants and structural brain alterations will increase our understanding of the neurobiology underlying the transition to psychosis. PMID:27505231

  18. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Disease-Related Autoantibodies in Individuals at Increased Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mikuls, Ted R.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Deane, Kevin D.; Payne, Jeffrey B.; O'Dell, James R.; Yu, Fang; Sayles, Harlan; Weisman, Michael H.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Buckner, Jane H.; Keating, Richard M.; Derber, Lezlie A.; Robinson, William H.; Holers, V. Michael; Norris, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) with the presence of autoantibodies in individuals at risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Participants included: 1) a cohort enriched with HLA-DR4 and 2) those at risk for RA by virtue of having a first-degree relative with RA. None satisfied 1987 ACR RA classification criteria. Autoantibodies measured included anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF; nephelometry, IgA, IgM, IgG). Individuals were considered autoantibody positive (n = 113) with ≥ 1 positive autoantibody with individuals further categorized as `high-risk' (n = 38; positive ACPA or ≥ 2 RF assays). Autoantibody negative individuals served as comparators (n = 171). Antibody to Pg, P. intermedia (Pi), and F. nucleatum (Fn) were measured. Associations of bacterial antibodies with group status were examined using logistic regression. Results Anti-Pg concentrations were higher in high-risk (p = 0.011) and autoantibody positive group (p = 0.010) than in the autoantibody negative group. There were no group differences in anti-Pi or anti-Fn concentrations. After multivariable adjustment, anti-Pg concentrations (but not anti-Pi or anti-Fn) were significantly associated with autoantibody positive and high-risk status (p < 0.05). Conclusion Immunity to Pg, but not Pi or Fn, is significantly associated with the presence of RA-related autoantibodies in individuals at risk for RA. These results support the hypothesis that infection with Pg may play a central role in the early loss of tolerance to self-antigens in RA pathogenesis. PMID:22736291

  19. Impact of polygenic schizophrenia-related risk and hippocampal volumes on the onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Harrisberger, F; Smieskova, R; Vogler, C; Egli, T; Schmidt, A; Lenz, C; Simon, A E; Riecher-Rössler, A; Papassotiropoulos, A; Borgwardt, S

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in hippocampal volume are a known marker for first-episode psychosis (FEP) as well as for the clinical high-risk state. The Polygenic Schizophrenia-related Risk Score (PSRS), derived from a large case-control study, indicates the polygenic predisposition for schizophrenia in our clinical sample. A total of 65 at-risk mental state (ARMS) and FEP patients underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. We used automatic segmentation of hippocampal volumes using the FSL-FIRST software and an odds-ratio-weighted PSRS based on the publicly available top single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS). We observed a negative association between the PSRS and hippocampal volumes (β=-0.42, P=0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(-0.72 to -0.12)) across FEP and ARMS patients. Moreover, a higher PSRS was significantly associated with a higher probability of an individual being assigned to the FEP group relative to the ARMS group (β=0.64, P=0.03, 95% CI=(0.08-1.29)). These findings provide evidence that a subset of schizophrenia risk variants is negatively associated with hippocampal volumes, and higher values of this PSRS are significantly associated with FEP compared with the ARMS. This implies that FEP patients have a higher genetic risk for schizophrenia than the total cohort of ARMS patients. The identification of associations between genetic risk variants and structural brain alterations will increase our understanding of the neurobiology underlying the transition to psychosis. PMID:27505231

  20. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  1. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children < age 6, and 19,209 controls from California birth records within 2km (1.3 miles) (ALL) and 6km (3.8 miles) (AML) of an air toxics monitoring station between 1990–2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3rd trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95%CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child’s first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children. PMID:24472648

  2. Polymorphisms in fatty-acid-metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Birgit; Linseisen, Jakob; Beckmann, Lars; Müller-Decker, Karin; Canzian, Federico; Hüsing, Anika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vogel, Ulla; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Overvad, Kim; Hansen, Rikke D; Knüppel, Sven; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Koumantaki, Yvoni; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eiliv; Huerta Castaño, José M; Muñoz, Xavier; Rodriguez, Laudina; Barricarte, Aurelio; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Hallmans, Göran; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Morois, Sophie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Chajes, Veronique; Jenab, Mazda; Boffetta, Paolo; Vineis, Paolo; Mouw, Traci; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Nieters, Alexandra

    2010-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred and ninety two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were selected using pairwise tagging with an r(2) cutoff of 0.8 and a minor allele frequency of >5%. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Haplotype analysis was performed using a generalized linear model framework. On the genotype level, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 were associated with higher risk for CRC, whereas prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) was associated with lower CRC risk. A significant inverse association (P < 0.006) was found for PTGER2 GGG haplotype, whereas HPGD AGGAG and PLA2G3 CT haplotypes were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) associated with higher risk of CRC. Based on these data, we present for the first time the association of HPGD variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk. PMID:20042636

  3. Prenatal factors and infant feeding in relation to risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Lindsay Frazier, A; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-12-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, but little work has considered a girl's early life and her risk for BBD in adulthood. We investigated factors, from pre-conception through infant feeding practices, in relation to subsequent BBD risk in young women. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9032 females, born 1980-1987, who completed questionnaires annually from 1996 through 2001, then 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2013. In 1996, their mothers provided each participant's birth weight and length, gestational age, biological father's height, and infant feeding factors (e.g., breast-fed, type of formula). In 1999, their mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during index pregnancy. Beginning in 2005, daughters (18 years+) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 142 cases, through 2013). Logistic regression estimated associations between early life factors and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Girls whose mother's BMI prior to pregnancy was 20-25 kg/m(2) were at lower risk of BBD as young women (OR = 0.66, p = 0.04, vs. maternal pre-pregnancy BMI < 20). Girls whose mothers gained 20 + pounds (vs. <20 pounds) during pregnancy were at lower risk (among full-term singleton births: OR = 0.48, p = 0.007, if mother gained 20-35 pounds). However, neither birth weight nor BMI at birth were associated with subsequent BBD risk. We found no evidence that infant feeding practices were linked to BBD. A healthy maternal BMI before pregnancy and sufficient weight gain during pregnancy may produce daughters at lower risk for BBD as young women. Further examination of these findings is needed.

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Wu, Joanne; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P.; Hooper, Claire; Foong, Athena W. P.; Varma, Rohit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors, ocular perfusion pressure with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected from a population-based sample of self-identified adult Latinos using standardized protocols for assessing blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and stereoscopic macular photography. Hypertension was defined as either a history of hypertension or systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg +/− diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85mmHg. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was defined as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and IOP. AMD was diagnosed from photographic grading by masked trained graders. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results Gradable retinal photographs were available in 5875 participants. After adjusting for age, sex, and cigarette smoking, higher DBP and uncontrolled diastolic hypertension were associated with exudative AMD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1−2.8; and OR, 3.3; CI, 1.2−9.3, respectively). Higher OPP was associated with a decreased risk of GA (OR, 0.4 per 10mmHg; CI, 0.3−0.5). Low pulse pressure was associated with a lower risk of exudative AMD (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1−0.6). Obesity was associated with increased retinal pigment (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.0−2.3). Conclusion These data suggest that in Latinos cardiovascular risk factors may play a role in advanced AMD. Given that Latinos have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, an intervention aimed at reducing these risk factors may also have a beneficial impact on the risk of having early and advanced AMD. PMID:18222193

  5. Fluence-related risk coefficients using the Harderian gland data as an example.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W; Powers-Risius, P; Alpen, E L; Fry, R J

    1992-01-01

    The risk of radiation-induced cancer to space travelers outside the earth's magnetosphere will be of concern on missions to the Moon and beyond to Mars. High energy galactic cosmic rays with high charge (HZE particles) will penetrate the spacecraft and the bodies of the astronauts, sometimes fragmenting into nuclear secondary species of lower charge but always ionizing densely, thus causing cellular damage which may lead to malignant transformation. To quantitate this risk, the concept of dose equivalent (in which a quality factor Q as a function of LET is assumed) may not be adequate, since different particles of the same LET may have different efficiencies for tumor induction. Also, RBE values on which quality factors are based depend on response to low-LET radiation at low doses, a very difficult region for which to obtain reliable experimental data. Thus, we introduce a new concept, a fluence-related risk coefficient (F), which is the risk of a cancer per unit particle fluence and which we call the risk cross section. The total risk is the sum of the risk from each particle type: sigma i integral Fi(Li) phi i(Li) dLi, where Li is the LET and phi i(Li) is the fluence-LET spectrum of the ith particle type. As an example, tumor prevalence data in mice are used to estimate the probability of mouse Harderian gland tumor induction per year on an extra-magnetospheric mission inside an idealized shielding configuration of a spherical aluminum shell 1 g/cm2 thick. The combined shielding code BRYNTRN/GCR is used to generate the LET spectra at the center of the sphere. Results indicate a yearly prevalence at solar minimum conditions of 0.06, with 60% of this arising from charge components with Z between 10 and 28, and two-thirds of the contribution arising from LET components between 10 and 200 keV/micrometers. PMID:11537038

  6. Risk assessment related to veterinary biologicals: specific issues in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Ward, D E

    1995-12-01

    The author reviews both technical and socio-economic issues in developing nations, in relation to veterinary biologicals. Health risk assessment is a specific process to estimate the likelihood that animals, humans or ecological systems will be affected adversely by a chemical or physical agent, or biological product, under a specific set of conditions. Some technical issues (quality assurance, good manufacturing practice, education of end-users, field monitoring) apply equally well in developed, industrialised and in developing, pre-industrialised nations. Many regions have documented unique diseases (trypanosomosis, tick diseases, theileriosis) or high disease prevalence which may influence risk assessment results. This emphasises the need for scientifically-valid risk assessment methodologies in developing nations. Developing nations also have various socio-economic concerns, which may not be based on scientific fact but, nonetheless, affect trade in, and use of, veterinary biologicals. These non-scientific but perceived problems and issues are briefly discussed, and possible solutions are presented. The way in which countries deal with such perceived problems and issues in a context of internationally harmonised norms for risk assessment impinges on livestock farmers in developing nations. Finally, the author presents possible ways to correct the potentially widening cost gap between conventional, proven veterinary biologicals and newly-developed products. The results of risk assessment of veterinary biologicals influence risk management in both developed and less-developed nations. It is important to agree upon scientifically-based risk management guidelines which may be applied in all countries. The effect of the agreements of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on trade in veterinary biologicals in developing nations is reviewed.

  7. Vegetables- and antioxidant-related nutrients, genetic susceptibility, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Wang, Sophia S.; Lim, Unhee; Cozen, Wendy; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; Li, Yan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Davis, Scott; Chanock, Stephen J.; Ward, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to DNA oxidation, carcinogen metabolism, and altered DNA repair may increase non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk, whereas vegetables-and antioxidant-related nutrients may decrease risk. We evaluated the interaction of a priori-defined dietary factors with 28 polymorphisms in these metabolic pathways. Incident cases (n = 1,141) were identified during 1998–2000 from four cancer registries and frequency-matched to population-based controls (n = 949). We estimated diet-gene joint effects using two-phase semi-parametric maximum-likelihood methods, which utilized genotype data from all subjects as well as 371 cases and 311 controls with available diet information. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were lower among common allele carriers with higher dietary intakes. For the GSTM3 3-base insertion and higher total vegetable intake, the risk was 0.56 (0.35–0.92, p interaction = 0.03); for GSTP1 A114V and higher cruciferous vegetable intake, the risk was 0.52 (0.34–0.81, p interaction = 0.02); for OGG1 S326C and higher daily zinc intake, the risk was 0.71 (0.47–1.08, p interaction = 0.04) and for XRCC3 T241M and higher green leafy vegetable intake, the risk was 0.63 (0.41–0.97, p interaction = 0.03). Calculation of the false positive report probability determined a high likelihood of falsely positive associations. Although most associations have not been examined previously with NHL, our results suggest the examined polymorphisms are not modifiers of the association between vegetable and zinc intakes and NHL risk. PMID:18204928

  8. Prenatal factors and infant feeding in relation to risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Lindsay Frazier, A; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-12-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, but little work has considered a girl's early life and her risk for BBD in adulthood. We investigated factors, from pre-conception through infant feeding practices, in relation to subsequent BBD risk in young women. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9032 females, born 1980-1987, who completed questionnaires annually from 1996 through 2001, then 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010, and 2013. In 1996, their mothers provided each participant's birth weight and length, gestational age, biological father's height, and infant feeding factors (e.g., breast-fed, type of formula). In 1999, their mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during index pregnancy. Beginning in 2005, daughters (18 years+) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 142 cases, through 2013). Logistic regression estimated associations between early life factors and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Girls whose mother's BMI prior to pregnancy was 20-25 kg/m(2) were at lower risk of BBD as young women (OR = 0.66, p = 0.04, vs. maternal pre-pregnancy BMI < 20). Girls whose mothers gained 20 + pounds (vs. <20 pounds) during pregnancy were at lower risk (among full-term singleton births: OR = 0.48, p = 0.007, if mother gained 20-35 pounds). However, neither birth weight nor BMI at birth were associated with subsequent BBD risk. We found no evidence that infant feeding practices were linked to BBD. A healthy maternal BMI before pregnancy and sufficient weight gain during pregnancy may produce daughters at lower risk for BBD as young women. Further examination of these findings is needed. PMID:26582399

  9. Extracolonic cancer risk in patients with serrated polyposis syndrome and their first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Hazewinkel, Yark; Reitsma, Johannes B; Nagengast, Fokko M; Vasen, Hans F; van Os, Theo A M; van Leerdam, Monique E; Koornstra, Jan-Jacob; Dekker, Evelien

    2013-12-01

    Serrated polyposis syndrome is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. Although the underlying genetic cause of the condition is unknown, first-degree relatives of patients with serrated polyposis have an increased risk for colorectal cancer compared with the general population. This suggests an inheritable component. Since other hereditary polyposis syndromes are often associated with an expanded extracolonic tumour spectrum, our aim was to determine the extra colonic cancer risks for patients with serrated polyposis and their first-degree relatives and compare these risks with the general population. Serrated polyposis index patients from 5 medical centres were included. Demographic data concerning age, sex and reported malignancies were ascertained by reviewing medical charts and histopathology reports. Family history was obtained by examining pedigree records from the department of Clinical Genetics. Incidence rates of extracolonic malignancies were compared with the general population through a person-year analysis, adjusted for age and sex. Population-based incidence data were derived from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. A total of 105 patients with serrated polyposis and 341 first-degree relatives were included. Among the patients with serrated polyposis, 9 extracolonic cancers were observed, compared to 13 expected malignancies in the general population (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.36-1.33; p = 0.27). Among the first-degree relatives, 44 extracolonic malignancies were observed, compared to 48 expected malignancies (RR 0.92 95% CI 0.69-1.24; p = 0.60). In this study, the overall incidence of extracolonic malignancies in patients with serrated polyposis and their first-degree relatives was not increased. Large international studies are required to confirm these results.

  10. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October-November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  11. Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Pelser, Colleen; Dazzi, Carmelo; Graubard, Barry I.; Lauria, Carmela; Vitale, Francesco; Goedert, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Before AIDS, endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was noted to occur in volcanic areas and was postulated to result from dirt chronically embedded in the skin of the lower extremities. The primary cause of all KS types is KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, but co-factors contribute to the neoplasia. We investigated whether residential exposure volcanic or related soils was associated with the risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) in Sicily. Methods Risk of incident cKS (n=141) compared to population-based KSHV seropositive controls (n=123) was estimated for residential exposure to four types of soil, categorized with maps from the European Soil Database and direct surveying. Questionnaire data provided covariates. Results Residents in communities high in luvisols were approximately 2.7-times more likely to have cKS than those in communities with no luvisols. Risk was not specific for cKS on the limbs, but it was elevated approximately 4–5-fold with frequent bathing or tap water drinking in high luvisols communities. Risk was unrelated to communities high in andosols, tephra, or clay soils. Conclusions Iron and alumino-silicate clay, major components of luvisols, may increase cKS risk, but formal investigation and consideration of other soil types and exposures are needed. PMID:19576540

  12. Flavonoid intake and the risk of age-related cataract in China's Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingna; Gao, Weiqi; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing age-related cataract (ARC). Flavonoids are widely distributed in foods of plant origin, and the objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the association between the intakes of the five flavonoid subclasses and the risk of ARC. Subjects/methods A population-based case-control study (249 cases and 66 controls) was carried out in Heilongjiang province, which is located in the northeast of China, and where intakes and availability of fresh vegetables and fruits can be limited. Dietary data gathered by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to calculate flavonoid intake. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Results No linear associations between risk of developing ARC and intakes of total dietary flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ol, flavanone, total flavones or total flavonols were found, but quercetin and isorhamnetin intake was inversely associated with ARC risk (OR 11.78, 95% CI: 1.62–85.84, p<0.05, and OR 6.99, 95% CI: 1.12–43.44, p<0.05, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, respectively). Conclusion As quercetin is contained in many plant foods and isorhamnetin in very few foods, we concluded that higher quercetin intake may be an important dietary factor in the reduction of the risk of ARC. PMID:26652740

  13. Racial Discrimination and HIV-related Risk Behaviors in Southeast Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Kathryn C.; Hormes, Julia M.; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined the relationship between cumulative experiences of racial discrimination and HIV-related risk taking, and whether these relationships are mediated through alcohol use among African Americans in semi-rural southeast Louisiana. Methods Participants (N = 214) reported on experiences of discrimination, HIV sexual risk-taking, history of sexually transmitted infection (STI), and health behaviors including alcohol use in the previous 90 days. Experiences of discrimination (scaled both by frequency of occurrence and situational counts) as a predictor of a sexual risk composite score as well as a history of STI was assessed using multivariate linear and logistic regression, respectively, including tests for mediation by alcohol use. Results Discrimination was common in this cohort, with respondents confirming their experience on average 7 of the 9 potential situations and on more than 34 separate occasions. After adjustment, discrimination was significantly associated with increasing sexual risk-taking and lifetime history of STI when measured either by frequency of occurrence or number of situations, although there was no evidence that these relationships were mediated through alcohol use. Conclusions Cumulative experiences of discrimination may play a significant role in sexual risk behavior and consequently increase vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. PMID:26685822

  14. Fluence-related risk coefficients using the Harderian gland data as an example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E. L.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Fry, R. J. M.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept is introduced for assessing the risk of radiation-induced cancer to space travelers: a fluence-related risk coefficient F (called the risk cross section), which is the risk of a cancer per unit particle fluence for a given particle type. Fs are functions of the LET of the particles in the radiation field and, when integrated over fluence-LET spectra and summed, yield the risk of the endpoint of interest. As an example, tumor prevalence data in mice are used to estimate the probability of the induction of mouse Harderian-gland tumor per year on an extramagnetospheric mission inside an idealized shielding configuration of a spherical 1 g/sq cm hick aluminum shell. Results indicate a yearly tumor prevalence of 0.06 at solar minimum conditions, with 60 percent of this arising from charge components with Z between 10 and 28, and two-thirds of the contribution arising from LET components between 10 and 200 keV/micron.

  15. Models of risk assessments for biologicals or related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Moos, M

    1995-12-01

    In the context of veterinary biologicals, environmental risk assessment means the evaluation of the risk to human health and the environment (which includes plants and animals) connected with the release of such products. The following categories or types of veterinary biologicals can be distinguished: non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMOs) (inactivated/live) GMOs (inactivated/live) carrier products related products (e.g. non-specific "inducers'). Suitable models used in risk assessment for these products should aim to identify all possible adverse effects. A good working model should lead, at least, to a qualitative judgement on the environmental risk of the biological product (e.g. negligible, low, medium, severe, unacceptable). Quantifiable outcomes are rare; therefore, the producer of a biological product and the European control authorities should accept only models which are based on testable points and which are relevant to the type of product and its instructions for use. In view of animal welfare aspects, models working without animals should be preferred. In recent years, some of these methods have been integrated into safety tests described in European Union Directives and in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. By reviewing vaccine/registration problems (e.g. Aujeszky's disease live vaccine for pigs, and vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine), several models used in risk assessment are demonstrated and discussed.

  16. Association of Variants in Estrogen-Related Pathway Genes with Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Sarah K.; Kwon, Erika M.; Fu, Rong; Kolb, Suzanne; Feng, Ziding; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Through mediation of estrogen receptors, estradiol has been shown to have both carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic effects on the prostate. We performed a population-based case-control study to investigate variants in estrogen-related genes ESR1, ESR2, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 and the potential association with risk of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods We evaluated prostate cancer risk conferred by 73 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,304 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,266 age-matched controls. Analysis included stratification by clinical features and assessment of environmental modifiers. Results There was evidence of altered risk of developing prostate cancer for variants in ESR1, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1, however, only CYP1B1 rs1056836 retained significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. An association with risk for more aggressive prostate cancer was observed for variants in ESR1, ESR2, and CYP19A1, but none was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. There was no effect modification by obesity. Conclusions Germline genetic variation of these estrogen pathway genes may contribute to risk of prostate cancer. Additional studies to validate these results and examine the functional consequence of validated variants are warranted. PMID:22549291

  17. Reward-biased risk appraisal and its relation to juvenile versus adult crime.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    To what extent is criminal behavior in adolescence attributable to risk appraisal? Using two large cross-sectional samples (N = 929, age range: 10-30 years; and N = 1,357, age range: 12-24 years), we examine whether (a) reward bias in risk appraisal is more prominent in adolescence and (b) the association between risk appraisal and criminal behavior is stronger during adolescence than at other ages. In Study 1, criminal behavior was self-reported; in Study 2, it was defined by involvement with the court. Perceived chances of a negative outcome, seriousness of consequences, and benefits versus costs of various risky activities were assessed to gauge reward bias in risk appraisal. The findings indicate that reward bias is elevated during the adolescence years. Also, risk appraisal bears a stronger relation to self-reported crime in middle adolescence and to official law-breaking behavior in early adolescence than at other ages. The findings are consistent with a dual-systems model of adolescent development and align with recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions addressing juvenile offenders' culpability. PMID:23646919

  18. Polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Gang; Gu, Mingyong; Zhou, Zhenyu; Cao, Xuecheng

    2014-01-01

    Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP5) Ala1330Val polymorphism and fracture; however, the conclusions remained controversial. We therefore performed an extensive meta-analysis on 10 published studies with 184479 subjects. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models. LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; I(2) = 29%). We also found that this polymorphism increased fracture risk in Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis according to gender, women was significantly associated with risk of fracture. In the subgroup analysis by type of fracture, LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism showed increased osteoporotic fracture risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that an increased risk of fracture was associated with the LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism.

  19. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast, having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35.

  20. Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-15

    Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years. PMID:24173550

  1. Analysis of cancer risk related to longitudinal information on smoking habits

    SciTech Connect

    Akiba, Suminori

    1994-11-01

    Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has followed the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) cohort consisting of atomic bomb survivors and unexposed subjects for more than 40 years. The information on their lifestyles, including smoking habits, has been collected in the past 25 years through two mail surveys of the entire LSS cohort and three interview surveys of a subcohort for the biennial medical examination program. In the present study an attempt was made to consolidate the information on smoking habits obtained from the five serial surveys, and then a risk analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of updating the smoking information on the smoking-related risk estimates for lung cancer. The estimates of smoking-related risk became larger and estimates of dose response became sharper by updating smoking information using all of the data obtained from the five serial surveys. Analyses were also conducted for cancer sites other than lung. The differences in risk estimates between the two approaches were not as evident for the other cancer sites as for lung. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Psychosocial stress related to the loss of a close relative the year before or during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    László, Krisztina D; Liu, Xiao Qin; Svensson, Tobias; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten; Vestergaard, Mogens; Cnattingius, Sven

    2013-07-01

    The role of stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has only been investigated in a few studies, and the findings are not conclusive. We analyzed whether maternal bereavement shortly before or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. We conducted a cohort study of singleton births in Denmark during 1978-2008 and in Sweden during 1973-2006 (n=4 122 490) by linking national population-based registers. Mothers were considered exposed to bereavement if they lost a parent, a sibling, a partner, or a child the year before or during pregnancy (n=124 553). The risk of preeclampsia was slightly increased for women who lost a close relative during the 6 months before conception (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.23) or during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29). Exposure during these periods tended to be more closely related to early preeclampsia (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation; OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67) than to late preeclampsia (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20). The strongest association was observed between loss of a child and early preeclampsia when the exposure window was from 6 months before pregnancy until start of second trimester (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.46-6.61). Our results related to timing of exposure suggest that severe stress may influence early placentation. However, the public health implications of our findings are limited in populations with a low prevalence of severe stress exposures.

  3. Association of FCRL3 Genetic Polymorphisms With Endometriosis-Related Infertility Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Guang; Wang, Surong; Zhang, Shiqian; Xie, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene was reported to be linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases, including endometriosis-related infertility. However, this linkage has not been studied in Chinese population and there has been no meta-analysis on the interrelationship of FCRL3 gene and endometriosis-related infertility. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between FCRL3 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis-related infertility in Han Chinese, and a further meta-analysis was conducted to confirm our results. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7528684 [FCRL3_3], rs11264799 [FCRL3_4], rs945635 [FCRL3_5], and rs3761959 [FCRL3_6]) on FCRL3 gene were genotyped in a case–control cohort composed of 217 patients suffering from endometriosis-related infertility and 220 healthy controls using cleaved amplification polymorphism sequence-tagged sites (polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR–RFLP). Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to evaluate the association quantitatively. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of previous studies including the present study was implemented through Stata 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). We found an approximately 1.4-fold significantly increased frequency of the FCRL3_3 variant in women with endometriosis-related infertility over the controls (OR = 1.41 [95% CI = 1.08–1.84], P = 0.013). However, no significant difference was found between women with endometriosis-related infertility and controls for FCRL3_4, FCRL3_5, and FCRL3_6. Regardless of the symptoms and the revised classification of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) stage of endometriosis, there was a significant association between FCRL3_3 variant and an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility. Meta-analysis of previous studies combined with the present study further confirmed the association between FCRL3_3 and the

  4. Sleep disordered breathing and the risk of psoriasis among US women.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Jackson, Chandra L; Li, Tricia Y; Wu, Shaowei; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disordered breathing [snoring and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS)] is common in the US and has been associated with negative health outcomes. There has been no long-term prospective study on the association between sleep disordered breathing and psoriasis risk. We prospectively evaluated the association between OSAHS and snoring and incident psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in 71,598 women over an 11-year period (1997-2008) in the Nurses' Health Study. Participants received follow-up questionnaires every 2 years and were asked about snoring, diagnosis of OSAHS, and diagnosis of psoriasis and PsA. We studied individuals who reported data on snoring and OSAHS prior to the diagnosis of psoriasis or PsA. We used Cox proportional hazards to calculate age-adjusted and multivariate risk ratios. Over the follow-up period, there were 524 cases of psoriasis. Women with OSAHS were more likely to have a higher BMI, be hypertensive, have cardiovascular disease, and have type 2 diabetes (p < 0.001 for all). The age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of psoriasis among women with OSAHS was 2.19 (95% CI 1.39-3.45), the multivariate RR was 1.93 (95% CI 1.21-3.08). Further adjusting for night shift work, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes, the multivariate RR was 1.91 (95% CI 1.20-3.05). There was no effect modification by BMI (p = 0.52), hypertension (p = 0.34), or snoring (p = 0.91). OSAHS was not associated with an increased risk of PsA. Although women with OSAHS were more likely to be snorers, we did not find a statistically significant relationship between snoring and the risk of confirmed psoriasis. In this study, we found that women with OSAHS had a significantly increased risk of psoriasis.

  5. An Investigation of the Relations between School Concentrations of Student Risk Factors and Student Educational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Rouse, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the unique relations between school concentrations of student risk factors and measures of reading, mathematics, and attendance. It used an integrated administrative data system to create a combined data set of risks (i.e., birth risks, teen mother, low maternal education, homelessness, maltreatment, and lead exposure) for…

  6. Sex differences in the longitudinal relations among family risk factors and childhood externalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Drabick, Deborah A G; Monahan, Kathryn C; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-03-01

    Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., negativity and low warmth), and child externalizing symptoms at 24 months and first grade in a community-based sample of 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal depression and negative parental behaviors were associated with concurrent externalizing behaviors, though maternal depression may be differentially linked to boys' and girls' externalizing problems. The relation between depression and boys' externalizing symptoms was more pronounced at 24 months, and over time, the relation between maternal depression and boys' externalizing symptoms decreased in magnitude, whereas this relation increased among girls. PMID:19271833

  7. [Risk assessment of work-related stress: the case of a public administration].

    PubMed

    Loi, Michela; Bellò, Benedetta; Mattana, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of work related stress assessment in a public administration, based on an objective methodology (Romano, 2009). The Ispes1 forms (2010) have been used to perform the assessment. They have been filled during some focus group in which 45 workers have been involved, divided into 7 homogeneous groups relying on their department, back-office vs front-office typology of work and the office collocation. According to the Grounded Theory perspective, through the content analysis three further risk factors arose, comparing to the Ispesl forms, such as: (a) the quality of communication, (b) the relationship among and with leaders and colleagues, (c) the presence of discriminatory behaviours. Hence, on the basis of the results, mostly for a deeper analysis of work related stress assessment in a public administration, we suggest to consider these further risk factors.

  8. Relational Psychotherapy Mothers’ Group: A developmentally informed intervention for at-risk mothers

    PubMed Central

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    The Relational Psychotherapy Mothers’ Group (RPMG), a developmentally informed, supportive psychotherapy designed to serve heroin-addicted mothers with children up to 16 years of age, aims at addressing psychosocial vulnerabilities, and facilitating optimal parenting, among at-risk mothers. We present preliminary evidence on the efficacy of RPMG as an “add on” treatment in comparison with standard methadone counseling alone. At the end of the 24-week treatment period, mothers receiving RPMG plus standard methadone counseling demonstrated lower levels of risk for child maltreatment, greater involvement with their children, and more positive psychosocial adjustment than women who received methadone counseling alone. Children of RPMG participants also reflected fewer problems in multiple areas. At 6 months posttreatment, RPMG recipients continued to be at a relative advantage, although the magnitude of group differences was often attenuated. Notably, urinalyses indicated that RPMG mothers showed greater improvements in levels of opioid use over time than comparison mothers. PMID:10847626

  9. The influence of environmental hazard maps on risk beliefs, emotion, and health-related behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J

    2013-08-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N = 446) answered questions about a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem's seriousness mediated attributes' influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior.

  10. Task-based measures of image quality and their relation to radiation dose and patient risk

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Hoeschen, Christoph; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Little, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of task-based assessment of image quality is reviewed in the context of imaging with ionizing radiation, and objective figures of merit (FOMs) for image quality are summarized. The variation of the FOMs with the task, the observer and especially with the mean number of photons recorded in the image is discussed. Then various standard methods for specifying radiation dose are reviewed and related to the mean number of photons in the image and hence to image quality. Current knowledge of the relation between local radiation dose and the risk of various adverse effects is summarized, and some graphical depictions of the tradeoffs between image quality and risk are introduced. Then various dose-reduction strategies are discussed in terms of their effect on task-based measures of image quality. PMID:25564960

  11. Pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata in parents at-risk for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether parents with varying degrees of child physical abuse (CPA) risk differed in pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Participants included 91 (51 low CPA risk and 40 high CPA risk) general population parents. Participants were randomly assigned to complete either an easy or a difficult anagram task. Pain tolerance and pain sensitivity were assessed using a cold pressor task. Accessibility of aggression-related schemata was assessed at the outset of the data collection session and at the end of the session using a word completion task. Parents' self-reported negative affect was assessed three times over the course of the study: baseline, after the anagram task, and after the cold pressor task. As expected, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents reported higher levels of negative affect at each time point. Moreover, after completing the difficult anagram task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited higher pain sensitivity during the cold pressor task. Following completion of the cold pressor task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited greater accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Collectively, these findings indicate that under certain conditions, high-risk parents experience a confluence of aggression-related risk factors (i.e., negative affect, pain sensitivity, and aggression-related information processes) that may predispose them to aggressive behavior.

  12. Relative risk site evaluation for buildings 7740 and 7741 Fort Campbell, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Gilmore, T.J.; Bronson, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    Buildings 7740 and 7741 are a part of a former nuclear weapon`s storage and maintenance facility located in the southeastern portion of Fort Campbell, Kentucky. This underground tunnel complex was originally used as a classified storage area beginning in 1949 and continuing until 1969. Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently completed a detailed Relative Risk Site Evaluation of the facility. This evaluation included (1) obtaining engineering drawings of the facility and associated structures, (2) conducting detailed radiological surveys, (3) air sampling, (4) sampling drainage systems, and (5) sampling the underground wastewater storage tank. Ten samples were submitted for laboratory analysis of radionuclides and priority pollutant metals, and two samples submitted for analysis of volatile organic compounds. No volatile organic contaminants were detected using field instruments or laboratory analyses. However, several radionuclides and metals were detected in water and/or soil/sediment samples collected from this facility. Of the radionuclides detected, only {sup 226}Ra may have come from facility operations; however, its concentration is at least one order of magnitude below the relative-risk comparison value. Several metals (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and antimony) were found to exceed the relative-risk comparison values for water, while only arsenic, cadmium, and lead were found to exceed the relative risk comparison values for soil. Of these constituents, it is believed that only arsenic, beryllium, mercury, and lead may have come from facility operations. Other significant hazards posed by the tunnel complex include radon exposure and potentially low oxygen concentrations (<19.5% in atmosphere) if the tunnel complex is not allowed to vent to the outside air. Asbestos-wrapped pipes, lead-based paint, rat poison, and possibly a selenium rectifier are also present within the tunnel complex.

  13. Identification as Overweight by Medical Professionals: Relation to Eating Disorder Diagnosis and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Wang, Annie Z.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Holland, Jodi C.; Altman, Myra; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Discussions about weight between medical professionals and young adults may increase risk of eating disorders (EDs). Clarifying the relation between screening for overweight and ED risk is needed. Methods 548 college-age women were classified as at-risk (n=441) or with an ED (n=107), and were assessed for disordered eating attitudes, behaviors, and relevant history, including, “Has a doctor, nurse, or other medical professional ever told you that you were overweight?” Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relations between being identified as overweight and current disordered eating behaviors, attitudes, and ED diagnosis, without and with covariates (history of weight-related teasing, history of an ED, family history of being identified as overweight, and current body mass index). Results 146 (26.6%) women reported being previously identified as overweight by a medical professional. There was no relation between being previously identified as overweight and having an ED. Those identified as overweight were more likely to have weight/shape concerns above a high-risk cutoff, but showed no difference in dietary restraint, binge eating, purging behaviors, or excessive exercise compared to those not identified. Conclusions Being previously identified as overweight by a medical professional was associated with increased weight/shape concerns but not with current disordered eating behaviors or ED status. Minimizing the potential negative effects of overweight screening on weight and shape concerns by providing patients with strategies to increase healthy lifestyle behaviors and long-term support for healthy weight loss goals may have a positive impact on reducing the public health problem of overweight and obesity. PMID:25602172

  14. [The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night risks].

    PubMed

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Gonnelli, Irene Margherita; Garbarino, Sergio; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangelil, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night work. Night work, in the last 30-40 years, has been extended to almost all areas of employment. The potential effects on workers' health--related to the disruption of circadian rhythms--are now well defined and studied in the Literature. All issues about the protection of safety and health for night workers are governed by the Italian Legislative Decree no. 66/2003 and subsequent amendments. The management of night work hasn't been included into the main Law on Occupational Safety and Health (Italian Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments) and a coordination between the two disciplines is desirable. The occupational health physician, as a global consultant for the protection of all health issues into a company, has to evaluate the potential effects of night work on health, both individually and as a group of workers. In this way, the physician may use either traditional tools (history, physical examination, blood tests) or innovative tools (questionnaires, health promotion programs, interventions on shift schedules). In the management of night work is useful to employ schedules that respect both psychophysical integrity and social welfare of workers and the needs of the production. The occupational health physician plays a significant role in information and training of workers, both individually and as a group of workers, and in the organization of health promotion programs (whit a voluntary participation by the workers). PMID:27311142

  15. Relative risk estimation of Chikungunya disease in Malaysia: An analysis based on Poisson-gamma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2015-05-01

    Disease mapping is a method to display the geographical distribution of disease occurrence, which generally involves the usage and interpretation of a map to show the incidence of certain diseases. Relative risk (RR) estimation is one of the most important issues in disease mapping. This paper begins by providing a brief overview of Chikungunya disease. This is followed by a review of the classical model used in disease mapping, based on the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), which we then apply to our Chikungunya data. We then fit an extension of the classical model, which we refer to as a Poisson-Gamma model, when prior distributions for the relative risks are assumed known. Both results are displayed and compared using maps and we reveal a smoother map with fewer extremes values of estimated relative risk. The extensions of this paper will consider other methods that are relevant to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods, in order to inform and direct government strategy for monitoring and controlling Chikungunya disease.

  16. Oral contraceptive use after conception in relation to the risk of congenital urinary tract anomalies.

    PubMed

    Li, D K; Daling, J R; Mueller, B A; Hickok, D E; Fantel, A G; Weiss, N S

    1995-01-01

    The authors conducted a case-control study of the relation of OC use after conception to the occurrence of congenital urinary tract anomalies (CUTAs). Singleton CUTA cases with no known chromosomal abnormality from seven counties in western Washington State born during the period January 1, 1990-December 31, 1991 were identified through the Washington State Birth Defect Registry. Controls without birth defects were randomly selected from singleton births that occurred in the same year as the cases in five large hospitals in King County. Mothers of the 118 cases and 369 controls were interviewed to obtain their contraceptive history as well as other information. Mothers of nine cases (7.6%) and eight controls (2.2%) had taken OCs at some time during the pregnancy. After adjustment for birth year and county of maternal residence, OC use after conception was associated with an almost five-fold increased risk of having a baby with a CUTA [odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95 percent confidence interval (CI), 1.6-14.1] relative to no contraception at or after conception. Use of other contraceptive methods after conception was not related to the risk of CUTAs. OC use during the 3 or 6 months prior to the conception also was not associated with the risk of CUTAs. Further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, perinatal exposure to exogenous agents, and past OC use did not change the results, nor did restricting the analysis to residents of King County.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Risk factors for severe intimate partner violence and violence-related injuries among women in India.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Renner, Lynette M; Stockman, Jamila K; Mittal, Mona; Decker, Michele R

    2014-01-01

    Relying on an ecological framework, we examined risk factors for severe physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and related injuries among a nationally representative sample of women (N = 67,226) in India. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey, a nationally representative household-based health surveillance system. Logistic regression analyses were used to generate the study findings. We found that factors related to severe physical IPV and injuries included low or no education, low socioeconomic status, rural residence, greater number of children, and separated or divorced marital status. Husbands' problem drinking, jealousy, suspicion, control, and emotionally and sexually abusive behaviors were also related to an increased likelihood of women experiencing severe IPV and injuries. Other factors included women's exposure to domestic violence in childhood, perpetration of IPV, and adherence to social norms that accept husbands' violence. Practitioners may use these findings to identify women at high risk of being victimized by severe IPV or injuries for prevention and intervention strategies. Policies and programs that focus on empowering abused women and holding perpetrators accountable may protect women at risk for severe IPV or injuries that may result in death.

  18. Neural mechanisms regulating different forms of risk-related decision-making: Insights from animal models.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Moorman, David E; Young, Jared W; Setlow, Barry; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-11-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a growing interest in the neural underpinnings of cost/benefit decision-making. Recent studies with animal models have made considerable advances in our understanding of how different prefrontal, striatal, limbic and monoaminergic circuits interact to promote efficient risk/reward decision-making, and how dysfunction in these circuits underlies aberrant decision-making observed in numerous psychiatric disorders. This review will highlight recent findings from studies exploring these questions using a variety of behavioral assays, as well as molecular, pharmacological, neurophysiological, and translational approaches. We begin with a discussion of how neural systems related to decision subcomponents may interact to generate more complex decisions involving risk and uncertainty. This is followed by an overview of interactions between prefrontal-amygdala-dopamine and habenular circuits in regulating choice between certain and uncertain rewards and how different modes of dopamine transmission may contribute to these processes. These data will be compared with results from other studies investigating the contribution of some of these systems to guiding decision-making related to rewards vs. punishment. Lastly, we provide a brief summary of impairments in risk-related decision-making associated with psychiatric disorders, highlighting recent translational studies in laboratory animals.

  19. Chemical and biological work-related risks across occupations in Europe: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Work-related health inequalities are determined to some extent by an unequal exposure to chemical and biological risk factors of disease. Although their potential economic burden in the European Union (EU-25) might be substantial, comprehensive reviews focusing on the distribution of these risks across occupational groups are limited. Thus, the main objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the exposure to chemical and biological hazards across occupational groups. In addition, main industrial applications of hazardous substances are identified and some epidemiological evidence is discussed regarding societal costs and incidence rates of work-related diseases. Methods Available lists of carcinogens, sensitisers, mutagens, reprotoxic substances and biological hazards were consulted. For each work-related hazard the main industrial application was identified in order to assess which ISCO occupational groups may be associated with direct exposure. Where available, information on annual tonnage production, risk assessment of the substances and pathogens, and other relevant data were collected and reported. Results Altogether 308 chemical and biological hazards were identified which may account to at least 693 direct exposures. These hazards concentrate on the following major occupational groups: technicians (ISCO 3), operators (ISCO 8), agricultural workers (ISCO 6) and workers in elementary occupations (ISCO 9). Common industrial applications associated with increased exposure rates relate among others to: (1) production or application of pigments, resins, cutting fluids, adhesives, pesticides and cleaning products, (2) production of rubber, plastics, textiles, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and (3) in agriculture, metallurgy and food processing industry, Societal costs of the unequal distribution of chemical and biological hazards across occupations depend on the corresponding work-related diseases and may range from 2900 EUR to 126000 EUR per

  20. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  1. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    SciTech Connect

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  2. Cancer-related lymphedema risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra D; Dean, Julie A; Oliveri, Jill M; Harrop, J Phil

    2012-10-20

    PURPOSE Cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is an incurable condition associated with lymph-involved cancer treatments and is an increasing health, quality of life (QOL), and cost burden on a growing cancer survivor population. This review examines the evidence for causes, risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and impact of this largely unexamined survivorship concern. METHODS PubMed and Medline were searched for cancer-related LE literature published since 1990 in English. The resulting references (N = 726) were evaluated for strength of design, methods, sample size, and recent publication and sorted into categories (ie, causes/prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and QOL). Sixty studies were included. Results Exercise and physical activity and sentinel lymph node biopsy reduce risk, and overweight and obesity increase risk. Evidence that physiotherapy reduces risk and that lymph node status and number of malignant nodes increase risk is less strong. Perometry and bioimpedence emerged as attractive diagnostic technologies, replacing the use of water displacement in clinical practice. Swelling can also be assessed by measuring arm circumference and relying on self-report. Symptoms can be managed, not cured, with complex physical therapy, low-level laser therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Sequelae of LE negatively affect physical and mental QOL and range in severity. However, the majority of reviewed studies involved patients with breast cancer; therefore, results may not be applicable to all cancers. CONCLUSION Research into causes, prevention, and effect on QOL of LE and information on LE in cancers other than breast is needed. Consensus on definitions and measurement, increased patient and provider awareness of signs and symptoms, and proper and prompt treatment/access, including psychosocial support, are needed to better understand, prevent, and treat LE.

  3. Sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Keum, NaNa; Cao, Yin; Oh, Hannah; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Orav, John; Wu, Kana; Fuchs, Charles S; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-01

    A recent meta-analysis found that sedentary behaviors are associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Yet, the finding on TV viewing time, the most widely used surrogate of sedentary behaviors, was based on only two studies. Furthermore, light-intensity activities (e.g., standing and slow walking), non-sedentary by posture but close to sedentary behaviors by Metabolic Equivalent Task values, have not been investigated in relation to CRC risk. Thus, we prospectively analyzed the relationships based on 69,715 women from Nurses' Health Study (1992-2010) and 36,806 men from Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988 - 2010). Throughout follow-up, time spent on sedentary behaviors including sitting watching TV and on light-intensity activities were assessed repeatedly; incidence of CRC was ascertained. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models from each cohort. A total of 1,119 and 913 incident cases were documented from women and men, respectively. The multivariable HR comparing ≥ 21 versus < 7 hr/week of sitting watching TV was 1.21 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.43, ptrend =.01) in women and 1.06 (95% CI = 0.84 to 1.34, ptrend =.93) in men. In women, those highly sedentary and physically less active had an approximately 41% elevated risk of CRC (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.92) compared with those less sedentary and physically more active. The other sedentary behaviors and light-intensity activities were not related to CRC risk in women or men. In conclusion, we found that prolonged sitting time watching TV was associated with an increased CRC risk in women but not in men. PMID:26649988

  4. INTAKE OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND SELECTED MICRONUTRIENTS IN RELATION TO THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Alecia S.; Qi, Dai; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Friedmann, Janet M.; Jin, Fan; Zheng, Wei

    2006-01-01

    High fruit and vegetable intake has been linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer, but evidence is not consistent. We investigated the associations of breast cancer risk with vegetables, fruits and related micronutrient intake in a population-based case– control study among Chinese women in Shanghai, where dietary patterns differ substantially from other study populations. Included in the study were 1,459 incident breast cancer cases and 1,556 frequency-matched controls. Usual dietary habits were assessed by in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure strength of the associations. There was no association between breast cancer risk and total vegetable intake. The risk of breast cancer declined, however, with increasing intake of dark yellow-orange vegetables (trend test, p = 0.02), Chinese white turnips (trend test, p ≤ 0.001), and certain dark green vegetables (trend test, p ≤ 0.001) with adjusted OR in the highest quintile being 0.79 (95% CI = 0.60 – 0.98), 0.67 (95% CI = 0.53– 0.85) and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.51– 0.83) respectively. Intake of fruits, except watermelons and apples, was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (p-values for trend tests ≤0.05). Our study suggests that high intake of certain vegetables and fruits may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:12704679

  5. Development and Validation of a Video Measure for Assessing Women’s Risk Perception for Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Dearing, Ronda L.; Hequembourg, Amy; Testa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective Using an iterative process, a series of three video scenarios were developed for use as a standardized measure for assessing women’s perception of risks for alcohol-related sexual assault (SA). The videos included ambiguous and clear behavioral and environmental risk cues. Method Focus group discussions with young, female heavy drinkers (N = 42) were used to develop three videos at different risk levels (low, moderate, and high) in Study 1. Realism, reliability, and validity of the videos were assessed using multiple methods in Studies 2 and 3. One hundred-four women were used to compare differences in risk perception across the video risk level in Study 2. In Study 3 (N = 60), we assessed women’s perceptions of the low and high risk videos under conditions of no alcohol and alcohol. Results The realism and reliability of the videos were good. Women who viewed the low risk video compared to women who viewed the moderate and high risk videos perceived less risk for SA. We found an interaction between alcohol and risk perception such that, women in the alcohol condition were less likely to perceive risk when watching the high risk video. Conclusions As the video risk level increased, women’s perception of risk increased. These findings provide convergent evidence for the validity of the video measure. Given the limited number of standardized scenarios for assessing risk perception for sexual assault, our findings suggest that these videos may provide a needed standardized measure. PMID:27747131

  6. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    PubMed

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  7. Managing glacier related risks in the Chucchún Catchment, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Randy; Gonzáles, César; Price, Karen; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Cochachin, Alejo; García, Javier; Mesa, Luis

    2015-04-01

    On April 11 2010, the city of Carhuaz and settlements in the Chucchún Catchment (Ancash region, Peru) suffered the impact of a glacier lake outburst flood. An avalanche of rock and ice from the Mount Hualcán hit the glacier lake 513, triggering a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) of 1 million m3 which destroyed farmland and several infrastructures. Although there was no loss of human life, the event caused panic in the population. In consequence, the Municipality of Carhuaz prioritized GLOF-related risk management. The Glacier Project, funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and executed by CARE Peru and the University of Zurich, fosters the coordination among public institutions (Glaciological Unit of the National Water Authority, the Ministry of Environment and Municipality) and the population for risk management. In this contribution we present all components of the risk management strategy as well as the lessons learned during the implementation. Risk management involves managing both glacier hazard as well as the vulnerability of the population. In this framework a glaciological and geomorphological characterization of Mount Hualcán and lake 513 was perfomed in order to model past and potential future outburst floods and to assess the slope stability conditions. Based on three potential GLOF scenarios of different magnitudes, a hazard map was produced for the entire catchment, which served as the basis for the vulnerability and risk assessment as well as for the design and the implementation of an Early Warning System (EWS), including evacuation planning. The EWS consists of 4 components: 1) knowledge of risk, through hazard and vulnerability characterization; 2) monitoring and alert, through the installation of monitoring stations on lake 513 for detecting avalanches with geophones and cameras; 3) broadcasting and communications, through the implementation of communication protocols between the Municipality of Carhuaz and emergency

  8. Prediagnostic Sex Steroid Hormones in Relation to Male Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.; Key, Tim J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Michels, Karin B.; Sesso, Howard D.; Ursin, Giske; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Wood, Shannon N.; Falk, Roni T.; Parisi, Dominick; Guillemette, Chantal; Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Habel, Laurel A.; Isaacs, Claudine J.; Riboli, Elio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cook, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies have implicated a variety of hormone-related risk factors in the etiology of male breast cancers, no previous studies have examined the effects of endogenous hormones. Patients and Methods Within the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, an international consortium comprising 21 case-control and cohort investigations, a subset of seven prospective cohort studies were able to contribute prediagnostic serum or plasma samples for hormone quantitation. Using a nested case-control design, multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses estimated odds ratios and 95% CIs for associations between male breast cancer risk and 11 individual estrogens and androgens, as well as selected ratios of these analytes. Results Data from 101 cases and 217 matched controls were analyzed. After adjustment for age and date of blood draw, race, and body mass index, androgens were found to be largely unrelated to risk, but circulating estradiol levels showed a significant association. Men in the highest quartile had an odds ratio of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.10 to 5.58) compared with those in the lowest quartile (trend P = .06). Assessment of estradiol as a ratio to various individual androgens or sum of androgens showed no further enhancement of risk. These relations were not significantly modified by either age or body mass index, although estradiol was slightly more strongly related to breast cancers occurring among younger (age < 67 years) than older men. Conclusion Our results support the notion of an important role for estradiol in the etiology of male breast cancers, similar to female breast cancers. PMID:25964249

  9. Are preterm newborns who have relative hyperthyrotropinemia at increased risk of brain damage?

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Soto-Rivera, Carmen L.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Allred, Elizabeth; Kuban, Karl C. K.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Agus, Michael; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to disentangle the contributions of hyperthyrotropinemia (an indicator of thyroid dysfunction) (HTT) and intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI) to structural and functional indicators of brain damage. Methods We measured the concentrations of TSH on day 14, and of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected during the first 2 postnatal weeks from 786 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who were not considered to have hypothyroidism. We defined hyperthyrotropinemia (HTT) as a TSH concentration in the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14 and ISSI was defined as a concentration in the top quartile for gestational age of a specific inflammation-related protein on two separate days a week apart during the first two postnatal weeks. We first assessed the risk of brain damage indicators comparing 1) neonates who had HTT to those without (regardless of ISSI), and 2) neonates with HTT only, ISSI only, or HTT+ ISSI, to those who were exposed to neither HTT nor ISSI. HTT was defined as a TSH concentration in the highest quartile for gestational age on postnatal day 14. Results In univariable models that compared those with HTT to those without, HTT was not significantly associated with any indicator of brain damage. In models that compared HTT only, ISSI only, and HTT+ISSI, to those with neither, children with ISSI only or with HTT+ISSI were at significantly higher risk of ventriculomegaly [odds ratios (OR) ranged from 2–6], while those with HTT only were at significantly reduced risk of a hypoechoic lesion [ORs ranged from 0.2–0.4]. Children with HTT only had a higher risk of quadriparesis and those with ISSI alone had a higher risk of hemiparesis [ORs ranged from 1.6–2.4]. Elevated risk of a very low mental development score was associated with both ISSI only and with HTT+ISSI while a very low motor development score and microcephaly were associated with HTT+ISSI. Conclusions The association

  10. Measuring Socioeconomic Inequalities in Relation to Malaria Risk: A Comparison of Metrics in Rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tusting, Lucy S; Rek, John C; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Staedke, Sarah G; Kamya, Moses R; Bottomley, Christian; Johnston, Deborah; Lines, Jo; Dorsey, Grant; Lindsay, Steve W

    2016-03-01

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) is an important risk factor for malaria, but there is no consensus on how to measure SEP in malaria studies. We evaluated the relative strength of four indicators of SEP in predicting malaria risk in Nagongera, Uganda. A total of 318 children resident in 100 households were followed for 36 months to measure parasite prevalence routinely every 3 months and malaria incidence by passive case detection. Household SEP was determined using: 1) two wealth indices, 2) income, 3) occupation, and 4) education. Wealth Index I (reference) included only asset ownership variables. Wealth Index II additionally included food security and house construction variables, which may directly affect malaria. In multivariate analysis, only Wealth Index II and income were associated with the human biting rate, only Wealth Indices I and II were associated with parasite prevalence, and only caregiver's education was associated with malaria incidence. This is the first evaluation of metrics beyond wealth and consumption indices for measuring the association between SEP and malaria. The wealth index still predicted malaria risk after excluding variables directly associated with malaria, but the strength of association was lower. In this setting, wealth indices, income, and education were stronger predictors of socioeconomic differences in malaria risk than occupation. PMID:26811432

  11. Measuring Socioeconomic Inequalities in Relation to Malaria Risk: A Comparison of Metrics in Rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tusting, Lucy S; Rek, John C; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Staedke, Sarah G; Kamya, Moses R; Bottomley, Christian; Johnston, Deborah; Lines, Jo; Dorsey, Grant; Lindsay, Steve W

    2016-03-01

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) is an important risk factor for malaria, but there is no consensus on how to measure SEP in malaria studies. We evaluated the relative strength of four indicators of SEP in predicting malaria risk in Nagongera, Uganda. A total of 318 children resident in 100 households were followed for 36 months to measure parasite prevalence routinely every 3 months and malaria incidence by passive case detection. Household SEP was determined using: 1) two wealth indices, 2) income, 3) occupation, and 4) education. Wealth Index I (reference) included only asset ownership variables. Wealth Index II additionally included food security and house construction variables, which may directly affect malaria. In multivariate analysis, only Wealth Index II and income were associated with the human biting rate, only Wealth Indices I and II were associated with parasite prevalence, and only caregiver's education was associated with malaria incidence. This is the first evaluation of metrics beyond wealth and consumption indices for measuring the association between SEP and malaria. The wealth index still predicted malaria risk after excluding variables directly associated with malaria, but the strength of association was lower. In this setting, wealth indices, income, and education were stronger predictors of socioeconomic differences in malaria risk than occupation.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway in relation to lung cancer risk and survival

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jinyu; Xu, Fangxiu; Qu, Jinli; Wang, Yu; Gao, Ming; Yu, Herbert; Qian, Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that vitamin D may have protective effects against cancer development or tumor progression. To search for additional evidence, we investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms involved in the vitamin D pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated common genetic polymorphisms associated with the vitamin D pathway in relation to NSCLC in a case-control study of 603 newly diagnosed NSCLC patients and 661 matched healthy controls. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, the expression of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 were measured in 153 tumor samples and their associations with genotypes and patient survival were also analyzed. In the case-control comparison, we found SNP rs3782130 (CYP27B1), rs7041 (GC), rs6068816 and rs4809957 (CYP24A1) associated with NSCLC risk. The risk of NSCLC was increased with the number of risk alleles. CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression were significantly different between tumor and normal tissues in NSCLC. High CYP27B1 expression was associated with better overall survival, and the expression was different by the rs3782130 genotype. The study suggests that some genetic polymorphisms involved in the vitamin D pathway may associate with NSCLC risk, and one of the polymorphisms (rs3782130) may affect gene expression and patient survival. PMID:25544771

  13. Conjugated Bisphenol A (BPA) in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Liebert, Cara A.; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Julia A.; Saal, Frederick S. vom; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration at the time of the missed period and miscarriage risk. Design Retrospective cohort of prospectively collected serum samples. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients Women presenting for early pregnancy monitoring with singleton pregnancies. Intervention Stored serum samples from 4-5 weeks gestation were analyzed for conjugated serum BPA concentrations. Main Outcomes Live birth, miscarriage, and chromosome content of miscarriage. Results Of the 115 included subjects, there were 47 live births and 68 clinical miscarriages (46 aneuploid and 22 euploid). Median conjugated BPA concentrations were higher in women with miscarriages than those with live births (0.101 vs 0.075 ng/ml). Women with the highest quartile of conjugated BPA had an increased relative risk of miscarriage (1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.96) compared to women in the lowest quartile. We found a similar increase risk for both euploid and aneuploid miscarriages. Conclusions Maternal conjugated BPA was associated with higher risk of aneuploid and euploid miscarriage in this cohort. The impact of reducing individual exposures on future pregnancy outcomes deserves further study. PMID:24746738

  14. Risk for work-related fatigue among the employees on semiconductor manufacturing lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Hui-I; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2015-03-01

    To examine the potential risk factors for work-related fatigue (WRF) among workers in modern industries, the authors analyzed the records of need-for-recovery questionnaires and health checkup results for 1545 employees. Compared with regular daytime workers, and after adjusting for confounders, the workers adapting to day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) had a 4.0-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-5.9) increased risk for WRF, higher than the 2.2-fold risk (95% CI = 1.5-3.3) for persistent shift workers. Based on highest education level, the male employees with university degrees had the highest adjusted odds ratio (a-OR) 2.8 (95% CI = 1.0-7.8) for complaining of WRF versus compulsory education group. For female workers, currently married/cohabiting status was inversely associated with WRF (a-OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9), and child-rearing responsibility moderately increased WRF risk (a-OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.7). Day-and-night RSW and the adaptation, educational levels of males, and domestic factors for females contributed to WRF among semiconductor manufacturing employees.

  15. Prospectively assessed early life experiences in relation to cortisol reactivity in adolescents at risk for asthma.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kim; Leung, Donald Y M; Mrazek, David A; Klinnert, Mary D

    2013-03-01

    Altered cortisol reactivity in individuals with asthma likely increases the risk of inflammation in the face of stress. Understanding antecedents of cortisol reactivity enhances knowledge of factors affecting asthma. Forty-eight subjects genetically predisposed for asthma, recruited from a study that assessed them from birth, completed a laboratory stress procedure and self-report measures at ages 17-19 years. Observation and parent reports from age 0 to 2 years were used to create a parent child relationship risk variable and to define criteria for a cumulative risk variable. In repeated measures analysis of 46 adolescents, those who had experienced early parent child relationship problems, specifically insecure attachment, had an attenuated cortisol stress response, even after controlling for concurrent psychological function and recent stressors (F = 4.6, p < .005). Cortisol stress response was not related to asthma status. This study supports a relationship between the parent child relationship during the first 2 years of life and later cortisol response to stress in youth at genetic risk for asthma.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  17. Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt

    2009-01-01

    A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…

  18. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  19. Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related to neural connectivity patterns underlying phonological awareness in children.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Kirsten, Holger; Kraft, Indra; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Neef, Nicole; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Emmrich, Frank; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia.

  20. The association between statin use and risk of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74–1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66–0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80–0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77–1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention. PMID:26658620

  1. Potential mediating pathways through which sports participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J

    2010-09-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for American youth. Researchers examining sport participation and suicidal behavior have regularly found inverse relationships. This study represents the first effort to test a model depicting potential mechanisms through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal ideation. The participants were 450 undergraduate students. Measures assessed participants' involvement in university-run sports and other activities; frequency of physical activity; and perceived social support, self-esteem, depression, hopelessness, loneliness, and suicidal ideation. Regression analyses confirmed a path model and tested for mediation effects. Vigorous activity mediated relationships between sport participation and self-esteem and depression; and self-esteem and depression mediated the relationship between vigorous activity and suicidal ideation. Social support mediated relationships between sport participation and depression, hopelessness, and loneliness; and each of these risk factors partially mediated the relationship between social support and suicidal ideation. However no variable fully mediated the relationship between sport participation and suicidal ideation. This study provides a foundation for research designed to examine pathways through which sport participation relates to reduced risk of suicidal behavior.

  2. The impact of smoking-related illness in the ED: an attributable risk model.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the clinical and economic impact of smoking among adult emergency department (ED) patients. An attributable risk analysis of patients seen in 2 urban EDs in 1998 was performed. Data were obtained from hospital databases, national sources describing the prevalence of smoking in the state, and risk ratios for smoking-related illnesses. Of 78,617 patient visits, 12,573 (16.0%) had any smoking-related International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code. The smoking-attributable risk fraction (SARF) for all patients was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7%-5.0%). Of 13,245 admissions, 6.8% (95% CI 6.4%-7.2%) were smoking attributable. Of $296,962,685 in hospital charges, 10.0% (95% CI 9.9%-10.1%) were smoking attributable. The SARFs for ED visits, admissions, and charges for men were higher than for women (all P <.0001). Smoking-attributable illness accounts for 4.9% of ED adult visits, 6.8% of ED adult admissions, and 10.0% of hospital charges. The use of ED-based smoking intervention remains to be determined.

  3. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio) to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk). The excess relative risk (ERR) used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices) is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense) between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices) in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided) using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  4. Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

  5. The association between statin use and risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao

    2015-12-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74-1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention.

  6. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women.

  7. Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern wild turkey hens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, D.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Stewart, M.D.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.

  8. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women. PMID:27622169

  9. Risk factors associated with asbestos-related diseases: a community-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asbestos is a first level carcinogen. However, few epidemiological studies analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and follow up these conditions in the general population. Pleural mesothelioma, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, is the most representative asbestos-related disease. The objectives of this study are to analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and to investigate the incidence of new clinical manifestations in patients already diagnosed with some form of ARD. Methods/Design We have designed a matched case–control study with follow up of both cohorts from a population of a health district of the Barcelona province that has been exposed to asbestos for a period of 90 years. Discussion A better understanding of asbestos-related diseases should improve i) the clinical and epidemiological follow up of patients with this condition; ii) the design of new treatment strategies; iii) and the development of preventive activities. At the end of the study, the two cohorts created in this study (affected cases and healthy controls) will constitute the basis for future research. PMID:23915043

  10. Trends in alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors among college students

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-impaired driving is a major public health problem. National studies indicate that about 25% of college students have driven while intoxicated in the past month and an even greater percentage drive after drinking any alcohol and/or ride with an intoxicated driver. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in these various alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors as students progressed through their college experience. Methods: A cohort of 1,253 first-time first-year students attending a large, mid-Atlantic university were interviewed annually for four years. Repeated measures analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate age-related changes in prevalence and frequency of each behavior (i.e., ages 19 to 22). Results: At age 19, 17% wt of students drove while intoxicated, 42%wt drove after drinking any alcohol, and 38%wt rode with an intoxicated driver. For all three driving behaviors, prevalence and frequency increased significantly at age 21. Males were more likely to engage in these behaviors than females. To understand the possible relationship of these behaviors to changes in drinking patterns, a post-hoc analysis was conducted and revealed that while drinking frequency increased every year, frequency of drunkenness was stable for females, but increased for males. Conclusions: Alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors are quite common among college students, and take a significant upturn when students reach the age of 21. Prevention strategies targeted to the college population are needed to prevent serious consequences of these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. PMID:20528819

  11. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands

    PubMed Central

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Sindelar, Michael T.; Weir, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands. PMID:26465329

  12. Risk Evaluation of Multiple Hazards during Sediment and Water Related Disasters in a Small Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanoi, Kazuki; Fujita, Masaharu

    2016-04-01

    To reduce human damage due to sediment and water related disasters induced by heavy rainfall, warning and evacuation system is very important. In Japan, the Meteorological Agency issues the sediment disaster alert when the potential of sediment disaster increases. Following the alert, local government issues evacuation advisory considering the alert and premonitory phenomena. However, it is very difficult for local people to perceive the dangerousness around them because the alert and advisory do not contain any definite information. Therefore, they sometimes misjudge the evacuation action. One reason of this is not only crucial hazards but also relatively small-scale multiple hazards take place and rise evacuation difficulties during sediment and water related disaster. Examples of small-scale hazards include: rainfall-associated hazards such as poor visibility or road submergence; landslide-associated hazards such as slope failure or sediment inflow; and flood-associated hazards such as overtopping of river dike, inundation, or destruction of bridges. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of multiple hazards during disaster events by numerical simulation. We applied the integrated sediment runoff model on unit channels, unit slopes, and slope units to an actual sediment and water related disaster occurred in a small basin in Tamba city, Hyogo, Japan. The maximum rainfall per hour was 91 mm (17/09/2014 2:00˜3:00) and the maximum daily precipitation was 414mm. The integrated model contains semi-physical based landslide prediction (sediment production) model, rainfall runoff model employing the kinematic wave method, model of sediment supply to channels, and bedload and suspended sediment transport model. We evaluated the risk of rainfall-associated hazards in each slope unit into 4 levels (Level I ˜ IV) using the rainfall intensity Ir [mm/hour]. The risk of flood- associated hazards were also estimated using the ratio of calculated water level and

  13. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-12-14

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  14. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests.

  15. Dopaminergic function in relation to genes associated with risk for schizophrenia: translational mutant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Moran, Paula M; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Papaleo, Francesco; Waddington, John L

    2014-01-01

    Mutant mice play an increasingly important role in understanding disease processes at multiple levels. In particular, they illuminate the impact of risk genes for disease on such processes. This article reviews recent advances in the application of mutant mice to study the intricacies of dopaminergic (DAergic) function in relation to the putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness, particularly schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drug action. It considers models for understanding the role(s) of risk genes, with a particular focus on DTNBP1 and NRG1, their interactions with environmental factors, and with each other (epistasis). In overview, it considers new schemas for understanding psychotic illness that integrate DAergic pathophysiology with developmental, social, and cognitive processes, and how mutant mouse models can reflect and inform on such schemas.

  16. Relationship between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Bora, Nalini S; Matta, Bharati; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Bora, Puran S

    2015-02-01

    Studies performed over the past decade in humans and experimental animals have been a major source of information and improved our understanding of how dysregulation of the complement system contributes to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathology. Drusen, the hall-mark of dry-type AMD are reported to be the by-product of complement mediated inflammatory processes. In wet AMD, unregulated complement activation results in increased production of angiogenic growth factors leading to choroidal neovascularization both in humans and in animal models. In this review article we have linked the complement system with modifiable and non-modifiable AMD risk factors as well as with prediction models of AMD. Understanding the association between the complement system, risk factors and prediction models will help improve our understanding of AMD pathology and management of this disease.

  17. Interleukin-6-related genotypes, body mass index, and risk of multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Cozen, Wendy; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Conti, David V; Van Den Berg, David J; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Wang, Sophia S; Rothman, Nathaniel; Bernstein, Leslie; Hartge, Patricia; Morhbacher, Ann; Coetzee, Simon G; Salam, Muhammad T; Wang, Wei; Zadnick, John; Ingles, Sue A

    2006-11-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes normal plasma cell development and proliferation of myeloma cells in culture. We evaluated IL-6 genotypes and body mass index (BMI) in a case-control study of multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma. DNA samples and questionnaires were obtained from incident cases of multiple myeloma (n = 134) and plasmacytoma (n = 16; plasma cell neoplasms) ascertained from the Los Angeles County population-based cancer registry and from siblings or cousins of cases (family controls, n = 112) and population controls (n = 126). Genotypes evaluated included IL-6 promoter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at positions -174, -572, and -597; one variable number of tandem repeats (-373 A(n)T(n)); and one SNP in the IL-6 receptor (IL-6ralpha) gene at position -358. The variant allele of the IL-6 promoter SNP -572 was associated with a roughly 2-fold increased risk of plasma cell neoplasms when cases were compared with family [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.7-4.7] or population controls (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7). The -373 9A/9A genotype was associated with a decreased risk compared with the most common genotype (OR for cases versus family controls, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.7; OR for cases versus population controls, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9). No other SNPs were associated with risk. Obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m(2)) increased risk nonsignificantly by 40% and 80% when cases were compared with family controls or population controls, respectively, relative to persons with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2). These results suggest that IL-6 promoter genotypes may be associated with increased risk of plasma cell neoplasms.

  18. Public Perception of Relative Risk: Earthquakes vs. Hurricanes in the San Diego Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Means, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Public perception of risk is key in pre-disaster preparation. Despite admonitions from emergency planners, people often fail to take reasonable precautions. But if emergency planners also fail to realize the possibility of a particular disaster scenario, there is very little chance that the public will plan for it. In Southern California there is a well-known risk associated with earthquakes, and it would be difficult to find anyone that didn't understand that the region was subject to risk from earthquakes. On the other hand, few, if any people consider the risk associated with tropical storms or hurricanes. This is reasonable considering people have always been told that the west coast of the United States is immune from hurricanes due to the cold water associated with the California Current, and the hazard of earthquakes is fairly obvious to anyone that has lived the for a while. Such an attitude is probably justifiable for most of Southern California, but it's unclear whether this is true for the San Diego region: destructive earthquakes are historically rare, and there is good evidence that the region was affected by a Category 1 hurricane in 1858. Indeed, during the last 70 years, more people have died from tropical cyclones in Calfornia's southernmost counties (San Diego and Imperial) than have died from earthquakes. In this paper we compare the relative risks from these two different types of disasters for the San Diego region, and attempt to answer why one type of hazard is emphasized in public planning and the other is neglected.

  19. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Reid, Christopher R.; Norcross, Jason; Charvat, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only (Opperman et al 2010). The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA

  20. Assessing the relative risk of severe injury in automotive crashes for older female occupants.

    PubMed

    Hill, John D; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2006-01-01

    A logistic regression model was used in the prediction of injury severity for individuals who are involved in a vehicular crash. The model identified females and older occupants (segmented by age 55-74, and 75 and older) as having a significantly higher risk of severe injuries in a crash. Further, interactions of older females with other factors, such as occupant seat position, crash type, and environmental factors were also shown to significantly impact the relative risk of a severe injury. This study revealed that females 75 years and older had the lowest odds of injury among all female occupants studied (OR=1.16) while females between 55 and 74 years old have higher risk of severe injuries (OR=1.74). All older females (55 and older) were at greater risk for head-on, side-impact and rear-end collisions. Seatbelt use reduced severe injuries for females in this age group, but not to the same extent as the rest of the population studied. Additionally, crashes in severe weather, which were less likely to result in severe injuries for the general population, increased the risk of severe injuries to females that were 55 and older. Among occupants of light trucks, sport utility vehicles and vans, older females were less likely than others to be severely injured. In this case, older females appear better off in vehicles which are larger and protect better in severe crashes. This research demonstrates that circumstances surrounding a crash greatly impact the severity of injuries sustained by older female occupants.

  1. Erosive Tooth Wear and Related Risk Factors in 8- and 14-Year-Old Greek Children.

    PubMed

    Provatenou, Efthymia; Kaklamanos, Eleftherios G; Kevrekidou, Aikaterini; Kosma, Ismini; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the erosive tooth wear of primary and permanent teeth and its association with related risk factors. Two groups of Greek children aged 8 (n = 329) and 14 years (n = 263) were examined in the classroom using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Data concerning risk factors were collected using questionnaires. Dental caries (DMFS/dmfs) was also recorded. The data were analyzed using the t test, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, Fisher's exact test, and the χ2 test. In the 8-year-olds, the primary teeth showed a predominantly medium level of wear and the permanent teeth no wear. A majority of the 14-year-olds exhibited low risk levels of wear. The most frequently affected dental surface in both age groups was the occlusal surface of the mandibular posterior teeth. In the 8-year-olds, BEWE scores and the prevalence of wear in the primary teeth was influenced by gender (p = 0.020). In their permanent teeth, soft drink consumption (p < 0.0001) and preference for lemon/vinegar (p = 0.041) significantly affected wear prevalence and BEWE scores, while habitually retaining soft drinks in the mouth influenced wear prevalence (p = 0.008), risk (p = 0.004), and BEWE scores (p = 0.022). In the 14-year-olds, wear prevalence was significantly affected by the consumption of lemon-flavored candies (p = 0.016) and soft drinks (p = 0.050). BEWE scores were significantly affected by gender (p = 0.022) and soft drink consumption (p = 0.030). Gender influenced tooth wear risk in both age groups (p = 0.010 and p = 0.021, respectively). The results of this study indicate that erosive tooth wear differed between primary and permanent teeth and was influenced by gender and dietary factors. PMID:27286713

  2. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charvat, Chacqueline M.; Norcross, Jason; Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only. The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA glove middle finger length.

  3. Notable minimum value of relative risk recognized by Japanese epidemiologists and rule of proof in civil trial: questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Sugita, M; Watanabe, S; Kanamori, M; Izuno, T

    1993-09-01

    Members of The Japanese Society of Cancer Epidemiology were questioned about relative risk in cancer epidemiology. The notable minimum value of relative risk recognized by the epidemiologists distributed from 1.1 to 5.0, and the mean and the standard deviation of the notable minimum value were 1.92 and 0.760. In civil litigation of United States a plaintiff must prove one's case by a "preponderance of evidence," which means that a causal relationship between risk factors and a health disturbance to a plaintiff is proved when relative risk is 2.0 or more. The mean value 1.92 of the notable minimum value of relative risk nearly corresponded to the relative risk 2.0, which indicates that opinion of Japanese epidemiologists did not disagree with the rule of the proof in civil litigation of United States. It is mentioned that the standard of the proof should be "high probability" based on "a high level of conviction in the judge's own mind" in Japanese civil trials, and that the "high probability" means that relative risk is 5.0 or more if we dare to quantify the vagueness. This value corresponded to the maximum value of the notable minimum relative risk in the questionnaire to the Japanese epidemiologists. In civil litigation of Japan, the standard of the proof based on epidemiological results may be more conservative than the opinion of Japanese epidemiologists.

  4. Variants in angiogenesis-related genes and the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; Chen, Jianchun; Li, Jie; Ju, Xiaobing; Zhang, Shaobo; Cao, Qiang; Han, Zhijian; Li, Pu; Shao, Peifei; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Changjun

    2014-11-01

    Angiogenesis is fundamentally important to the pathogenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We investigated the association between variations of genes related to angiogenesis and the risk of ccRCC. In a case-control study of 859 ccRCC patients and 1004 cancer-free subjects, we genotyped 24 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven angiogenesis-related genes (HIF1A, EPAS1, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3 and PDGFRB) using the TaqMan or Snapshot method. Unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounding factors, was used to assess the risk associations. The functionality of selected SNPs was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and luciferase reporter gene assays. We found two SNPs (VEGFA rs2010963 and VEGFR3 rs448012) that were significantly associated with increased risk of ccRCC, after adjusting for multiple comparisons [rs2010963 CC/GC cf. GG: false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.048, odds ratio (OR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.12-1.66; rs448012 CC/GC cf. GG: FDR = 0.048, OR = 1.38, 95% CI =1.13-1.69]. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the variant genotypes of rs2010963, but not rs448012, were associated with increased gene expression in normal tissues of ccRCC patients (CC/GC cf. GG: P = 0.036). The luciferase reporter assay showed that the rs2010963 C allele significantly increased luciferase activity over that of the rs2010963 G allele. Our results indicate that VEGFA rs2010963 and VEGFR3 rs448012 are associated with risk of ccRCC. Furthermore, rs2010963 is a functional SNP that may affect ccRCC susceptibility by modulating endogenous VEGFA expression. PMID:25239121

  5. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  6. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal

  7. The Unique Relations between Early Homelessness and Educational Well-Being: An Empirical Test of the Continuum of Risk Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Brumley, Benjamin; Fantuzzo, John; Perlman, Staci; Zager, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the Continuum of Risk Hypothesis by assessing the unique relations between early homelessness and educational outcomes while controlling for co-occurring risks. An integrated data system was used to account for multiple co-occurring early risk factors for an entire cohort of first grade students in a large urban school district and municipality (N = 8,267). Multilevel linear regression models indicated that the presence of some co-occurring risk factors explained the relation between homelessness and academic engagement problems in school. However, after controlling for co-occurring risks, an experience of homelessness was found to be uniquely related to social engagement problems in first grade. These results support the Continuum of Risk Hypothesis and stress the importance of early intervention for children with an experience of homelessness to foster their social development. PMID:25574064

  8. Relation between Established Glioma Risk Variants and DNA Methylation in the Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Anna M.; Wibom, Carl; Ghasimi, Soma; Brännström, Thomas; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have identified several genetic variants that increase glioma risk. The majority of these variants are non-coding and the mechanisms behind the increased risk in carriers are not known. In this study, we hypothesize that some of the established glioma risk variants induce aberrant DNA methylation in the developing tumor, either locally (gene-specific) or globally (genome-wide). In a pilot data set including 77 glioma patients, we used Illumina beadchip technology to analyze genetic variants in blood and DNA methylation in matched tumor samples. To validate our findings, we used data from the Cancer Genome Atlas, including 401 glioblastoma patients. Consensus clustering identified the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (gCIMP) and two additional subgroups with distinct patterns of global DNA methylation. In the pilot dataset, gCIMP was associated with two genetic variants in CDKN2B-AS1, rs1412829 and rs4977756 (9p21.3, p = 8.1 x 10−7 and 4.8 x 10−5, respectively). The association was in the same direction in the TCGA dataset, although statistically significant only when combining individuals with AG and GG genotypes. We also investigated the relation between glioma risk variants and DNA methylation in the promoter region of genes located within 30 kb of each variant. One association in the pilot dataset, between the TERT risk variant rs2736100 and lower methylation of cg23827991 (in TERT; p = 0.001), was confirmed in the TCGA dataset (p = 0.001). In conclusion, we found an association between rs1412829 and rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2B-AS1) and global DNA methylation pattern in glioma, for which a trend was seen also in the TCGA glioblastoma dataset. We also found an association between rs2736100 (in TERT) and levels of methylation at cg23827991 (localized in the same gene, 3.3 kbp downstream of the risk variant), which was validated in the TCGA dataset. Except for this one association, we did not find

  9. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  10. ALCOHOL-RELATED INJURY AND DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED: A RISK FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF TWO ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS IN THE 2000 AND 2005 NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.; Midanik, Lorraine T.

    2010-01-01

    Background National population data on risk of alcohol-related injury or driving while intoxicated (DWI) are scarce. Objective The association of alcohol-related injury and perceived DWI (PDWI) with both volume and pattern of consumption are examined in a merged sample of respondents from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys using risk function analysis. Methods Self reported consumption patterns on 8,736 respondents who consumed at least one drink in the last 12 months were assessed as average daily volume and frequency of consuming 5 or more (5+) , 8 or more (8+) and 12 or more (12+) drinks in a day. Risks were defined using CHAID segmentation analysis implemented with SPSS Answer Tree. Results For alcohol-related injury (n=110), those most at risk drank at lower volumes with some high maximum occasions, or at higher volumes, where high maximum occasions had little added effect. Risk was highest for those reporting more than 6 drinks per day (9.7%). For DWI (n=696), those most at risk drank at higher volumes and with a greater number of high maximum occasions. Risk was highest for those reporting more than 6 drinks per day and more than one 8+ occasion during the last year (39%). Conclusions Overall risk appears to increase with increasing volume, but at a given volume level, risk also increases with frequency of high maximum occasions. These data lend relatively weak support for previous findings suggesting that less frequent drinkers who only occasionally consume larger quantities may be at greater risk, and any alcohol consumption appears to carry some risk of these harms. PMID:20465375

  11. Markers for Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Relatives of Alsacian Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sapin, Remi; Pinget, Michel; Belcourt, Alain

    2002-01-01

    Background: The cytotoxic T lymphocyteassociated antigen 4 gene (CTLA-4) encode the T cell receptor involved in the control of T cell proliferation and mediates T cell apoptosis. The receptor protein is a specific T lymphocyte surface antigen that is detected on cells only after antigen presentation. Thus, CTLA-4 is directly involved in both immune and autoimmune responses and may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. There is polymorphism at position 49 in exon 1 of the CTLA-4 gene, providing an A-G exchange. Moreover, we assessed the CTLA-4 49 (Thr/Ala) polymorphism in diabetic patients and first-degree relatives as compared to control subjects. Research design and methods: Three loci (HLA-DQB1, DQA1 and CTLA-4) were analysed in 62 type 1 diabetic patients, 72 firstdegree relatives and 84 nondiabetic control subjects by means of PCR-RFLP. Results: A significant enrichment in DQB1 alleles encoding for an amino acid different from Asp in position 57 (NA) and DQA1 alleles encoding for Arg in position 52 was observed in diabetic subjects and first-degree relatives as compared to controls. The genotype and allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in type 1 diabetic patients and firstdegree relatives differed significantly from those of controls (p< 0.001 and 0.05 respectively). CTLA-49 Ala alleles frequencies were 75.8% in type 1 diabetic patients and 68.1% in first-degree relatives in comparison to 35.7% in control subjects. The Ala/Ala genotype conferred a relative risk of 18.8 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The CTLA-4 49 Ala allele confers an increased risk of type 1 diabetes, independent of age and HLA-DQ genetic markers. PMID:11900275

  12. Neurophysiological endophenotypes, CNS disinhibition, and risk for alcohol dependence and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Porjesz, Bernice; Rangaswamy, Madhavi

    2007-01-01

    Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations) as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2), including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and CHRM2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations) helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic findings related to

  13. Parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters: a prospective study among US women.

    PubMed

    Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Hennekens, C H; Rosner, B; Speizer, F E

    1991-01-01

    We examined the relation between parental age at birth and risk of breast cancer among daughters in a population of 118,309 US women who were 30 to 55 years of age in 1976 and without prior diagnosis of cancer. During 1,140,239 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,799 incident cases of breast cancer in this population. After adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors, we observed only a weak and nonsignificant trend in risk of breast cancer with increasing maternal age at birth and no relation for paternal age. After adjusting for other risk factors, the chi trend was 1.10, P = 0.27 for increasing maternal age at birth. Daughters born to mothers 30 to 34 years of age had an age-adjusted relative risk of breast cancer of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.89, 1.37) compared to daughters born to mothers less than 20 years of age. The weak positive trend in risk with increasing maternal age was present among both pre- and postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that there is little or no association between maternal age and risk of breast cancer, and that paternal age is not related to risk of breast cancer.

  14. Traffic-related air pollution and risk for leukaemia of an adult population.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution causes lung cancer, but associations with other cancers have not been established. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the risk of the general population for leukaemia. We identified 1,967 people in whom leukaemia was diagnosed in 1992-2010 from a nation-wide cancer registry and selected 3,381 control people at random, matched on sex and year of birth, from the entire Danish population. Residential addresses since 1971 were traced in a population registry, and outdoor concentrations of NOx and NO2 , as indicators of traffic-related air pollution, were calculated at each address in a dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the risk for leukaemia after adjustment for income, educational level, cohabitation status and co-morbidity. In linear analyses, we found odds ratios for acute myeloid leukaemia of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.38) per 20 µg/m(3) increase in NOx and 1.31 (1.02-1.68) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2 , calculated as time-weighted average exposure at all addresses since 1971. We found no association with chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. This study indicates an association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myeloid leukaemia in the general population, but not for other subtypes of leukaemia.

  15. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  16. A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chavarro, Jorge E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the amount or quality of carbohydrate in diet is associated with ovulatory infertility. Subjects and Methods 18,555 married, pre-menopausal women without a history of infertility were followed as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an eight-year period. Diet was assessed twice during follow-up using a validated food-frequency questionnaire and prospectively related to the incidence of infertility due ovulatory disorder. Results During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. Total carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic load were positively related to ovulatory infertility in analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, parity, physical activity, recency of contraception, total energy intake, protein intake, and other dietary variables. The multivariable-adjusted risk ratio [RR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to lowest quintile of total carbohydrate intake was 1.91 (1.27 – 3.02). The corresponding RR (95% CI) for dietary glycemic load was 1.92 (1.26 – 2.92). Dietary glycemic index was positively related to ovulatory infertility only among nulliparous women. Intakes of fiber from different sources were unrelated to ovulatory infertility risk. Conclusions The amount and quality of carbohydrate in diet may be important determinants of ovulation and fertility in healthy women. PMID:17882137

  17. Cardiovascular disease-related knowledge and attitudes in a high-risk Australian population.

    PubMed

    Cumming, R G; Barton, G E; Fahey, P P; Wilson, A; Leeder, S R

    1989-05-15

    The population of Sydney's western suburbs has higher-than-average mortality rates of heart disease and has raised prevalence rates of the associated risk factors. To enquire into the cardiovascular disease-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of this population, a survey that used a multistage area-probability sampling method was conducted in May 1987. A total of 484 subjects was interviewed. The self-reported prevalence rates of angina, heart attacks, strokes and diabetes all were high compared with the rates from the Australia-wide National Heart Foundation's Risk Factor Prevalence Study in 1983. The rates of smoking, hypertension, high blood-lipid levels and sedentary life-style also were raised. Awareness of cardiovascular disease-related issues was high but detailed knowledge often was deficient. The majority of respondents reported having attempted to change their health-related behaviours. Of special note was the finding that 80% of current smokers had tried to quit smoking. The high level of awareness of the importance of making life-style changes, and the frequency with which attempts at behavioural changes were reported, suggest that improvements in the health of the population of Sydney's western suburbs will require two complementary strategies: the teaching of the skills that are needed to maintain healthy behaviours successfully and environmental changes to facilitate healthy life-style choices.

  18. Urban vulnerability and resiliency over water-related risks: a case study from Algiers.

    PubMed

    Aroua, Najet

    2016-01-01

    The ad hoc management of natural environmental features and inappropriate social interventions could cause vulnerability of thriving urban ecosystems. For instance sub-aerial exposure, water-related hazards, urban intrinsic sensitivity, urban adaptation ability or flexibility and urban transformability factors could contribute a potential danger. In spite of seasonal climatic changes, the exposure indicates a significant geographical determinism whereas the other factors express its antithesis. The present paper aims to adapt a vulnerability-resilience indicators' multicriteria analysis to show the variability and contribution rate with regard to local water-related risks. The municipality of al-Harrash from Algiers has been selected as a case study. The urban vulnerability-resilience closely tied up with a sum of relevant indicators confirmed by the diagnosis items, which are relevant to the local urban and hydro systems. The cumulative sums are obtained from a classification process referring to several criteria implied in the water-related risks. These were formulated here for the purpose of a multicriteria analysis with the objective of assessing the urban vulnerability-resilience index and subsequently orientating the preventive strategy towards different levels of sustainable measures. With this respect the exposure and sensitivity received a significant score while adaptation ability and transformability scored very low. PMID:26942538

  19. Urban vulnerability and resiliency over water-related risks: a case study from Algiers.

    PubMed

    Aroua, Najet

    2016-01-01

    The ad hoc management of natural environmental features and inappropriate social interventions could cause vulnerability of thriving urban ecosystems. For instance sub-aerial exposure, water-related hazards, urban intrinsic sensitivity, urban adaptation ability or flexibility and urban transformability factors could contribute a potential danger. In spite of seasonal climatic changes, the exposure indicates a significant geographical determinism whereas the other factors express its antithesis. The present paper aims to adapt a vulnerability-resilience indicators' multicriteria analysis to show the variability and contribution rate with regard to local water-related risks. The municipality of al-Harrash from Algiers has been selected as a case study. The urban vulnerability-resilience closely tied up with a sum of relevant indicators confirmed by the diagnosis items, which are relevant to the local urban and hydro systems. The cumulative sums are obtained from a classification process referring to several criteria implied in the water-related risks. These were formulated here for the purpose of a multicriteria analysis with the objective of assessing the urban vulnerability-resilience index and subsequently orientating the preventive strategy towards different levels of sustainable measures. With this respect the exposure and sensitivity received a significant score while adaptation ability and transformability scored very low.

  20. Social distribution of diabetes, hypertension and related risk factors in Barbados: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Christina; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Hennis, Anselm; Samuels, T Alafia; George, Kenneth S; Unwin, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of diabetes, hypertension and related behavioural and biological risk factors in adults in Barbados by gender, education and occupation. Design Multistage probability sampling was used to select a representative sample of the adult population (≥25 years). Participants were interviewed using standard questionnaires, underwent anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and provided fasting blood for glucose and cholesterol measurements. Standard WHO definitions were used. Data were weighted for sampling and non-response, and were age and sex standardised to the 2010 Barbados population. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated, and prevalence ratios were calculated for behavioural and biological risk factors by demographic and socioeconomic group. Results Study response rate was 55.0%, with 764 women, 470 men. Prevalence of obesity was 33.8% (95% CI 30.7% to 37.1%); hypertension 40.6% (95% CI 36.5% to 44.9%); and diabetes 18.7% (95% CI 16.2% to 21.4%). Compared with women, men were less likely to be obese (prevalence ratio 0.5; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7), or physically inactive (0.5; 0.4 to 0.6), but more likely to smoke tobacco (4.1; 2.5 to 6.7) and consume large amounts of alcohol in a single episode (4.6; 2.7 to 7.6). Both diabetes (0.83; 0.65 to 1.05) and hypertension (0.89; 0.79 to 1.02) were lower in men, but not significantly so. In women, higher educational level was related to higher fruit and vegetable intake, more physical activity, less diabetes and less hypercholesterolaemia (p 0.01–0.04). In men, higher education was related only to less smoking (p 0.04). Differences by occupation were limited to smoking in men and hypercholesterolaemia in women. Conclusions In this developing country population, sex appears to be a much stronger determinant of behavioural risk factors, as well as obesity and its related risks, than education or occupation. These findings have implications for meeting the commitments made

  1. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  2. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

    2013-02-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

  3. Associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with HIV/STD risk behavior in high-risk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest an association of marijuana use with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most studies have focused on global associations of marijuana use with sexual risk outcomes and few have examined relevant cognitive variables. Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV/STDs and preliminary evidence suggests that marijuana is a potentially important cofactor for sexual risk behavior in this population. This study evaluated global, situational and event-level associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with sexual risk outcomes in a large, racially diverse sample of adjudicated youth (n = 656, 66% male, mean age = 16.7 years). Cross-sectional and prospective analyses identified associations of marijuana use and dependence symptoms with sexual risk outcomes, including lower frequency of condom use and higher STD incidence. Stronger sex-related marijuana expectancies predicted greater intentions for and frequency of marijuana use in sexual situations. In event-level analyses that controlled for alcohol, marijuana use predicted a significantly decreased likelihood of condom use; this association was moderated by sex-related marijuana expectancies. Mediation analyses suggested that behavioral intentions partly accounted for the prospective association of expectancies with marijuana use before sex. These results provide further evidence that marijuana use is a potentially important cofactor for HIV/STD transmission in high-risk adolescents and suggest that cognitive factors could be important for characterizing this association. PMID:20853925

  4. Mediation by Peer Violence Victimization of Sexual Orientation Disparities in Cancer-Related Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Everett, Bethany G.; Russell, Stephen T.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Conclusions. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span. PMID:24825215

  5. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Equitation science describes an approach to horse training and riding that focuses on embracing the cognitive abilities of horses, their natural behaviour, and how human riders can use signalling and rewards to best effect. This approach is concerned with both horse welfare and rider safety, and this review discusses how equitation science can minimise risk to humans around horses and enhance horse welfare. Abstract Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  6. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003–2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

  7. Criteria for waste-related risks to be below regulatory concern

    SciTech Connect

    Trubatch, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the criteria recently established by the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit for determining that a risk is de minimis, i.e., below regulatory concern (BRC), for the purpose of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, 42 USC 2011 et seq. The court established these BRC criteria incidentally during its review of intervenors' challenge to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) issuance of an operating license for the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. In the course of that licensing proceeding, the NRC had determined that its regulations did not require it to consider the complicating effects of earthquakes on emergency planning. Although the legal standard and its quantitation arose in the context of emergency planning, these criteria are equally applicable to waste-related risks cognizable under the Atomic Energy Act. These criteria imply that the NRC, when licensing a waste repository, need not consider the risk of a catastrophic accident having a frequency of occurrence of less than one chance in one hundred thousand per year.

  8. MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 genotype is related to corpus callosum volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Veena S; Kelly, Sinead; Wright, Carrie; Gupta, Cota Navin; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Bustillo, Juan R; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Cannon, Dara M; McDonald, Colm; Donohoe, Gary; Calhoun, Vince D; Turner, Jessica A

    2015-08-18

    Genome-wide association studies implicate the MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 (MIR137HGrv) within the host gene for microRNA-137 as a potential regulator of schizophrenia susceptibility. We examined the influence of MIR137HGrv genotype on 17 subcortical and callosal volumes in a large sample of individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls (n=841). Although the volumes were overall reduced relative to healthy controls, for individuals with schizophrenia the homozygous MIR137HGrv risk genotype was associated with attenuated reduction of mid-posterior corpus callosum volume (p=0.001), along with trend-level effects in the adjacent central and posterior corpus callosum. These findings are unique in the literature and remain robust after analysis in ethnically homogenous and single-scanner subsets of the larger sample. Thus, our study suggests that the mechanisms whereby MIR137HGrv works to increase schizophrenia risk are not those that generate the corpus callosum volume reductions commonly found in the disorder.

  9. Childhood brain tumor survivors at risk for impaired health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Eline J; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Y Netteke; Last, Bob F; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL)-mean scores and percentages at risk for impaired HRQOL in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) and to explore differences between CBTS treated with surgery only (SO) versus CBTS treated with surgery and adjuvant therapy (SA). HRQOL was evaluated in 34 CBTS (mean age=14.7 y; mean time since the end of treatment=6.4 y) with the KIDSCREEN. Being at risk for impaired HRQOL was defined as a T-score ≥1 SD below the norm population mean. The total and the SA group, but not the SO group, had significantly lower mean scores than the Dutch norm population in the domains of "physical well-being," "psychological well-being," and "peers and social support." High percentages (35% to 53%) of both the SO and the SA groups appeared to be at risk for impaired HRQOL in the domains of "physical well-being," "moods and emotions," "peers and social support," and "bullying," compared to 16% in the norm population. In conclusion, although HRQOL in some domains appeared similar to the norm population, a considerable number of CBTS-reported impaired HRQOL in several other domains. It is recommended to systematically monitor HRQOL in CBTS regardless of the therapy applied.

  10. MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 genotype is related to corpus callosum volume in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Veena S.; Kelly, Sinead; Wright, Carrie; Gupta, Cota Navin; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Bustillo, Juan R.; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Cannon, Dara M.; McDonald, Colm; Donohoe, Gary; Calhoun, Vince D.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies implicate the MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 (MIR137HGrv) within the host gene for microRNA-137 as a potential regulator of schizophrenia susceptibility. We examined the influence of MIR137HGrv genotype on 17 subcortical and callosal volumes in a large sample of individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls (n=841). Although the volumes were overall reduced relative to healthy controls, for individuals with schizophrenia the homozygous MIR137HGrv risk genotype was associated with attenuated reduction of mid-posterior corpus callosum volume (p=0.001), along with trend-level effects in the adjacent central and posterior corpus callosum. These findings are unique in the literature and remain robust after analysis in ethnically homogenous and single-scanner subsets of the larger sample. Thus, our study suggests that the mechanisms whereby MIR137HGrv works to increase schizophrenia risk are not those that generate the corpus callosum volume reductions commonly found in the disorder. PMID:26123324

  11. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  12. Risk analysis for roadways subjected to multiple landslide-related hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas, Jordi; Mavrouli, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Roadways through mountainous terrain often involve cuts and landslide areas whose stability is precarious and require protection and stabilization works. To optimize the allocation of resources, government and technical offices are increasingly interested in both the risk analysis and assessment. Risk analysis has to consider the hazard occurrence and the consequences. The consequences can be both direct and indirect. The former include the costs regarding the repair of the roadway, the damage of vehicles and the potential fatalities, while the latter refer to the costs related to the diversion of vehicles, the excess of distance travelled, the time differences, and tolls. The type of slope instabilities that may affect a roadway may vary and its effects as well. Most current approaches either consider a single hazardous phenomenon each time, or if applied at small (for example national) scale, they do not take into account local conditions at each section of the roadway. The objective of this work is the development of a simple and comprehensive methodology for the assessment of the risk due to multiple hazards along roadways, integrating different landslide types that include rockfalls, debris flows and considering as well the potential failure of retaining walls. To quantify risk, all hazards are expressed with a common term: their probability of occurrence. The methodology takes into consideration the specific local conditions along the roadway. For rockfalls and debris flow a variety of methods for assessing the probability of occurrence exists. To assess the annual probability of failure of retaining walls we use an indicator-based model that provides a hazard index. The model parameters consist in the design safety factor, and further anchorage design and construction parameters. The probability of failure is evaluated in function of the hazard index and next corrected (in terms of order of magnitude) according to in situ observations for increase of two

  13. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in midlife women1234

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Khan, Unab I; Thurston, Rebecca; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El Khoudary, Samar R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that the effects of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) on cardiovascular disease risk may depend on accompanying amounts of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Objective: The objective was to examine whether abdominal VAT area modifies the effects of abdominal SAT area on subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in both whites and African Americans. Design: Computed tomographic measures of abdominal SAT and VAT were examined in relation to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and cardiometabolic risk factor levels in 500 African American and white women in midlife. A VAT × SAT interaction term was evaluated. Results: The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 51.0 ± 2.9 y, and 37% were African American. Higher amounts of SAT and VAT were associated with higher cIMT, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, and insulin and with lower concentrations of HDL cholesterol. However, in African Americans, but not in whites, higher amounts of VAT significantly attenuated associations between higher amounts of SAT and higher insulin concentrations (P for interaction = 0.032) and HOMA-IR (P for interaction = 0.011) and reversed associations with cIMT (P for interaction = 0.005) and glucose (P for interaction = 0.044). Conclusions: These results suggest that in midlife African American but not white women, adverse associations between abdominal SAT and cardiometabolic risk factors are attenuated and, in the case of subclinical atherosclerosis, are reversed as VAT amounts increase. Given that African American women suffer disproportionately from obesity and cardiovascular disease, further research into the role of this effect modification on obesity-associated vascular disease in African American women is warranted. PMID:21346089

  14. HIV transmission and related risk factors among serodiscordant couples in Liuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Feng, Xian-Xiang; Fan, Yin-Guang; Jiang, Zhi-Yu; Zhong, Xiang-Hai; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion of HIV-negative partners among HIV-discordant couples in Liuzhou, China, 1854 eligible HIV-serodiscordant couples were retrospectively identified through the HIV epidemiology and follow-up database from January 1, 1996 to June 30, 2013. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to examine risk factors related to HIV seroconversion of negative partners. Finally, 125 HIV seroconversion occurred over 4963.5 person-years, resulting in an overall HIV incidence of 2.52/100 person-years. HIV-positive partners with the last CD4 counts of 350 cells/ul or more were significantly protected against HIV seroconversion compared with those CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/ul (aHR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.81, P < 0.01). Men with HIV-positive wives (aHR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.27-3.02, P < 0.01), HIV-positive partners who did not receive ART before their HIV-negative partners' seroconversion (aHR: 2.22, 95% CI, 1.41-3.51, P < 0.01) and patients reported intermittent condom use (aHR: 7.60, 95% CI, 4.37-13.21, P < 0.01) were associated with increased risk of HIV seroconversion. HIV-negative partners remain high risk of HIV infection in Liuzhou city. Comprehensive package of HIV prevention services should contribute to reduction in HIV transmission of discordant couples.

  15. Mutual relations between sleep deprivation, sleep stealers and risk behaviours in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Teresa; Gaspar, Tania; Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim is to evaluate the mutual influences between sleep duration/sleep deprivation (SD) and the sleep stealers/adolescent risk behaviours. Methods The national survey is a component of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, it is based on a school-based self-completed questionnaire; 3476 students were randomly selected from 139 randomly chosen Portuguese schools using as an unit the class, 53.8% were girls; 45.9% attended the 8th grade and 54.1% the 10th grade; the mean age was 14.9 years. The measured variables were: 1) gender and age; 2) sociodemographics; 3) sleep duration during the week and during weekends and computed SD; 4) screen time (computer use during the week and during the week end (PC use); watching TV and mobile phone use; 5) earlier sexual behaviour; 6) violent behaviours: fights, use of weapons; 7) use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs. The statistical analysis included Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results Excessive use of mobile phone, of computer use during weekdays, and internet facilities; substance use; violence and earlier sexual relations had significantly higher prevalence in sleep deprived adolescents. By logistic regression only using PC during weekdays, tobacco, drugs and weapons were associated to SD, while SD was associated to PC use during weekdays, tobacco use and drugs’ use. Computer uses tend to be associated among themselves. Mobile phone is associated with computer practices and with alcohol and tobacco use. Tobacco is associated with most risk behaviours. Alcohol use is associated with other substance use, computer use and violent behaviours. Violence behaviours, earlier sex and drugs use tend to be associated among themselves. Conclusions Sleep stealers use and risk behaviours are more prevalent in sleep deprived adolescents, but, in spite of significant individual associations, models of risk behaviours are still lacking. PMID:27226817

  16. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  17. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. PMID:26846985

  18. Investigating the Familial Basis of Heightened Risk-Taking in Adolescents With Conduct Disorder and Their Unaffected Relatives.

    PubMed

    Sully, Kate; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Savage, Justin; Fairchild, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated increased risk-taking in adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD) compared with typically developing controls. Increased risk-taking may partly mediate the pathway from genetic or environmental risk to CD. We investigated the familial basis of risk-taking by examining whether the unaffected relatives of CD probands (n = 22) showed heightened risk-taking in a gambling task, in common with affected probands (n = 44). Adolescents with CD were more likely to select risky options than the typically developing controls (n = 37) and unaffected relatives. Our findings confirm the association between CD and increased risk-taking, but suggest that this decision-making style may not have a familial basis. PMID:27031280

  19. Insulin-Related Biomarkers to Predict the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background: The predictive ability of insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity, in combination with traditional cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS), has not yet been clearly evaluated in Japanese male subjects. Objectives: A one-year follow-up study was conducted to determine the ability of the insulin-related biomarkers to predict the risk of MetS development. Patients and Methods: A total of 2642 male workers of a Japanese company free from MetS at the baseline were monitored. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were selected as the insulin-related markers. Results: The incidence of metabolic syndrome after one year was 8.8%. A multiple logistic regression analysis identified regular physical activity, age (≥ 45 years old), serum uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL), serum alanine aminotransferase (≥ 45 IU/L), serum C-reactive protein (≥ 0.1 mg/L) and HOMA-IR (≥ 2.5) as significant risk factors for the development of MetS, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.50 – 0.92), 2.0 (1.5 – 2.6), 2.2 (1.6 – 3.0), 1.5 (1.02 – 2.2), 1.4 (1.01 – 2.0), and 2.3 (1.6 – 3.3), respectively. When QUICKI was used instead of HOMA-IR, age (≥ 45 years old), serum uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL), serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (≥ 50 IU/L), and QUICKI (≤ 0.33) were identified as significant contributors to the risk of MetS, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.51 – 0.93), 2.0 (1.5 – 2.6), 2.2 (1.6 – 3.0), 1.4 (1.01 – 2.0), and 2.5 (1.7 – 3.6), respectively. Conclusions: The mathematical meaning of the two insulin-related biomarkers examined was the same, and the odds ratios of the two biomarkers were almost the same after adjustments for other independent variables. PMID:24719625

  20. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  1. Risk recognition and trauma-related symptoms among sexually revictimized women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A E; Calhoun, K S; Bernat, J A

    1999-10-01

    This study used experimental methodology to investigate the differential impact of various levels of sexual victimization on women's perceptions of risk and evaluative judgments of sexual assault within a dating interaction. Single- and multiple-incident victims were compared with nonvictims. Results supported the hypothesis that revictimized women would exhibit longer latencies than either single-incident victims or nonvictims in signaling that an audiotaped date rape should be halted. Revictimized women with greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, arousal symptoms in particular, exhibited latencies similar to those of nonvictims, whereas revictimized women with lower levels of PTSD symptoms had significantly longer latencies. Dissociative symptoms were not related to latency. These findings suggest that PTSD-related arousal symptoms may serve a buffering effect, increasing sensitivity to threat cues that portend a sexually coercive interaction.

  2. Learning-related skills and academic achievement in academically at-risk first graders

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Carissa A.; Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    Using an academically at-risk, ethnically diverse sample of 744 first-grade children, this study tested a multi-method (i.e., child performance measures, teacher ratings, and peer ratings) measurement model of learning-related skills (i.e., effortful control [EC], behavioral self-regulation [BSR], and social competence [SC]), and their shared and unique contributions to children's reading and math achievement, above the effect of demographic variables. The hypothesized correlated factor measurement model demonstrated relatively good fit, with BSR and SC correlated highly with one another and moderately with EC. When entered in separate regression equations, EC and BSR each predicted children's reading and math achievement; SC only predicted reading achievement. When considered simultaneously, neither EC, BSR, nor SC contributed independently to reading achievement; however, EC had a direct effect on math achievement and an indirect effect on reading achievement via both BSR and SC. Implications for research and early intervention efforts are discussed. PMID:25908886

  3. Diminishing risk for age-related macular degeneration with nutrition: a current view.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen

    2013-07-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  4. Risk factors for 30-day readmission following hypoglycemia-related emergency room and inpatient admissions

    PubMed Central

    Emons, M F; Bae, J P; Hoogwerf, B J; Kindermann, S L; Taylor, R J; Nathanson, B H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of diabetes treatment. This retrospective observational study characterized hypoglycemia-related hospital emergency room (ER) and inpatient (in-pt) admissions and identified risk factors for 30-day all-cause and hypoglycemia-related readmission. Research design and methods 4476 hypoglycemia-related ER and in-pt encounters with discharge dates from 1/1/2009 to 3/31/2014 were identified in a large, multicenter electronic health record database. Outcomes were 30-day all-cause ER/hospital readmission and hypoglycemia-related readmission. Multivariable logistic regression methods identified risk factors for both outcomes. Results 1095 (24.5%) encounters had ER/hospital all-cause readmission within 30 days and 158 (14.4%) of these were hypoglycemia-related. Predictors of all-cause 30-day readmission included recent exposure to a hospital/nursing home (NH)/skilled nursing facility (SNF; OR 1.985, p<0.001); age 25–34 and 35–44 (OR 2.334 and 1.996, respectively, compared with age 65–74, both p<0.001); and African-American (AA) race versus all other race categories (OR 1.427, p=0.011). Other factors positively associated with readmission include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, congestive heart disease, hypertension, and mood disorders. Predictors of readmissions attributable to hypoglycemia included recent exposure to a hospital/NH/SNF (OR 2.299, p<0.001), AA race (OR 1.722, p=0.002), age 35–44 (OR 3.484, compared with age 65–74, p<0.001), hypertension (OR 1.891, p=0.019), and delirium/dementia and other cognitive disorders (OR 1.794, p=0.038). Obesity was protective against 30-day hypoglycemia-related readmission (OR 0.505, p=0.017). Conclusions Factors associated with 30-day all-cause and hypoglycemia-related readmission among patients with diabetic hypoglycemia include recent exposure to hospital/SNF/NH, adults <45 years, AAs, and several cardiovascular and

  5. Risk factors related to Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huifang; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Luttikholt, Saskia; Maas, Miriam; Nielen, Mirjam; Swart, Arno; Vellema, Piet; van der Giessen, Joke; Opsteegh, Marieke

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can cause disease in goats, but also has impact on human health through food-borne transmission. Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats and to identify the risk factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence. Fifty-two out of ninety approached farmers with indoor-kept goats (58%) participated by answering a standardized questionnaire and contributing 32 goat blood samples each. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii SAG1 antibodies by ELISA and results showed that the frequency distribution of the log10-transformed OD-values fitted well with a binary mixture of a shifted gamma and a shifted reflected gamma distribution. The overall animal seroprevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.7–14.9%), and at least one seropositive animal was found on 61.5% (95% CI: 48.3–74.7%) of the farms. To evaluate potential risk factors on herd level, three modeling strategies (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated) were compared. The negative binomial model fitted the data best with the number of cats (1–4 cats: IR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; > = 5 cats:IR: 14.2, 95% CI: 3.9–51.1) and mean animal age (IR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1) related to herd positivity. In conclusion, the ELISA test was 100% sensitive and specific based on binary mixture analysis. T. gondii infection is prevalent in indoor housed Dutch dairy goats but at a lower overall animal level seroprevalence than outdoor farmed goats in other European countries, and cat exposure is an important risk factor.

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema in the WHEL Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; Madlensky, Lisa; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is a significant health problem faced by a large percentage of breast cancer survivors. The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study has a unique data set collected after the completion of breast cancer treatment, which allowed a focused analysis of risk factors for breast cancer-related lymphedema. Methods Participant characteristics, treatment modalities, and health behaviors were examined as potential predictors of lymphedema among breast cancer survivors with univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. Results Lymphedema status was assessed for 83% of the study cohort (2431 of the 2917 WHEL participants). Among these respondents, 692 (28.5%) women reported yes to either a physician’s diagnosis of lymphedema or a question on arm/hand swelling. When compared to other participants, women with lymphedema were diagnosed at a younger age, more likely to have a higher body mass index, had a larger tumor size, had more lymph nodes removed, more likely to have a mastectomy with radiation therapy, and more likely to have chemotherapy. In the final multivariate-adjusted model, body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 (p<0.01), the removal of 11 or more lymph nodes (p<0.01), and breast cancer surgery plus radiation therapy (p<0.01) showed a strong independent association with developing breast cancer-related lymphedema. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the importance of educating breast cancer survivors about the modifiable risk factors (e.g., body mass index) associated with the development of lymphedema. Implications for Cancer Survivors Breast cancer survivors at risk for lymphedema may benefit from interventions aimed at achieving or maintaining a healthy body weight. PMID:23212606

  7. How Aortic Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women Is Related to Common Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Maiello, Maria; Zito, Annapaola; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Our study investigates major common cardiovascular risk factors relation with aortic stiffness on 269 postmenopausal women by global pulse wave velocity (PWVg), useful to relate PWVg to risk of major cardiovascular events. Patients and Methods. Women were categorized as hypertensive (H), hypercholesterolemic (C), or diabetic (D). Aortic stiffness was assessed by PWVg measured with pulsed Doppler, at the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and at the right common femoral artery. Results. All population mean PWVg was 8.2 m/s. 85 (26.5%) women were H; mean PWVg was 7.9 m/s. HC women were 118 (36.7%), with mean PWVg 8.3 m/s. HD women were 30 (9.5%), with mean PWVg 7.8 m/s. HDC women were 36 (11.2%), with mean PWVg 9.3 m/s. 52 (16.1%) menstruate women without risk factor were control group (CG), with mean PWVg 6.5 m/s. Highly significant was the statistical difference in PWVg between HDC women and each other group: P < 0.0005 versus CG; P < 0.01 versus H; P < 0.03 versus HC, and P < 0.05 versus HD. No difference in PWG was observed comparing the other groups. There was difference for age among all groups, except for CG, made by younger women. Conclusion. PWVg was highly increased in postmenopausal women affected by hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia all at once. Hypertension is the major determinant for PWVg. The only addition of diabetes or hypercholesterolemia did not increase significantly PWVg. Our study supports the usefulness of the assessment of aortic stiffness as a marker of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25140275

  8. Event-related potentials show taste and risk effects on food evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Wang, Cuicui; Wu, Yifan; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-07-01

    Tastes and claims about unhealthy food are important factors that affect consumption. This study investigated the correlation of the event-related potential (ERP) of the evaluation of processing of food information with the task of positive judgment. Given the information on possible diseases that arise with food consumption, sweet-tasting food elicited more conflict than salty food, and this conflict was reflected by a negative ERP component at 250-500 ms (N400). Moreover, the late positive wave at 500-800 ms that was evoked by presentation of food with the names of chronic diseases that could arise from the consumption of such food was larger than that evoked when acute diseases were presented. Sweet-tasting food caused a more intense conflict with disease-related risk than salty food, and chronic diseases aroused a stronger emotional fear than acute diseases. These findings provide new insights into the N400 component and the neurocognitive processes of evaluating food combined with taste and risk information.

  9. Relation between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hellen Abreu; Carraro, Júlia Cristina Cardoso; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify possible relations between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and its components in a population with cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 subjects (46 women), with mean age of 48±16 years, seen at the Cardiovascular Health Program. Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome was 6.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Uric acid level was significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome (5.1±1.6mg/dL), as compared to those with no syndrome or with pre-syndrome (3.9±1.2 and 4.1±1.3mg/dL, respectively; p<0.05). The uric acid levels were significantly higher in men presenting abdominal obesity, and among women with abdominal obesity, lower HDL-c levels and higher blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion Uric acid concentrations were positively related to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components, and there were differences between genders. Our results indicate serum uric acid as a potential biomarker for patients with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26018145

  10. HIV-Related Risk Factors Associated with Commercial Sex Among Female Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; CHEN, XINGUANG; LIU, HONGJIE; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; MAO, RONG

    2006-01-01

    Data from 633 sexually experienced female migrants were analyzed to examine the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behaviors associated with involvement in commercial sex. Six percent (40/633) of the participants reported having had sex for money. Compared with women who had not engaged in commercialsex, women who had sold sex were younger, less educated, and more likely to be unmarried. They were more likely to have engaged in HIV-related risk behaviors, such as becoming intoxicated with alcohol and using drugs. Among women who engaged in commercialsex, only 28% of them consistently used condoms during the last three episodes of sexualintercourse. Women who had ever engaged in commercialsex demonstrated greater depressive symptoms than those without such a history (p<.01). Female migrants, especially those engaging in commercial sex, were vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Sexualrisk reduction and condom promotion are urgently needed among this population. Further studies are needed to examine the causal relationship between depression and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:15804913

  11. Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Ostby, Pamela L.; Armer, Jane M.; Dale, Paul S.; Van Loo, Margaret J.; Wilbanks, Cassie L.; Stewart, Bob R.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. PMID:25563360

  12. Evidence That Altered Amygdala Activity in Schizophrenia is Related to Clinical State and Not Genetic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rasetti, Roberta; Mattay, Venkata S.; Wiedholz, Lisa M.; Kolachana, Bhaskar S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Callicott, Joseph H.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although amygdala dysfunction is reported in schizophrenia, it is unknown whether this deficit represents a heritable phenotype that is related to risk for schizophrenia or whether it is related to disease state. The purpose of the present study was to examine amygdala response to threatening faces among healthy siblings of schizophrenia patients in whom a subtler heritable deficit might be observed. Method Participants were 34 schizophrenia patients, 29 unaffected siblings, and 20 healthy comparison subjects. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during an implicit facial information processing task. The N-back working memory task, which has been shown to elicit prefrontal cortex abnormalities in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, was employed as a positive experimental control. Results Schizophrenia patients demonstrated a deficit in amygdala reactivity to negative face stimuli and an alteration, correlated with neuroleptic drug dosage, in the functional coupling between the amygdala and subgenual cingulate. In contrast, unaffected siblings showed a pattern that was not statistically different from that of healthy comparison subjects. During the N-back working memory task, both schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings demonstrated a pattern of inefficient prefrontal cortex engagement, which is consistent with earlier evidence that this pattern is related to genetic risk for schizophrenia. Conclusions These data suggest that the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the inability of individuals with schizophrenia to normally engage the amygdala in processing fearful and angry facial representations is more likely a phenomenon related to the disease state, specifically to treatment. PMID:19074979

  13. The Cerg-C: A Specialisation Certificate in Geological and Climate Related Risk of the University of Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadonna, C.; Consuegra, D.; Duvernay, B.; Fäh, D.; Frischknecht, C.; Gregg, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Lateltin, O.; Menoni, S.; Franco, R.; Rosi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The essence of our work at CERG-C (www.unige.ch/hazards) is to train participants, coming from around the world and with various academic and professional backgrounds, to incorporate risk science related to natural hazards into everyday life in an attempt to reduce losses in disasters. Principle components include training participants to assess risk, from hazard to vulnerability, and communicate effectively with government agencies, media, public and private sectors before, during and after natural disasters. Nine weeks of training involve 5 weeks of lectures in Geneva (in English), 2 weeks of field immersion and 2 weeks of exams. Participant experience culminates in completion of an independent research memoir carried out over an additional 6 months. The course is divided into five modules: the risk management module, which includes humanities and social sciences and brings together a multi-disciplinary team of experts to provide participants with tools they can use to assess hazard, vulnerability and risk and provide solutions to risk management issues in their own countries; and four thematic risk modules, i.e., volcanic risk, seismic risk, landslide risk, and flood and climate related risk. As part of the volcanic risk module we also carry out a role-play exercise at the elementary school in Vulcano Island, Italy in collaboration with the Italian Civil Protection with the double goal of sensitizing the CERG-C participants on the importance of training hazard and risk at an early stage in people's life as well as to raise awareness in the local population on topics such as the evaluation of volcanic hazards and risk, management of a volcanic crisis, and the importance of the collaboration between citizens and official institutions, such as the Civil Protection. The CERG-C has been training international graduate students and practitioners since 1988 on a yearly basis. To date, 350 participants have been trained from 80 countries, representing a great

  14. Risk perception related to depletion of the ozone layer and UV-B radiation in the arctic.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, A

    1998-01-01

    Increase in UV-B radiation, due to stratospheric ozone depletion, is an environmental threat to arctic ecosystems and the health of their inhabitants. The aims of this longitudinal study are to provide basic population risk perception data related to UV-B and ozone depletion, and to compare the UV-B risk perception over time and with risk perception related to other objects and occurrences. A survey questionnaire, calling for a total of 118 judgments, measures risk perception, worries, and anticipated consequences. In the 1996 study, 143 persons completed the questionnaire, 34 of whom belong to the indigenous Sami population. Risk perception and the possibility of protecting oneself against 13 risks were measured on 7-point scales. The mean risk rating for depletion of the ozone layer and UV-B radiation was moderate to high. The possibility of protection was rated relatively low. Women, the youngest, and respondents in the North were most worried and perceived the highest risks. The Sami respondents are less worried and perceive a lower risk, a realistic short-term evaluation due to their protection by pigment in the skin and their clothing habits.

  15. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Therneau, Terry M; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L Joseph; Keyak, Joyce H; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B; Lang, Thomas F

    2013-11-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21-97years) was included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student's t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independent to fracture risk. In women

  16. The Relative and Absolute Risks of Disadvantaged Family Background and Low Levels of School Resources on Student Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Willms, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long-lasting debate of whether the effects of family background are larger than those of school resources, and whether these effects are a function of national income level. In this study, we bring a new perspective to the debate by using the concepts of relative risk and population attributable risk in estimating family and…

  17. Using FEMA FIS, HAZUS and WMOST to Evaluate Effectiveness of GI in Moderating Flood-Related Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to accurately assess flood-related risks and costs as well as the effectiveness of green infrastructure on moderating those risks is critical for both emergency management and long-term planning. Potential flooding depths, land use and building conditions are needed ...

  18. Auditory Temporal Information Processing in Preschool Children at Family Risk for Dyslexia: Relations with Phonological Abilities and Developing Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2006-01-01

    In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal…

  19. The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Keith F.; Blackston, Amber; Dowd, Sabrina; Franz, Shalleigh; Eagle, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories…

  20. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  1. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  2. A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; McGreevy, Paul; McManus, Phil

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a) improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans), and (b) improving riders’ competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world. PMID:26479374

  3. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel

    PubMed Central

    Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2004-01-01

    Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian

  4. Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and vascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, M M; Kuo, T L; Hwang, Y H; Chen, C J

    1989-12-01

    Age-adjusted mortality rates were analyzed to examine the dose-response relation between ingested arsenic levels and risk of cancers and vascular diseases among residents in the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral vascular disease associated with long-term exposure to high-arsenic artesian well water and confined to the southwestern coast of Taiwan. The arsenic levels in well water determined in 1964-1966 were available in 42 villages of the study area, while mortality and population data during 1973-1986 were obtained from the local household registration offices and Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Age-adjusted mortality rates from various cancers and vascular diseases by sex were calculated using the 1976 world population as the standard population. A significant dose-response relation was observed between arsenic levels in well water and cancers of the bladder, kidney, skin, and lung in both males and females, and cancers of the prostate and liver in males. However, there was no association for cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, and uterine cervix, and for leukemia. Arsenic levels in well water were also associated with peripheral vascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases in a dose-response pattern, but not with cerebrovascular accidents. The dual effect of arsenic on carcinogenesis and arteriosclerosis and the interrelation between these two pathogenic mechanisms deserve more intensive study.

  5. Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and vascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.M.; Kuo, T.L.; Hwang, Y.H.; Chen, C.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Age-adjusted mortality rates were analyzed to examine the dose-response relation between ingested arsenic levels and risk of cancers and vascular diseases among residents in the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral vascular disease associated with long-term exposure to high-arsenic artesian well water and confined to the southwestern coast of Taiwan. The arsenic levels in well water determined in 1964-1966 were available in 42 villages of the study area, while mortality and population data during 1973-1986 were obtained from the local household registration offices and Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Age-adjusted mortality rates from various cancers and vascular diseases by sex were calculated using the 1976 world population as the standard population. A significant dose-response relation was observed between arsenic levels in well water and cancers of the bladder, kidney, skin, and lung in both males and females, and cancers of the prostate and liver in males. However, there was no association for cancers of the nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon, and uterine cervix, and for leukemia. Arsenic levels in well water were also associated with peripheral vascular diseases and cardiovascular diseases in a dose-response pattern, but not with cerebrovascular accidents. The dual effect of arsenic on carcinogenesis and arteriosclerosis and the interrelation between these two pathogenic mechanisms deserve more intensive study.

  6. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  7. The risk of smoking in relation to engagement with a school-based smoking intervention.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A; Almond, Joanne; Lancashire, Emma; Cheng, K K

    2003-02-01

    Health promotion interventions cannot work if people do not engage with them. The aim of this study was to examine whether disengagement from an adolescent smoking prevention and cessation intervention was an independent risk factor for regular smoking 1 and 2 years later. The data were taken from a cluster randomised controlled trial, in the West Midlands, UK, based on the transtheoretical or stages of change model. In this trial, 8,352 13-14-year old school pupils enrolled, and the data in this report were based on the 7,413 and 6,782 pupils present at 1 and 2 years follow-ups, respectively. The intervention group undertook three sessions using an interactive computer programme. At the end of the programme, pupils recorded their responses to it. Pupils were classed as engaged if they thought the intervention was both useful and interesting; all others were classed as disengaged. Random effects logistic regression related the number of times engaged to regular smoking at 1 and 2 years follow-up, adjusted for school absences and 11 potential confounders. The majority of pupils were engaged by the intervention. For participants using the intervention three times but not engaging once, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for smoking at 1 and 2 years relative to the controls were 1.83 (1.41-2.39) and 1.70 (1.38-2.11). For those engaging three times, they were 0.79 (0.60-1.03) and 0.96 (0.75-1.21). There was no interaction with baseline intention to smoke, classified by stage of change, but there was a borderline significant interaction with baseline smoking status, with disengagement acting as a stronger risk factor among baseline never-smokers. We conclude that disengagement from interventions is a risk factor for smoking independently of experimentation with cigarettes. The best explanation is that disengagement from school, an established risk factor for smoking, generalises to disengagement from didactic school-based health promotion programmes.

  8. Prognostic value of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index in chemosensitive recurrent or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphomas treated with high-dose BEAM therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, E; Peslin, N; Arnaud, P; Ferme, C; Carde, P; Vantelon, J M; Bocaccio, C; Bourhis, J H; Koscielny, S; Ribrag, V

    2005-06-01

    High-dose therapy (HDT) is now recommended for patients under 60 years of age with chemosensitive relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, approximately half of these patients will be cured by HDT. Prognostic factors are needed to predict which patients with chemosensitive lymphoma to second-line therapy could benefit from HDT. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of the widely used age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (AA-IPI) calculated at the time of relapse (35 patients) or just before second-line salvage therapy for primary refractory disease (5 patients). The median age was 51 years (range 18-64 years). Thirty-six patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Salvage cytoreductive therapy before HDT was DHAP/ESHAP (cytarabine, cysplatin, etoposide, steroids) in 17 patients, VIM3-Ara-c/MAMI (high-dose cytarabine, ifosfamide, methyl-gag, amsacrine) in 17 patients, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) or reinforced CHOP in 4 patients, high-dose cyclophosphamide and etoposide in 2 patients. The HDT regimen consisted of BEAM (carmusine, cytarabine, etoposide, melphalan) in all cases. Eleven patients were in partial remission and 29 in complete remission at the time of HDT. Ten patients had an IPI >1, 16 had relapsed early (<6 months after first-line therapy) or disease was refractory to first-line therapy (5 of the 16 patients). The median follow-up was 6.07 years (range 1.24-9.74 years). Overall survival was not statistically different in patients with refractory disease or in those who relapsed early compared with late failures (>6 months after first-line chemotherapy) (P=1), but the AA-IPI >1 was associated with a poor outcome (P=0.03). In conclusion, the AA-IPI could have a prognostic value in patients with chemosensitive recurrent lymphoma treated with BEAM HDT.

  9. Variables associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection in high risk newborn infants 1

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Uesliz Vianna; Gomes, Saint Clair dos Santos; Costa, Ana Maria Aranha Magalhães; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate the variables from a surveillance form for intravenous devices in high risk newborn infants with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection. METHODOLOGY: approximately 15 variables were studied, being associated with peripherally inserted central catheter related infection, this being defined by blood culture results. The variables analyzed were obtained from the surveillance forms used with intravenous devices, attached to the medical records of newborn infants weighing between 500 and 1,499 g. The statistical association was defined using the Chi-squared and Student t tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira under process N. 140.703/12. RESULTS: 63 medical records were analyzed. The infection rate observed was 25.4%. Of the variables analyzed, only three had a statistically-significant relationship with the blood culture - the use of drugs capable of inhibiting acid secretion, post-natal steroid use, and undertaking more than one invasive procedure (p-value of 0.0141, 0.0472 and 0.0277, respectively). CONCLUSION: the absence of significance of the variables of the form may be related to the quality of the records and to the absence of standardization. It is recommended that the teams be encouraged to adhere to the protocol and fill out the form. PMID:25493681

  10. Perceived vision-related quality of life and risk of falling among community living elderly people.

    PubMed

    Källstrand-Eriksson, Jeanette; Baigi, Amir; Buer, Nina; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2013-06-01

    Falls and fall injuries among the elderly population are common, since ageing is a risk factor of falling. Today, this is a major problem because the ageing population is increasing. There are predictive factors of falling and visual impairment is one of them. Usually, only visual acuity is considered when measuring visual impairment, and nothing regarding a person's functional visual ability is taken into account. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the perceived vision-related quality of life among the community living elderly using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and to investigate whether there was any association among vision-related quality of life and falls. There were 212 randomly selected elderly people participating in the study. Our study indicated that the participants had an impaired perceived vision-related health status. General health was the only NEI VFQ-25 variable significantly associated with falls in both men and women. However, among men, near and distance activities, vision-specific social functioning, role difficulties and dependency, color and peripheral vision were related to falls.

  11. The impact of environmental risk factors on HIV-associated cognitive decline in children.

    PubMed

    Hochhauser, C J; Gaur, S; Marone, R; Lewis, M

    2008-07-01

    Both the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and environmental stress have been independently associated with decreased cognitive functioning in children. Given that they are also known to have a strong relationship with each other, the present study sought to test the hypothesis that children in conditions of high environmental risk would be at greater risk for the cognitive complications related to immunosuppression. A retrospective review was conducted to examine the records of 141 children treated at a large pediatric AIDS clinic from 1993 to 2000. CD4+ lymphocyte levels were recorded from laboratory results and IQ scores were recorded from routine psychological evaluations. Key indicators of environmental risk were collected and combined into one measure of overall environmental risk. Pearson product moment correlations were conducted to examine the relationship between environmental risk, age-adjusted CD4 and IQ. Results indicated a significant correlation between CD4 and IQ, with higher levels of immunocompetence predicting higher IQ scores. When subjects were dichotomized based on their environmental risk score, there was no relationship between CD4 count and IQ in the low environmental risk group. In contrast, CD4 was positively associated with IQ in the high environmental risk group. It is proposed that this may be due to gp120 levels in immunocompromised children being particularly toxic to the hippocampus and cortex under conditions of high stress but not so under conditions of low stress.

  12. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease-related risks in chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50-88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a "traditional food pattern," consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a "fast and processed food pattern" consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a "soybean, grain, and flour food pattern"; and a "dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern." These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of "traditional Chinese food" is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  13. Food Insecurity is Related to Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Nurgül; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent association of food insecurity with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and to identify the T2D risk factors related to food insecurity among Latinas. Methods Case-control study in a convenience sample of 201 Latinas (100 cases with T2D, 101 controls) aged 35–60 years and living in an urban setting. Self-reported data, including food insecurity, T2D status, depression symptoms, and socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics (food and alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, physical activity) were collected, and height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were specified for T2D and food insecurity. Results Participants with very low food security were 3.3 times more likely to have T2D (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.34-8.23) independently of employment status, acculturation, waist circumference, and lifestyle characteristics. High waist circumference (>88cm) (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.13-5.38) and being in the lowest quartile of physical activity level (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.21-11.62) were also risk factors for T2D. Elevated depression symptoms and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) were positively related to low and very low food security after adjusting for waist circumference (P<.01); cigarette smoking was positively associated with very low food security, and nutrition knowledge was negatively related to low food security (P<.01). Conclusions These results highlight the need for interventions focusing on prevention of depression and food insecurity among Latinas with T2D. PMID:21942166

  14. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a “traditional food pattern,” consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a “fast and processed food pattern” consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a “soybean, grain, and flour food pattern”; and a “dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern.” These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of “traditional Chinese food” is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors. PMID:24350217

  15. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  16. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  17. A Survey of Needs of Texas Biology Teachers Relative to Teaching Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The data show that biology teachers spend relatively little time on diseases of the cardiovascular system. Approximately one period per year is spent on each of eight given cardiovascular disease risk factors. (MP)

  18. Mapping Heat-related Risks for Community-based Adaptation Planning under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yingjiu; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takayabu, Izuru

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recently, epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of the mortality impacts of extreme heat. This research has several aims: 1) to promote climate prediction services with spatial and temporal information on heat-related risks, using GIS (Geographical Information System), and digital mapping techniques; 2) to propose a visualization approach to articulating the evolution of local heat-health responses over time and the evaluation of new interventions for the implementation of valid community-based adaptation strategies and reliable actionable planning; and 3) to provide an appropriate and simple method of adjusting bias and quantifying the uncertainty in future outcomes, so that regional climate projections may be transcribed into useful forms for a wide variety of different users. Following the 2003 European heat wave, climatologists, medical specialists, and social scientists expedited efforts to revise and integrate risk governance frameworks for communities to take appropriate and effective actions themselves. Recently, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) methodology has made projections possible for anyone wanting to openly access state-of-the-art climate model outputs and climate data to provide the backbone for decisions. Furthermore, the latest high-solution regional climate model (RCM) has been a huge increase in the volumes of data available. In this study, we used high-quality hourly projections (5-km resolution) from the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM-5km), following the SRES-A1B scenario developed by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and observational data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The NHRCM-5km is a dynamic downscaling of results from the MRI-AGCM3.2S (20-km resolution), an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) driven by the

  19. FACTORS RELATED TO MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Chumpawadee, Urai; Homchampa, Pissamai; Thongkrajai, Pramote; Suwanimitr, Amorn; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2015-07-01

    Young motorcycle drivers in Thailand are at high risk for road traffic accidents. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with motorcycle accident risk behavior (MARB). We studied 372 randomly selected university students aged 18-22 years (mean 20.2 years; women comprised 68.0% of our participants), who attend a government university in northeastern Thailand. Each student was asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about MARB and factors associated with this behavior. The respondents had an average of 6.2 years (SD+3.09) motorcycle driving experience, 72.3% had a motorcycle driver's license and 83.0% had accident insurance. The prevalence of self-reported motorcycle accident injuries was 42.7%. Their major MARB were using a telephone while driving (69.3%), speeding (45.4%), driving with more than one passenger (40.1%), drunk driving (22.1%), and not wearing a helmet (23.3%). Factors related to MARB were: gender, with men engaged in risky behavior more often than women (p < 0.05); duration of motorcycle driving--drivers with > 5 years experience were more likely to engage in risky behavior (p < 0.05); and knowledge of safe driving, those with a greater knowledge of safe driving were more likely to drive safely (p < 0.001). Having a greater awareness of MARB was associated with lower risk of engaging in risky behavior (p < 0.001). Students who engaged in risky behavior were more likely to view it as normal behavior (p < 0.001) and less likely to have adequate self-control (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate a need to strengthen accident prevention programs for university students in northeastern Thailand. PMID:26867401

  20. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviors in men who have sex with men, Yemen 2011.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Ali; Emmanuel, Faran; Gharamah, Fouzia; Al-Suhaibi, Abdul Hamed; Setayesh, Hamidreza; McFarland, Willi; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at growing risk of HIV infection in many parts of the world; however, the epidemic has not been well explored among this population in most Arab countries. To estimate the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviors among MSM in Yemen, we recruited 261 adult MSM from the port cities of Aden and Al-Hudaydah through venue- and facility-based sampling. Behavioral data were collected with a face-to-face questionnaire, and HIV status was determined by serological testing. HIV prevalence was 5.9 % (95 % CI 4.8-7.3). One-fourth (25.8 %, 95 % CI 20.7-31.5) had tested for HIV in the last year and received results; 27.8 % (95 % CI 22.5-33.7) had comprehensive knowledge about HIV; 20.0 % (95 % CI 15.8-25.0) reported condom use at last anal sex; and 31.4 % (95 % CI 25.9-37.3) reported that they or their sexual partner had a sexually transmitted disease symptom. Injecting drugs in the last year was reported by 0.8 % (95 % CI 0.1-9.2). Multiple risk behaviors, low HIV knowledge, few preventive behaviors, and HIV prevalence greater than 5 % denote a concentrated and potentially expanding HIV epidemic among MSM in Yemen. No time should be lost in intervening to prevent further expansion of the epidemic to levels already seen among MSM outside the Middle East.

  1. Role of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in secreted frizzled related protein 1 and bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Rogler, Anja; Hoja, Sabine; Socher, Eileen; Nolte, Elke; Wach, Sven; Wieland, Wolf; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Goebell, Peter J; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the genotype distribution of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), rs3242 and rs921142, in a Caucasian bladder cancer case-control study. Allelic variants of the SNPs were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and partly verified by sequencing analysis. Overall, DNA from 188 consecutive and 215 early-onset bladder cancer patients (≤45 years) as well as from 332 controls was investigated. Potential microRNA binding sites were determined for rs3242, and microRNA expression was analysed in cell lines and tumour specimens. We observed a remarkable distribution difference in rs3242 between bladder cancer patients and healthy controls (p=0.05). Additionally, we found a significant difference in genotype distribution (p=0.032), resulting from the difference of early-onset patients and the control group (p=0.007). The risk allele T showed increased frequency in the early-onset patient group (p=0.002). Genotype-dependent differences of microRNA binding capacity were predicted in SFRP1 mRNA for two microRNAs. Hsa-miR-3646 showed strong expression in cell lines and tumour tissue, whereas hsa-miR-603 exhibited weak expression. The rs921142 SNP showed no significant association with bladder cancer risk. This is the first study to describe an association of the SFRP1 SNP rs3242 and bladder cancer risk as well as the influence of rs3242 on genotype-dependent microRNA capacity on SFRP1 mRNA. The onset of bladder seems to be associated with the increased occurrence of the T-allele in rs3242. PMID:24133576

  2. Role of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in secreted frizzled related protein 1 and bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Rogler, Anja; Hoja, Sabine; Socher, Eileen; Nolte, Elke; Wach, Sven; Wieland, Wolf; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Goebell, Peter J; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the genotype distribution of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), rs3242 and rs921142, in a Caucasian bladder cancer case-control study. Allelic variants of the SNPs were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and partly verified by sequencing analysis. Overall, DNA from 188 consecutive and 215 early-onset bladder cancer patients (≤45 years) as well as from 332 controls was investigated. Potential microRNA binding sites were determined for rs3242, and microRNA expression was analysed in cell lines and tumour specimens. We observed a remarkable distribution difference in rs3242 between bladder cancer patients and healthy controls (p=0.05). Additionally, we found a significant difference in genotype distribution (p=0.032), resulting from the difference of early-onset patients and the control group (p=0.007). The risk allele T showed increased frequency in the early-onset patient group (p=0.002). Genotype-dependent differences of microRNA binding capacity were predicted in SFRP1 mRNA for two microRNAs. Hsa-miR-3646 showed strong expression in cell lines and tumour tissue, whereas hsa-miR-603 exhibited weak expression. The rs921142 SNP showed no significant association with bladder cancer risk. This is the first study to describe an association of the SFRP1 SNP rs3242 and bladder cancer risk as well as the influence of rs3242 on genotype-dependent microRNA capacity on SFRP1 mRNA. The onset of bladder seems to be associated with the increased occurrence of the T-allele in rs3242. PMID:24133576

  3. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments.

  4. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  5. Chronic Stress Increases Vulnerability to Diet-Related Abdominal Fat, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Kornfeld, Sarah; Picard, Martin; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter; Stanhope, Kimber; Lustig, Robert H.; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In preclinical studies, the combination of chronic stress and a high sugar/fat diet is a more potent driver of visceral adiposity than diet alone, a process mediated by peripheral Neuropeptide Y (NPY). Methods In a human model of chronic stress, we investigated whether the synergistic combination of highly palatable foods (HPF; high sugar/fat) and stress was associated with elevated metabolic risk. Using a case-control design, we compared 33 post-menopausal caregivers (the chronic stress group) to 28 age-matched low-stress control women on reported HPF consumption (modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire), waistline circumference, truncal fat ultrasound, and insulin sensitivity using a three-hour oral glucose tolerance test. A fasting blood draw was assayed for plasma NPY and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxyguanosine and F2-Isoprostanes). Results Among chronically stressed women only, greater HPF consumption was associated with greater abdominal adiposity, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance at baseline (all p’s ≤.01). Furthermore, plasma NPY was significantly elevated in chronically stressed women (p<.01), and the association of HPF with abdominal adiposity was stronger among women with high versus low NPY. There were no significant predictions of change over one-year, likely due to high stability (little change) in the primary outcomes over this period. Discussion Chronic stress is associated with enhanced vulnerability to diet-related metabolic risk (abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress). Stress-induced peripheral NPY may play a mechanistic role. PMID:24882154

  6. Risk management for moisture related effects in dry manufacturing processes: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Jorge; Strong, John; Zhang, Lanju

    2016-03-01

    A risk- and science-based approach to control the quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing includes a full understanding of how product attributes and process parameters relate to product performance through a proactive approach in formulation and process development. For dry manufacturing, where moisture content is not directly manipulated within the process, the variability in moisture of the incoming raw materials can impact both the processability and drug product quality attributes. A statistical approach is developed using individual raw material historical lots as a basis for the calculation of tolerance intervals for drug product moisture content so that risks associated with excursions in moisture content can be mitigated. The proposed method is based on a model-independent approach that uses available data to estimate parameters of interest that describe the population of blend moisture content values and which do not require knowledge of the individual blend moisture content values. Another advantage of the proposed tolerance intervals is that, it does not require the use of tabulated values for tolerance factors. This facilitates the implementation on any spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel. A computational example is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  7. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Intravenous Colistin Use-related Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Koksal, Iftihar; Kaya, Selcuk; Gencalioglu, Eda; Yilmaz, Gurdal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the incidence of and risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients using intravenous colistin. Methods This retrospective, observational study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, clinics and intensive care unit between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2013. Intravenous colistin was administered to 133 patients at a dose of 2.5−5.0 mg/kg/day. Results The patients mean age was 54.3±19.1 years and the mean duration of treatment was 13.5±3.6 days. Nephrotoxicity developed in 5.0±2.8 days in 38 (28.6%) patients. Based on RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease) criteria, 15 (39.5%) patients were class 1, 17 (44.7%) were class 2, six (15.8%) were class 3, and none were class 4. The mean duration of development of nephrotoxicity was 5.0±2.8 days. Hemodialysis requirement was observed in two (5.2%) of the 38 patients who developed nephrotoxicity. In these cases, colistin therapy was not discontinued. Nephrotoxicity was correlated with advanced age, high pretreatment serum creatinine levels, diabetes mellitus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions The use of colistin is relatively safe for patients that have normal renal functions. However, better standardization of the definition of nephrotoxicity in those patients with the use of scoring systems and close monitoring are necessary. PMID:27403248

  8. HIV-related behavioral risk factors among older female sex workers in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shaobing; Cui, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature suggests a high rate of HIV infections among older female sex workers (FSWs) in China. However, limited data are available regarding HIV- related behavioral risk factors among this population. In the current study, we aim to examine the demographic and behavioral factors that place older FSWs at a high risk of HIV infection. We conducted secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data from Guangxi, China. A self-administered, standard behavioral surveillance survey was completed by a total of 12,622 FSWs in Guangxi, China. The Guangxi 2010 NSS sample included 19.4% FSWs aged 35 year