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Sample records for age-adjusted suicide rates

  1. Use of age-adjusted rates of suicide in time series studies in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2009-01-01

    Durkheim's modified theory of suicide was examined to explore how consistent it was in predicting Israeli rates of suicide from 1965 to 1997 when using age-adjusted rates rather than crude ones. In this time-series study, Israeli male and female rates of suicide increased and decreased, respectively, between 1965 and 1997. Conforming to Durkheim's modified theory, the Israeli male rate of suicide was lower in years when rates of marriage and birth are higher, while rates of suicide are higher in years when rates of divorce are higher, the opposite to that of Israeli women. The corrected regression coefficients suggest that the Israeli female rate of suicide remained lower in years when rate of divorce is higher, again the opposite suggested by Durkheim's modified theory. These results may indicate that divorce affects the mental health of Israeli women as suggested by their lower rate of suicide. Perhaps the "multiple roles held by Israeli females creates suicidogenic stress" and divorce provides some sense of stress relief, mentally speaking. The results were not as consistent with predictions suggested by Durkheim's modified theory of suicide as were rates from the United States for the same period nor were they consistent with rates based on "crude" suicide data. Thus, using age-adjusted rates of suicide had an influence on the prediction of the Israeli rate of suicide during this period.

  2. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  3. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  4. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  5. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  6. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  7. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  8. [Suicides and Suicid Rates in Germany, Bavaria and Upper Frankonia

    PubMed

    Mauerer, Christian; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Keller, Ferdinand

    2003-05-01

    The authors give an actual survey about suicides and suicide rates in Germany, Bavaria and Upper Frankonia. Their special interest are significant trends in the last years. These trends will be shown and shortly described.

  9. Contribution of Imitative Suicide to the Suicide Rate in Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Nigel; Keane, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Suicide rates in prisons are high. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of imitative suicide to the prison suicide rate. We used Knox tests for space-time clustering in a case register of natural and self-inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales and model simulations to estimate the effect size. We found significant space-time…

  10. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  11. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  12. Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates Among US Men and Women, 1981–2013

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between state-level firearm ownership rates and gender-specific, age-adjusted firearm and total suicide rates across all 50 US states from 1981 to 2013. Methods. We used panel data for all 50 states that included annual overall and gender-specific suicide and firearm suicide rates and a proxy for state-level household firearm ownership. We analyzed data by using linear regression and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Results. State-level firearm ownership was associated with an increase in both male and female firearm-related suicide rates and with a decrease in nonfirearm-related suicide rates. Higher gun ownership was associated with higher suicide rates by any means among male, but not among female, persons. Conclusions. We found a strong relationship between state-level firearm ownership and firearm suicide rates among both genders, and a relationship between firearm ownership and suicides by any means among male, but not female, individuals. Policy implications. For male persons, policies that reduce firearm ownership will likely reduce suicides by all means and by firearms. For female persons, such policies will likely reduce suicides by firearms. PMID:27196643

  13. Development, gender equality, and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P

    2000-10-01

    A component of the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index which measures longevity was negatively associated -.55 with suicide rates in 37 nations for men; the correlation with the suicide sex ratio was also negative (r = -.59). Women's access to social, political, and economic power in a subsample of 26 nations, summarized in the UNDP's Gender Empowerment Measure, was positively correlated with suicide rates (r = .36 for both women and men). UNDP measures of attainment in literacy and income showed no individual relationship with suicide rates. In a multiple regression model, life expectancy was negatively related, and the Gender-related Development index was positively related, to suicide rates.

  14. An application of Durkheim's theory of suicide to prison suicide rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-06-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained prison suicide rates better than suicide rates for total population. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.

  15. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  16. Temporal Variation in Irish Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Paul; Reilly, Marie; Salim, Agus; Brennan, Aline; Keeley, Helen S.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2004-01-01

    Using Irish suicide data for the period 1990?1998, the independent effects of month and day adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year effects and distinguishing between holiday and working Mondays were assessed. The male suicide rate was significantly higher on working Mondays (+31%) and Saturdays (+14%), and during April, June, and August…

  17. Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Polly Y.; Agarwala, Prachi; Opperman, Kiel J.; Horwitz, Adam; King, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence of psychiatric emergency (PE) visits for attempted suicide and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, we have limited information about assessment tools that are helpful in predicting subsequent risk for suicide attempts among adolescents in PE settings. This study examined the predictive validity of a highly promising instrument, the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Method Participants were 178 adolescents (44.4% male; ages 13–17 years) seeking PE services. The C-SSRS interview and selected medical chart data were collected for the index visit and subsequent visits during a 1-year follow-up. Results A suicide risk concern was the most common chief complaint (50.6%) in this sample, and nearly one third of the adolescents (30.4%) reported a lifetime history of suicide attempt at index visit. Sixty-two adolescents (34.8%) had at least one return PE visit during follow-up. Lifetime history of NSSI predicted both return PE visits and a suicide attempt at return visit. The C-SSRS intensity scale score was a significant predictor of a suicide attempt at return visit for both the full sample of adolescents and the subsample who reported suicidal ideation at their index visit. In this subsample, one specific item on the intensity scale, duration, was also a significant predictor of both a return PE visit and a suicide attempt at return visit. Conclusions The C-SSRS intensity scale and NSSI had predictive validity for suicide attempts at return visit. Results also suggest that duration of adolescents’ suicidal thoughts may be particularly important to risk for suicidal behavior, warranting further study. PMID:25285389

  18. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  19. Why Has the Continuous Decline in German Suicide Rates Stopped in 2007?

    PubMed Central

    Doganay, Gülcihan; Reschke, Konrad; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. Methods Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998–2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time (“joinpoint”) at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. Results The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides) (annual percentage change (APC) ≤ −4.33), drowning (APC ≤ −2.73), hanging (APC ≤ −2.69) and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ −1.46) in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007–2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs) and “being overrun” (APC ≥ 1.50) contributed to this trend. Limitations The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. Conclusions Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for “being overrun” and “self-poisoning”. Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend. PMID:23967225

  20. Occupational differences in US Army suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.; Stein, M. B.; Bliese, P. D.; Bromet, E. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gilman, S. E.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Millikan-Bell, A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rosellini, A. J.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Ursano, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Civilian suicide rates vary by occupation in ways related to occupational stress exposure. Comparable military research finds suicide rates elevated in combat arms occupations. However, no research has evaluated variation in this pattern by deployment history, the indicator of occupation stress widely considered responsible for the recent rise in the military suicide rate. Method The joint associations of Army occupation and deployment history in predicting suicides were analysed in an administrative dataset for the 729 337 male enlisted Regular Army soldiers in the US Army between 2004 and 2009. Results There were 496 suicides over the study period (22.4/100 000 person-years). Only two occupational categories, both in combat arms, had significantly elevated suicide rates: infantrymen (37.2/100 000 person-years) and combat engineers (38.2/100 000 person-years). However, the suicide rates in these two categories were significantly lower when currently deployed (30.6/100 000 person-years) than never deployed or previously deployed (41.2–39.1/100 000 person-years), whereas the suicide rate of other soldiers was significantly higher when currently deployed and previously deployed (20.2–22.4/100 000 person-years) than never deployed (14.5/100 000 person-years), resulting in the adjusted suicide rate of infantrymen and combat engineers being most elevated when never deployed [odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.1], less so when previously deployed (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), and not at all when currently deployed (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8–1.8). Adjustment for a differential ‘healthy warrior effect’ cannot explain this variation in the relative suicide rates of never-deployed infantrymen and combat engineers by deployment status. Conclusions Efforts are needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying this interaction to guide preventive interventions for soldiers at high suicide risk. PMID:26190760

  1. Gauging Media Influence on Adolescent Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Darren; McCabe, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" published by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that in 2004, suicide was the third leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year olds and accounted for 4,599 deaths. From 2003 to 2004, suicide rates of females age 10-14 years and 15-19 years and males age 15-19 years increased significantly.…

  2. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  3. Characteristics of Suicide from 1998-2001 in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xun; Hackworth, Jodi; McCabe, Heather; Lovett, Lori; Aumage, John; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    In order to establish effective suicide preventive programs, it is important to know the etiologic factors and causal relationships between suicide and behavior. Coroner data was analyzed for the 468 suicides that occurred in Indianapolis, Indiana during 1998-2001. The age-adjusted suicide rate was 14.08 per 100,000. Almost one-half of the victims…

  4. Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

    2013-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration.

  5. Jobs with the Highest Suicide Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159646.html Jobs With the Highest Suicide Rates Farmers, fishermen and foresters have more than 5 times the average odds, CDC says To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this ...

  6. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  7. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  8. The Finno-Ugrian suicide hypothesis: variation in European suicide rates by latitude and longitude.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Marusic, Andrej

    2003-10-01

    The marked variation regarding the suicide rate in 34 European countries is well described by regressing the national suicide rate on the capital cities' latitudes and on an interaction term of squared latitude multiplied with longitude. The interaction term explains 40.8% and 29.1% of men's and women's suicide rate, respectively, and latitude explains a further significant increment of 10.9% and 10.6% variance of men's and women's suicide rate, respectively. This regression model quantifies the Finno-Ugrian suicide hypothesis of Kondrichin and of Marusic and Farmer. The European countries highest in suicide rate constitute a contiguous, J-shaped belt, spanning from Finland to Austria. This area maps onto the second principal component identified for European gene distribution, representing ancestral adaptation to cold climates and the Uralic language dispersion. Thus, population differences in genetic risk factors may account for the spatial pattern in European suicide rates. PMID:14620226

  9. The Finno-Ugrian suicide hypothesis: variation in European suicide rates by latitude and longitude.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Marusic, Andrej

    2003-10-01

    The marked variation regarding the suicide rate in 34 European countries is well described by regressing the national suicide rate on the capital cities' latitudes and on an interaction term of squared latitude multiplied with longitude. The interaction term explains 40.8% and 29.1% of men's and women's suicide rate, respectively, and latitude explains a further significant increment of 10.9% and 10.6% variance of men's and women's suicide rate, respectively. This regression model quantifies the Finno-Ugrian suicide hypothesis of Kondrichin and of Marusic and Farmer. The European countries highest in suicide rate constitute a contiguous, J-shaped belt, spanning from Finland to Austria. This area maps onto the second principal component identified for European gene distribution, representing ancestral adaptation to cold climates and the Uralic language dispersion. Thus, population differences in genetic risk factors may account for the spatial pattern in European suicide rates.

  10. Rates of homicide and suicide on major national holidays.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen

    2004-04-01

    Rates of U.S. homicides and suicides during 1972-1979 were higher on 7 major national holidays except one for homicides and were lower for suicides, except New Year's Day as Lester noted for 1972-1979.

  11. Suicide Rates by Occupational Group - 17 States, 2012.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Wendy LiKamWa; Spies, Erica; Stone, Deborah M; Lokey, Colby N; Trudeau, Aimée-Rika T; Bartholow, Brad

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, approximately 40,000 suicides were reported in the United States, making suicide the 10th leading reported cause of death for persons aged ≥16 years (1). From 2000 to 2012, rates of suicide among persons in this age group increased 21.1%, from 13.3 per 100,000 to 16.1 (1). To inform suicide prevention efforts, CDC analyzed suicide by occupational group, by ascribing occupational codes to 12,312 suicides in 17 states in 2012 from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) (2). The frequency of suicide in different occupational groups was examined, and rates of suicide were calculated by sex and age group for these categories. Persons working in the farming, fishing, and forestry group had the highest rate of suicide overall (84.5 per 100,000 population) and among males (90.5); the highest rates of suicide among females occurred among those working in protective service occupations (14.1). Overall, the lowest rate of suicide (7.5) was found in the education, training, and library occupational group. Suicide prevention approaches directed toward persons aged ≥16 years that enhance social support, community connectedness, access to preventive services, and the reduction of stigma and barriers to help-seeking are needed. PMID:27359167

  12. Testing the Finno-Ugrian Suicide Hypothesis: geographic variation of elderly suicide rates across Europe.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Marusic, Andrej

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of geographic variation in European suicide rates in the high-risk group of individuals aged 65 years and over was investigated, in order to provide a further test of the Finno-Ugrian Suicide Hypothesis, i.e. the assumption that genetic differences between populations may partially account for spatial differences seen in the suicide prevalence. National suicide rates (average of 1970-2002) of the elderly from 34 European countries were regressed on geographic position terms, i.e. capital cities' latitude and longitude, along with transformations (e.g. squared latitude) and interaction terms (e.g. latitude multiplied with longitude) of these, which statistically modeled various possible geographic gradients in the suicide rates. In these regression models, the strongest and statistically significant predictor of elderly suicide rates was an interaction term of squared latitude multiplied with longitude, indicating that suicide rates increased to the northeast. This accounted for 13.8% (total), 20.8% (males) and 11.6% (females) of the cross-national variance in elderly suicide rates. No further geographic position term accounted for a significant increment of further variance in suicide rates over and above this predictor. Controls for national quality of living conditions and alcohol consumption rates left these results essentially unchanged. Replicating previous evidence based on suicide rates of the general population, suicide rates of the elderly show a northeastern gradient across Europe. This J-shaped belt of high-suicide-rate countries spans from Central Europe (Austria, Hungary and Slovenia) to Northeastern Europe (Finland and the Baltic countries). There are early historical and genetic communalities among the populations inhabiting this area, but, in terms of culture, recent history, political systems and socioeconomic factors, there is great diversity between these countries. The current findings thus add to cumulated empirical evidence

  13. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  14. Alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide).

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-12-01

    The present study examined the association between alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide) over regions within a nation. Although suicide rates were higher in regions with a higher per capital consumption of alcohol, other social variables were also found to be associated with both alcohol consumption and suicide rates, such as divorce rates and inter-region migration. Thus, it appears that alcohol consumption may be but one index of a broader sociocultural dimension that is associated with regional rates of suicidal behavior.

  15. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates. PMID:27051245

  16. The Effects of Misclassification Biases on Veteran Suicide Rate Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact that possible veteran suicide misclassification biases (i.e., inaccuracy in ascertainment of veteran status on the death certificate and misclassification of suicide as other manner of death) have on veteran suicide rate estimates. Methods. We obtained suicide mortality data from the 2003–2010 National Violent Death Reporting System and the 2003–2010 Department of Defense Casualty Analysis System. We derived population estimates from the 2003–2010 American Community Survey and 2003–2010 Department of Veterans Affairs data. We computed veteran and nonveteran suicide rates. Results. The results showed that suicide rates were minimally affected by the adjustment for the misclassification of current military personnel suicides as veterans. Moreover, combining suicides and deaths by injury of undetermined intent did not alter the conclusions. Conclusions. The National Violent Death Reporting System is a valid surveillance system for veteran suicide. However, more than half of younger (< 25 years) male and female suicides, labeled as veterans, were likely to have been current military personnel at the time of their death and misclassified on the death certificate. PMID:24228669

  17. A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hwei-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chiao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan's cities and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the…

  18. Rural Suicide Rates and Availability of Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Amy; Gatz, Margaret; Hannell, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher in rural than in urban areas in the United States. One explanation that is frequently offered is scarcity of health and mental health treatment providers in rural areas. The current study tested whether number of providers per capita would explain differences in urban and rural suicide rates within the counties of…

  19. Suicide Rates in Aboriginal Communities in Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659

  20. Antidepressant prescription and suicide rates: effect of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J John

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in both genders. The strongest association was found in the oldest age groups, where the increase in antidepressant use was highest, while there was no association in the under 20 or 50-69 age groups in either gender. Antidepressant prescription rate was related to suicide rate after controlling for divorce rate or unemployment rate, but not after controlling for alcohol consumption rate.

  1. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution. PMID:23362593

  2. Economic Conditions and Suicide Rates in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arijit; Prescott, Marta R.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Extant analyses of the relation between economic conditions and population health were often based on annualized data and were susceptible to confounding by nonlinear time trends. In the present study, the authors used generalized additive models with nonparametric smoothing splines to examine the association between economic conditions, including levels of economic activity in New York State and the degree of volatility in the New York Stock Exchange, and monthly rates of death by suicide in New York City. The rate of suicide declined linearly from 8.1 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 4.8 per 100,000 people in 1999 and then remained stable from 1999 to 2006. In a generalized additive model in which the authors accounted for long-term and seasonal time trends, there was a negative association between monthly levels of economic activity and rates of suicide; the predicted rate of suicide was 0.12 per 100,000 persons lower when economic activity was at its peak compared with when it was at its nadir. The relation between economic activity and suicide differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Stock market volatility was not associated with suicide rates. Further work is needed to elucidate pathways that link economic conditions and suicide. PMID:22362583

  3. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution.

  4. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  5. Does the volume of Internet searches using suicide-related search terms influence the suicide death rate: data from 2004 to 2009 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Hajime

    2011-06-01

    Cross-correlation was examined for the volume of suicide-related Internet searches and suicide death rate. Analysis of Google data and figures released by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare indicated that the volume of searches using the search terms jisatsu (suicide) and jisatsu houhou (suicide method) are not correlated with the suicide death rate. In addition, a rising suicide death rate might be related to the increase in suicide-related search activity (particularly utsu[depression]), but an increase in suicide-related search activity itself is not directly linked to the rise of suicide death rate.

  6. Anomie and United States Suicide rates, 1973--1976.

    PubMed

    Boor, M

    1979-10-01

    Related annual variations in United States suicide rates between 1973 and 1976 to concomitant annual variations in expressions of anomie obtained on the 5-item Srole anomie scale by a representative sample of the United States population. Expressions of anomie increased significantly for persons in the age groups (15--24 and 25--34 year) that displayed increases in suicide rates, annual variations in endorsement of anomie statements were correlated significantly with the concomitant annual variations in the suicide rates of the 15--24 year age group, and there was a nonsignificant tendency toward this relationship in the other (25--34 year) age group with increasing suicide rates. However, expressions of anomie also increased significantly for persons in the older age groups that showed no increases in suicide rates. Thus, Durkheim's hypothesis was not supported among older persons as it was among younger persons. Previous studies suggest that measures of anomie that focus explicitly on perceptions of internal-external control may be related more closely to suicidal behavior (especially for older persons) than measures that focus on other components of anomie.

  7. Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

    2006-01-01

    Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

  8. Trends in Hanging and Firearm Suicide Rates in Australia: Substitution of Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Dwyer, Jonathan; Firman, David; Neulinger, Kerryn

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the increase in the rate of suicide by hanging and an apparently simultaneous decrease in the rate of suicide by firearm as hypothetical evidence that Australian males have substituted one method of suicide for another. Individual suicide method choice may be related to independent changes in the social acceptability of each…

  9. Effect of the First World War on suicide rates in Ireland: an investigation of the 1864–1921 suicide trends

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the proposition of the social integration theory by Émile Durkheim, macro-sociological changes have been speculated to affect suicide rates. This study investigates the effect of the First World War on Irish suicide rates. We applied an interrupted time series design of 1864–1921 annual Irish suicide rates. The 1864–1913 suicide rates exhibited a slow-rising trend with a sharp decline from the year 1914 onwards. The odds for death by suicide for males during the 1914–1918 period was 0.811 (95% CI 0.768–0.963). Irish rates of suicide were significantly reduced during the First World War, most notably for males. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703742

  10. Women Chemists Mortality Study Finds High Suicide Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A study of white women members (N=347) of the American Chemical Society who died between 1925 and 1979 finds five times the expected rate of suicide, a higher risk for some forms of cancer, and a lower rate of heart disease. These and other findings are discussed. (JN)

  11. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  12. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  13. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  14. The Effect of Domestic and Economic Stress on Suicide Rates in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed rates of birth, divorce, marriage, and unemployment in Canada and United States in comparison to rates of suicide from 1950 to 1985. Found no association between marriage and suicide in Canada, in U.S. marriage had protective effect. Divorce rates were associated positively and birth rates associated negatively with suicide in both…

  15. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  16. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  17. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century. PMID:23118313

  18. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  19. A Study of Suicide Rates in Northern Ireland 1984–2002

    PubMed Central

    Largey, Maeve; Kelly, Christopher B; Stevenson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Annual figures collected by the Samaritans from the Registrar Generals' figures for suicides for the years 1984–2002 inclusive were analysed. Trends by gender, age group, marital status and method were examined. Suicide rates were standardised where appropriate. The mean annual rate was calculated for the 10 year period 1984–1993 and compared with the nine year period 1994–2002. The mean annual rate of suicide increased by 4.7%. Female suicide rates decreased by 17%, male suicides increased by 13.2%. The highest percentage increase was seen in males aged 25–34, (34%) followed by the 15–24 age group, (26.5%). There was a significant upward trend in suicide rates at p<0.01 in young males aged 10–34 and a significant fall in total suicide rates in those aged 35+. The greatest increase in the mean annual rate was seen in those of single status in sexes, males 24.2% and females 28.6%. There was a decrease in the mean annual rate for all methods of suicide except hanging with an increase of 99.37% in males and 87.80% in females. The overall rate of suicide in Northern Ireland appears to be rising. This trend is largely a result of the increase in suicides amongst young males aged 10–34. Violent methods of suicide, namely hanging have increased, suggesting that this more lethal method is contributing to the higher suicide rate. PMID:19252725

  20. Effects of media reports and the subsequent voluntary withdrawal from sale of suicide-related products on the suicide rate in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Akihito; Abe, Takeru

    2012-04-01

    Media reports of suicides have an impact on suicide rates. However, countermeasures to this media effect have not been evaluated. We examined the association between media reports of suicides accomplished with the use of hydrogen sulfide, the voluntary stoppage of sales of suicide-related products, and suicide rates for people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s in Japan. The Box-Jenkins transfer function model was applied to monthly time series data from February 2003 to December 2009 (83 months). In the male suicide time series, media reports of suicide were not related to suicide counts (ω((R)) = 8.988, P = 0.694). Similarly, stopping the sale of bath salts was not related to the number of suicides (ω((S)) = -7.344, P = 0.694). However, in the female suicide time series, media reports of suicide were related to the number of suicides (ω((R)) = 17.225, P = 0.049). Similarly, stopping the sale of bath salts was related to the number of suicides (ω((S)) = -18.545, P = 0.040). The results suggest that stopping the sale of bath salts might be effective in reducing the number of copycat suicides among the women in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. In practice, stopping the sale of suicide-related products might be a potentially effective countermeasure to prevent copycat suicides triggered by media coverage of suicides. PMID:22139523

  1. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  2. Suicide and homicide rates: their relationship to latitude and longitude and to the weather.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1986-01-01

    The variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States was explored to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Controls for temperature eliminated the North-South variation in suicide rates, but not the North-South variation in homicide rates or the East-West variation in suicide rates. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.

  3. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  4. Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lethality of the suicide method employed is a strong risk factor for the completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates in South Korea, the United States (US), and Finland. Methods We analyzed annual data from 2000–2011 for South Korea and Finland, and 2000–2010 for the US in order to examine trends in the rates and methods of suicide. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Results Along with an annual rapid increase in suicide rates, the incidence of hanging increased steadily while suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased in South Korea. In the US, along with an annual increase in suicide rates, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased while those committed with the use of firearms steadily decreased. In Finland, annual changes in the suicide rate and suicide method were not statistically significant during the study period. Conclusions Our present findings suggest that the increased use of specific lethal methods for suicide, namely hanging, is reflected in the increased suicide rates in the Korean and the US populations. The most effective approach for reducing overall suicide rates may be the implementation of population-based initiatives that reduce both the accessibility (e.g., access to firearms) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of lethal methods of suicide. PMID:24949083

  5. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  6. The Home Foreclosure Crisis and Rising Suicide Rates, 2005 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Light, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between state-level foreclosure and suicide rates from 2005 to 2010 and considered variation in the effect of foreclosure on suicide by age. Methods. We used hybrid random- and fixed-effects models to examine the relation between state foreclosure rates and total and age-specific suicide rates from 2005 to 2010 (n = 306 state-years). Results. Net of other factors, an increase in the within-state total foreclosure rate was associated with a within-state increase in the crude suicide rates (b = 0.04; P < .1), and effects were stronger for the real estate–owned foreclosure rate (b = 0.16; P < .05). Analysis of age-specific suicide rates indicated that the effects were strongest among the middle-aged (46–64 years: total foreclosure rate, b = 0.21; P < .001; real estate–owned foreclosure rate, b = 0.83; P < .001). Rising home foreclosure rates explained 18% of the variance in the middle-aged suicide rate between 2005 and 2010. Conclusions. The foreclosure crisis has likely contributed to increased suicides, independent of other economic factors associated with the recession. Rising foreclosure rates may be partially responsible for the recent uptick in suicide among middle-aged adults. PMID:24825209

  7. Elevated suicide rates at high altitude: sociodemographic and health issues may be to blame.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Valley, Morgan A; Lowenstein, Steven R; Hedegaard, Holly; Thomas, Deborah; Stallones, Lorann; Honigman, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Suicide rates are higher at high altitudes; some hypothesize that hypoxia is the cause. We examined 8,871 suicides recorded in 2006 in 15 states by the National Violent Death Reporting System, with the victim's home county altitude determined from the National Elevation Dataset through FIPS code matching. We grouped cases by altitude (low<1000m; middle=1000-1999m; high≥2000m). Of reported suicides, 5% were at high and 83% at low altitude, but unadjusted suicide rates per 100,000 population were higher at high (17.7) than at low (5.7) altitude. High and low altitude victims differed with respect to race, ethnicity, rural residence, intoxication, depressed mood preceding the suicide, firearm use and recent financial, job, legal, or interpersonal problems. Even after multivariate adjustment, there were significant differences in personal, mental health, and suicide characteristics among altitude groups. Compared to low altitude victims, high altitude victims had higher odds of having family or friends report of a depressed mood preceding the suicide (OR 1.78; 95%CI:1.46-2.17) and having a crisis within 2weeks before death (OR 2.00; 95%CI:1.63-1.46). Suicide victims at high and low altitudes differ significantly by multiple demographic, psychiatric, and suicide characteristics; these factors, rather than hypoxia or altitude itself, may explain increased suicide rates at high altitude. PMID:21883411

  8. Effect of a barrier at Bloor Street Viaduct on suicide rates in Toronto: natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rates of suicide changed in Toronto after a barrier was erected at Bloor Street Viaduct, the bridge with the world’s second highest annual rate of suicide by jumping after Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. Design Natural experiment. Setting City of Toronto and province of Ontario, Canada; records at the chief coroner’s office of Ontario 1993-2001 (nine years before the barrier) and July 2003-June 2007 (four years after the barrier). Participants 14 789 people who completed suicide in the city of Toronto and in Ontario. Main outcome measure Changes in yearly rates of suicide by jumping at Bloor Street Viaduct, other bridges, and buildings, and by other means. Results Yearly rates of suicide by jumping in Toronto remained unchanged between the periods before and after the construction of a barrier at Bloor Street Viaduct (56.4 v 56.6, P=0.95). A mean of 9.3 suicides occurred annually at Bloor Street Viaduct before the barrier and none after the barrier (P<0.01). Yearly rates of suicide by jumping from other bridges and buildings were higher in the period after the barrier although only significant for other bridges (other bridges: 8.7 v 14.2, P=0.01; buildings: 38.5 v 42.7, P=0.32). Conclusions Although the barrier prevented suicides at Bloor Street Viaduct, the rate of suicide by jumping in Toronto remained unchanged. This lack of change might have been due to a reciprocal increase in suicides from other bridges and buildings. This finding suggests that Bloor Street Viaduct may not have been a uniquely attractive location for suicide and that barriers on bridges may not alter absolute rates of suicide by jumping when comparable bridges are nearby. PMID:20605890

  9. Climate impact on suicide rates in Finland from 1971 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhela, Reija; Hiltunen, Laura; Venäläinen, Ari; Pirinen, Pentti; Partonen, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Seasonal patterns of death from suicide are well-documented and have been attributed to climatic factors such as solar radiation and ambient temperature. However, studies on the impact of weather and climate on suicide are not consistent, and conflicting data have been reported. In this study, we performed a correlation analysis between nationwide suicide rates and weather variables in Finland during the period 1971-2003. The weather parameters studied were global solar radiation, temperature and precipitation, and a range of time spans from 1 month to 1 year were used in order to elucidate the dose-response relationship, if any, between weather variables and suicide. Single and multiple linear regression models show weak associations using 1-month and 3-month time spans, but robust associations using a 12-month time span. Cumulative global solar radiation had the best explanatory power, while average temperature and cumulative precipitation had only a minor impact on suicide rates. Our results demonstrate that winters with low global radiation may increase the risk of suicide. The best correlation found was for the 5-month period from November to March; the inter-annual variability in the cumulative global radiation for that period explained 40 % of the variation in the male suicide rate and 14 % of the variation in the female suicide rate, both at a statistically significant level. Long-term variations in global radiation may also explain, in part, the observed increasing trend in the suicide rate until 1990 and the decreasing trend since then in Finland.

  10. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  11. Climate impact on suicide rates in Finland from 1971 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Ruuhela, Reija; Hiltunen, Laura; Venäläinen, Ari; Pirinen, Pentti; Partonen, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Seasonal patterns of death from suicide are well-documented and have been attributed to climatic factors such as solar radiation and ambient temperature. However, studies on the impact of weather and climate on suicide are not consistent, and conflicting data have been reported. In this study, we performed a correlation analysis between nationwide suicide rates and weather variables in Finland during the period 1971-2003. The weather parameters studied were global solar radiation, temperature and precipitation, and a range of time spans from 1 month to 1 year were used in order to elucidate the dose-response relationship, if any, between weather variables and suicide. Single and multiple linear regression models show weak associations using 1-month and 3-month time spans, but robust associations using a 12-month time span. Cumulative global solar radiation had the best explanatory power, while average temperature and cumulative precipitation had only a minor impact on suicide rates. Our results demonstrate that winters with low global radiation may increase the risk of suicide. The best correlation found was for the 5-month period from November to March; the inter-annual variability in the cumulative global radiation for that period explained 40 % of the variation in the male suicide rate and 14 % of the variation in the female suicide rate, both at a statistically significant level. Long-term variations in global radiation may also explain, in part, the observed increasing trend in the suicide rate until 1990 and the decreasing trend since then in Finland.

  12. A Study of the Impact of Thirteen Celebrity Suicides on Subsequent Suicide Rates in South Korea from 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    A number of ecological studies have found a pattern of increasing suicide rates after suicides of several Asian entertainment celebrities. However, the finding may be subject to positive outcome bias where cases with no perceived impact may be routinely excluded. In this study, we deploy interrupted time-series analysis using ARIMA transfer function models to investigate systematically the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea. We find that three out of eleven cases were found to be followed by a significant increase in suicide rate, while controlling for seasonality, secular trends, and unemployment rates. Such significant increases could last for nine weeks. Non-significance cases may be attributable to the small amount of media coverage, the “displacement” effect of preceding case, and the negative connotation of celebrity deaths. We therefore conclude that whether or not the impacts were detected may be largely conditioned by various contextual factors. Current evidence based on ecological studies is insufficient to draw a firm conclusion. Further studies using multiple approaches should be developed. PMID:23342026

  13. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  14. The coal gas story. United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960-71.

    PubMed Central

    Kreitman, N

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of suicide rates between 1960 and 1971 for England and Wales and for Scotland confirms that all age-sex subgroups have shown a marked decline in suicide due to domestic gas, corresponding in time to the fall in the CO content. After considering data on the effects of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Eighth Revision, accident mortality, some personal characteristics of coal gas suicides, and the use of coal gas in parasuicide it was concluded that a simple casual explantation was likely. Suicide due to non-gas methods has in general increased, markedly so in some groups. It was suggested that neither improved psychiatric services nor voluntary agencies could have produced such changes. The 'compensatory' trend of gas and non-gas suicide rates was indicated for certain age-sex subgroups. The continuing need for suicide research was pointed out, and questions were raised concerning the psychological meaning of the epidemiological data. PMID:953381

  15. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  16. Per Capita Alcohol Consumption and Suicide Rates in the U.S., 1950-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in the United States are affected by changes in per capita consumption during the postwar period. The analysis included Annual suicide rates and per capita alcohol consumption data (total and beverage specific) for the period 1950-2002. Gender- and age-specific models were estimated using the…

  17. Reduction in the suicide rate during Advent--a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Lauber, Christoph; Bopp, Matthias; Eich, Dominique; Gostynski, Michael; Gutzwiller, Felix; Burns, Tom; Rössler, Wulf

    2008-01-15

    Research has shown that there are different seasonal effects in suicide. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the decrease in suicide rate at the end of the year is extended over the last weeks of the year and represents a specific type of seasonal effect. Suicide data were extracted from individual records of the Swiss mortality statistics, 1969-2003. The data were aggregated to daily frequencies of suicide across the year. Specifically, the period October-February was examined using time-series analysis, i.e., the Box-Jenkins approach with intervention models. The time series models require a step function to account for the gradual drop in suicide frequencies in December. The decrease in suicide frequencies includes the whole Advent and is accentuated at Christmas. After the New Year, there is a sharp recovery in men's suicide rate but not in women's. The reduction in the suicide rate during the last weeks of the year exceeds the well-recognised effect of reduced rates on major public holidays. It involves valuable challenges for suicide prevention such as timing of campaigns and enhancement of social networks.

  18. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  19. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... mania, causes of depression, depression in elderly men, depression in boys and adolescent males, suicide, diagnosis, treatment, and how to find help and support. Men and Depression (Copyright © Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance) - This publication ...

  20. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  1. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  2. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain.

  3. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. PMID:26207530

  4. Elevated Suicide Rates at High Altitude: Sociodemographic and Health Issues May Be to Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Valley, Morgan A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Hedegaard, Holly; Thomas, Deborah; Stallones, Lorann; Honigman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher at high altitudes; some hypothesize that hypoxia is the cause. We examined 8,871 suicides recorded in 2006 in 15 states by the National Violent Death Reporting System, with the victim's home county altitude determined from the National Elevation Dataset through FIPS code matching. We grouped cases by altitude (low less…

  5. Age Appropriate No-Suicide Agreements: Professionals' Ratings of Appropriateness and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael; Range, Lillian M.

    2000-01-01

    Psychologists (N=368) who specialize in children read one of six vignettes describing a suicidal youth and a therapist who used a no-suicide agreement (NSA), then rated the appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention. Results indicated that the psychologists mildly to moderately favored written NSAs regardless of reading level of the…

  6. ANALYSIS OF SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RATES OF SUICIDE IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Kiladze, L; Lezhava, G; Gadelia, E

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, significant increase in the incidence of suicide is observed in Georgia, especially among teenagers. Effectiveness of suicide prevention greatly depends on adequate determination of causes of suicide. Statistics of suicidal death and attempts in Georgia are recorded in two agencies: the National Statistics Office (GeoStat) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia (MIA). Data from both agencies - main epidemiological indicators of 2011 - 2014 have been statically processed, analyzed and compared with the WHO data. Conducted research revealed significant difference between data obtained from the GeosStat and the MIA that may be the cause of absence of complete, unified system. Besides, the data are substantially different from the WHO-recognized findings. Therefore, specification of suicide's substantive criteria and improvement of the statistical data collection methodology are necessary that require joint and coordinated actions of several agencies. PMID:27441540

  7. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Anto P.; Senthilkumar, P.; Gayathri, K.; Shyamsundar, G.; Jacob, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India. PMID:26664075

  8. Youth suicide in New Mexico: a 26-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Veena D; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2008-05-01

    Although suicidal behavior in children and adolescents is a major public health problem, large-scale research on suicide in this population is uncommon. In this study, we reviewed autopsy and field reports for all pediatric suicide cases referred to the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator from 1979 to 2005. The age-adjusted suicide rate was 4.8 per 100,000. Psychologic stressors and parasuicidal behavior were identified in some cases. Seventy-six percent of suicides occurred in the victim's home or yard, and 25% left a suicide note. In 26% of cases, alcohol or other drugs were detected in postmortem. Gunshot wound was the most common method overall (58%), followed by hanging (30%). Although the age-adjusted suicide rate is higher in New Mexico than nationally, the trends in the population are similar. With a solid understanding of the circumstances, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of child and adolescent death.

  9. States' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, 1960 to 1995: what is the problem?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Shirley L

    2002-06-01

    Drawing on Durkheim's theory of social integration, this discussion reports on findings from a pooled time-series analysis of states' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates, controlling for states' divorce rates, population change rates, population density, unemployment rates, sex ratio, and racial composition. The analysis spans a 35-year period, 1960 to 1995, at six different data points: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995. The major hypothesis was that states' suicide rates would increase with decreases in per capita spending for public welfare, controlling for the variables listed above in three different models and using OLS to analyze the data. In the basic model, states' spending for public welfare showed no relationship to states' suicide rates; in the second model that controlled for data year and in the third model that controlled for both data year and state, its relationship was significant, but in a negative direction. Suicide rates increased in states that reduced their per capita expenditures for public welfare during the observational period. Of all the variables, the influence of divorce on suicide was the most persistent and pronounced, followed by the percentage of whites in states' populations. Whether the findings reflect an increase in the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, or the weakening of ties that bind individuals to each other and to the larger society (as measured by states' divorce rates and per capita expenditures for public welfare), or the vulnerabilities associated with race, states can help counter suicide trends and such negative influences as divorce as evidenced by states that spend more for public welfare and have lower suicide rates. Given that clinicians work with people experiencing the unendurable psychological pain associated with suicide, the findings from these analyses have relevance for their practice.

  10. Suicide among Hispanics--United States, 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    2004-06-11

    By 2020, Hispanics are expected to represent 17% of the U.S. population and to surpass all other racial/ethnic minority populations in size. In 1996, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established the Hispanic Agenda for Action initiative; a major goal of this initiative is to identify health problems that affect Hispanics. In 2001, although the overall age-adjusted suicide rate per 100,000 population among Hispanics was lower than the U.S. national rate (10.7), suicide was the third leading cause of death among young (i.e., aged 10-24 years) Hispanics and the seventh leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 75 years. To identify demographic groups at risk for suicide and to help guide prevention efforts, CDC analyzed mortality data for 1997-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among Hispanics, the largest proportion of suicides occurred among young persons; suicide rates were higher among males; and the most common method of suicide was by firearms. To reduce the number of suicides, additional prevention strategies are needed, including 1) improving methods for collecting data about suicides, suicide attempts, and related behaviors; 2) expanding evaluation of prevention efforts aimed at reducing suicidal behaviors; and 3) examining how effective interventions can be modified for diverse and culturally specific populations. PMID:15190244

  11. Chain of Care for Patients with Intentional Self-Harm: An Effective Strategy to Reduce Suicide Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Mehlum, Lars; Gjertsen, Finn; Moller, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Chain of care for patients with intentional self-harm was important in the Norwegian national action plan to prevent suicide. In this study there were two aims: (1) to calculate the potential effects of chain of care on reducing suicide rates, and (2) to assess whether suicide rates decreased more in areas where chain of care had been implemented…

  12. Rural-Urban Differences in Suicide Rates for Current Patients of a Public Mental Health Service in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Carter, Gregory; Lewin, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Rural versus urban rates of suicide in current patients of a large area mental health service in Australia were compared. Suicide deaths were identified from compulsory root cause analyses of deaths, 2003-2007. Age-standardized rates of suicide were calculated for rural versus urban mental health service and compared using variance of…

  13. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  14. Cluster and regional influences on suicide in a Southwestern American Indian tribe.

    PubMed

    Wissow, L S; Walkup, J; Barlow, A; Reid, R; Kane, S

    2001-11-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among American Indian youth. Elevated rates of suicide in Indian communities have been attributed both to outbreaks and to regional trends. We assessed the contribution of these two factors for a single tribe, and attempted to define a profile of individuals at risk. Data came from the tribe's registry of suicide attempts and completions for 1990-1993 and analysis of death certificates for the period 1985-1996. Using combined tribal and death certificate data, the average annual (age-adjusted) rate of completed suicide among tribal members was 44.7/100,000 for 1990-1993. Within the 45 suicide deaths and serious attempts in this time period, we identified one grouping of seven cases taking place in a 40-day period. All seven involved hanging and youth (13-28 years old). Using death certificate data alone, the average annual rate of suicide death for non-natives in the surrounding county in the period 1985-1996 was 22.7/100,000. Age-adjusted to the county population, the tribal rate for the same period was not significantly different (24.6/100,000). Tribal and county suicide patterns differed by age distribution and method but not by gender. We concluded that both regional trends and clustering contribute to suicide in this community. Further prevention efforts may need to focus on both unique tribal characteristics and shared factors among non-native neighbors.

  15. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0 · 437, 0 · 518 or 0 · 549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

  16. Perceived income inequality and suicide rates in Central/Eastern European countries and Western countries, 1990-1993.

    PubMed

    Fernquist, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    Sociological studies on cross-national male and female suicide rates have found numerous factors related to variation in suicide rates. The present study focuses on how perceived differences in income inequality impact suicide rates in 12 different countries, unlike most prior studies on income inequality and suicide that use measures of actual income inequality. Using G. Jasso's (1999) index on perceived income inequality, the author found that perceived income inequality is related more strongly and more consistently to male suicide rates than female suicide rates. Relative to other variables used in this analysis,perceived income inequality also accounts for most of the difference in the gender gap of male versus female suicide rates.

  17. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: Who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16–64 years old) for the period 2001–2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16–34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16–24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25–34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35–44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16–34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35–44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45–64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16–34 years, may have begun

  18. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16-64 years old) for the period 2001-2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16-34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16-24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25-34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35-44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16-34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35-44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45-64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16-34 years, may have begun before the 2008

  19. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  20. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years. PMID:1304550

  1. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years.

  2. Association between the Density of Physicians and Suicide Rates in Japan: Nationwide Ecological Study Using a Spatial Bayesian Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Regional disparity in suicide rates is a serious problem worldwide. One possible cause is unequal distribution of the health workforce, especially psychiatrists. Research about the association between regional physician numbers and suicide rates is therefore important but studies are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physician numbers and suicide rates in Japan, by municipality. Methods The study included all the municipalities in Japan (n = 1,896). We estimated smoothed standardized mortality ratios of suicide rates for each municipality and evaluated the association between health workforce and suicide rates using a hierarchical Bayesian model accounting for spatially correlated random effects, a conditional autoregressive model. We assumed a Poisson distribution for the observed number of suicides and set the expected number of suicides as the offset variable. The explanatory variables were numbers of physicians, a binary variable for the presence of psychiatrists, and social covariates. Results After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in the other municipalities. There was, however, a positive and statistically significant association between the number of physicians and suicide rates. Conclusions Suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in other municipalities, but the number of physicians was positively and significantly related with suicide rates. To improve the regional disparity in suicide rates, the government should encourage psychiatrists to participate in community-based suicide prevention programs and to settle in municipalities that currently have no psychiatrists. The government and other stakeholders should also construct better networks between psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists to support sharing of information for suicide prevention. PMID:26840389

  3. Psychache in context:states'spending for public welfare and their suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, S L

    1995-07-01

    This analysis draws together the concept of psychache that describes the psychological pain associated with suicide and Durkheim's social integration theory in analyzing the relationship between states' spending for public welfare and their suicide rates over a 30-year period, from 1960, 1970, 1980, 1985, and 1990. Given that the threshold for enduring psychological pain varies from person to person, the questions were: Does suicide also vary with social context and has this changed over time? The answer to both questions was yes. Whereas the prevalence of divorce in combination with low population density and high rates of population change provided the context for interstate differences in suicide rates over the entire observational period and accounted for their increased variability in 1970 and 1980, this was not the case in 1985 or 1990. In both 1985 and 1990, the two variables that were important in this regard were states' spending for public welfare and race. In 1990, not only were suicide rates higher in states that spent less for public welfare than in states that spent more, but states' spending for public welfare was the only variable that accounted for the widening of differences in states' suicide rates. Given the strong prevailing skepticism that government can help solve people's problems and widespread antagonism toward government social spending, these findings carry an important message.

  4. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  5. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the Internet: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-04-01

    Internet Web sites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. There is a paucity of studies examining the role of the Internet in general population suicide rates. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the prevalence of Internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Web sites. The prevalence of Internet users was significantly and positively correlated with general population suicide rates in both sexes. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of Internet users was independently associated with general population suicide rates in males, and this independent relationship in females approached statistical significance. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research. PMID:20465349

  6. How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?

    PubMed

    Fernquist, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research on Durkheim's theories of egoistic and anomic suicide has given Durkheim continued support more than a century after Durkheim published his work. Recent criticism by Breault (1994), though, argues that Durkheim's theories of suicide actually have not been empirically supported given the lack of psychological variables included in sociological research on suicide rates. Using proxy measures of depression and alcoholism, two known psychological variables to impact suicide, as well as classic Durkheimian variables, suicide rates in eight European countries from 1973-1997 were examined. Results indicate that Durkheim's theories of egoism and anomie, while not completely supported in statistical analysis of suicide rates, received moderate support. Results suggest the continued usefulness of Durkheim's work in aggregate analyses of suicide.

  7. Impact of Income Inequality and Other Social Determinants on Suicide Rate in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daiane Borges; Rasella, Davide; dos Santos, Darci Neves

    2015-01-01

    Studies about suicide worldwide have mainly focused on individual-level psychiatric risk factors. In Brazil, suicide is an important public health problem. Brazil has evidenced important socioeconomic changes over the last decades, leading to decreasing income inequality. However, the impact of income inequality on suicide rate has never been studied in the country. Purpose To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. Method This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. Results The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR) was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011–1.101). Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948–0.988), whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010–1.021). Conclusions Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population’s socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in

  8. Case fatality rates of different suicide methods within Ilam province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razaeian, Mohsen; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few diverse studies that have reported the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide, none of them are originated from developing countries. The aim of the present article is to report the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide in Ilam province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on 611 cases of suicide and 1807 cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) that were recorded in a comprehensive registry during 1995 through 2002 were analyzed for both genders together and for males and females, separately. Findings: For both genders together, the two most fatal methods were hanging (75.4%) and self-immolation (68.3%); for males, hanging (76.3%) and self-immolation (64.7%); and for females, firearms (75%) and hanging (73.7%), respectively. The least fatal methods for both genders together and for females and males separately were drug ingestion and cutting. Conclusion: The results of present study, which for the first time has reported the case fatality rates of suicide methods in a developing world, would not only help to better plan the local suicide prevention strategies and clinical assessment of suicidal cases but to shed light on overall understanding of this mysterious human phenomenon. PMID:23555147

  9. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  10. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C–SSRS): Has the “Gold Standard” Become a Liability?

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Columbia– Suicide Severity Rating Scale has become the gold standard for the assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials. Criticism of the instrument has been mounting. We examine whether the instrument meets widely accepted psychometric standards and maps to the United States Food and Drug Administration’s most recent 2012 algorithm for assessment of suicidal phenomena. Our goal is to determine if the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale should be retained as the preferred instrument for assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior. Method: Standard psychometric criteria dictate that categorizations to avoid type I and type II errors should be comprehensive and address the full spectrum (i.e., all dimensions) of a phenomenon. The criteria should also be well defined and consistent, and the wording throughout should be unambiguous. We examine the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in terms of these criteria. Results: The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale does not address the full spectrum of suicidal ideation or behavior. As a result, it has the potential to miss many combinations of suicidal ideation and behavior that present to clinicians in practice (type II error). Potential misclassifications (type I and II errors) are compounded by flawed navigation instructions; mismatches in category titles, definitions, and probes; and wording that is susceptible to multiple interpretations. Further, the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in its current form does not map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration’s draft classification algorithm for suicidal ideation and behavior. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale is conceptually and psychometrically flawed and does not map to the Food and Drug Administration’s new standards. A new gold standard for assessment of suicidality may be warranted. PMID:25520890

  11. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination. PMID:24946117

  12. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination.

  13. Age and sex suicide rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on global burden of disease estimates for 2000.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, M

    2007-01-01

    Suicide was estimated to be the 25th leading cause of death in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region in the year 2000. Using data from the WHO global burden of disease project, estimated rates of suicidal deaths were plotted for different sex and age groups. Overall rates of suicide were higher in females than males in age groups 5-14 and 15-29 years. The peak age for suicides among females was 15-29 years (8.6 per 100,000) and for males 60+ years (100,000). As a proportion of all deaths due to injury, suicides were substantially higher in females than males. Females in high-income countries had the lowest rates of suicide in all age groups and males in high-income countries had a lower rate than males in low- and middle-income countries.

  14. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  15. Suicide rates among Turkish and American youth: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Murat; Zoroglu, Salih; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2012-01-01

    This study compares youth (<24 years) suicide rates in Turkey and the United States; a demographic and cross-cultural comparison and exploration of possible causative factors. Publicly available data were compared for children, adolescents, and young adults for years 1992-2004. The mean general population suicide rate in Turkey (per 100,000) was, male = 3.53 and female = 2.31 (for the US, males = 18.37, females = 4.31); for ages below 15 years the rate was, males = 0.28 and females = 0.39 (for the US, males = 1.09 and females = 0.38); while for aged 15-24 years the rate was, males = 4.58 and females = 5.22 (for the US, males = 18.84 and females = 3.36). The patterns for Turkey are: (a) Female youth had a higher suicide rate than male youth; this was the reverse of the U.S. pattern, (b) Youth suicide increased during the time period in Turkey, whereas it was relatively stable in the US, (c) However, suicide rates in Turkey were generally lower than the US, (d) Fifty percent of all female suicide victims in Turkey were under the age of 24 years (versus 11% in the US). Possible psychosocial causative factors may include (a) negative social status of females (forced marriage, young marriage age, low literacy, honor killings); (b) substantial rural to urban migration which disrupts ties and exposes migrants to a less traditional cultural system; (c) shortage of mental health services; (d) and possibly, reduced religious education enrollment may be an additional factor.

  16. [Prevention and interventions for suicidal youth considerations for health professionionals in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Berger, Gregor E; Della Casa, André; Pauli, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic surge in suicide rate. While worldwide age-adjusted suicides rate per 100’000 in under 14-year olds are relatively low around 0.6, a dramatic increase to 7.4 can be observed in 15 – 19 year olds with suicide being one of the three leading causes of mortality in most countries in this age group. From 2000 to 2013 the Swiss annual average of completed suicides in 15 – 19 year olds was 33.1 (minimum 24; maximum 47). This corresponds to an average age-specific death rate of 7.6, which is slightly above the global mean. Suicide prevention and treatment of suicidality in adolescents is a complex underpinning. Subjectively experienced feelings of insufficiency, hopelessness and the feeling of worthlessness combined with concrete suicidal ideations and the capacity to act out are important indicators for assessing suicidal risk. Suicide attempts as the strongest risk factor for suicide should always be taken seriously, even if they occur in the context of situational crisis. Narcissistic personality traits or increased impulsivity are further indicators of risk. The early detection and effective treatment of mental disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar-affective disorders or psychotic disorders provide a great opportunity to reduce the frequency of suicide attempts and suicide. Particular caution is required when co-morbid addictions are present. The maintenance or establishment of sustainable relationships with significant others is considered a key protecting factor. Increasing withdrawal from significant others is an important warning sign and needs urgent involvement of experts. In acute suicidality, the admission to a psychiatric hospital must be considered, if necessary against the will of affected adolescent and their relatives. Personality-related recurrent suicidal behavior requires specific treatment approaches taking into account the prevention of iatrogenic worsening of suicidal patterns.

  17. Examining the Relationship Between Past Orientation and US Suicide Rates: An Analysis Using Big Data-Driven Google Search Queries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hojun

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet search query data reflect the attitudes of the users, using which we can measure the past orientation to commit suicide. Examinations of past orientation often highlight certain predispositions of attitude, many of which can be suicide risk factors. Objective To investigate the relationship between past orientation and suicide rate by examining Google search queries. Methods We measured the past orientation using Google search query data by comparing the search volumes of the past year and those of the future year, across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia during the period from 2004 to 2012. We constructed a panel dataset with independent variables as control variables; we then undertook an analysis using multiple ordinary least squares regression and methods that leverage the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. Results It was found that past orientation had a positive relationship with the suicide rate (P≤.001) and that it improves the goodness-of-fit of the model regarding the suicide rate. Unemployment rate (P≤.001 in Models 3 and 4), Gini coefficient (P≤.001), and population growth rate (P≤.001) had a positive relationship with the suicide rate, whereas the gross state product (P≤.001) showed a negative relationship with the suicide rate. Conclusions We empirically identified the positive relationship between the suicide rate and past orientation, which was measured by big data-driven Google search query. PMID:26868917

  18. Young Peoples' Opinions about the Causes of, and Solutions to, New Zealand's High Youth Suicide Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heled, Edna; Read, John

    2005-01-01

    In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended…

  19. Association of suicide rates for elderly age bands with gender equality.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-06-01

    A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation.

  20. A Cross-National Study of the Relationship between Elderly Suicide Rates and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    There is mixed evidence of a relationship between suicide rates in the general population and urbanization, and a paucity of studies examining this relationship in the elderly. A cross-national study with curve estimation regression model analysis, was undertaken to examine the a priori hypothesis that the relationship between elderly suicide…

  1. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  2. Age-adjusted dengue haemorrhagic fever morbidity in Thailand 1983-1987.

    PubMed

    Kitayaporn, D; Singhasivanon, P; Vasuvat, C

    1989-06-01

    Age-adjusted morbidity rates of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Thailand during the period 1983-1987 were analysed. The 1983 data were used as standard baseline rates. The age-adjusted rates showed increasing trend in the disease morbidity, i.e., 60.2, 138.2, 159.6, 55.2 and 344.7 (per 100,000 capita) respectively. These rates were consistently higher than the crude rates. The Standardised Morbidity Ratios (SMRs) as compared with the baseline 1983 were 1.00, 2.30, 2.65, 0.92 and 5.73 respectively. Regional comparisons revealed annual increases in Bangkok areas, other Central provinces, the North and the Northeast with fluctuations observed in the South. The epidemic was most of the time higher in the Central provinces other than Bangkok areas. The authors suggest that age-adjusted rates (or possibly sex) should be applied in the study of DHF morbidity data, since there were discrepancies in the age distribution among different regions of the country.

  3. An ecological study on suicide and homicide in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bando, Daniel Hideki; Lester, David

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate correlations between suicide, homicide and socio-demographic variables by an ecological study. Mortality and socio-demographic data were collected from official records of the Ministry of Health and IBGE (2010), aggregated by state (27). The data were analyzed using correlation techniques, factor analysis, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation and multiple linear regression. Suicide age-adjusted rates for the total population, men and women were 5.0, 8.0, and 2.2 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. The suicide rates ranged from 2.7 in Pará to 9.1 in Rio Grande do Sul. Homicide for the total population, men and women were 27.2, 50.8, and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively. The homicide rates ranged from 13.0 in Santa Catarina to 68.9 in Alagoas. Suicide and homicide were negatively associated, the significance persisted among men. Unemployment was negatively correlated with suicide and positively with homicide. Different socio-demographic variables were found to correlate with suicide and homicide in the regressions. Suicide showed a pattern suggesting that, in Brazil, it is related to high socioeconomic status. Homicide seemed to follow the pattern found in other countries, associated with lower social and economic status.

  4. How to Decrease Suicide Rates in Both Genders? An Effectiveness Study of a Community-Based Intervention (EAAD)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, András; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Mergl, Roland; Birkás, Emma; Rózsa, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    Background The suicide rate in Hungary is high in international comparison. The two-year community-based four-level intervention programme of the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD) is designed to improve the care of depression and to prevent suicidal behaviour. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a regional community-based four-level suicide prevention programme on suicide rates. Method The EAAD programme was implemented in Szolnok (population 76,311), a town in a region of Hungary with an exceptionally high suicide rate. Effectiveness was assessed by comparing changes in suicide rates in the intervention region after the intervention started with changes in national suicide rates and those in a control region (Szeged) in the corresponding period. Results For the duration of the programme and the follow-up year, suicide rates in Szolnok were significantly lower than the average of the previous three years (p = .0076). The suicide rate thus went down from 30.1 per 100,000 in 2004 to 13.2 in 2005 (−56.1 %), 14.6 in 2006 (−51.4 %) and 12.0 in 2007 (−60.1 %). This decrease of annual suicide rates in Szolnok after the onset of the intervention was significantly stronger than that observed in the whole country (p = .017) and in the control region (p = .0015). Men had the same decrease in suicide rates as women. As secondary outcome, an increase of emergency calls to the hotline service (200%) and outpatient visits at the local psychiatry clinic (76%) was found. Conclusions These results seem to provide further support for the effectiveness of the EAAD concept. Whilst the majority of suicide prevention programs mainly affect female suicidal behaviour, this programme seems to be beneficial for both sexes. The sustainability and the role of the mediating factors (social service and health care utilization, community attitudes about suicide) should be key points in future research. PMID:24086443

  5. An Ecological Study of Community-Level Correlates of Suicide Mortality Rates in the Flemish Region of Belgium, 1996-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study of age-standardized suicide rates in Belgian communities (1996-2005) was conducted using spatial regression techniques. Community characteristics were significantly related to suicide rates. There was mixed support for the social integration perspective: single person households were associated with higher suicide rates, while…

  6. A Decrease in Suicide Rates in Japanese Rural Towns after Community-Based Intervention by the Health Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hisanaga

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention study for suicide prevention was conducted in six towns (total population 43,964) in Akita Prefecture of Japan according to a quasi-experimental design to reduce suicide rates in rural towns. Public awareness raising activities using a health promotion approach emphasizing the empowerment of residents and civic…

  7. Ethnocultural Aspects of Suicide in Young People: A Systematic Literature Review Part 1--Rates and Methods of Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The study of ethnocultural aspects of suicidal behaviour is, at the moment, still a neglected area. The relatively few studies available are mainly on adults; young people usually are not examined separately. The authors reviewed 82 publications on youth suicide that have addressed, to different degrees, the ethnicity/culture of the population…

  8. Spatial Clustering Properties in the Temporal Variation of Suicide Rates/Numbers among Japanese Citizens: A Comprehensive Comparison and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Makoto; Kubota, Takafumi; Ishioka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of suicides in Japan has remained high for many years. To effectively resolve this problem, firm understanding of the statistical data is required. Using a large quantity of wide-ranging data on Japanese citizens, the purpose of this study was to analyze the geographical clustering properties of suicides and how suicide rates have evolved over time, and to observe detailed patterns and trends in a variety of geographic regions. Methods Using adjacency data from 2008, the spatial and temporal/spatial clustering structure of geographic statistics on suicides were clarified. Echelon scans were performed to identify regions with the highest-likelihood ratio of suicide as the most likely suicide clusters. Results In contrast to results obtained using temporal/spatial analysis, the results of a period-by-period breakdown of evolving suicide rates demonstrated that suicides among men increased particularly rapidly during 1988–1992, 1993–1997, and 1998–2002 in certain cluster regions located near major metropolitan areas. For women, results identified cluster regions near major metropolitan areas in 1993–1997, 1998–2002, and 2003–2007. Conclusions For both men and women, the cluster regions identified are located primarily near major metropolitan areas, such as greater Tokyo and Osaka. PMID:26161651

  9. Cyclicity of Suicides May Be Modulated by Internal or External - 11-Year Cycles: An Example of Suicide Rates in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate

  10. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities.

  11. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. PMID:25255825

  12. Age-adjusted recipient pretransplantation telomere length and treatment-related mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Rodrigo T.; Busson, Marc; Abrams, Jeffrey; Adoui, Nadir; Robin, Marie; Larghero, Jérôme; Dhedin, Nathalie; Xhaard, Alienor; Clave, Emmanuel; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine; Loiseau, Pascale; Socié, Gérard; Young, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    Telomere attrition induces cell senescence and apoptosis. We hypothesized that age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere length might predict treatment-related mortality (TRM) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between 2000 and 2005, 178 consecutive patients underwent HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after myeloablative conditioning regimens, mainly for hematologic malignancies (n = 153). Blood lymphocytes' telomere length was measured by real-time quantitative PCR before HSCT. Age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere lengths were analyzed for correlation with clinical outcomes. After age adjustment, patients' telomere-length distribution was similar among all 4 quartiles except for disease stage. There was no correlation between telomere length and engraftment, GVHD, or relapse. The overall survival was 62% at 5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 54-70). After a median follow-up of 51 months (range, 1-121 months), 43 patients died because of TRM. The TRM rate inversely correlated with telomere length. TRM in patients in the first (lowest telomere length) quartile was significantly higher than in patients with longer telomeres (P = .017). In multivariate analysis, recipients' age (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, .0-1.1; P = .0001) and age-adjusted telomere length (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI; 0.2-0.8; P = .01) were independently associated with TRM. In conclusion, age-adjusted recipients' telomere length is an independent biologic marker of TRM after HSCT. PMID:22948043

  13. The media and suicide.

    PubMed

    Tor, Phern Chern; Ng, Beng Yeong; Ang, Yong Guan

    2008-09-01

    Suicide is a common and preventable event that is often reported by the media when there are sensationalistic elements or if the suicide involves a celebrity. Media reports of suicide can induce a copycat or "Werther effect". There is increasing evidence that sensationalistic reporting of suicides has a direct effect on increasing suicide rates. Responsible reporting guidelines drawn up in consultation with media professionals have been shown to improve reporting of suicides. Local reporting on suicides tends to be sensationalistic but also has a strong educational slant. The media should educate both the public and the medical professional about their role in suicide prevention. PMID:18989499

  14. Suicidal behavior: measurement and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oquendo, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527

  15. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those <40 years were twice that of those ≥40 years. Capture-recapture modeling with newspaper reports proved a reasonable method for estimating suicide rates for countries with inadequate official data. These methods are low-cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics. PMID:26969636

  16. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those <40 years were twice that of those ≥40 years. Capture-recapture modeling with newspaper reports proved a reasonable method for estimating suicide rates for countries with inadequate official data. These methods are low-cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics.

  17. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. PMID:24033718

  18. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  19. Suicide Surveillance in the U.S. Military?Reporting and Classification Biases in Rate Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joel R.; Hoge, Charles W.; Gardner, John; Potter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The military has a well-defined population with suicide prevention programs that have been recognized as possible models for civilian suicide prevention efforts. Monitoring prevention programs requires accurate reporting. In civilian settings, several studies have confirmed problems in the reporting and classification of suicides. This analysis…

  20. Rates and Predictors of Suicidal Ideation During the First Year After Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Fann, Jesse R.; Temkin, Nancy R.; Barber, Jason K.; Dikmen, Sureyya S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates of suicidal ideation (SI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and investigated whether demographic characteristics, preinjury psychiatric history, or injury-related factors predicted SI during the first year after injury. Methods. We followed a cohort of 559 adult patients who were admitted to Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, with a complicated mild to severe TBI between June 2001 and March 2005. Participants completed structured telephone interviews during months 1 through 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injury. We assessed SI using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. Twenty-five percent of the sample reported SI during 1 or more assessment points. The strongest predictor of SI was the first PHQ-8 score (i.e., PHQ-9 with item 9 excluded) after injury. Other significant multivariate predictors included a history of a prior suicide attempt, a history of bipolar disorder, and having less than a high school education. Conclusions. Rates of SI among individuals who have sustained a TBI exceed those found among the general population. Increased knowledge of risk factors for SI may assist health care providers in identifying patients who may be vulnerable to SI after TBI. PMID:24832143

  1. Strengthening the Validity of Population-Based Suicide Rate Comparisons: An Illustration Using U.S. Military and Civilian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Karen M.; Messer, Stephen C.; Garvey Wilson, Abigail L.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to generate precise estimates of suicide rates in the military while controlling for factors contributing to rate variability such as demographic differences and classification bias, and to develop a simple methodology for the determination of statistically derived thresholds for detecting significant rate…

  2. Self-Rated Depression Severity Relative to Clinician-Rated Depression Severity: Trait Stability and Potential Role in Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    John Mann, J; Ellis, Steven P; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Birmaher, Boris; Oquendo, Maria A; Kolko, David J; Stanley, Barbara; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A

    2016-07-01

    Self-rated depression and hopelessness severity are predictors of suicide attempt in major depression. This study evaluated whether: (1) greater self-rated distress relative to severity of clinician-rated depression is a trait; (2) that trait is familial; and (3) that trait is linked to familial transmission of suicidal behavior. A total of 285 mood disorder probands and 457 offspring were assessed twice, at least 1 year apart. Family and subject intra-class correlations for self-report depression and hopelessness, controlling for clinician-rated depression severity, were computed. Mixed general linear models determined offspring-proband correlations. Within-individual intra-class correlation (ICC) for depression-hopelessness was 37.8% (bootstrap 95% CI: 31.0-46.3%). Parent-offspring ICC was 10.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 3.5-17.8%). Suicide attempt concordant parent-offspring correlation for subjective depression was positive, but negative for attempter parent and nonattempter offspring (p = .0213 for slope interaction). Pessimism was greater in proband or offspring attempters than proband or offspring nonattempters (p < .05). Self-reported hopelessness is partly trait-dependent, and there is modest familial transmission of self-reported depression linked to suicidal behavior that may partly explain familial transmission of suicidal behavior. PMID:27046009

  3. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20-64 years) population (β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval: -0.86, -0.27; P < 0.001). The finding of a negative additive interaction was robust across multiple model specifications. Our results suggest that the impact of unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  4. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20-64 years) population (β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval: -0.86, -0.27; P < 0.001). The finding of a negative additive interaction was robust across multiple model specifications. Our results suggest that the impact of unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude.

  5. Do Generous Unemployment Benefit Programs Reduce Suicide Rates? A State Fixed-Effect Analysis Covering 1968–2008

    PubMed Central

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20–64 years) population (β = −0.57, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, −0.27; P < 0.001). The finding of a negative additive interaction was robust across multiple model specifications. Our results suggest that the impact of unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  6. [Treatment of bipolar disorder with lamotrigine -- relapse rate and suicidal behaviour during 6 month follow-up].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Kálmán, János

    2015-03-01

    The present paper describes a 8-month prospective, observational, non-intervention multicentric study in 969 bipolar patients, where data were obtained on changes during lamotrigine treatment with special focus rates of relapse, suicidal behaviour and adverse events. 969 patients entered the study and 961 patients (99%) completed the study. Patients received lamotrigine mostly as an add-on treatment in addition to ongoing antidepressant and/or antipsychotic medication. By the end of the six-month treatment period 38% of patients achieved remission and rate of relapse after three months was 24%. Rate of adverse events was very low (1%) and they in no case led o termination of therapy. At baseline 17% of patients had clinically significant suicide risk which gradually decreased to 2.1% during the 6-month study period. No suicide attempt or completed suicide occurred during the study period. Results indicate that lamotrigine is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar patients.

  7. Rate, Relative Risk, and Method of Suicide by Students at 4-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States, 2004-2005 through 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 622 suicides were reported among students attending 645 distinct campuses from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Adjusting for gender in the population at risk of 14.9 million student-years and for the source of these data, the student suicide rate of 7.0 was significantly and substantially lower than for a matched national sample. Suicide…

  8. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  9. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  10. Suicidality in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide appear common in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Available evidence indicates that approximately 80% of individuals with BDD experience lifetime suicidal ideation and 24% to 28% have attempted suicide. Although data on completed suicide are limited and preliminary, the suicide rate appears markedly high. These findings underscore the importance of recognizing and effectively treating BDD. However, BDD is underrecognized in clinical settings even though it is relatively common and often presents to psychiatrists and other mental health practitioners, dermatologists, surgeons, and other physicians. This article reviews available evidence on suicidality in BDD and discusses how to recognize and diagnose this often secret disorder. Efficacious treatments for BDD, ie, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are also discussed. Although data are limited, it appears that SRIs often diminish suicidality in these patients. Additional research is greatly needed on suicidality rates, characteristics, correlates, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of suicidality in BDD. PMID:18449358

  11. Youth Suicide: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Velting, Drew M.; Shaffer, David

    2006-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review of the research literature on youth suicide, the authors discuss the rates and patterns of completed suicides and suicide attempts. The state of research on potential risk and protective factors is also reviewed, covering personal characteristics, family characteristics, adverse life circumstances, and…

  12. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  13. Suicide on death row.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).

  14. Psychological distress in an earthquake-devastated area with pre-existing high rate of suicide.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Akira; Kitamura, Hideaki; Shindo, Masanobu; Honma, Hiroko; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2014-10-30

    On 12 March 2011 an earthquake devastated the Matsunoyama and Matsudai districts of Tōkamachi City, Niigata, Japan. These areas had high pre-existing suicide rates, especially among the elderly. We investigated whether mental health status became worse among the sufferers 5 months after the earthquake, and what kind of factors were implicated in any changes. A 15-item questionnaire that tapped earthquake-related variables and the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale to measure psychological distress were distributed to 1923 residents aged over 40 years. The mean age (S.D.) of the total 1731 respondents (male, 805; female, 926) was 68.2 (13.1) years. Of these, we assessed K10 scores from 1346 respondents. The mean scores (S.D.) for K10 and K6 (six selected items from the K10) were 5.8 (6.3) and 3.4 (3.9), respectively. Among the respondents, 9.1% and 3.2% obtained a score of K10 ≥15 and K6 ≥13, respectively. These scores showed slightly higher psychological distress, especially among the elderly, in comparison with existing community-based data. Categorical regression analysis revealed significant and relatively strong effects of initial psychological impact, decrease in sleep hours, advanced age, and decrease in interpersonal relationships within the community on the K10 score. The last item suggests the importance of socio-environmental factors in post-disaster mental health.

  15. TOWARD SUICIDE PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Venkoba A.

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustration, unemployement and poor parenting are major causes for youth suicide. There is biological evidence of suicidal behaviour. Fall in the level of serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CSF and in hind brain is found in subjects dying from suicide. Researchers have found decreased melatonin level in depression and suicide attempters. Long term therapy with antidepressants (Tricyclics), mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and new SSRIs prevent relapses and lessen suicide. It was concluded that general hospital doctors are in position of reducing suicide rates. Education of physician in detection of depression and suicide prevention will result in decline in number of suicides. The important measures include limiting the ability of methods of self-harm, antidepressants, paracetamol and insecticides. PMID:21430799

  16. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  17. Suicide: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young adults worldwide. There is a growing recognition that prevention strategies need to be tailored to the region-specific demographics of a country and to be implemented in a culturally-sensitive manner. This review explores the historical, epidemiological and demographic factors of suicide in India and examines the strategies aimed at the prevention of suicide. There has been an increase in the rates of suicide in India over the years, although trends of both increases and decline in suicide rates have been present. Distinct from global demographic risk factors, In India, marital status is not necessarily protective and the female: male ratio in the rate of suicide is higher. The motives and modes of suicide are also distinct from western countries. Preventive strategies implemented at a community level and identifying vulnerable individuals maybe more effective than global strategies. PMID:23372232

  18. Rate, relative risk, and method of suicide by students at 4-year colleges and universities in the United States, 2004-2005 through 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Allan J

    2011-08-01

    A total of 622 suicides were reported among students attending 645 distinct campuses from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Adjusting for gender in the population at risk of 14.9 million student-years and for the source of these data, the student suicide rate of 7.0 was significantly and substantially lower than for a matched national sample. Suicide rates by firearm were significantly and substantially lower for both female and male students. Hanging was significantly and substantially lower for male students, less prominently so for female students. It is principally the ninefold decrease in the availability of firearms on campuses (vs. homes) and secondarily other features of the campus environment that are the bases for lower student suicide rates.

  19. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  20. Restrictions in Means for Suicide: An Effective Tool in Preventing Suicide: The Danish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000, overall suicide mortality and method-specific…

  1. Suicide by jumping.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, D; Nowers, M

    1997-07-01

    This review summarizes the published literature on suicide by jumping, in particular focusing on the social and psychological characteristics of people who have chosen this method of suicide, and the opportunities for prevention. Suicide by jumping accounts for 5% of suicides in England and Wales, and there are marked variations in the use of this method world-wide. A number of locations have gained notoriety as popular places from which to jump. Such sites include The Golden Gate Bridge and Niagara Falls in the USA, and Beachy Head and the Clifton Suspension Bridge in the UK. There is no consistent evidence that those who commit suicide by jumping differ sociodemographically or in their psychopathology from those who use other methods of suicide, although this method is more often used for in-patient suicides, possibly due to lack of access to other means. Survivors of suicidal jumps experience higher subsequent rates of suicide and mental ill health, but the majority do not go on to kill themselves, suggesting that preventive efforts may be worthwhile. This view is supported by other evidence that restricting access to the means of suicide may prevent some would-be suicides. Such measures may also reduce the emotional trauma suffered by those who witness these acts. Health authorities and coroners should consider reviewing local patterns of suicide by jumping, and if necessary institute preventive measures. PMID:9259217

  2. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  3. Suicide in Batman, southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-08-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was 1.72/1. The suicides most frequently occurred in young females, mean age 20.7. The most frequent method (45%) was hanging. The most frequent stressful life events were health problems and family disruption. High suicide rates among females may be related to negative social status of females living in the region.

  4. Incidence rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Li, Lin; Peng, Michael; Shah, Kamal; Paris, Maria; Jick, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison to non-PsA patients. Methods: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we conducted a cohort study of patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. Patients with codes for suicidal behaviors (ideation, attempts, and suicide) and treated depression (diagnosis plus anti-depressant prescription) recorded during follow-up were identified as cases. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome and stratified results in the PsA cohort by receipt of systemic PsA drugs. Results: The rates of suicide ideation, attempt, and suicide were similar for PsA and non-PsA patients [IRR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.67–1.47), IRR = 1.07 (95%CI: 0.86–1.34), and 0.34 (95%CI: 0.05–2.48), respectively] and rates of suicidal behaviors were slightly higher among PsA patients who received PsA drugs compared to those who did not. PsA patients had slightly higher rate of treated depression compared to non-PsA patients [IRR = 1.38 (95%CI: 1.27–1.49)] and were significantly higher in PsA patients who received drugs [IRR = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.35–1.86)]. Conclusions: Rate of depression was higher in patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. The rate of suicidal behaviors was similar between the two cohorts. PMID:26882216

  5. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  6. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  7. Exposure to websites that encourage self-harm and suicide: prevalence rates and association with actual thoughts of self-harm and thoughts of suicide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wells, Melissa; Priebe, Gisela; Ybarra, Michele L

    2014-12-01

    This article provides 12-month prevalence rates of youth exposure to websites which encourage self-harm or suicide and examines whether such exposure is related to thoughts of self-harm and thoughts of suicide in the past 30 days. Data were collected via telephone from a nationally representative survey of 1560 Internet-using youth, ages 10-17 residing in the United States. One percent (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.5%) of youth reported visiting a website that encouraged self-harm or suicide. Youth who visited such websites were seven times more likely to say they had thought about killing themselves; and 11 times more likely to think about hurting themselves, even after adjusting for several known risk factors for thoughts of self-harm and thoughts of suicide. Given that youth thinking about self-harm and suicide are more likely to visit these sites, they may represent an opportunity for identification of youth in need of crisis intervention.

  8. Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. Methods and Findings We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996–2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997–1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998–2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999–2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999–2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006–2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide

  9. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Besten, Nadja I.; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-05-01

    Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers), oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without "visualising" the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage), capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks) of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low (soil) water storage

  10. Depression and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, C. V.

    1974-01-01

    Suicidality ratings for 90 patients in a voluntary psychiatric hospital ward are correlated with five possible indices of depression: self-ratings of depression, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale scores, depressive diagnosis, and alcohol and drug use. Both depression and suicidality emerges in the factor structure as…

  11. Suicide notes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention. PMID:8353698

  12. Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, C.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A significant dose-response relation between ingested arsenic and several cancers has recently been reported in four townships of the endemic area of blackfoot disease, a unique peripheral artery disease related to the chronic arsenic exposure in southwestern Taiwan. This study was carried out to examine ecological correlations between arsenic level of well water and mortality from various malignant neoplasms in 314 precincts and townships of Taiwan. The arsenic content in water of 83,656 wells was determined by a standard mercuric bromide stain method from 1974 to 1976, while mortality rates of 21 malignant neoplasms among residents in study precincts and townships from 1972 to 1983 were standardized to the world population in 1976. A significant association with the arsenic level in well water was observed for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney in both males and females as well as for the prostate cancer in males. These associations remained significant after adjusting for indices of urbanization and industrialization through multiple regression analyses. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient indicating an increase in age-adjusted mortality per 100,000 person-years for every 0.1 ppm increase in arsenic level of well water was 6.8 and 2.0, 0.7 and 0.4, 5.3 and 5.3, 0.9 and 1.0, 3.9 and 4.2, as well as 1.1 and 1.7, respectively, in males and females for cancers of the liver, nasal cavity, lung, skin, bladder and kidney. The multivariate-adjusted regression coefficient for the prostate cancer was 0.5. These weighted regression coefficients were found to increase or remain unchanged in further analyses in which only 170 southwestern townships were included.

  13. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  14. Are Suicide Terrorists Suicidal? A Critical Assessment of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Most of the research on suicide terrorism is conducted in the political science and international relations fields. The prevailing wisdom within this literature is that suicide terrorists are not suicidal. But how good is the evidence for this assumption? Knowing whether suicide terrorists are suicidal has implications for prevention, rehabilitation, and the “softer” side of counterterrorism designed to win minds and hearts. In addition it may deepen our understanding of suicide itself. Design: This article uses a review of existing literature to examine the arguments and evidence for and against the possibility that suicide terrorists could be suicidal in the context of a broad range of explanations for suicide terrorism. Results: Much of the evidence against the possibility that suicide terrorists are suicidal is based on anecdote or faulty assumptions about suicide. Relatively few formal systematic studies of suicidality in suicide terrorists have been conducted. Nonetheless, there is emerging evidence that suicidality may play a role in a significant number of cases. Conclusion: The field needs a more multidimensional approach, more systematic data at the individual level, and greater international cross-disciplinary collaboration. Would-be suicide terrorists (intercepted and arrested on their way to an attack) should be routinely interviewed using standard internationally accepted psychiatric diagnostic interviews as well as suicidality and homicidality rating scales. Psychological autopsies should also be routinely conducted worldwide. Since no one research site can collect all of the information that is needed, the creation of an internationally shared database that focuses on suicide terrorists rather than simply incidents is encouraged. PMID:25520891

  15. Suicide among North Carolina women, 1989–93: information from two data sources

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, C; Moracco, K; Dulli, L; Butts, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the events and examine suicide precursors among women and to examine gaps in surveillance. Setting: A statewide study in North Carolina. Methods: Suicides of women age 15 and older for the time period 1989–93, as identified from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, were included. All case files were reviewed by hand and telephone interviews were attempted with investigating law enforcement officials for every case in 1993. Results: Altogether 882 suicides met the case definition, for an age adjusted rate that fluctuated between 5.53 and 7.26 per 100 000 women across the period. Interviews with law enforcement officials were completed for 135 of the 177 cases from 1993. White women had rates nearly three times those of racial minorities. Women under age 45 were proportionally more likely than older women to have recently experienced the breakup of an intimate relationship. Information about precursors was not as consistently reported as had been hoped. Medical examiner records were variable in completeness. Law enforcement interviews frequently did not yield information about the factors we had hoped to examine, probably because the investigations were conducted primarily to rule out homicide. Conclusions: This study suggests somewhat different precursor patterns by age group. It also points to the need for reconsidering how suicide surveillance is accomplished as a strategy to guide intervention. PMID:12642563

  16. X chromosome and suicide.

    PubMed

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90  kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers. PMID:20010893

  17. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their locker or backpack. Suicide rates differ between boys and girls. Girls think about and attempt suicide about twice ... by overdosing on drugs or cutting themselves. Yet boys die by suicide about four times as often girls, perhaps because they tend to use more lethal ...

  18. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  19. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  20. Suicides in the Developing World: Case Study from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad Moosa; Hyder, Adnan Ali

    2006-01-01

    There are no official data on suicide from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country with traditionally low suicide rates. Both suicide and attempted suicide are illegal acts, as well as socially and religiously condemned, making research in this area difficult. Recent reports suggest an increase in suicide rates. In this study, police…

  1. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  2. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iga, Mamoru

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the uniquely intense stress in Japan due to the "Examination Hell" which contributes to a high rate of young suicide. The social structural factors are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; lack of social resources; and views of life, death, and suicide. (Author)

  3. Fighting the Suicide Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2010-01-01

    Tribal colleges are at the forefront of a communitywide effort to combat suicide with culturally relevant methods. The Wiconi Ohitika project is one of several tribal college and mainstream university efforts to address the high rates of suicide among American Indians. According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the suicide…

  4. Prison Suicides in Austria, 1975-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick; Eher, Reinhard; Gutierrez, Karin; Ritter, Kristina

    2000-01-01

    Examines the prison suicide phenomenon by evaluating all suicides occurring in Austrian prisons between 1975 and 1997 (N=220). Results reveal suicide rates for prisoners on remand and mentally ill prisoners are 8 times higher than that of the general population. Recommends that psychologists concentrate on the suicide prevention of high-risk…

  5. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... or alcohol use Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) Schizophrenia Stressful life issues, such as serious financial or ... personality disorder Drug or alcohol dependence Major depression Schizophrenia Always take suicide attempts and threats seriously. If ...

  6. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  7. Rational Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…

  8. Adolescent suicide and suicide attempts: a population study.

    PubMed

    Christoffel, K K; Marcus, D; Sagerman, S; Bennett, S

    1988-03-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of adolescent suicide, a retrospective study was undertaken of suicides (1978 to 1982) and hospitalized suicide attempts (1979 to 1983) by adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in an affluent suburban area. Data included date of injury, demography (for both suicides and suicide attempts), and recorded personal and social history (available for attempts only). There were 11 deaths due to suicide (definite or possible) in the five years reviewed: seven male, 10 aged 15 to 19 years. The mean annual rate for suicide deaths (definite and possible, based on ICD codes) was 10.3 per 100,000 15 to 19 year olds, with male rates exceeding female rates. Male rates were lower in the study area than in Chicago, Illinois or the United States, but female rates were higher. Suicides represented an unusually high proportion of all adolescent deaths. Atypically, there were no firearm suicide deaths. Two hundred ten suicide attempts were studied: 77% aged 15 to 19 years, 70% female, and 82% white; 83% involved ingestion of medications or poisons. The mean annual suicide attempt rate was approximately 140 per 100,000 for 15 to 19 year olds, and 45 per 100,000 for 10 to 14 year olds, with female rates exceeding male rates. There was an association between suicide attempt dates and occurrence of holidays, and there was a peak in attempts at the end of the school year. Detailed analysis of personal and social attributes associated with suicide attempts was prevented by poor recording of relevant factors in the medical record.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  10. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  11. Projected rates of psychological disorders and suicidality among soldiers based on simulations of matched general population data

    PubMed Central

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Gilman, Stephen E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available on lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of psychological disorders and suicidal behaviors among Army personnel. We used simulation methods to approximate such estimates based on analysis of data from a U.S. national general population survey with the socio-demographic profile of U.S. Army personnel. Estimated lifetime prevalence of any DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, or substance disorder in this sample was 53.1 percent (17.7 percent for mood disorders, 27.2 percent for anxiety disorders, 22.7 percent for behavior disorders, and 14.4 percent for substance disorders). The vast majority of cases had onsets prior to the expected age-of-enlistment if they were in the Army (91.6 percent). Lifetime prevalence was 14.2 percent for suicidal ideation, 5.4 percent for suicide plans, and 4.5 percent for suicide attempts. The proportion of estimated pre-enlistment onsets was between 68.4 percent (suicide plans) and 82.4 percent (suicidal ideation). Externalizing disorders with onsets prior to expected age-of-enlistment and internalizing disorders with onsets after expected age-of-enlistment significantly predicted post-enlistment suicide attempts, with population attributable risk proportions of 41.8 percent and 38.8 percent, respectively. Implications of these findings are discussed for interventions designed to screen, detect, and treat psychological disorders and suicidality in the Army. PMID:23025127

  12. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  13. Suicide among foreign residents of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C

    2011-02-01

    The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination.

  14. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  15. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  16. Suicide in the World

    PubMed Central

    Värnik, Peeter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0) and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1). Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world. PMID:22690161

  17. Youth Suicide: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined changes in the suicide rate of teenagers and young adults internationally from 1970 to 1980. Twenty-three nations experienced increases (with Norway experiencing the largest percentage increase), while six experienced decreases. Unlike general suicide rates, teenage suicide rates were not related to the quality of life in the nations…

  18. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  19. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership.

  20. An age-adjusted seroprevalence study of Toxoplasma antibody in a Malaysian ophthalmology unit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sujaya; Khang, Tsung Fei; Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2012-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a public health risk in developing countries, especially those located in the tropics. Widespread infection may inflict a substantial burden on state resources, as patients can develop severe neurological defects and ocular diseases that result in lifelong loss of economic independence. We tested sera for IgG antibody from 493 eye patients in Malaysia. Overall age-adjusted seroprevalence was estimated to be 25% (95% CI: [21%, 29%]). We found approximately equal age-adjusted seroprevalence in Chinese (31%; 95% CI: [25%, 38%]) and Malays (29%; 95% CI: [21%, 36%]), followed by Indians (19%; 95% CI: [13%, 25%]). A logistic regression of the odds for T. gondii seroprevalence against age, gender, ethnicity and the occurrence of six types of ocular diseases showed that only age and ethnicity were significant predictors. The odds for T. gondii seroprevalence were 2.7 (95% CI for OR: [1.9, 4.0]) times higher for a patient twice as old as the other, with ethnicity held constant. In Malays, we estimated the odds for T. gondii seroprevalence to be 2.9 (95% CI for OR: [1.8, 4.5]) times higher compared to non-Malays, with age held constant. Previous studies of T. gondii seroprevalence in Malaysia did not explicitly adjust for age, rendering comparisons difficult. Our study highlights the need to adopt a more rigorous epidemiological approach in monitoring T. gondii seroprevalence in Malaysia.

  1. Do Geographic Regions with Higher Suicide Rates Also Have Higher Rates of Nonfatal Intentional Self-Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Carmody, Thomas; Bossarte, Robert; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Elliott, Stephen; Currier, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal intentional self-harm events in eight U.S. states were compared using emergency department, hospital, and vital statistics data. Nonfatal event rates increased by an estimated 24.20% over 6 years. Case fatality ratios varied widely, but two northeastern states' total event rates (fatal plus nonfatal) were very high (New…

  2. Suicide prevention in correctional facilities: reflections and next steps.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay M

    2013-01-01

    Data from a recent national study of inmate suicides indicates that the suicide rate in county jails throughout the United States has steadily decreased. Despite this progress, the author argues that rather than developing and maintaining comprehensive policies and practices, policymakers and correctional administrators appear preoccupied with the notion that suicides can only be prevented when inmates are on suicide precautions. Measures such as closed-circuit television monitoring, suicide-resistant jail cells, safety smocks, and new technology are popular tools to keep certain inmates safe. There is more to suicide prevention than simply observing suicidal inmates and waiting for them to attempt suicide. The author argues that suicides are prevented and suicide rates reduced when correctional facilities provide a comprehensive array of programming that identifies suicidal inmates who are otherwise difficult to identify, ensures their safety on suicide precautions, and provides a continuity of care throughout confinement. PMID:23664363

  3. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Results Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Conclusion Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide. PMID:25866521

  4. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse plays a diminishing role in later life suicides compared to younger suicides. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  5. Is organizational change associated with increased rates of readmission to general hospital in suicide attempters? A 10-year prospective catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Mehlum, Lars; Jørgensen, Trond; Diep, Lien My; Nrugham, Latha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine predictors for readmissions in patients admitted to a general hospital emergency ward for suicide attempts before and after organizational changes potentially affecting the chain of care. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected by clinicians from 1997 thru 2007. Data from the periods before and after 2004--when the hospital changed its catchment area--were compared. A substantial increase in readmission rates in the period after the organizational change was observed. This increase was not associated with any of the socio-demographic or clinical patient characteristics. Although no causal connection can be inferred, the observed association between organizational change and readmission rates could indicate that established post-discharge care systems for suicide attempters may be vulnerable to such change. PMID:20455152

  6. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    PubMed

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing. PMID:18389641

  7. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    PubMed

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing.

  8. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  9. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period.

  10. Suicide among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Cross-National Comparison of 34 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Krug, Etienne G.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on survey about suicide among 15- to 24-year-olds (N=15,555) in 34 of the wealthiest nations. Finland led in total and firearm-related suicides. An association was found between divorce rates and youth suicide rates, firearm-related suicide, and suicide rates among young males. An association was found between firearm availability and…

  11. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  12. Suicide in young men.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Alexandra; Krysinska, Karolina; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2012-06-23

    Suicide is second to only accidental death as the leading cause of mortality in young men across the world. Although suicide rates for young men have fallen in some high-income and middle-income countries since the 1990s, wider mortality measures indicate that rates remain high in specific regions, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups within those nations where rates have fallen, and that young men account for a substantial proportion of the economic cost of suicide. High-lethality methods of suicide are preferred by young men: hanging and firearms in high-income countries, pesticide poisoning in the Indian subcontinent, and charcoal-burning in east Asia. Risk factors for young men include psychiatric illness, substance misuse, lower socioeconomic status, rural residence, and single marital status. Population-level factors include unemployment, social deprivation, and media reporting of suicide. Few interventions to reduce suicides in young men have been assessed. Efforts to change help-seeking behaviour and to restrict access to frequently used methods hold the most promise.

  13. Suicide and female aggression: a contemporary analysis of anomic suicide.

    PubMed

    French, L; Bryce, F O

    1978-10-01

    Much has been said about the combined efforts of civil disorder and the emergence of the Women's Right Movement during the mid 1960s-early 1970s, suggesting that perhaps now females would rebel against their traditional subordinate/passive role and aspire to more assertive positions within society. Since social disruption and anomic suicide are closely associated, the authors looked at the relationship between suicide and female assertiveness (aggressive suicides). While male/female suicide rates remained proportional over time, female victims, during this period, did manifest a greater degree of aggression than in the past.

  14. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  15. Suicide in the United kingdom and ireland.

    PubMed

    Lester, D; Cantor, C H; Leenaars, A A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare epidemiological trends in suicide for the three regions of the United Kingdom (England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland) and for Ireland from 1960 to 1990. The data on suicide rates were obtained from the World Health Organization statistical base, supplemented by data from the statistical offices of the four regions. While the suicide rates in Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland increased during the period under study, English/Welsh suicide rates first declined and then held steady. In Ireland, both male and female suicide rates increased, whereas in the other regions only male suicide rates rose. According to age, in England and Wales, suicide rates rose for male teenagers and young males, while for the other regions male suicide rates increased in general for all age groups. Social indicators (unemployment, marriage and birth rates) were quite successful in predicting male suicide rates in all four regions and in predicting female suicide rates in England and Wales and in Ireland. The results emphasize the importance of studying several regions in epidemiological studies in order to identify which trends are general and which are unique to one nation. In the present study, the epidemiological trends for suicide in England and Wales were quite different from those in the other three regions. In particular, the steady overall suicide rate in England and Wales and the rising suicide rate for young males alone differ from the trends observed in the other regions and raise importante questions about the causes of the social suicide rate in these four regions.

  16. Associations between reasons for living and diminished suicide intent among African-American female suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Kelci C; Walker, Rheeda L; Thompson, Martie P; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-08-01

    African-American women are at high risk for suicide ideation and suicide attempts and use emergency psychiatric services at disproportionately high rates relative to men and other ethnic groups. However, suicide death rates are low for this population. Cultural variables in the African-American community may promote resilience and prevent fatal suicidal behavior among African-American women. The present study evaluated self-reported reasons for living as a protective factor against suicidal intent and suicide attempt lethality in a sample of African-American female suicide attempters (n = 150). Regression analyses revealed that reasons for living were negatively associated with suicidal intent, even after controlling for spiritual well-being and symptoms of depression. These results indicate that the ability to generate and contemplate reasons for valuing life may serve as a protective characteristic against life-threatening suicidal behavior among African-American women. Implications for research and clinical practice are further discussed. PMID:25010106

  17. Suicide in the US Army

    PubMed Central

    Lineberry, Timothy W.; O'Connor, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in the US Army is a high-profile public health problem that is complex and poorly understood. Adding to the confusion surrounding Army suicide is the challenge of defining and understanding individuals/populations dying by suicide. Data from recent studies have led to a better understanding of risk factors for suicide that may be specifically associated with military service, including the impact of combat and deployment on increased rates of psychiatric illness in military personnel. The next steps involve applying these results to the development of empirically supported suicide prevention approaches specific to the military population. This special article provides an overview of suicide in the Army by synthesizing new information and providing clinical pearls based on research evidence. PMID:22958991

  18. Types and Number of Traumas Associated With Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in PTSD: Findings From a U.S. Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; McMillan, Katherine A; Thibodeau, Michel A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, research has largely focused on specific samples and a limited range of traumas. We examined suicidal ideation and suicide attempt relating to 27 traumas within a nationally representative U.S. sample of individuals with PTSD. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Participants were assessed for lifetime PTSD and trauma history, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. We calculated the proportion of individuals reporting suicidal ideation or suicide attempt for each trauma and for the number of unique traumas experienced. Most traumas were associated with greater suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in individuals with PTSD compared to individuals with no lifetime trauma or with lifetime trauma but no PTSD. Childhood maltreatment, assaultive violence, and peacekeeping traumas had the highest rates of suicidal ideation (49.1% to 51.9%) and suicide attempt (22.8% to 36.9%). There was substantial variation in rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for war and terrorism-related traumas. Multiple traumas increased suicidality, such that each additional trauma was associated with an increase of 20.1% in rate of suicidal ideation and 38.9% in rate of suicide attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied markedly by trauma type and number of traumas, and these factors may be important in assessing and managing suicidality in individuals with PTSD. PMID:25990916

  19. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes

    PubMed Central

    Namratha, P.; Kishor, M.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. Objective: The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. Results: A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16–40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. Conclusion: The majority of suicidal note contained “guilt” which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world. PMID:26816426

  20. Suicide and Elderly People: Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Sharon M.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that people over age 60 have highest suicide rates and comprise one-fourth of all suicides. Presents case study illustrating risk assessment and intervention with elderly woman. Examines clinical issues related to recognition of suicidal elderly patients and presents practical approach to early detection, evaluation, and management of…

  1. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  2. Suicidality in a Sample of Arctic Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggarty, John M.; Cernovsky, Zack; Bedard, Michel; Merskey, Harold

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association of suicidal ideation and behavior with depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Canadian Arctic Inuit community. Inuit (N = 111) from a random sample of households completed assessments of anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, and suicidality. High rates of suicidal ideation within the past week (43.6%), and…

  3. Assessing suicide risk in older adults.

    PubMed

    Diggle-Fox, Barbara Suzy

    2016-10-20

    Suicide in older adults is continuing to rise and, as the older population increases, so will the rate of suicide. By learning more about the risk factors, assessment areas to explore, and ways to improve treatment, primary care providers can help decrease the incidence of suicidal behaviors in this population. PMID:27623296

  4. Variation in European suicide rates is better accounted for by latitude and longitude than by national percentage of Finno-Ugrians and Type O blood: a rebuttal of Lester and Kondrichin (2004).

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Formann, Anton K

    2004-12-01

    The variation in contemporary suicide rates for men and women across 20 European nations is, in terms of shared variance, better accounted for by latitude and longitude than by national percentage of Finno-Ugrians and Type O blood, thus supporting the conclusion of Voracek, et al. in 2003 and refuting the supposition of Lester and Kondrichin of 2004. Discussion focuses on possible bases of this finding and on research problems pertaining to relations between suicide and blood type.

  5. Prospective Cohort Study of Stress, Life Satisfaction, Self-Rated Health, Insomnia, and Suicide Death in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2005-01-01

    The association between many psychosocial factors and risk of suicide was examined. A cohort was conducted over 14 years of follow up among the general population (15,597 people) in Japan. A baseline survey of psychosocial characteristics was conducted by self-administrated questionnaire. The relative risks of occasional emotional stress,…

  6. An availability-acceptability theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1987-09-01

    A theory was proposed to account for the appearance of suicide. The lack of immediate availability of the preferred means for killing oneself and the religious belief that suicide is an unacceptable action both serve to reduce the likelihood of suicide. This theory was tested and confirmed using an ecological analysis of the continental states of the USA. The two variables together accounted for 46 percent of the variation of the suicide rates of the states.

  7. An availability-acceptability theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1987-09-01

    A theory was proposed to account for the appearance of suicide. The lack of immediate availability of the preferred means for killing oneself and the religious belief that suicide is an unacceptable action both serve to reduce the likelihood of suicide. This theory was tested and confirmed using an ecological analysis of the continental states of the USA. The two variables together accounted for 46 percent of the variation of the suicide rates of the states. PMID:3425207

  8. Suicide Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David H.

    1975-01-01

    Interviews with seven of ten known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay bridges showed a unique association between the Golden Gate Bridge and suicide. The study went beyond exploring the nature of suicidal jumps and shed new light on the experience of nearly dying. All the survivors described this experience as tranquil and peaceful. None of them experienced life events or distant memories passing through their minds or before their eyes. However, all of them experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. Suggestions for preventing suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge are discussed, including the construction of a suicide barrier. PMID:1171558

  9. Canada-wide effect of regulatory warnings on antidepressant prescribing and suicide rates in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Skinner, Robin; McFaull, Steven; Katz, Laurence Y

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Examiner l’effet des mises en garde de Santé Canada concernant la prescription d’antidépresseurs (AD) et les taux de suicide des filles et garçons de moins de 18 ans et de 18 à 19 ans au Canada entre 2004 et 2009. Nous avons émis l’hypothèse qu’une augmentation des taux de suicide serait propre aux filles, reflétant des taux de prescription d’AD plus élevés chez les filles que chez les garçons. Méthode : Nous avons établi des graphiques et testé la différence entre les taux de suicide pancanadiens avant et après les périodes de mise en garde réglementaires (soit de 1995 à 2006 ou de 1995 à 2009) chez les filles et garçons de moins de 18 ans ou de 18 à 19 ans. Pour comparer avec les études précédentes, nous avons estimé les rapports de cotes et les intervalles de confiance à 95 % à l’aide de la régression de Poisson ou de la régression négative binomiale. Résultats : Il n’y avait pas d’augmentation statistiquement significative des taux de suicide chez les filles de moins de 18 ans, ou de 18 à 19 ans, en réponse aux mises en garde réglementaires contre les AD. Chez les garçons de moins de 18 ans ou de 18 à 19 ans, les taux de suicide ont diminué après 2003. Conclusions : Nous n’avons pas observé de taux de suicide accrus après les mises en garde réglementaires contre les AD chez les filles ou les garçons de moins de 18 ans ou de 18 à 19 ans dans les taux pancanadiens. Cependant, cela n’élimine pas la possibilité qu’un tel effet se soit produit dans certaines administrations chez les filles et (ou) que les mises en garde réglementaires aient nui à la tendance à la baisse des taux de suicide. Les facteurs influençant la tendance à la baisse chez les garçons méritent d’être davantage étudiés.

  10. [Suicides in Austria: update on present state and recent trends].

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Nestor; Sonneck, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rates exceed fatal traffic accidents two-fold in Austria but have been decreasing since 1987. Against common perceptions, approximately 75 % of all suicides in Austria are commited by men each year and while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, completed suicides increase with age. Studies show that suicide rates are more common in rural than in urban areas and are associated with socio-economic factors. Nationwide prevention efforts should keep these epidemiological aspects in mind. PMID:23055303

  11. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  12. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  13. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas. PMID:25765170

  14. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  15. Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

  16. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African…

  17. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  18. Farewell to the World: Suicide Notes from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Birol; Akar, Taner; Sayin, Aslihan; Candansayar, Selcuk; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of suicide in Islamic countries. This paper marks the first study of suicide notes in Turkey, an Islamic country. Using a classification scheme, 49 suicide notes (a rate of 34.5%) were studied. The results show that note writers do not differ greatly from other suicides. Further analysis of younger (less than 40) and…

  19. The evolution of epidemic suicide on Guam: context and contagion.

    PubMed

    Booth, Heather

    2010-02-01

    Thirty years of suicide rates for Guam were analyzed by age, sex, period, and cohort. Youth suicide increased rapidly in the 1990s; certain cohorts have higher rates. Four explanatory factors are discussed, including ecological factors and migration from the Federated States of Micronesia. Direct and indirect suicide contagion followed the death by suicide of a respected politician, strongly influencing period and cohort patterns. Suicide pacts inflated suicide among young people. These factors acted in combination to produce epidemic levels of suicide in the 1990s.

  20. [Suicidality: procedure in emergency cases].

    PubMed

    Flüchter, P; Müller, V; Pajonk, F-G B

    2012-09-01

    Emergency physicians (EP), paramedics and the staff of the emergency room play an increasingly important role in the medical and psychological emergency treatment of patients after suicide attempts, as well as in the crisis intervention of persons with acute suicidal tendencies. This article aims to give an overview of the prevalence rates, methods of suicide or attempted suicide and the problems faced by EPs when treating these patients. In addition, concepts are presented which allow an adequate risk assessment of suicidality and the options for primary crisis intervention. Paramedics and intensive care clinicians are increasingly confronted with this complex process with social, personal and medical aspects. In order to treat people in suicidal crises and/or after a suicide attempt and to provide a safe and optimal care for this often heterogeneous group of patients, clear guidelines are a prerequisite. The first assessment of the acute danger of suicide is of particular importance due to the resulting consequences and a clear approach is demonstrated for dealing with suicidal people. Furthermore, the legal principles are presented.

  1. Adolescent suicide: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sudak, H S; Ford, A B; Rushforth, N B

    1984-07-01

    Etiological theories of suicide are reviewed from epidemiological, individual (both biological and psychological), and psychosocial perspectives. Cohort and population-model approaches as explanations for the two- to three-fold increase in completed suicide rates observed in adolescents and young adults over the past 25 years are presented. The results of the authors' study of suicides in adolescents and young adults in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to test these hypotheses are summarized. This study revealed marked cohort differences in suicide rates and provided partial support for the "population-model" approach. Differences between suicide rates in adolescents and other age groups are discussed, as are data from some minority groups. The role of depression in adolescents and various studies of diagnostic approaches (e.g., structured diagnostic assessments, biological markers, clues during intensive psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, studies of high-risk diagnostic groups) are reviewed. Lastly, treatment employing individual, family, and group approaches to classical psychoanalytic or cognitive psychotherapy as well as the role of pharmacological treatments are considered. PMID:6385734

  2. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  3. Witnessed Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Charles P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents epidemiologic and forensic description of 50 witnessed suicides drawn from 15-year series of over 1,000 cases. Develops taxonomy based on role played by witnesses and relates to previous work on self-destructive behavior and its motivation. Uses vignettes to illustrate interpersonal dynamics associated with witnessed suicides. (Author/NB)

  4. Marital status and the risk of suicide.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J C; Mercy, J A; Conn, J M

    1988-01-01

    No recent United States study has previously calculated national suicide rates by marital status for specific age, race, and sex categories in order to better identify high-risk groups for suicide. We used national vital statistics and census data to calculate marital-status-specific rates. Results show that for each marital status group, by age and sex, married persons have the lowest suicide rates and young widowed males have exceptionally high rates. PMID:3337311

  5. Trends in adolescent suicide: misclassification bias?

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, B; Earls, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of misclassification of accidental deaths and undetermined deaths on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific adolescent suicide rates from 1979 through 1994. METHODS: Official mortality data were used to present suicide mortality trends. Two estimates of misclassified suicides in other death categories were applied to calculate "corrected" trends of adolescent suicide. RESULTS: The corrected trends showed a downward adjustment for Black adolescent males and young adolescents. This result does not, however, substantially alter the trend toward a recent increase in suicide in these groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite misclassification, the true direction of trends in adolescent suicide is reflected in recent official data. However, suicide rates should continuously be tested for misclassification, mainly in populations with proportionately high accidental and undetermined death rates. PMID:11189813

  6. Suicide among American Indian adolescents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I N

    1987-01-01

    Suicide has become a major concern of many Indian tribes and pueblos, as the rates in these tribes have increased dramatically in the last decade. One of the critical research questions is how to explain the vastly different rates of adolescent suicide among tribes. Research has identified some common patterns in experience and behavior among Indian adolescent suicides; these patterns are similar in many ways to those found in Los Angeles suicide research of Teicher (1979). Chronic versus acute stress factors in suicide are examined. Recent research has also identified a number of factors characterizing tribes with high suicide rates; these include failure to adhere to traditional ways of living, to traditional religion, and to clans and societies, and the resulting chaotic family structure and adult alcoholism. The roles of adoption of Indian children, boarding schools, and high unemployment in many tribes are also discussed. Suicide prevention and intervention programs are briefly described. PMID:3686621

  7. Relationship between suicide and holidays.

    PubMed

    Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Okamoto, H; Goto, Y; Sakai, T

    2000-09-01

    Employing the vital statistics from January 1, 1979 to December 31, 1994 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, we investigated the relationship between suicide (ICD 9 code, El15) and days of the week. In one day 1.97 males and 0.98 females committed suicide on average. On Saturdays the number of suicides per day was the smallest. On Mondays it was the highest. When the days were classified into (1) a holiday, (2) the day before a holiday, (3) the day after a holiday (4) the day both before and after a holiday and (5) others, the rate of suicide was the lowest in the days before a holiday. In the days after a holiday, however, the rate was the highest. The same tendency was also noted when the subjects were classified into several subgroups from the viewpoint of ages, seasons or calendar years. The time relation of holidays seemed to have something to do with the intention to commit suicide.

  8. [Gender differences in suicidal behavior].

    PubMed

    Vörös, Viktor; Osváth, Péter; Fekete, Sándor

    2004-06-01

    Gender-specific differences in suicidal behaviour have been analysed in a number of recent studies. According to these, several socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, familial, help-seeking differences can be identified in protective and risk factors between males and females. Gender is one of the most replicated predictors for suicide. In the framework of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, more than fifty thousand suicide attempts have been registered so far. Until now data on more than 1200 monitored suicidal events have been collected in Pecs centre. In most countries male suicid rates are higher. In contrast to suicides, rates of suicide attempts are usually higher in females. Concerning the differences in methods, it is a recognised fact that males use violent methods of both suicide and attempted suicide more often than females. The summarised clinical impression suggests that compliance of male patients is poorer than that of females. According to our data, a typical male attempter is characterised as follows: unemployed, never married, lives alone. He tends to use violent methods; if he takes drugs, it is mostly meprobamate or carbamazepine. A lot of male attempters have alcohol problems or dependence. As for the females, we found high odds ratios in the following cases: divorced or widowed, economically inactive, depressive state in the anamnesis. Female attempters are mainly repeaters using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. As suicide is a multicausal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should also be complex and gender differences should be taken into account in building up our helping strategies.

  9. Suicide Risk in Primary Care: Identification and Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:25030971

  10. Suicide risk in primary care: identification and management in older adults.

    PubMed

    Raue, Patrick J; Ghesquiere, Angela R; Bruce, Martha L

    2014-09-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior.

  11. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  12. Suicide in the U.S. Army: Epidemiological and Periodic Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothberg, Joseph M.; Jones, Franklin D.

    1987-01-01

    Presents overview of suicide in the United States Army, including epidemiology of army suicides and temporal aspects of those suicides compared with the data for the United States as a whole. Documents some of the changes in contemporary military suicide rates compared to those of the past century. Examined cycles in the number of suicides by day…

  13. Educating Students about Suicide: A Framework for the Use of "Fotonovelas" on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Satya P.; Taani, Murad; Lozano, Valerie; Kennedy, Elizabeth England

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 1,000 suicides on college campuses every year, with rates of completed suicide ranging between 0.5-7.5 per 100,000 among students. In addition to the prevalence of suicide ideation, attempts, and completions, students at high risk of suicide often do not seek help. As a major public health problem, suicide prevalence has not…

  14. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  15. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  16. Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Young People. Report on a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Suicide and attempted suicide are problems which continue to occupy the world-wide attention of both health service administrators and research workers. National statistics of completed suicides have shown an increase in rates among people aged 15-24 years and even among children below the age of 15. Conference discussions were based on working…

  17. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  18. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents. Some Facts about the Rising Rate of Suicide among American Indian Adolescents; Information on Causes and Warning Signs; and Examples of Effective Efforts and Prevention Resources. Linkages for Indian Child Welfare Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Irving N.

    Suicide among American Indian adolescents has increased by almost 1000% over the past 20 years to become, as in Anglo society, the second most frequent cause of death in the 10 to 20 year old age group. The two major causes of adolescent suicide are acute stress and chronic depression. Environmental factors contributing to American Indian suicides…

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder in Suicidal Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Shirley; Gagnon, Kerry; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adolescents has been controversial. Thus, few studies have examined BPD in suicidal adolescents, even though it is strongly associated with suicidal behaviors in adults. This study examines differences between suicidal adolescents with (n=47) and without (n=72) BPD on history and characteristics of suicidal behavior, Axis I comorbidity, affect regulation, and aggression. Assessments were completed with both adolescents and parents, and consensus ratings based on best available data were analyzed. BPD participants were more likely to have a past history of suicide attempts and to have been admitted due to a suicide attempt (vs. suicidal ideation). There were no significant differences in self-injurious behaviors or degree of suicidal ideation. BPD participants also had more psychiatric comorbidity and higher aggression scores, but no significant differences in affective dysregulation compared to suicidal adolescents without BPD. Diagnostic stability over 6 months was modest. Our results demonstrate that compared to other acutely suicidal adolescents, the clinical profile of BPD participants is unique and suggests an increased risk for suicidal behaviors. This extends upon other studies which support the construct validity of BPD during adolescence and suggests that BPD should be considered in suicide risk assessment for adolescents. PMID:24343935

  20. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted. PMID:2375273

  1. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted.

  2. A comparison of 15 theories of suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1994-01-01

    A method is illustrated for studying the lives of suicidal individuals. Each of 15 theories of suicide is operationalized with 10 statements. These 150 statements are then rated as present or absent in the lives of 30 famous suicides for whom a biography is available. The theory of Aaron Beck is found to be most applicable to the suicidal lives and that of Sigmund Freud least applicable. A factor analysis has identified five clusters of theories; and the age, sex, national origin, era, and experience of loss are found to be associated with scores of the 30 suicides on the 15 theories.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Related Hospitalizations in the United States (2002-2011): Rates, Co-Occurring Illnesses, Suicidal Ideation/Self-Harm, and Hospital Charges.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Mark G; Banta, Jim E; Sonne, Janet L; Przekop, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related hospitalizations in the United States (2002-2011). Over this period, there were an estimated 1,477,944 hospitalizations (915,591 women) with either a primary (reason for hospitalization) or secondary PTSD diagnosis. Population-based hospitalization rates rose from 2002 to 2011; women in the age range of 20 to 44 years had the highest rates and the steepest rise. Most of the hospitalizations for men and women younger than 45 years had been assigned a primary diagnosis of mental illness (including PTSD). Mood and substance use disorders were among the most commonly co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses with PTSD. Suicidal ideation/suicide attempts declined with increasing age. The strongest predictor of this criterion was mood disorder, and its importance as a predictor increased as people aged. Total inflation-adjusted charges for all PTSD-related hospitalizations were $34.9 billion, with 36% being for hospitalizations where a mental illness (including PTSD) was the primary diagnosis. PMID:26588079

  4. [Economic recession, unemployment and suicide].

    PubMed

    Duleba, Timea; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Dome, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Considering the ongoing global economic crisis which began in 2007 it is reasonable to discuss its possible and expectable effects on mental health. In our narrative review we have summarized the scientific literature on the relationship between economic downturns, unemployment and suicide rate. In addition, we have summarized the theories about the background of this relationship as well. Suicide is an extremely complex phenomenon since it is influenced by several environmental and genetic factors. Furthermore, some of these factors are mutually interrelated, so the independent effect of these frequently remains elusive and hard to investigate from a methodological point of view. Although results are somewhat contradictory, it seems that unemployment is an independent risk factor for both suicide and depression. The first papers about the effect of the current economic crisis on suicide rates have been published and their results confirmed the association between the rise of unemployment rate and the increase of suicide rate in both old and new members of the European Union. Although psychiatric, and primarily depressive illness is a major risk factor for suicide, understanding the contributing role of other etiologic factors in their complex relationship may be an important task in predicting and preventing suicide both at the level of at risk individuals and the whole population. PMID:22427469

  5. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  6. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. Objective To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Design Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970–2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993–1994 and 2005–2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Results Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Conclusion Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention. PMID:25701279

  7. Suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts in Greece during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Marina; Madianos, Michael; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Theleritis, Christos; Patelakis, Athanasios; Stefanis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis in Greece is largely impinging on the health and mental health of the population, raising concerns about a potential rise in suicide rates. The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts between 2009 and 2011 in a representative sample of the population and in several population subgroups. The socio-economic predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in 2011 were also investigated. Two nationwide cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2011 using the same methodology. A random and representative sample of 2192 and 2256 people, respectively, took part in the surveys. Between 2009 and 2011, there was a substantial increase in the prevalence of suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts. People suffering from depression, men, married individuals, people experiencing financial strain, people with low interpersonal trust, and individuals with a history of suicide attempts were particularly vulnerable. PMID:23471802

  8. Long‐term impact of celebrity suicide on suicidal ideation: results from a population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, King‐wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2007-01-01

    Background The short‐term effect of celebrity suicide on the overall suicide rate is widely known, but long‐term effects remain unclear. Objective To examine whether celebrity suicide is associated with suicidal ideation over a longer period. Design This is a study on the effect of the suicide of a famous Hong Kong entertainment celebrity, who committed suicide on 1 April 2003, on suicide thoughts of the community. A population‐based survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Respondents were asked about their suicidal ideation, psychological well‐being, life events, and whether or not they had been affected by celebrity suicide. Setting Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the People's Republic of China. Participants 2016 respondents aged between 20 and 59 years. Results After controlling for some known suicide risk factors, celebrity suicide was shown to be independently associated with suicidal ideation. People who had indicated to have been affected by celebrity suicide were 5.93 times (95% CI 2.56% to 13.72%, p = 0) more likely to have severe level of suicidal ideation (Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire score ≧31) than people who had not been affected. Respondents having greater anxiety symptoms, less reason for living and more focus on irrational values were also found to have had their suicide ideation affected by celebrity suicide. Conclusions Celebrity suicide is a risk factor for suicidal ideation over a short term as well as over a long term. Raising awareness of the possible negative effect of celebrity suicide through suicide prevention programmes in the community is needed. PMID:17496264

  9. An Assessment of Community Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGrove, William

    1977-01-01

    The contributions of several core variables to the white suicide rates in 24 Florida counties were examined. A prediction equation including age, crime rate, insanity, and alcoholism was found that accounted for 79 percent of the variation in the suicide rates across counties. (Author)

  10. Ecological Correlates of Adolescent Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over electoral wards of Edinburgh, Scotland. Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicides in total population also were related to housing patterns/social class of the wards. (Author/NB)

  11. Disentangling dysthymia from major depressive disorder in suicide attempters' suicidality, comorbidity and symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Cecilia; Engström, Gunnar; Träskman-Bendz, Lil

    2008-01-01

    Dysthymia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both risk diagnoses for suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to identify clinical differences between these disorders, with a special reference to dysthymia. We studied suicidal behaviour, comorbidity and psychiatric symptoms of inpatient suicide attempters with dysthymia and MDD. We used DSM III-R diagnostics, the Suicide Assessment Scale (SUAS) and the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS), part of which is the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Suicide mortality, number of repeated suicide attempts, method of suicide attempt and comorbidity of Axis I did not differ between the groups. Dysthymia patients, however, suffered more than MDD patients from DSM-III-R Axis II diagnoses (above all cluster B). There was no significant difference in Axis III comorbidity. Total SUAS, CPRS and MADRS scores did not differ significantly between the groups. When studying separate SUAS and CPRS items in a multivariate analysis, the CPRS items "aches and pains", "increased speech flow", increased "agitation" and "less tendency to worrying over trifles" as well as young age remained independently associated with dysthymia. Dysthymia patients, who later committed suicide, more often reported increased "aches and pains" than those who did not commit suicide. In this small sample of suicide attempters, we conclude that dysthymia suicide attempters, more often than MDD patients, have a comorbidity with personality disorders, which combined with a picture of aches and pains, could be factors explaining their suicidality.

  12. The newsworthiness of suicide.

    PubMed

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-06-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered news-worthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those involving dramatic methods. Reported suicides fell into three groups: suicides reported in a broader context; suicides by celebrities; and suicides involving unusual circumstances/methods. The data suggest a need for media professionals and suicide experts to work together to balance newsworthiness against the risk of copycat behavior. PMID:17579540

  13. Suicides in Active-Duty Enlisted Navy Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Yoshito; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    Compared completed suicides among U.S. Navy enlisted personnel from 1974-85 to suicides in U.S. general population and in U.S. Army. Navy suicide rate, lowest of three groups, increased between 1976 and 1983, in contrast to national and Army rates. Young white males in apprentice/recruit and blue-collar occupations had highest rates of suicide in…

  14. Critical Components of Suicide Prevention Programs for Colleges and Universities: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…

  15. Hospital antibiotic use and its relationship to age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub consumption.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Kearney, M P

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub on monthly hospital antibiotic usage, retrospectively. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate the monthly use of all antibiotics grouped together with age-adjusted comorbidity and alcohol-based hand rub over a 5-year period (April 2005-March 2010). The results showed that monthly antibiotic use was positively related to the age-adjusted comorbidity index (concomitant effect, coefficient 1·103, P = 0·0002), and negatively related to the use of alcohol-based hand rub (2-month delay, coefficient -0·069, P = 0·0533). Alcohol-based hand rub is considered a modifiable factor and as such can be identified as a target for quality improvement programmes. Time-series analysis may provide a suitable methodology for identifying possible predictive variables that explain antibiotic use in healthcare settings. Future research should examine the relationship between infection control practices and antibiotic use, identify other infection control predictive factors for hospital antibiotic use, and evaluate the impact of enhancing different infection control practices on antibiotic use in a healthcare setting. PMID:23657218

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder and completed suicide.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K; Miller, Matthew; Lawler, Elizabeth; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L

    2010-03-15

    Most research regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide has focused on suicidal ideation or attempts; no known study of the association between PTSD and completed suicide in a population-based sample has been reported. This study examined the association between PTSD and completed suicide in a population-based sample. Data were obtained from the nationwide Danish health and administrative registries, which include data on all 5.4 million residents of Denmark. All suicides between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, were included, and controls were selected from a sample of all Danish residents. Using this nested case-control design, the authors examined 9,612 suicide cases and 199,306 controls matched to cases on gender, date of birth, and time. Thirty-eight suicide cases (0.40%) and 95 controls (0.05%) were diagnosed with PTSD. The odds ratio associating PTSD with suicide was 9.8 (95% confidence interval: 6.7, 15). The association between PTSD and completed suicide remained after controlling for psychiatric and demographic confounders (odds ratio = 5.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.4, 8.1). Additionally, persons with PTSD and depression had a greater rate of suicide than expected based on their independent effects. In conclusion, a registry-based diagnosis of PTSD based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, is a risk factor for completed suicide. PMID:20160171

  17. Knowledge about suicide and local suicide prevalence: comparison of Estonia and Austria.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Knowledge about suicide might be positively correlated with local suicide prevalence. This hypothesis was tested with a sample of 107 medical and social science undergraduates from Estonia, a country with a high suicide rate, using Hubbard and McIntosh's 1992 Revised Facts on Suicide Quiz. Compared (independent-groups t tests) with a sample of undergraduates from Austria, which has a markedly lower suicide rate, Estonians presented significantly higher overall knowledge about suicide (d = 0.39), particularly concerning demographic and epidemiological facts about suicide (d = 0.77) but not pertaining to clinical and interpersonal knowledge contents (d = -0.06). Study limitations and suggestions for extension of this preliminary inquiry are discussed. PMID:17918542

  18. Firearms and suicide in US cities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Warren, Molly; Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    On an average day in the USA more than 100 Americans die by suicide-half use firearms. Suicide rates overall and by firearms are higher, on average, in states where household firearm ownership is more common. In general this means in states where a greater proportion of the population lives in rural areas. The current ecological study focuses on the relation between measures of household firearm prevalence and suicide mortality in urban areas (metropolitan statistical areas and divisions) using survey-based measures of firearm ownership. Suicide rates (1999-2010) for metropolitan statistical areas that are comprised of large US cities come from death certificate records; rates of household firearm ownership come from the 2002 and 2004 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System. Higher rates of firearm ownership are strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with non-firearm suicide. Stratification by gender, age and race did not materially affect the association between firearms and suicide. This study provides evidence consistent with previous case-control work and extends evidence from previous state- and region-level ecological studies that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond baseline.

  19. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A.; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. PMID:26690227

  20. "Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seko, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing cyberspace…

  1. The Evolution of Epidemic Suicide on Guam: Context and Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of suicide rates for Guam were analyzed by age, sex, period, and cohort. Youth suicide increased rapidly in the 1990s; certain cohorts have higher rates. Four explanatory factors are discussed, including ecological factors and migration from the Federated States of Micronesia. Direct and indirect suicide contagion followed the death…

  2. A Demographic Analysis of Suicide among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert

    Although statistical patterns associated with suicide suggest that blacks should be the least likely to commit suicide, black men between the ages of 18-25 do not conform to this pattern. The suicide rate for black males in this age group, which approximates and sometimes surpasses the rate for their white male cohorts, is more than three times…

  3. The Media and Suicide: A Nonadditive Model, 1968-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Tests nonadditive model of suggestion/imitation, predicting that suicide stories will have greatest effect on suicide in times of high suicidogenic conditions measured in terms of unemployment. Data on U.S. monthly suicide rate supported nonadditive model based on interaction effect between media stories and rate of unemployment; it did not prove…

  4. Suicide in Juveniles and Adolescents in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windfuhr, Kirsten; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle; Turnbull, Pauline; Lowe, Rebecca; Burns, Jimmy; Swinson, Nicola; Shaw, Jenny; Appleby, Louis; Kapur, Navneet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youths. Comparatively few studies have studied recent trends over time, or examined rates and characteristics of service contact in well-defined national samples. Methods: Data on general population suicides and mid-year population estimates were used to calculate suicide rates (per…

  5. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Saad; Idrees, Jawaria; Hassan, Fahad; Idrees, Fariha; Arifullah, Mashaal; Badshah, Sareer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED) with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally, data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty-five patients were included in the study (56.1% female). The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married). Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001). The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale), anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05). The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002), mental component summary (p=0.001), and general health (p=0.001) at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The most

  6. National police suicide estimates: web surveillance study III.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Andrew F; Violanti, John M; Levenson, Richard L; Clark, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    The present study is the third in a series of web surveillance of police suicides (prior analyses conducted in 2008 and 2009). In this age of world web communications, a police suicide in even the smallest and most remote community is generally transmitted nationally and through police websites, forums, and blogs. 55,000 police suicide specific web articles were reviewed over the entire year 2012 data was then compared with 2008 and 2009 police suicide data. There were 141 police suicides in 2008. Suicides declined from 143 in 2009 to 126 in 2012 (an 11.9% decrease). Across the three time periods, male and female suicides appeared to occur at a similar rate, averaging 92% and 6% respectively. In 2012, (1) suicides appeared to cluster more in the 40-44 year age group more than in previous years among officers of lower rank; (2) an increase in suicide was seen among officers with 15-19 years of service; (3) gunshots remained the most prevalent means of suicide across all three years (91.5%), and (4) personal problems appeared to be prevalent (83%) with work associated legal problems ranking second (13%). Approximately 11% of suicides were military veterans. California (n = 10) and New York (n = 12) had the highest police suicide rates. Four murder-suicides were noted over the entire year. Suggestions for suicide preventive policies, improving police mental health, and future research are discussed.

  7. National police suicide estimates: web surveillance study III.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Andrew F; Violanti, John M; Levenson, Richard L; Clark, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    The present study is the third in a series of web surveillance of police suicides (prior analyses conducted in 2008 and 2009). In this age of world web communications, a police suicide in even the smallest and most remote community is generally transmitted nationally and through police websites, forums, and blogs. 55,000 police suicide specific web articles were reviewed over the entire year 2012 data was then compared with 2008 and 2009 police suicide data. There were 141 police suicides in 2008. Suicides declined from 143 in 2009 to 126 in 2012 (an 11.9% decrease). Across the three time periods, male and female suicides appeared to occur at a similar rate, averaging 92% and 6% respectively. In 2012, (1) suicides appeared to cluster more in the 40-44 year age group more than in previous years among officers of lower rank; (2) an increase in suicide was seen among officers with 15-19 years of service; (3) gunshots remained the most prevalent means of suicide across all three years (91.5%), and (4) personal problems appeared to be prevalent (83%) with work associated legal problems ranking second (13%). Approximately 11% of suicides were military veterans. California (n = 10) and New York (n = 12) had the highest police suicide rates. Four murder-suicides were noted over the entire year. Suggestions for suicide preventive policies, improving police mental health, and future research are discussed. PMID:24187885

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Ellen; Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Literature has described high levels of mental health problems among trans people, such as depression, resulting in increased levels of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviour and suicidality (suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and suicide rates). With the aim of systematically reviewing the available literature in this field, this study identifies 31 papers that explore the rates of NSSI and suicidality in trans people. From reviewing the literature, it was revealed that trans people have a higher prevalence of NSSI and suicidality compared to the cisgender (non-trans) population. There appear to be some gender differences within these rates, with trans men at a greater risk for NSSI behaviour. Prevalence rates differ depending on the different stages of transition, but they are still overall greater than the cisgender population. The study concludes that trans individuals are at a greater risk of NSSI behaviour and suicidality than the cisgender population, and discusses risk factors and the need to develop effective preventative interventions.

  9. Preventing Suicide through Improved Training in Suicide Risk Assessment and Care: An American Association of Suicidology Task Force Report Addressing Serious Gaps in U.S. Mental Health Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, William M., Jr.; Allen, Michael H.; Feldman, Barry N.; Gutin, Nina J.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Kleespies, Phillip M.; Quinnett, Paul; Simpson, Skip

    2012-01-01

    There are twice as many suicides as homicides in the United States, and the suicide rate is rising. Suicides increased 12% between 1999 and 2009. Mental health professionals often treat suicidal patients, and suicide occurs even among patients who are seeking treatment or are currently in treatment. Despite these facts, training of most mental…

  10. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  11. Suicide in Bahrain in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Hamadeh, Randah R; Ali, Mazin K; El Offi, Adel

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social, legal, and religious factors make reporting of suicide difficult in Bahrain, an Islamic country. Limited available data indicates a very low incidence rate of 3 per 100,000. The objective of the present study was to describe the pattern of suicide in Bahrain during a 10-year period. The registered suicide cases (N = 304) at the Ministry of Interior for the 10-year period from 1995 to 2004 were reviewed and analyzed. The mean suicide rate was 0.6 per 100,000 for the Bahraini nationals and 12.6 per 100,000 for the non-Bahrainis with and 17.7 per 100,000 for the Indian migrants. Men were six times more likely than women to commit suicide. The majority of the subjects were under 35 years of age with financial domestic problems being the most common reason reported in the record and hanging the mostly commonly used mode of suicide (92.8%). The suicide rate for the Bahraini population remains low compared to other countries. The higher rate of suicide among Indians merits further investigation. Moreover, more research is needed on the epidemiology of suicide risk factors in ethnic groups for further prevention and intervention.

  12. [Rebuilding post-suicide interventions from a caring ethics perspective].

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2006-12-01

    Suicide has become a critical mental health problem in Taiwan. Most studies on the issue are related to suicide rates and risk factors, and their relationships with mental illnesses. These findings help health professionals to understand what life might have been like for a suicide victim before the suicide, but not what life is like after a suicide attempt; how to detect the possibility of a subsequent suicide attempt, rather than how to help people who have attempted suicide to construct a good life. The purpose of this article is to encourage nurses to engage in dialogue with suicidal patients by understanding their explanatory models and by self-reflection. This not only enables suicidal patients to move from shame toward taking responsibility for themselves and others, but also enables nurses to rebuild their experiential knowledge.

  13. The Newsworthiness of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R. Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered newsworthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those…

  14. An Open Letter to School Administrators and Mental Health Professionals about School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grazman, Harriet B.

    In response to the increasing rate of adolescent suicide, many school and mental health professionals have implemented school-based suicide prevention programs to address the issue of adolescent suicide. Most suicide prevention programs cover similar topics. However, the perspectives from which they approach suicide may vary. The majority of…

  15. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  16. Divorce, Suicide, and the Mass Media: An Analysis of Differential Identification, 1948-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Examined the triggering effect of maritally related suicide stories in the mass media on monthly suicide rates of those involved in divorce or in marital distress. Support was found for this effect, independent of season and of changes in unemployment, but the unemployment rate was more closely associated with suicide than suicide stories in the…

  17. The impact of holidays on suicide in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Zonda, Tamás; Bozsonyi, Károly; Veres, Elõd; Lester, David; Frank, Michael

    The suicide rate on religious and public holidays was examined for 133,699 suicides for Hungary for the period 1970-2002. For both men and women, more suicides were committed on Monday, while fewer were committed on the weekends. More suicides occurred on New Year's Day than expected. On Christmas Day and on Easter Sunday and Monday, suicides were less frequent only for men, a result consistent with Durkheim's theory. There was less evidence for Gabennesch's broken promise effect on the days after the holidays. National holidays had no impact on the frequency of suicide.

  18. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media.

    PubMed

    Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F 1 = 0.48; t2: F 1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F 1 = 0.41; t2: F 1 = 0.48) on different

  19. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F1 = 0.48; t2: F1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F1 = 0.41; t2: F1 = 0.48) on different

  20. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  1. Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

  2. Toward Understanding Suicide Among Youths: Results From the White Mountain Apache Tribally Mandated Suicide Surveillance System, 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Cwik, Mary; Craig, Mariddie; Walkup, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined suicide and suicide attempt rates, patterns, and risk factors among White Mountain Apache youths (aged < 25 years) from 2001 to 2006 as the first phase of a community-based participatory research process to design and evaluate suicide prevention interventions. Methods. Apache paraprofessionals gathered data as part of a tribally mandated suicide surveillance system. We compared findings to other North American populations. Results. Between 2001 and 2006, 61% of Apache suicides occurred among youths younger than 25 years. Annual rates among those aged 15 to 24 years were highest: 128.5 per 100 000, 13 times the US all-races rate and 7 times the American Indian and Alaska Native rate. The annual suicide attempt incidence rate in this age group was 3.5%. The male-to-female ratio was 5:1 for suicide and approximately 1:1 for suicide attempts. Hanging was the most common suicide method, and third most common attempt method. The most frequently cited attempt precipitants were family or intimate partner conflict. Conclusions. An innovative tribal surveillance system identified high suicide and attempt rates and unique patterns and risk factors of suicidal behavior among Apache youths. Findings are guiding targeted suicide prevention programs. PMID:19696377

  3. Attempted suicide, suicidal intent, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.

  4. Suicide in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant.

  5. AIDS caregivers struggling with assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A short case study of a man who chose suicide over continuing to live with AIDS introduces this discussion of assisted suicide. Oregon is the only state where physician-assisted suicide is legal; in most other states it is explicitly illegal or the law is unclear. "Rational suicide" is a commonly thought about and discussed topic among AIDS patients, and the rate of suicide in this population is more common than death certificates indicate. A Seattle-based group, Compassion in Dying, provides support and advice to dying patients who want to hasten their deaths. Before providing assistance to persons who are willing to follow its lengthy procedures, the group urges patients to explore other avenues of better pain management. The National Association of Social Workers has issued a policy supporting the presence of a social worker at an assisted suicide if requested by the client. PMID:11362168

  6. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters. PMID:8442571

  7. Suicide in women

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  8. On Chinese College Students' Suicide: Characteristics, Prevention and Crisis Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, some characteristics have been detected among Chinese students' suicide including an increasing rate, obvious differences in different grades and genders, relatively integrated suicide methods and a regular time pattern for suicide as well. The principle of selection at registration, dynamic renewal and classified precaution should be…

  9. Suicidal Behavior: A Survey of Oregon High School Students, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 10- to 19-year-old population in Oregon. The suicide rate has increased more than five-fold in the last three and one-half decades. This trend can be reversed by developing an understanding of the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with suicide in at-risk youth. The Youth Risk…

  10. Suicide Prevention in Young Adults (Age 18-30).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Presents some explanations for the doubling of the young adult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)

  11. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  12. Gender and Suicide Risk: The Role of Wound Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2009-01-01

    That males have higher suicide rates than females is one of the most empirically documented social facts in suicidology, but the reasons for this continue to be debated. For the present paper, we tested a neglected contributing factor to the gender suicide ratio: wound site or the area of the body that is wounded in firearm suicides. Males may…

  13. Suicide among American Indian Youth: A Look at the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses rates, characteristics, and causes of suicide among young Native Americans. Compares suicide statistics of several tribes with those of the overall U.S. population. Analyzes suicide attempts and other self-destructive behavior. Describes problems faced by Indian adolescents and offers some solutions. (SO)

  14. Suicide and Self-Destruction among American Indian Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines adolescent and young adult suicides, suicide attempts, and self-destructive behavior among the general population, American Indians, and Indians of New Mexico. Describes prevention and intervention efforts undertaken to lower suicide rates on one reservation. Contains 30 references. (SV)

  15. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  16. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  17. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Irving N.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies common patterns in experience and behavior among American Indian adolescent suicides. Discusses factors characterizing tribes with high suicide rates, including failure to adhere to traditional ways and resulting chaotic family structure and adult alcoholism. Discusses roles of adoption of Indian children, boarding schools, and high…

  18. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The results…

  19. Secondary Prevention of Attempted Suicide in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotgrove, Andrew; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adolescents discharged from a hospital following suicide attempt who were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving standard management plus a token allowing readmission to the hospital on demand, or a control group receiving standard management only. Results suggest lower rates of repeat suicide attempts in the group that received…

  20. Adolescent Suicide Risk Today: A Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1998-01-01

    A review of international statistics indicates that youth suicide rates are not increasing in all nations. Furthermore, it is suggested that the quality of life in nations is improving and that this improvement itself may increase the risk of suicide, especially in youth with narcissistic personality traits and antisocial personality disorder…

  1. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  2. Adolescent suicide risk today: a paradox.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1998-08-01

    A review of international statistics indicates that youth suicide rates are not increasing in all nations. Furthermore, it is suggested that the quality of life in nations is improving and that this improvement itself may increase the risk of suicide, especially in youth with narcissistic personality traits and antisocial personality disorder traits.

  3. Interpersonal Effects of a Suicidal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowgell, Virginia G.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates in a controlled setting effects of a suicide threat. Produced greater self-rated anxiety and tension, greater physiological arousal, and an increase in the likelihood that the subject would talk to the stimulus person about suicide, death, or dying. (Author)

  4. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  5. When Was the Last Time you Took a Suicidal Child to Lunch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Dean

    1973-01-01

    This article gives statistics on suicide rates among children and adolescents of different ages. It describes the various reasons behind suicide in children and the symptoms of deep depression in children and adolescents. The author describes the suicidal student and the child survivor (of a suicidal death in the family) and suggests to the…

  6. The Impact of Epidemic, War, Prohibition and Media on Suicide: United States, 1910-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Ira M.

    1992-01-01

    Estimated impact of exogenous social and political events on suicide behavior in the United States between 1910 and 1920. Concluded that World War I did not influence suicide; Great Influenza Epidemic caused suicide to increase; and continuing decline in alcohol consumption from 1910 to 1920 depressed national suicide rates. (Author/NB)

  7. The Unequal Burden of Suicide among Minnesotans: Three Strategies for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nate; Roesler, Jon; Heinen, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Minnesota's suicide rate has been increasing for more than 10 years. This article describes the demographic groups at highest risk for suicide and suicide attempts in the state. It also highlights prevention strategies outlined in the Minnesota State Suicide Prevention Plan 2015-2020.

  8. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  9. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts.

  10. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  11. Body mass index and suicide methods.

    PubMed

    Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with lower rates of suicide. However, little is known about the association with different suicide methods. We studied the association between groups of body mass index and suicide methods. We identified all medicolegal autopsy cases with a cause of death due to external causes in Sweden during 1999-2013 (N = 39,368) and included 11,715 suicides and 13,316 accidents or homicides as controls. We applied multinomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, year and season of death. Obesity was associated with suicidal intoxication, OR 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.30] and negatively associated with all other suicide methods studied. Underweight showed a negative association with suicidal drowning and there was an indication towards a negative association with hanging in men OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.01). We conclude that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the choice of suicide method. This may be of importance in a public health perspective, e.g. potential for prevention of intoxications. In the practice of forensic medicine, the physician's level of suspicion may rise if the apparent suicidal method is less common for the individual characteristics of the deceased, such as BMI. PMID:27239953

  12. An Overview of Suicide Research in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Chao; Jia, Shuhua; Wieczorek, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Chinese suicide research did not start until the end of 1970s, when China opened its door to the West through reforming its economy. Although limited Chinese suicide research conducted overseas is published and known to the West, studies conducted by Chinese researchers and published in Chinese language, which may be of more significance, are rarely known or cited in the West. Further, researchers in China with direct observation of the suicidal environment may understand the suicide differently than scholars overseas with second hand information, and therefore derive different explanations of Chinese suicide. This current study overviews suicide research conducted in China and published in Chinese during the past two decades and compares the findings with what has been reported in Western publications. Six research books and 429 journal articles are reviewed. As units of analyses, all journal articles are quantified with 151 variables analyzed. Results support findings of previous studies in terms of the suicide rates by gender, age, and rural/urban location. A unique phenomenon in Chinese suicide noticed in the study is that married Chinese are at higher risk of suicide than the non-married. Hypotheses for future research are suggested based on the articles reviewed. PMID:20686645

  13. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. PMID:27269026

  14. Friendships and suicidality among Mexican American adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2010-08-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied, vulnerable group in terms of suicidality. Three hundred thirty-eight community adolescents, two-thirds of whom were educationally at-risk, participated in the study. Suicidal ideation and behavior rates were high, particularly among girls. Friends' school disconnectedness increased girls' odds for suicidal ideation by 13%. This association was even greater for girls in good academic standing. Friendship problems were not associated with suicidality in boys. Ethnic identity was a minor factor in suicidal ideation, and only for girls. These findings confirm, among Mexican American adolescents, the role of gender in the relationship between friendship and suicidality. PMID:21151742

  15. Friendships and suicidality among Mexican American adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2010-08-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied, vulnerable group in terms of suicidality. Three hundred thirty-eight community adolescents, two-thirds of whom were educationally at-risk, participated in the study. Suicidal ideation and behavior rates were high, particularly among girls. Friends' school disconnectedness increased girls' odds for suicidal ideation by 13%. This association was even greater for girls in good academic standing. Friendship problems were not associated with suicidality in boys. Ethnic identity was a minor factor in suicidal ideation, and only for girls. These findings confirm, among Mexican American adolescents, the role of gender in the relationship between friendship and suicidality.

  16. The Ethics of Suicide and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1996-01-01

    Debates the question of suicide as a defensible choice, particularly for the terminally ill, examining the relevance of such issues as the mortality, rationality, and dynamics of the suicidal act, and the legitimacy of physician-assisted suicide. Contrasting perspectives are articulated by two prominent suicidologists as a spur to the reader's…

  17. A study of suicide and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Koyin

    2009-04-01

    The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates human capital. This paper provides a series of analyses of suicide rate based on theoretical reasoning and empirical approaches. Aggregate data from G7 countries are obtained and stacked into panel data for analysis. Data are collected for different age groups. Even though suicide issues have been extensively discussed in the past, newly developed econometric tools are applied to her. Beyond previously recognized relationships between economic factors and suicide rates findings include that unemployment strikes men more than women in terms of psychological pressure: for middle age or older women, unemployment may even be positive for the entire family; and female labor force participation exerts pressure on male counterparts and increases its suicide rate. As a result, a low income family with an unemployed man and an employed woman is at high risk for adult male suicide.

  18. Suicidal Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols

    This paper reviews studies of childhood suicide and reports findings which suggest that the incidence of suicide under the age of 14 is greatly underreported. It notes that the incidence of non-fatal suicide attempts in children is even harder to determine than is the incidence of suicide. Studies are cited which suggest that, while preadolescent…

  19. Biology of Elderly Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, A. Hind; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes age-related changes in central nervous system pertinent to biology of suicide. Reviews postmortem biological studies of brains of suicides and suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in elderly are characterized by violence, discusses biological studies of impulsive violence. Describes data on effect of degenerative diseases on serotonin…

  20. Rethinking Impulsivity in Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; May, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits,…

  1. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    PubMed

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  2. Relationships among dispositional coping strategies, suicidal ideation, and protective factors against suicide in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marty, Meghan A; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2010-11-01

    Older adults have a disproportionally high rate of completed suicide as compared to the general population. Whereas a large literature has focused on risk factors related to elder suicide, limited research exists on relationships between coping strategies with protective factors against suicide and suicidal ideation in this population. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 108, mean age = 71.5 years, age range = 60-95 years) completed the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale, Reasons for Living inventory, and Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS). Problem- and emotion-focused coping were associated positively with reasons for living and negatively with suicide ideation. Dysfunctional coping was associated positively with suicide ideation, but results did not support the hypothesized negative relationship with reasons for living. Thus, problem- and emotion-focused coping appear to be adaptive, whereas dysfunctional coping appears to be somewhat less related to resilience to suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults. Implications of the study are that some coping strategies may serve as protective factors against suicide and that coping strategies should be evaluated as part of a thorough assessment of suicidal risk among older adults. The results also provide some evidence of convergent validity for the recently developed GSIS. PMID:21069608

  3. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate.

  4. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  5. Prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe.

  6. An assessment of community suicide risk.

    PubMed

    DeGrove, W

    1977-01-01

    The contributions of several core variables to the white suicide rates in 24 Florida counties were examined, and a prediction equation, using multiple linear regression, was developed. Age was found to be about 50% more important than divorce. With both age and divorce controlled, loneliness and insanity were found to be significant core variables (p less than .05). A prediction equation including age, crime rate, insanity, and alcoholism was found that accounted for 79% of the variation in the suicide rates across counties. The observed rates were divided by predicted rates to yield standardized mortality ratios. It is proposed that these ratios may serve to assess both the need for and the impact of community suicide prevention services by placing suicide rates in the context of relevant social conditions.

  7. Suicide and unemployment in Italy, 1982-1994

    PubMed Central

    Preti, A.; Miotto, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk. DESIGN: Administrative data for suicide according to occupational status have been analysed considering three employment categories: employed, seeking new job (unemployed), seeking first job (never employed). Comparison of suicide rates by economic position and correlation between suicide and unemployment rates have been made. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: 20,457 deaths by suicide registered in Italy among economically active people from 1982 to 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change over time in suicide rates by economic position; coefficient of aggravation according to occupational status. RESULTS: Suicide rates among the unemployed are clearly and constantly higher than those among the employed: up to three times higher among men, and twice as high among women. Among the unemployed a clear and significant rise in suicide rates in both sexes took place over the study period; suicide rates among the employed showed a less marked increase. The rise in suicide rates was accompanied by a concurrent rise in unemployment rate percentage. Men seem to be affected most by this change in unemployment rate percentage; women are subject to less evident influences and variations. CONCLUSION: Different suicidal behaviour trends among unemployed compared with employed people indicate that unemployment (and above all the prospect of not having access to a working role) acts as a contributing factor for suicide. Unemployment, even if symptomatic of a mental disorder, should therefore always be taken into consideration as a risk factor for suicide: the potentially lethal consequences of its negative influence on both self esteem and the ability to use supportive networks in a efficient way is an element to which great attention should be paid.   PMID:10656098

  8. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  9. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities.

  10. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities. PMID:26864223

  11. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  12. Nearly 10 Million U.S. Adults Considered Suicide Last Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160979.html Nearly 10 Million U.S. Adults Considered Suicide Last Year Rates at historically high levels -- up ... 10 million U.S. adults seriously thought about committing suicide last year, federal health officials reported Thursday. Rates ...

  13. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p < .001); in 13 probands, the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p < .001). Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring.

  14. Suicide trends in Singapore: 1955-2004.

    PubMed

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Chia, Audrey; Yee, Ng Wai; Choo, Tai Bee

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate suicide trends in Singapore between 1955 and 2004. Suicide cases were identified from the Registry of Birth and Death, Singapore, and analyzed using Poisson regression. Overall, suicide rates in Singapore remained stable between 9.8-13.0/100,000 over the last 5 decades. Rates remain highest in elderly males, despite declines among the elderly and middle-aged males in recent years. Rates in ethnic Chinese and Indians were consistently higher than in Malays. While the rates among female Indians and Chinese have declined significantly between 1995 and 2004, some increase was noted in female Malays. Although there was no increase in overall suicide rates, risk within certain population segments has changed over time. PMID:20658381

  15. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Suicide in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and its rate has been increasing. Factors that contribute to rate of, risks for, or protection against depression and suicide may be different for people from cultures with different values and health beliefs. Although typically seen as affecting Caucasians more than other groups in the U.S., the rates of suicide among African Americans, Latinos, and others have been increasing. 87 studies were reviewed looking at rates for suicide/suicidal ideation, risk factors for suicide, protective factors/coping mechanisms, service delivery/barriers to care, and specific treatment or management of suicidal thoughts for adolescents from different ethnic groups in the U.S. The following ethnic groups in the U.S. were compared: African American, Latino, Asian American, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Hawaiian American. Although studies report conflicting rates, most studies still show an overall higher risk for suicidal behavior among Caucasian youth than any other group. Rates for suicidal behavior are growing for African American teens (perhaps more in boys), Latino teens (especially Latina girls), Asian American youth, Native American youth, Alaskan Native youth, and Hawaiian American youth. Details about these differences are discussed along with recommendations for clinicians working with youth at risk for suicide from minority cultures in the U.S. PMID:20352033

  16. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Suicide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and its rate has been increasing. Factors that contribute to rate of, risks for, or protection against depression and suicide may be different for people from cultures with different values and health beliefs. Although typically seen as affecting Caucasians more than other groups in the U.S., the rates of suicide among African Americans, Latinos, and others have been increasing. 87 studies were reviewed looking at rates for suicide/suicidal ideation, risk factors for suicide, protective factors/coping mechanisms, service delivery/barriers to care, and specific treatment or management of suicidal thoughts for adolescents from different ethnic groups in the U.S. The following ethnic groups in the U.S. were compared: African American, Latino, Asian American, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Hawaiian American. Although studies report conflicting rates, most studies still show an overall higher risk for suicidal behavior among Caucasian youth than any other group. Rates for suicidal behavior are growing for African American teens (perhaps more in boys), Latino teens (especially Latina girls), Asian American youth, Native American youth, Alaskan Native youth, and Hawaiian American youth. Details about these differences are discussed along with recommendations for clinicians working with youth at risk for suicide from minority cultures in the U.S. PMID:20352033

  17. Comparing the Risk of Suicide of College Students with Nonstudents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide rates for college students were compared with rates for nonstudents using two definitions of students: full-time enrollment at 4-year institutions, and all-inclusive postsecondary enrollment. For traditionally aged females, comparing the suicide rate of students (3.0 per 100,000) to the rate for same-age nonstudents rather than the…

  18. Does Suicidal History Enhance Acceptance of Other Suicidal Individuals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Ena; Range, Lillian

    2001-01-01

    To see if moderately suicidal outpatients were more accepting of a suicidal person than never- or severely-suicidal outpatients, 105 respondents completed measures of suicidality, depression, acceptance, and empathy. Results indicated, unexpectedly, that net of depression, never-suicidal people were more accepting of a suicidal person than…

  19. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  20. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  1. Suicidal ideation in Huntington disease: The role of comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Heather H.; Gehl, Carissa R.; Dellefave, Lisa; Schiffman, Judith F.; Shannon, Kathleen M.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by cognitive impairments, motor abnormalities, and psychiatric disturbance. An increased risk for suicide has been documented. The majority of HD research has focused on cognitive and motor features of HD; the implications of psychiatric manifestations have received less consideration. Recent studies have sought to identify the stages of HD in which patients are at increased risk to experience suicidal ideation, though no study has examined possible risk factors for suicidality. The current study examines the presence of psychiatric comorbidity and its involvement in suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was examined in 1,941 HD patients enrolled in the Huntington Study Group. Of those, 19% (N = 369) reported suicidal ideation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that depression/anxiety and aggression/irritability are significant predictors of suicidal ideation (p < 0.01). In a subsample with the greatest suicidal ideation, alcohol and drug abuse were also predictive. Findings suggest that suicide in HD may be more distinct as compared to suicide in the general population. It is recommended that all individuals with HD (specifically those with features of depression, aggression, substance abuse) have routine suicide assessment; further research is needed to understand the high rate of suicide in HD. PMID:21605914

  2. Female equality and suicide in the Indian states.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Indian suicide rates rose by 76% in the 10 years between 1984 and 1994. In this study of the 16 principal states of India, male and female suicide rates in 1994 were associated with measures of equal education for men and women. Male suicide rates were associated with equal life expectancy for men and women. Equal income for women and men was not associated with suicide rates. Unlike earlier studies, no inverse association was found between equal attainment in education and suicide sex ratios. The Indian findings thus do not conform to patterns found in more developed economies. Given increasing human development in India, it seems probable that suicide rates in that country may increase two to three times over coming decades.

  3. Suicide in elderly people: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    A literature review was carried out focusing on the main factors associated with suicidal ideation, attempts and completed suicide in elders. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SciELO and Biblioteca Virtual em Violência e Saúde da BIREME (BIREME's Violence and Health Virtual Library), referring to the period from 1980 to 2008. Fifty-two references were selected and analyzed. They showed a strong relationship among suicide ideation, attempt and completion in elderly individuals, which results from the interaction of complex physical, mental, neurobiological and social factors. Suicide associated with depression in the elderly can be prevented, provided the person is properly treated. In Brazil, it is necessary to invest in research, given the persistent increase in suicide rates among aged people, especially among males.

  4. Is Suicide Predictable?

    PubMed Central

    Seghatoleslam, T; Habi, H; Rashid, R Abdul; Mosavi, N; Asmaee, S; Naseri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts. Methods: A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt. The participants were young, poor, and single. A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide. Results: Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a significant tendency to attempt suicide again. They had a history for more than two years of multiple suicide attempts, from three to as many as 18 times, plus mental illnesses such as depression and substance abuse. They also had a positive history of mental illnesses. Conclusion: Results indicate that contributing factors for another suicide attempt include previous suicide attempts, mental illness (depression), or a positive history of mental illnesses in the family affecting them at a young age, and substance abuse. PMID:23113176

  5. Suicide in U.S. Workplaces, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan; Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. Methods Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65–74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). Conclusions The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace. PMID:25794471

  6. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: Enhancing Mental Health Care for Suicidal Individuals and Other People in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie L. H.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lake, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Linking at-risk callers to ongoing mental health care is a key goal of crisis hotline interventions that has not often been addressed in evaluations of hotlines' effectiveness. We conducted telephone interviews with 376 suicidal and 278 nonsuicidal crisis callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) to assess rates of mental…

  7. Perceived Racism, Discrimination, and Acculturation in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn; Conner, Kenneth; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Tu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    During young adulthood the suicide rate among Blacks rises dramatically and approaches that of the U.S. general population, requiring that prevention efforts include a focus on Black young adults. Although most research on suicidality among Blacks has focused on risk factors observed in the dominant culture, in this study the authors examined…

  8. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    PubMed Central

    Khanipour, Hamid; Hakim shooshtari, Mitra; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2) to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Patients and Methods Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI) checklist were used for assessment. Results Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P < 0.05). Feelings of inadequacy, self-hatred, difficulty with impulse control, and frequency of NSSI can predict 50% variance of suicide probability (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adolescents with histories of suicidal attempts and NSSI, compared with adolescents with NSSI-only, were more prone to suicide. Self-criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. PMID:27622166

  9. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    PubMed Central

    Khanipour, Hamid; Hakim shooshtari, Mitra; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2) to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Patients and Methods Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI) checklist were used for assessment. Results Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P < 0.05). Feelings of inadequacy, self-hatred, difficulty with impulse control, and frequency of NSSI can predict 50% variance of suicide probability (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adolescents with histories of suicidal attempts and NSSI, compared with adolescents with NSSI-only, were more prone to suicide. Self-criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  10. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); p<0.001). In elderly (aged ≥75 years) patients, an age-optimised hsTnT cut-off value of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged <75 years and ≥45 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged ≥75 years) provided additive and independent prognostic information on top of the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) and echocardiography (OR 4.56 (1.30-16.01); p=0.018, C-index=0.77). A three-step approach based on the sPESI, hsTnT and echocardiography identified 16.6% of all patients as being at higher risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy.

  11. Suicide in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, David W.; Hodges, Debra K.; Kohler, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of adult suicide in the United States and Alabama. This includes the latest available information on the prevalence of suicide in the US and Alabama, demographic characteristics of suicide victims, trends in suicide, and known reasons behind adult suicide. With respect to adult suicide in Alabama, it focuses on…

  12. [Suicidal behavior and meterological conditions].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Martin, J; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Leonard, C

    1976-01-01

    Six hundred and seventy five cases of attempted suicide observed in a resuscitation department were confronted with a certain number of biometeorological factors recorded daily: atmospheric pressure, air temperature, degree of insolation, precipitation, relative humidity, water vapour pressure, wind (speed and direction), hydrometeores, index of solar eruption, density of F2 layer. The confrontation is made for the two days before the intoxication and for the day when suicide is attempted. Parameters are then studied by statistical calculation (calculation of X2 and of the number of degrees of freedom). There does not seem to be any significant relationship, in spite of disconcerting series, between most meteorological factors and the number of attempted suicides observed. However, it is noted that no suicides were recorded during periods of solar eruption, and that there seems to be a marked correlation between suicide and winds, particularly according to their direction. Thus, winds charged with ionised particles seem to coincide with a high rate of self-destruction.

  13. IMF-lending programs and suicide mortality.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Eleftherios; Zervoyianni, Athina

    2016-03-01

    While the economic consequences of IMF programs have been extensively analyzed in the literature, much less is known about how key welfare indicators, including suicide-mortality rates, correlate with countries' participation in such programs. This paper examines the impact of IMF lending on suicide mortality, using data from 30 developing and transition countries that received non-concessionary IMF loans during 1991-2008. Our results support the hypothesis of a positive causal relationship between suicide mortality and participation in IMF programs but reveal no systematic suicide-increasing effect from the size of IMF loans. This holds after accounting for self-selection into programs, resulting from the endogeneity of a country's decision to resort to the IMF for funding, and after controlling for standard socio-economic influences on suicidal behaviour. In particular, we find a positive aggregate suicide-mortality differential due to IMF-program participation of between 4 and 14 percentage points. We also find that the positive association between suicides and program participation is stronger and more robust among males. Comparing age groups, individuals belonging to the age group 45-to-64 exhibit the highest increase in suicide due to program-participation, which amounts to over 18 percentage points. Overall, our results imply that when countries are exposed to IMF programs in an attempt to resolve their economic problems, social-safety nets need to be designed to protect the adversely-affected part of the population. PMID:26874823

  14. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  15. National total survey of German adolescent suicide in prison.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, D; Lempp, T; Herrmann, E; Kettner, M; Bennefeld-Kersten, K; Freitag, C M

    2015-02-01

    Incarcerated adolescents are a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour, but data on completed suicide are scarce in this population. The present study aimed at calculating relative risks (RR) of suicide in detention and identifying age-related risk factors. We compared data of a German national total survey of completed suicide of young detainees (14 to <21 years, N = 79) during the years 2000-2010 with age- and gender-adjusted suicide deaths in non-incarcerated adolescents (N = 3,484) and incarcerated adults (N = 781). Prison suicide accounted for 2.3% of all suicide deaths in adolescents, but only 0.1% of this age group was detained. The RR = 23.0 for adolescent suicide in detention exceeded the RR = 7.7 of adults by far. In adults, suicide rates in pre-trial detention was fivefold higher than in criminal detention; suicide rates were more balanced in adolescent detainees. Our results underline the need for age-specific suicide prevention strategies in detention.

  16. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  17. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  18. Sex-Role Change, Anomie and Female Suicide: A Test of Alternative Durkheimian Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roy L; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used trend analysis of suicide rate and female/male suicide ratios from 1950 to 1984 and regression of ratio on educational attainment, labor force participation, fertility, and divorce rates to examine explanations for rate changes. General anomie explanation of female suicide trends was supported for middle-aged females; conjugal anomie…

  19. Personal suicidality in reception and identification with suicidal film characters.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality (n = 150) watched either It's My Party or The Fire Within, censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with questionnaires before the movie. Identity work and identification with the protagonist were measured after the movie. Suicidality was directly associated with identity work during film dramas depicting suicide methods. The reception of suicide-related media content seems to partially depend on personal suicidality. Potential implications for suicide prevention are discussed.

  20. Interprovincial migration and suicide in Canada, 1971-78.

    PubMed

    Trovato, F

    1986-01-01

    This study corroborates the findings by Stack (1980) on the relationship between interstate migration and suicide. The present application is to Canada during the early and later parts of the 1970s decade. Strong support for a migration effect emerges, thus supporting the culture shock hypothesis that because migration involves the concomitant processes of severing important social ties with the origin, and adjusting to a new environment, Provinces characterized by high rates of migration will experience high rates of suicide. It is found that while a province's percentage of the population who have received university education is negatively related to suicide, the main effect of migration acts to raise the odds of suicide, but this effect is lower in magnitude than the education measure. A one percent gain in the education index would have served to lower the suicide rate by 1.3%, while a similar change in migration would increase the rate of suicide by .67%.

  1. Suicide in Hungary-epidemiological and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Annual suicide rates of Hungary were unexpectedly high in the previous century. In our narrative review, we try to depict, with presentation of the raw data, the main descriptive epidemiological features of the Hungarian suicide scene of the past decades. Accordingly, we present the annual suicide rates of the period mentioned and also data on how they varied by gender, age, urban vs. rural living, seasons, marital status, etc. Furthermore, the overview of trends of other factors that may have influenced suicidal behavior (e.g., alcohol and tobacco consumption, antidepressant prescription, unemployment rate) in the past decades is appended as well. Based on raw data and also on results of the relevant papers of Hungarian suicidology we tried to explain the observable trends of the Hungarian suicide rate. Eventually, we discuss the results, the possibilities, and the future tasks of suicide prevention in Hungary. PMID:23803500

  2. Adolescent suicide in New York City: plenty of room for new research.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Debora; Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The act of adolescent suicide continues to threaten adolescent populations in New York City (NYC). Consistent positive correlations have been found between a plethora of risk factors present in NYC adolescent populations and suicidal ideations and behaviors. Psychiatric conditions that may contribute to the rate of adolescent suicide in NYC include depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and schizophrenia. Unique factors that have been found to contribute to increased rates of completed suicides in NYC include the phenomena of railway suicides and suicide tourism. Homelessness and income inequality in NYC have also been consistently correlated with increased suicidality; with one study finding suicide attempts reported by a significant percentage of new admissions to homeless shelters. Adolescent populations in NYC that have been identified as particularly vulnerable to suicidality include runaway youth, homosexual youth, victimized adolescents and adolescents with a recent history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies in NYC have found that physical and sexual abuse is highly predictive of adolescent suicidality, with variations by ethnic group. Currently, there is a disturbing lack of sufficient research on adolescent suicide in NYC, specifically regarding causal factors, the effects of television on suicide, comorbid suicidality and drug abuse, and cultural factors contributing to suicide. This dearth of literature may be related to the ethical problems inherent in suicide research, self reports and/or post mortem analyses.

  3. Patterns of Comorbidity of Suicide Attempters: An Update.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Rodrigo-Yanguas, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Lobato-Rodriguez, Maria Jose; de Leon, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Between 10 and 20 million people attempt suicide every year worldwide, and suicide attempts represent a major economic burden. Suicide attempters suffer from high rates of comorbidity, and comorbidity is the rule in suicide re-attempters. Comorbidity complicates treatment and prognosis and causes a more protracted course. In the present narrative review, we included these patterns of comorbidity: intra-Axis I disorders, intra-Axis II disorders, Axis I with Axis II disorders, and psychiatric with physical illnesses. We also briefly reviewed the patterns of comorbidity in suicide re-attempters. We concluded that comorbidity at different levels appears to be the rule in suicide attempters, particularly in those who re-attempt. However, several issues deserve further research regarding the patterns of comorbidity in suicide attempters. PMID:27595859

  4. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. PMID:27354459

  5. Suicide in the island of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kua, E H; Tsoi, W F

    1985-03-01

    In a study of suicide in Singapore in 1980 there were 230 cases and the suicide rate for the general population was 9.5 per 100,000. The age-specific rates increased steeply after 50 years and there was a male preponderance especially in the age group 60 years and over. Comparing the three major ethnic groups in Singapore, the highest rate was seen in the Indians and Chinese, whereas the Malays had the lowest. Amongst the suicides there were 59 (25.7%) with mental illness, mainly schizophrenia, and they were of a younger age group, 20-39 years. The commonest method of suicide was jumping from high-rise flats. PMID:3984765

  6. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  7. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family and school connectedness iii ... Reduced access to firearms vii Academic achievement ix Self-esteem xi Talking to teens about suicide does not ...

  8. Subintentional Suicide among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Subintentional suicide is a classification that refers to ill-defined deaths and practices that lead toward death. Types of subintentional suicide among adolescents include drug abuse and risk taking when driving automobiles. (JN)

  9. Heautoscopy, epilepsy, and suicide.

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, P; Agosti, R; Regard, M; Wieser, H G; Landis, T

    1994-01-01

    Heautoscopy (the doppelgänger experience), epilepsy, and suicide is a triad primarily known from literary accounts. This paper reports a patient with complex partial seizures who tried to commit suicide during the experience of heautoscopy. PMID:8021672

  10. Youth Perceptions of Suicide and Help-Seeking: "They'd Think I Was Weak or "Mental""

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Cate

    2010-01-01

    Youth suicide is an issue of international concern and the college population may have a considerably higher rate of suicidal behaviour than the general population, yet seeking help for suicidality is uncommon. This research sought to understand college students' knowledge of suicidal behaviour and attitudes to help-seeking, in a New Zealand…

  11. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  12. The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-2007.

    PubMed

    Jukkala, Tanya; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernization processes.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide risk among veterans: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Sher, Leo; Serafini, Gianluca; Forte, Alberto; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is frequently associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Suicide is an important cause of death in veterans, and the risk for intentional death continues to be high many years after service. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior among veterans. We also discussed the risk factors of suicide among war veterans with PTSD. A systematic review was conducted focusing on war-related PTSD and suicidal behavior. A total of 80 articles from peer-reviewed journals were identified, 34 were assessed for eligibility, and 16 were included. Having a history of PTSD is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and increased the risk for suicidal behavior. The association between PTSD and suicidal behavior was confirmed by the presence of other risk factors and high rates of comorbidity. Current suicidal behavior should be adequately assessed in war veterans. PMID:23995037

  14. [Suicide in psychiatric hospitals : Results, risk factors and therapeutic measures].

    PubMed

    Wolfersdorf, M; Vogel, R; Vogl, R; Grebner, M; Keller, F; Purucker, M; Wurst, F M

    2016-05-01

    Suicide prevention is a core responsibility of psychiatry and psychotherapy. Periods of change in psychiatric inpatient treatment concepts are usually also accompanied by an increase in psychopathological behavior and with increased suicide rates in psychiatric hospitals, as seen in the 1970s and 1980s in Germany. That this represented a real increase of inpatient suicides during those years was confirmed and subsequently the number and rate of inpatient suicides has decreased from approximately 280 out of 100,000 admissions of patients in 1980 to approximately 50 in 2014. Death can also occur in psychiatric hospitals and an absolute prevention is not possible even under optimal conditions of therapy and nursing, communication and security. The suicide rate has clearly decreased over the last two decades in relation to admissions. The group of young male schizophrenic patients newly identified as having a high clinical suicide risk has decreased among the suicide victims whereas the percentage of severely depressed patients with delusions has increased. This reduction could be associated with the comprehensive improvements in educational and training programs in the field of suicide and suicide prevention, objectification of coping methods, development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, improvements in therapy and relationship possibilities and a general reduction in the number of suicides in Germany. PMID:27090898

  15. Suicides in national parks--United States, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, the year for which the most recent national data on fatalities are available, 34,598 suicides occurred in the United States (rate: 11.3 per 100,000 population); 79% were among males. In 2009, an estimated 374,486 visits to hospital emergency departments occurred for self-inflicted injury, of which approximately 262,000 (70%) could be attributed to suicidal behavior. The majority (58%) were among females. Most suicides (77%) occur in the home, but many occur in public places, including national parks. In addition to the loss of life, suicides consume park resources and staff time and can traumatize witnesses. To describe the characteristics of and trends in suicides in national parks, CDC and the National Park Service (NPS) analyzed reports of suicide events (suicides and attempted suicides) occurring in the parks during 2003-2009. During this 7-year span, 84 national parks reported 286 suicide events, an average of 41 events per year. Of the 286 events, 68% were fatal. The two most commonly used methods were firearms and falls. Consistent with national patterns, 83% of suicides were among males. A comprehensive, multicomponent approach is recommended to prevent suicide events, including enhanced training for park employees, site-specific barriers, and collaboration with communities.

  16. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents. PMID:27320365

  17. [Arson and (para-) suicide].

    PubMed

    Lange, E; Kirsch, M

    1988-11-01

    There have been forensic-psychiatric observations from 1963 to 1983 concerning the offenders responsibility in case of deliberate arson with 12 out of 147 suits being closely related to (para-)suicide. According the variety of relations we distinguish between fire as pure means of suicide, fire used to take along the living space or people, suicide committed in consequence of arson, furthermore arson as a symbolic suicide, and finally acting alternately with both arson as well as parasuicide.

  18. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents.

  19. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  20. College Student Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…

  1. Suicide Clusters and Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Youth suicide is one of the most serious preventable health problems in the United States. It is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. According to a recent national survey of students in grades 9-12, nearly 15% of respondents had seriously considered suicide and 7% actually had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Moreover,…

  2. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  3. Suicide. Useful Information on...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pamela S.; Lewis, Dorothy B., Ed.

    This booklet was written to provide information on suicide. It begins with a brief explanation of the role of suicide in history. A section describing those who commit suicide looks at various populations: elderly persons, children, adolescents and young adults, males, females, blacks, and persons of different marital status. The next section…

  4. Suicide. Useful Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pamela S.

    This document presents information on suicide intended for a general audience who want to understand and prevent suicide. The history of suicide in ancient cultures and its incidence in industrialized countries is discussed first. Especially concerned people, i.e, survivors, families at risk, individuals at risk, and caregivers, are defined.…

  5. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  6. Dreams and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Contrasts dreams of suicidal patients to those of nonsuicidal, depressed patients. Notes that dreams of suicidal patients often reveal wishes for revenge, punishment, reunion, fusion, and rebirth and that confusions between patient's body and that of others are suggested by dreams of some suicidal patients. Discusses phenomenon of transparency in…

  7. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  8. Suicide: The Psychosocial Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    Explores relationships among culture, character, and suicide, drawing on author's research in Scandinavia and his studies of suicide among United States urban blacks and college students. Varying psychodynamic ways suicidal individuals in differing cultures and subcultures conceive of, use, and absorb death tell us much about how we live. (Author)

  9. The Media and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Howard S.; Sudak, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to inform readers of the theory that when newspapers, film, and television describe suicidal deaths, additional suicides may result by virtue of contagion or copy-cat effects; to review data that support and refute this theory; to present some promising and recommended ways to prevent copy-cat suicide; and to cite…

  10. Risk of completed suicide in 89,049 young males assessed by a mental health professional.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Goldberg, Shira; Werbeloff, Nomi; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Shelef, Leah; Large, Matthew; Davidson, Michael; Fruchter, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    In an individual who seeks help or is referred to a mental health professional it is common sense and clinical practice to assume that suicidal thoughts and previous attempts constitute risk factors for imminent suicide. However, this assumption has not been supported by large, population-based longitudinal studies. The current study investigated whether reports of current suicidal ideation and a history of suicide attempts indeed increase risk for later completed suicide in a historical prospective study design. Sequential records on 89,049 young males assessed by mental health professionals were screened for suicidal ideation and a history of suicide attempts. The data were linked with death records from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Over a follow-up period ranging from 2 months to 9.8 years, 54 individuals died by suicide, constituting an average suicide rate of 6.48 per 100,000 person-years. Overall, neither reporting current suicidal ideation (without a history of suicide attempts; HR=1.29, 95% CI=0.57-2.90) nor reporting a history of suicide attempts (with or without current suicidal ideation; HR=1.67, 95% CI=0.71-3.97) were significantly associated with increased risk for later completed suicide. However, young males with a previously diagnosed psychiatric disorder who reported current suicidal ideation (HR=4.52, 95% CI=1.08-18.91) or a history of suicide attempts (HR=6.43, 95% CI=1.54-26.90) were at increased risk of death by suicide. These findings indicate that in this particular population reports of current suicidal ideation or of a history of suicide attempts are helpful in predicting future suicide only among those with a previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder.

  11. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  12. [Mental Health and Prevention of Suicide in Japanese Workplaces Based on a Pilot Study of Job Stress and Suicide Ideation].

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.

  13. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  14. Suicide Management Plan--Post Suicide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhoff, Robert; Royster, Sharon

    This document contains a suicide management plan developed specifically for colleges. The suicide management plan described includes pre-planning, immediate response to the event, press releases, college staff jobs, college responses (such as memorials or scholarships), interaction with the family, and staff counseling. The plan is presented as a…

  15. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed.

  16. Suicidal Feelings Interferes with Help-Seeking in Bullied Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Fumiharu; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Being bullied is associated with the manifestation of suicidal feelings, which sharply increase in middle(-late) adolescence. Whether or not bullied middle(-late) adolescents with suicidal feelings seek help is therefore a critical issue, given that help-seeking plays a key role in the prevention of suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of bullying, suicidal feelings and the interaction between these two factors on help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Methods Japanese middle(-late) adolescents (aged 15–18 years; n = 9484) were studied using self-report questionnaires. The rate of adolescents who actually sought help was examined for bullying status and suicidal feelings. Results The rate of adolescents who sought help was significantly higher when they were bullied (p<0.001) and also when they had mild suicidal feelings (p<0.001), but not when they displayed serious suicidal feelings. In the case of adolescents who were bullied, however, having suicidal feelings significantly decreased the rate of help-seeking (OR = 0.47, p<0.05 and OR = 0.32, p = 0.002 for having mild and serious suicidal feelings, respectively). The decrease was remarkable when suicidal feelings were serious. Specifically, the decrease was significant in seeking help from peers and family members, who are the most frequent source of the help for adolescents, when they had serious suicidal feelings (OR = 0.21, p<0.01 and OR = 0.13, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Suicidal feelings may interfere with help-seeking behavior, which could be critical in suicide prevention in bullied middle(-late) adolescents. PMID:25188324

  17. Suicide Attempts in Israel: Age by Gender Analysis of a National Emergency Departments Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Daphna; Haklai, Ziona; Stein, Nechama; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of all emergency department admissions in Israel classified as an attempted suicide in the years 1996-2002 was done to examine attempted suicide rates by age and gender with particular attention to adolescents and young adults. Gender differences in attempted suicide rates were significant only during adolescence and young adulthood,…

  18. Epidemiologic Characteristics and Trends of Fatal Suicides among the Elderly in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among its elderly. The epidemiologic characteristics and trends of the surging elderly suicide rates from 1993 to 2003 are described, with a special emphasis on the risk groups, the methods used in suicide, and their geographical variations. Data on annual mortality for persons…

  19. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries. PMID:26110126

  20. Personal Suicidality in Reception and Identification with Suicidal Film Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality ("n" = 150) watched either "It's My Party" or "The Fire Within," censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with…

  1. A Review of "Suicidal Intent" within the Existing Suicide Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasley, Joseph P.; Ghosh, Biswadip; Huggins, Joseph; Bell, Missy R.; Adler, Lawrence E.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a systematic literature review that investigated suicide intent are presented. Of the 44 relevant articles identified, 17 investigated the relationships between various suicide risk factors and suicide intent and 25 publications investigated the relationships between suicide intent and various suicide outcomes. Despite recent…

  2. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  3. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  4. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  5. Is Suicide Ideation a Surrogate Endpoint for Geriatric Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Links, Paul S.; Heisel, Marnin J.; Quastel, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored the validity of treating suicide ideation as a surrogate endpoint that can serve as a proxy for suicide in clinical intervention research with suicidal seniors. Two criteria; that suicide ideation is modulated by the proposed intervention and that modulation of suicide ideation leads to a quantitative reduction in…

  6. Predicting national suicide numbers with social media data.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Myung, Woojae; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors - consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention.

  7. Predicting National Suicide Numbers with Social Media Data

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hong-Hee; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors – consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention. PMID:23630615

  8. Predicting national suicide numbers with social media data.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Myung, Woojae; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors - consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention. PMID:23630615

  9. Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-05-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem, with more than 800,000 deaths taking place worldwide each year. Mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide. In schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, the lifetime risk of suicide death is estimated to be 5.6%. The risk is particularly high during the first year of the initial contact with mental health services, being almost twice as high as in the later course of the illness. The most consistently reported risk factor for suicide among people with psychotic disorders is a history of attempted suicide and depression. Suicide risk in psychosis in Denmark decreased over time, most likely because of improved quality of inpatient and outpatient services. There is a high proportion of young people with first-episode psychosis who attempted suicide before their first contact with mental health services. This finding suggests that the mortality rates associated with psychotic disorders may be underreported because of suicide deaths taking place before first treatment contact. However, currently, no data exist to confirm or refute this hypothesis. Attempted suicide can be an early warning sign of later psychotic disorder. Data from different studies indicate that the risk of suicide attempt during the first year of treatment is as high as 10%. The most important risk factors for attempted suicide after the first contact are young age, female sex, suicidal plans, and a history of suicide attempt. Early intervention services are helpful in first-episode psychosis, and staff members should, in collaboration with the patients, monitor the risk of suicide and develop and revise crisis plans. PMID:25919385

  10. Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of a Suicide Barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Atkins Whitmer, Dayna; Woods, David Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Golden Gate Bridge (GGB) is a well-known “suicide magnet” and the site of approximately 30 suicides per year. Recently, a suicide barrier was approved to prevent further suicides. Aims: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the proposed suicide barrier, we compared the proposed costs of the barrier over a 20-year period ($51.6 million) to estimated reductions in mortality. Method: We reviewed San Francisco and Golden Gate Bridge suicides over a 70-year period (1936–2006). We assumed that all suicides prevented by the barrier would attempt suicide with alternative methods and estimated the mortality reduction based on the difference in lethality between GGB jumps and other suicide methods. Cost/benefit analyses utilized estimates of value of statistical life (VSL) used in highway projects. Results: GGB suicides occur at a rate of approximately 30 per year, with a lethality of 98%. Jumping from other structures has an average lethality of 47%. Assuming that unsuccessful suicides eventually committed suicide at previously reported (12–13%) rates, approximately 286 lives would be saved over a 20-year period at an average cost/life of approximately $180,419 i.e., roughly 6% of US Department of Transportation minimal VSL estimate ($3.2 million). Conclusions: Cost-benefit analysis suggests that a suicide barrier on the GGB would result in a highly cost-effective reduction in suicide mortality in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23261913

  11. Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ashwin L.; Asif, Irfan M.; Drezner, Jonathan A.; Toresdahl, Brett G.; Harmon, Kimberly G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has recently highlighted mental health concerns in student athletes, though the incidence of suicide among NCAA athletes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of suicide among NCAA athletes. Hypothesis: The incidence of suicide in NCAA athletes differs by sex, race, sport, and division. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: NCAA Memorial Resolutions list and published NCAA demographic data were used to identify student-athlete deaths and total participant seasons from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012. Deaths were analyzed by age, sex, race, division, and sport. Results: Over the 9-year study period, 35 cases of suicide were identified from a review of 477 student-athlete deaths during 3,773,309 individual participant seasons. The overall suicide rate was 0.93/100,000 per year. Suicide represented 7.3% (35/477) of all-cause mortality among NCAA student athletes. The annual incidence of suicide in male athletes was 1.35/100,000 and in female athletes was 0.37/100,000 (relative risk [RR], 3.7; P < 0.01). The incidence in African American athletes was 1.22/100,000 and in white athletes was 0.87/100,000 (RR, 1.4; P = 0.45). The highest rate of suicide occurred in men’s football (2.25/100,000), and football athletes had a relative risk of 2.2 (P = 0.03) of committing suicide compared with other male, nonfootball athletes. Conclusion: The suicide rate in NCAA athletes appears to be lower than that of the general and collegiate population of similar age. NCAA male athletes have a significantly higher rate of suicide compared with female athletes, and football athletes appear to be at greatest risk. Clinical Relevance: Suicide represents a preventable cause of death, and development of effective prevention programs is recommended. PMID:26502423

  12. Prison suicide in England and Wales, 1972-87.

    PubMed

    Dooley, E

    1990-01-01

    The case notes of 295 suicides (98.3% of the total) in prisons in England and Wales between 1972 and 1987 were studied. This period has witnessed an increase in the suicide rate far in excess of the rate of rise in the prison population. The most common method of suicide was by hanging, usually at night. There was a frequent past history of psychiatric treatment and self-injury. People charged or convicted of violent or sexual offences were over-represented, as were those serving life sentences. There was an association between suicide and both guilt for the offence and being charged or convicted of a homicide offence. Some suicides occurred many years after reception into prison. Routine enquiry about previous suicide attempts must be implemented, along with better, ongoing, active communication between staff and inmates.

  13. Two models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Saxby; Jamil, Mohammed Yaacob

    2009-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to present two models of separate but related aspects of suicide, developed with a view to improving understanding and management of this behaviour. Conclusions: First, the predicament model of suicide posits that all suicide represents an escape from a predicament and associated distress. Predicaments are composed of either external (environmental) or internal (mental disorders) factors, or both. Suicide occurs when a threshold is exceeded on a suicide risk ladder, and the degree of movement toward the threshold in response to a particular stressor depends on a range of factors. Second, the suicide pathways model integrates medical and sociological concepts, with distress as the central component, and three run-offs: mental disorder, medicalized and a non-mental disorder (egoistic/anomic; reaction) suicide.

  14. Suicide trends among persons aged 10-24 years--United States, 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Erin M; Annest, Joseph L; Simon, Thomas R; Luo, Feijun; Dahlberg, Linda L

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and accounted for 5,178 deaths in this age group in 2012. Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning (including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. Previous reports have noted that trends in suicide rates vary by mechanism and by age group in the United States, with increasing rates of suffocation suicides among young persons. To test whether this increase is continuing and to determine whether it varies by demographic subgroups among persons aged 10-24 years, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data for the period 1994-2012. Trends in suicide rates were examined by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and mechanism of suicide. Results of the analysis indicated that, during 1994-2012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic subgroups during this period. Clinicians, hotline staff and others who work with young persons need to be aware of current trends in suffocation suicides in this group so that they can accurately assess risk and educate families. Media coverage of suicide incidents and clusters should follow established guidelines to avoid exacerbating risk for "suicide contagion" among vulnerable young persons.* Suicide contagion is a process by which exposure to the suicide or suicidal behavior of one or more persons influences others who are already vulnerable and thinking about suicide to attempt or die by suicide. Early prevention strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of young persons developing suicidal thoughts and behavior.

  15. Male depression and suicide: What NPs should know.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Melissa; Oliffe, John L

    2015-11-15

    The discordant relationship between men's low rates of diagnosed depression and high male suicide rates continues to prevail in North America. NPs are in a unique position to prevent suicide through recognizing and addressing the gendered nature of men's depression. PMID:26474205

  16. Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: Are Youth Disproportionately Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Hemenway, David

    2001-01-01

    The effect of firearm availability on suicide may differ among age groups. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and household firearm ownership for four age groups in the nine census regions from 1979 to 1994, adjusting for regional divorce rates, education, unemployment, and urbanity. (BF)

  17. Suicide Risk in Homebound Elderly Individuals What Home Care Clinicians Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Tony

    2015-10-01

    Suicide rates and risk increase with age. Older people are heavy users of in-home services. Many of the reasons that older adults need home care are serious risk factors for suicide. These include disability, physical illness, and other conditions that affect self-sufficiency. Home care providers are well positioned to identify elder suicide risk. This requires some understanding of suicidal behavior, the key risk factors for suicide in elders, the warning signs, and what to do if suicidality is encountered. The suicide prevention field has not recognized home care as a means of reaching suicidal elders. It is critical that this be corrected as elder suicides stand to rise as the elder population increases. PMID:26418106

  18. The role of hope and optimism in suicide risk for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Victoria M; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2013-12-01

    There are some American Indian/Alaska Native communities that exhibit high rates of suicide. The interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005) posits that lethal suicidal behavior is likely preceded by the simultaneous presence of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability. Past research has shown that hope and optimism are negatively related to suicidal ideation, some of the constructs in the interpersonal theory of suicide, and suicide risk for the general population. This is the first study to investigate hope and optimism in relation to suicidal ideation, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability for American Indians/Alaska Natives. Results showed that hope and optimism negatively predicted thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal ideation. However, these results were not found for acquired capability. Overall, this study suggests that higher levels of hope and optimism are associated with lower levels of suicidal ideation, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness in this American Indian/Alaska Native sample.

  19. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  20. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224).

  1. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224). PMID:22617088

  2. Analysis of NTSB Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides: 1982-2014.

    PubMed

    Politano, P Michael; Walton, Robert O

    2016-04-01

    On March 24, 2015, a Germanwings aircraft crashed in the Alps. The suicidal copilot killed himself and 150 others. Pilot suicide is rare, but does happen. This research analyzed the National Transportation Safety Board's accident database (eADMS) looking for pilots who died by suicide in flight. Fifty-one suicides were identified. Gender, age, and other characteristics were examined. Average age of suicidal pilots was 38, significantly different from the average age of 45 for all male pilots involved in aircraft accidents. A discriminant function accurately identified suicidal incidents at 96%. There was a high false-positive rate limiting the usefulness of the discriminant function. PMID:27094027

  3. Suicide in Canada: impact of injuries with undetermined intent on regional rankings.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Burrows, Stephanie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2016-02-01

    The impact of underreporting or misclassifying suicides as injuries with undetermined intent is rarely evaluated. We assessed whether undetermined injury deaths influenced provincial rankings of suicide in Canada, using 2 735 152 Canadians followed for mortality from 1991 to 2001. We found that suicide rates increased by up to 26.5% for men and 37.7% for women after including injuries with undetermined intent, shifting provincial rankings of suicide. Attention to the stigma of suicide and to coding suicides as injuries with undetermined intent is merited for surveillance and prevention.

  4. Effects of newspaper stories on the incidence of suicide in Australia: a research note.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1995-09-01

    This study investigates the impact of newspaper stories on the incidence of suicide in Australia. The effects of suicide stories appearing in two major metropolitan newspapers between 1.1.1981 and 31.12.1990 were examined. The findings show that the daily average suicide rate in Australia increases significantly after the publication and publicity of suicide stories in the Australian media; the rise tends to be primarily due to the increase in male suicide and not female suicide. Some plausible explanations of this finding are advanced.

  5. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  6. Police Suicide in Small Departments: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger, and community visibility. PMID:23894796

  7. Contact With Mental Health and Primary Care Providers Before Suicide: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Luoma, Jason B.; Martin, Catherine E.; Pearson, Jane L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined rates of contact with primary care and mental health care professionals by individuals before they died by suicide. Method The authors reviewed 40 studies for which there was information available on rates of health care contact and examined age and gender differences among the subjects. Results Contact with primary care providers in the time leading up to suicide is common. While three of four suicide victims had contact with primary care providers within the year of suicide, approximately one-third of the suicide victims had contact with mental health services. About one in five suicide victims had contact with mental health services within a month before their suicide. On average, 45% of suicide victims had contact with primary care providers within 1 month of suicide. Older adults had higher rates of contact with primary care providers within 1 month of suicide than younger adults. Conclusions While it is not known to what degree contact with mental health care and primary care providers can prevent suicide, the majority of individuals who die by suicide do make contact with primary care providers, particularly older adults. Given that this pattern is consistent with overall health-service-seeking, alternate approaches to suicide-prevention efforts may be needed for those less likely to be seen in primary care or mental health specialty care, specifically young men. PMID:12042175

  8. Global trends in teenage suicide: 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, A B; Gould, M S; Malone, K M

    2015-10-01

    The object of this article is to review the past decade of research on teenage suicide, with a particular emphasis on epidemiologic trends by age, gender and indigenous ethnicity. As such, a review of research literature from 2003 to 2014 was conducted via a comprehensive search of relevant psychological and medical databases. Wide gaps in our knowledge base exist concerning the true extent of teenage suicide due to lack of data, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a Western bias. The gender paradox of elevated suicidality in females with higher completed suicide rates in males is observed in teenage populations worldwide, with the notable exceptions of China and India. Native and indigenous ethnic minority teens are at significantly increased risk of suicide in comparison to general population peers. Often those with the highest need for mental health care (such as the suicidal adolescent) have least access to therapeutic support.Globally, suicide in teenagers remains a major public health concern. Further focused research concerning completed suicides of youth below the age of 18 is required across countries and cultures to understand more about risk as children progress through adolescence. Gender and ethnic variations in suicidality are embedded within cultural, historical, psychological, relational and socio-economic domains. Worldwide, the absence of child/adolescent-specific mental health policies may delay the development of care and suicide prevention. Overall, it is vital that clinicians adopt a holistic approach that incorporates an awareness of age and gender influences, and that cultural competency informs tailored and evaluated intervention programmes.

  9. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  10. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788

  11. Suicide: an existentialist reconceptualization.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M; Lamont, E

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of suicide is one of the primary concerns for mental health professions. The health-care literature is dominated by discussions that focus variously on local and national suicide prevention policies, on the assessment of those individuals judged to be at risk of committing suicide as well as the appropriateness and efficacy of interventions for those who express suicidal ideation and display suicidal behaviours. What appear less frequently in the literature, however, are critical analyses of the concept of suicide and, in particular, critical reflections on the manner in which the concept of suicide has been, and continues to be, understood or 'framed'. In an attempt to respond to this apparent omission, this paper will suggest that the work of Albert Camus, and his philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus in particular, can be understood as providing a significant reconceptualization and reframing of suicide. In doing so, it will be suggested that Camus's work not only challenges how the concept of suicide has traditionally been situated within the context of mental illness, but can also be understood as challenging the efficacy of the interventions that have been associated with an understanding of suicide within that context.

  12. Addressing suicidality in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, J Michael; Rackley, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    By design or by default, primary care providers (PCPs)are frequently the vanguard in the fight against suicide. Recent studies have highlighted programs to improve screening and prevention of suicidality in the medical home, particularly among high-risk patients, such as adolescents, the elderly, and veterans. Increasing efforts are also being paid to improving the PCP's skill in assessing for suicidality. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that screening alone will not significantly lower suicide rates until it occurs within a well-integrated system that facilitates timely referral to more intensive mental health services for those patients who need them. Unfortunately, such systems are sorely lacking in many, if not most, areas of the USA. PMID:22644310

  13. Suicide methods in Asia: implications in suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-04-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide "technologies". It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  14. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  15. Geography of suicide in Taiwan: spatial patterning and socioeconomic correlates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Wheeler, Benedict W; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2011-03-01

    In industrialised Western nations suicide rates tend to be high in inner city areas and socially fragmented neighbourhoods. Few studies have investigated spatial variations in suicide in non-Western settings. We estimated smoothed standardised mortality ratios (1999-2007) for suicide for each of the 358 Taiwanese districts (median population aged 15+: 27,000) and investigated their associations with area characteristics using Bayesian hierarchical models. The geographic distribution of suicide was similar in men and women; young people showed the greatest spatial variation in rates. Rates were highest in East Taiwan, a mostly mountainous rural area. There was no evidence of above average rates in large cities. Spatial patterns of method-specific suicide rates varied markedly, with solids/liquids poisonings showing the greatest geographic variation and hangings the least. Factors most strongly associated with area suicide rates were median household income, population density and lone-parent households. Spatial patterning of suicide in Taiwan differed from that observed in Western nations. Suicide prevention strategies should take into account unique local patterns. PMID:21292534

  16. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  17. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  18. Suicide Attempts in the United States Army

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Stein, Murray B.; Naifeh, James A.; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Cox, Kenneth L.; Heeringa, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Comprehensive research on this important health outcome has been hampered by a lack of integration among Army administrative data systems. Objective To identify risk factors for Regular Army suicide attempts during the years 2004–2009 using data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Design, Setting, and Participants There were 9,791 medically documented suicide attempts among Regular Army soldiers during the study period. Individual-level person-month records from Army and Department of Defense administrative data systems were analyzed to identify socio-demographic, service-related, and mental health risk factors distinguishing suicide attempt cases from an equal-probability control sample of 183,826 person-months. Main Outcome and Measures Suicide attempts were identified using Department of Defense Suicide Event Report records and ICD-9 E95x diagnostic codes. Predictor variables were constructed from Army personnel and medical records. Results Enlisted soldiers accounted for 98.6% of all suicide attempts, with an overall rate of 377/100,000 person-years, versus 27.9/100,000 person-years for officers. Significant multivariate predictors among enlisted soldiers included socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, low education, non-hispanic white), short length of service, never or previously deployed, and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses. Among officers, only socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, and low education) and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses were significant. Conclusions and Relevance Results represent the most comprehensive accounting of U.S. Army suicide attempts to date and reveal unique risk profiles for enlisted soldiers and officers, and highlighting the

  19. Regional Variation in Suicide and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1985-01-01

    Violence in American cities was examined by classifying each city as high versus low in its economic rate and high versus low in its suicide rate. Differences were found in crime rates, poverty, population density, racial composition, latitude, and longitude. The implications of the results were examined. (Author/BL)

  20. Trends in suicidality amid the economic crisis in Greece.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Savopoulos, Christos; Siamouli, Melina; Zaggelidou, Eleni; Mageiria, Stamatia; Iacovides, Apostolos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2013-08-01

    For the decade 2000-2010, suicidal rates appear to be both low and stable in Greece and unrelated to the socioeconomic environment. It is highly possible that the recent crisis caused a significant increase in dysphoria, stress, depression and maybe suicidal ideation in the general population, but completed suicides do not seem to have increased so far. Measures are needed to make sure there will be no increase in completed suicides in the near future, since historically, periods of socioeconomic instability might be related to increased suicidality. Community interventions reduce stigma and enhance help-seeking. However, only those including the creation of social support networks are essential in the fight against suicidality.

  1. Gender and suicide in India: a multiperspective approach.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, M; Seshadri, S; Raj, A

    1998-01-01

    The gap between male and female suicide rates in India is relatively small. However, society's views on female and male motives are quite different. In order to investigate the perceptions of male and female suicide, we interviewed a focus group of university professors as well as police inspectors, crime reporters, and hospital nurses in Bangalore. We also obtained four narratives of suicide. Women tended to be blamed for their own or their husband's suicide, although they were also viewed more often as victims of life adversities than men. A historical review illustrates that both men and women have been associated with culturally sanctioned suicides. One known form is sati, and we discuss the recent case of sati-murder of Roop Kanwar in 1987. The social sciences and the media also pay a lot of attention to the typical female suicides, symbolizing their role as martyrs of society, which seems to compensate for attribution of blame. PMID:9560166

  2. Is it time to abandon suicide risk assessment?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Suicide risk assessment includes estimating the likelihood of suicide in words such as ‘low, medium or high’. A ‘high suicide risk’ rating can trigger a powerful urge to eliminate risk immediately. But it is far from clear what ‘high suicide risk’ actually means. In the current state of knowledge, suicide reduction measures should apply to all psychiatric patients, irrespective of an individual patient's perceived risk. For patients presenting with suicidal thoughts, feelings and behaviour, assessment and management should focus on reducing or tolerating emotional pain. Declaration of interest D.M. has received payments from Janssen-Cilag and Servier. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703761

  3. An Outcome Evaluation of the SOS Suicide Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Aseltine, Robert H.; DeMartino, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of the Signs of Suicide (SOS) prevention program in reducing suicidal behavior. Methods. Twenty-one hundred students in 5 high schools in Columbus, Ga, and Hartford, Conn, were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students in both groups approximately 3 months after program implementation. Results. Significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group. The modest changes in knowledge and attitudes partially explained the beneficial effects of the program. Conclusions. SOS is the first school-based suicide prevention program to demonstrate significant reductions in self-reported suicide attempts. PMID:14998812

  4. [Suicidality in the elderly - what the general practitioner can do].

    PubMed

    Haas, Sebastian; Minder, Jacqueline; Harbauer, Gregor

    2014-09-01

    Suicide rates in Switzerland and most other countries are higher among the elderly than among the population as a whole. Suicidality in the old age is commonly associated with the presence of a mental disorder, especially depression. Medical doctors in primary healthcare have outstanding prominence in detecting suicidal states within elderly patients, because of their common long-standing and confidential relationship and the fact that suicidality is often concealed behind somatisation or other medical complaints. A new practical approach called PRISM-S task enables an assessment of the degree of suicidality in less than five minutes with a simple, visual instrument. Besides the importance of public mental health measures PRISM-S offers a brief, easy-to-administer method for all healthcare professionals to assess suicidality in adult patients (18-65 years). Further investigation will explore its specific usefulness for elderly patients (over 65 years).

  5. Gender and suicide in India: a multiperspective approach.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, M; Seshadri, S; Raj, A

    1998-01-01

    The gap between male and female suicide rates in India is relatively small. However, society's views on female and male motives are quite different. In order to investigate the perceptions of male and female suicide, we interviewed a focus group of university professors as well as police inspectors, crime reporters, and hospital nurses in Bangalore. We also obtained four narratives of suicide. Women tended to be blamed for their own or their husband's suicide, although they were also viewed more often as victims of life adversities than men. A historical review illustrates that both men and women have been associated with culturally sanctioned suicides. One known form is sati, and we discuss the recent case of sati-murder of Roop Kanwar in 1987. The social sciences and the media also pay a lot of attention to the typical female suicides, symbolizing their role as martyrs of society, which seems to compensate for attribution of blame.

  6. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  7. Suicide: a 15-year review of the sociological literature. Part I: cultural and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Cultural and economic patterns from 130 sociological works on suicide from 1981 to 1995 are reviewed in this article. The traditional Durkheimian perspective on suicide was often questioned by research on the impact of the mass media, alcohol, class, modernization, religion, and politics. Major theoretical developments included the application of differential identification theory to Phillips's model of copycat suicide, the application of criminology's opportunity theory to suicide, and new explanations for the link between alcohol and the social suicide rate. Explanations are reviewed for the major new suicide trend: after half a century of convergence, male and female suicide rates are diverging. Finally, the review notes patterns of continued stability in suicide research findings in areas such as racial differences and economic strain. PMID:10888055

  8. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities.

  9. Questions of culture, age and gender in the epidemiology of suicide.

    PubMed

    Webster Rudmin, Floyd; Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Skolbekken, John-Arne

    2003-09-01

    Cultural values were examined as predictors of suicide incidence rates compiled for men and women in six age groups for 33 nations for the years 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Hofstede's cultural values of Power-Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity (i.e., social indifference) were negative correlates of reported suicide, and Individualism was a strong positive correlate. The proportion of variance in suicide reports generally related to these four cultural values was R2 = 0.25. Suicide by women and by middle-aged people was most related to cultural values, even though international variance in suicide is greater for men and for the elderly. Suicide incidence for girls and young women showed unique negative correlations with Individualism. For all age groups, Individualism predicted a greater preponderance of male suicides, and Power-Distance predicted more similar male and female suicide rates. Social alienation and Gilligan's feminist theory of moral judgment were hypothesized to explain some gender differences.

  10. Further considerations on suicides among union forces during the U.S. Civil War.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey A; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    In their thoughtful commentary McCutcheon et al. (2013) remind us that caution is warranted in interpreting military suicide data, in part due to the possible political, leadership, and morale pressures to disguise suicides that may have existed during the U.S. Civil War. While we agree generally, we offer further considerations on suicides among Union forces during the war. We discuss the integrity of the data source, the ratio of homicides to suicides, contemporaneous journalistic accounts regarding cultural acceptance of suicide, seasonal variations in suicides, and Dyer's Compendium. All of these points suggest support for our initial argument that suicide rates during the U.S. Civil War were much lower than modern U.S. military suicide rates. We agree with McCutcheon et al. that geography and history remind us there is good reasons to be optimistic that the psychological consequences of war are not inevitably devastating to all those who serve.

  11. Further considerations on suicides among union forces during the U.S. Civil War.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey A; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    In their thoughtful commentary McCutcheon et al. (2013) remind us that caution is warranted in interpreting military suicide data, in part due to the possible political, leadership, and morale pressures to disguise suicides that may have existed during the U.S. Civil War. While we agree generally, we offer further considerations on suicides among Union forces during the war. We discuss the integrity of the data source, the ratio of homicides to suicides, contemporaneous journalistic accounts regarding cultural acceptance of suicide, seasonal variations in suicides, and Dyer's Compendium. All of these points suggest support for our initial argument that suicide rates during the U.S. Civil War were much lower than modern U.S. military suicide rates. We agree with McCutcheon et al. that geography and history remind us there is good reasons to be optimistic that the psychological consequences of war are not inevitably devastating to all those who serve. PMID:23489966

  12. Suicide: a 15-year review of the sociological literature. Part I: cultural and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Cultural and economic patterns from 130 sociological works on suicide from 1981 to 1995 are reviewed in this article. The traditional Durkheimian perspective on suicide was often questioned by research on the impact of the mass media, alcohol, class, modernization, religion, and politics. Major theoretical developments included the application of differential identification theory to Phillips's model of copycat suicide, the application of criminology's opportunity theory to suicide, and new explanations for the link between alcohol and the social suicide rate. Explanations are reviewed for the major new suicide trend: after half a century of convergence, male and female suicide rates are diverging. Finally, the review notes patterns of continued stability in suicide research findings in areas such as racial differences and economic strain.

  13. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  14. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  15. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  16. Duration of suicide process among suicide attempters and characteristics of those providing window of opportunity for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Menon, Vikas; Muthuramalingam, Avin; Nancy, Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited cross-cultural literature on the duration of suicide process among attempters. Aims: The primary aim was to assess the duration of suicide process among suicide attempters attending the Crisis Intervention Clinic. We also aimed to identify the characteristics of those who reported a longer duration for this process. Methods: In this retrospective record-based study, we collected the duration of the suicidal process from the records of all the suicide attempters evaluated over a 3-year period (n = 319). Attempters were divided into four groups based on the quartile value of the duration of the suicidal process. For analysis, the characteristics of those in the last quartile with suicide process time of >120 min (n = 75) were compared with those in the first three (n = 244). Those in the last quartile were considered to provide a window of opportunity for intervention. Results: The median time for the suicidal process was 30 min (interquartile range of 5 min to 120 min). Seventy-five (23.5%) subjects belonged to the fourth quartile (duration of suicide process >120 min). A significant proportion of them came from urban areas (P = 0.011), had a diagnosis of mood disorder (P = 0.028), had visited a health professional in the recent past (P = 0.015), and had lower rates of attempt under intoxication (P = 0.005). A lesser proportion of them showed problem-focused disengagement style of coping strategy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: The suicide process time among Indian suicide attempters is short. However, a quarter of them has suicide process duration of 2 h which provides some scope for intervention. Individual and community level interventions need further evaluation for their potential efficacy in preventing the progress of the suicidal process. PMID:27695238

  17. Duration of suicide process among suicide attempters and characteristics of those providing window of opportunity for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Menon, Vikas; Muthuramalingam, Avin; Nancy, Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited cross-cultural literature on the duration of suicide process among attempters. Aims: The primary aim was to assess the duration of suicide process among suicide attempters attending the Crisis Intervention Clinic. We also aimed to identify the characteristics of those who reported a longer duration for this process. Methods: In this retrospective record-based study, we collected the duration of the suicidal process from the records of all the suicide attempters evaluated over a 3-year period (n = 319). Attempters were divided into four groups based on the quartile value of the duration of the suicidal process. For analysis, the characteristics of those in the last quartile with suicide process time of >120 min (n = 75) were compared with those in the first three (n = 244). Those in the last quartile were considered to provide a window of opportunity for intervention. Results: The median time for the suicidal process was 30 min (interquartile range of 5 min to 120 min). Seventy-five (23.5%) subjects belonged to the fourth quartile (duration of suicide process >120 min). A significant proportion of them came from urban areas (P = 0.011), had a diagnosis of mood disorder (P = 0.028), had visited a health professional in the recent past (P = 0.015), and had lower rates of attempt under intoxication (P = 0.005). A lesser proportion of them showed problem-focused disengagement style of coping strategy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: The suicide process time among Indian suicide attempters is short. However, a quarter of them has suicide process duration of 2 h which provides some scope for intervention. Individual and community level interventions need further evaluation for their potential efficacy in preventing the progress of the suicidal process.

  18. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Oliver; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Kapur, Navneet

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to

  19. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  20. State-level social capital and suicide mortality in the 50 U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan Daniel Lucia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether state levels of social capital are associated with rates of completed suicides in the fifty U.S. states. To do this we regressed state-level suicide rates on an index of social capital, along with other variables known to influence suicide rates such as gun ownership, income inequality, alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse and dependence, serious mental illness, unemployment, percent of population living in urban areas, poverty, population instability, and living in a "suicide belt" state. Suicide rates were aggregated from 1999 to 2002, and examined separately by sex and different race/ethnic groups. The results showed that White men and women in states with higher levels of social capital had significantly lower rates of suicide when controlling for the other influential variables. When we examined sub-dimensions of social capital, we found that community organizations (for White women) and group membership (for White men) were particularly strongly associated with lower suicide risk.

  1. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Okan Ibiloglu, Aslihan; Atli, Abdullah; Demir, Suleyman; Gunes, Mehmet; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bulut, Mahmut; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of suicide in the family, history of stressful life events in the previous 6 months, poor income, unemployment, sleep disturbances, severe hopelessness with depression, and coexisting symptoms of anxiety as risk factors

  2. Disentangling the person and the place as explanations for regional differences in suicide.

    PubMed

    Shrira, Ilan; Christenfeld, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Identifying whether suicides in a region are due to characteristics of the residents living there or to some enduring feature of the region is difficult when using cross-sectional studies. To distinguish these factors, we compared the suicides of a region's residents with people who were temporarily visiting the region. Using U.S. death records from 1973-2004, we focused on states with the highest and lowest suicide rates over this period. The high suicide region consisted of Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming; the low suicide region consisted of Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. For each region, we considered three groups of decedents: residents who died inside the region, residents who died outside the region, and visitors to the region. Proportionate mortality ratios were calculated for all suicides and separately for firearm suicides. In the high suicide region, visitors to and residents away from the region both had elevated suicide levels, to about the same extent as residents dying inside the region. Therefore, short-term exposure to the region and being a resident of the region each predicted suicide. In the low suicide region, the suicides of residents at home were reduced, but their suicides rose dramatically once they left the area. There was no decrease in suicides among visitors to the region. Firearm use was related to the suicide levels of each region. Overall, the results suggest that both the available means to commit suicide and the contextual features of the regions contributed to their extreme suicides. We discuss how an examination of visitors can help researchers generate novel inferences about the causes of suicide.

  3. Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

  4. Factors Associated with Suicide Ideation in Severely Obese Bariatric Surgery-Seeking Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Eunice Y.; Fettich, Karla C.; Tierney, Megan; Cummings, Hakeemah; Berona, Johnny; Weissman, Jessica; Ward, Amanda; Christensen, Kara; Southward, Matthew; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Mitchell, James; Coccaro, Emil

    2012-01-01

    There are high rates of suicide ideation and/or behavior in severely obese individuals. The potential contributors to suicide ideation in a sample of 334 severely obese bariatric surgery candidates was explored. Lack of college education, a history of suicide ideation and/or behavior, psychological distress, hopelessness, loneliness, history of…

  5. Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Despair: Identifying the Precursors to Indian Youth Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy; Tomren, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Discusses suicide among American Indian youth. Examines Indian youth suicide rates, general characteristics of Indian suicides, behavioral characteristics and environmental stresses, guidelines for planning interventions, the use of American Indian culture to engage at-risk youth, and the high risk status of Indian foster children in non-Indian…

  6. Modernization and the Male?Female Suicide Ratio in India 1967?1997: Divergence or Convergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Della M.; Mayer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The traditional view that modernization is likely to increase male vulnerability to suicide while protecting females from such self-destruction was offered by Durkheim (1951). This implies a theory of divergence of suicide rates such that the male?female suicide ratio should increase with modernization. Contemporary researchers have questioned…

  7. Screening for Depression and Thoughts of Suicide: A Tool for Use in Alaska's Village Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    Depression occurs at a significant rate in the U.S. population. Untreated depressive symptoms are a primary risk factor for suicide. Studies show that a significant percentage of individuals who commit suicide had visited their health care providers in the months before their deaths. Alaska ranks number one in the nation for suicide. Routine…

  8. Recent Suicidal Ideation among Patients in an Inner City Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Chermack, Steve T.; De Chavez, Peter; Blow, Frederic C.

    2009-01-01

    The rates and associated features of suicidal ideation among 5,641 patients seeking routine, nonsuicide related care in an inner-city emergency department were examined. Approximately 8% of patients seeking routine care in the emergency department reported some form of suicidal ideation within the past 2 weeks. Suicidal ideation was common in…

  9. Developmental Aspects of Suicidal Behavior in Children and Developmentally Delayed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gabrielle A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depression rates, IQ, knowledge of the finality of death, exposure to suicidal behavior and knowledge of suicide methods. Found that the effect of these factors differed between suicidal and nonsuicidal psychiatrically hospitalized children and developmentally delayed adolescents. Also found that the factors had…

  10. The Impact of Fictional Television Films on Teenage Suicide, 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Examining National Center for Health statistics, questions whether fictional television accounts of teenage suicide affect the teenage suicide rate. Assesses four films about teenage suicide, nationally televised in 1984 and 1985. Accounts for holiday and temporal effects, television new stories, and large city influences. Finds that the films did…

  11. High School Youth and Suicide Risk: Exploring Protection Afforded through Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…

  12. The Missing Piece: A Sociological Autopsy of Firearm Suicide in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Greta Yoder

    2011-01-01

    Social, economic, violence, political, and gun access predictors of suicide and gun suicide were examined via sociological autopsy. The model predicting suicide rates overall had the best results, X[superscript 2](9, N = 50) = 5.279 (CMIN, the goodness of fit statistic that represents the minimum discrepancy between the unrestricted sample…

  13. Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

  14. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Rafful, Claudia; Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is the eleventh cause of death in the US. This rate varies across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the US in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The goal of this report is to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the US. Methods Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for life-time suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15,180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, a group of cross-sectional surveys. Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%), and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and slightly less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US-born, but equalized over time after migration. Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are partly explained by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the US. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. PMID:22030006

  15. Suicide among Polish officers during World War II in Oflag II-C Woldenberg.

    PubMed

    Czabański, Adam; Lester, David

    2013-06-01

    Although scholars have examined the occurrence of suicide in the concentration camps during World War Two, little has appeared on suicide in prisoner-of-war camps. The present note presents an attempt to document the occurrence of suicide in the Oflag II-C Woldenberg camp in what is now Western Poland, and estimates a suicide rate of between 22.4 to 38.4 per 100,000 per year in the roughly 6,600 prisoners.

  16. PREVENTION OF SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A. E.

    1954-01-01

    Suicide is the ninth major cause of death in the nation. California, according to the latest comprehensive figures (1949), ranks about 50 per cent above the national average. Yet the importance of suicide as a cause of death is gravely underestimated. At hospitals and other agencies only emergency treatment is given before discharge of persons who attempt suicide, although it is known that many will repeat the attempt. Rarely is psychiatric evaluation carried out or definitive treatment prescribed. Suicidal symptoms are often ignored in other cases. Physicians have a responsibility, as in any disorder, to recognize signs and symptoms of impending suicide and to use all means of prevention. Prevention could be forwarded by the education of physicians and laymen in detecting early signs of depression, in recognizing accident proneness, and in insisting upon legal control of use of barbiturates, a common means of suicide. Lay associations should encourage individuals with suicidal impulses to go to psychiatric clinics for help. Police should learn how to deal with suicidal attempts, and hospitals should include psychiatric examination and advice as to treatment of all such persons. Suicidal attempts should be registered and reported to public health officers in the same way as are other dangerous diseases. More research should be done on case records of these patients, in order to better understand motivations and means of prevention. PMID:13209373

  17. Psychological models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  18. Recent Advances in Means Safety as a Suicide Prevention Strategy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyejin M; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in theory and the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments, the United States suicide rate has been rising continuously for over a decade. Although this does not indicate that traditional treatment approaches should be abandoned, it does highlight the need to supplement such approaches with alternatives. One seemingly highly valuable option is means safety, defined as the reduced access to and/or increased safe storage of potentially lethal methods for suicide. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the prevalence of six methods for suicide and preventative efforts aimed to reduce suicide rates. The majority of means safety interventions seem promising given that these methods are common and highly lethal. However, cultural and practical barriers will need to be taken into consideration when implementing these plans. Overall, means safety efforts and preventative measures seem to be promising ways to reduce the national suicide rate if implemented. PMID:27629355

  19. Antidepressant drug use & the risk of suicide.

    PubMed

    Healy, David; Aldred, Graham

    2005-06-01

    There have been longstanding concerns about the propensity of antidepressants to precipitate suicidality in vulnerable individuals. To investigate this further, first we have analyzed all clinical trials, and in particular trials submitted to regulators for evidence on the relative risk of antidepressants versus placebo for this hazard. Second, we have compiled current epidemiological evidence germane to the issue. Third, we have constructed a model (Investigative Medication Routine; IMR) to shed light on the interactions between drug uptake, patient numbers on treatment and suicidal events. The clinical trial data gives rise to a relative risk of suicide on antidepressants over placebo of the order of a 2.0-2.5 times greater risk with treatment. These figures are supported by epidemiological findings. Investigative Medication Routine translates such findings into estimates of likely adverse outcomes, and explains why apparently increasing consumption of antidepressants would not be expected to lead to increased national suicide rates. From this data, we conclude that there is a clear signal that suicides and suicidal acts may be linked to antidepressant usage. It would seem likely that explicit warnings and monitoring in the early stages of treatment could greatly minimize these hazards. PMID:16194787

  20. Suicide Prevention. A Guide to Curriculum Planning. Bulletin No. 0500.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide is intended to reduce the youth suicide rate by teaching decision-making skills and coping mechanisms, and helping students develop self-esteem and communication skills. It was designed to be used by a local suicide prevention curriculum committee or team responsible for the development, implementation, and evaluation of the local…