Science.gov

Sample records for age-adjusted suicide rates

  1. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  2. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  3. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  4. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  5. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  6. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  7. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for males aged 15-44 years was 10% lower in 2014 (156.6 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (174.1). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates for three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 17.1 to 12.8; 25% decline), heart disease (20.1 to 17.0; 15% decline), and homicide (15.7 to 13.8; 12% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: suicide (20.1 to 22.5; 12% increase), and unintentional injuries (from 48.7 to 51.0; 5% increase). PMID:27513718

  8. Contribution of Imitative Suicide to the Suicide Rate in Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Nigel; Keane, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Suicide rates in prisons are high. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of imitative suicide to the prison suicide rate. We used Knox tests for space-time clustering in a case register of natural and self-inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales and model simulations to estimate the effect size. We found significant space-time…

  9. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  10. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  11. Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates Among US Men and Women, 1981–2013

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between state-level firearm ownership rates and gender-specific, age-adjusted firearm and total suicide rates across all 50 US states from 1981 to 2013. Methods. We used panel data for all 50 states that included annual overall and gender-specific suicide and firearm suicide rates and a proxy for state-level household firearm ownership. We analyzed data by using linear regression and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Results. State-level firearm ownership was associated with an increase in both male and female firearm-related suicide rates and with a decrease in nonfirearm-related suicide rates. Higher gun ownership was associated with higher suicide rates by any means among male, but not among female, persons. Conclusions. We found a strong relationship between state-level firearm ownership and firearm suicide rates among both genders, and a relationship between firearm ownership and suicides by any means among male, but not female, individuals. Policy implications. For male persons, policies that reduce firearm ownership will likely reduce suicides by all means and by firearms. For female persons, such policies will likely reduce suicides by firearms. PMID:27196643

  12. Jobs with the Highest Suicide Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159646.html Jobs With the Highest Suicide Rates Farmers, fishermen and ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Can the type of job you choose affect your risk of suicide? Possibly, ...

  13. Jobs with the Highest Suicide Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... than-normal rates of suicide included construction and extraction, with 53 suicides per 100,000; and installation, ... damage their neurological systems. That might contribute to memory loss and depression, the researchers suggested. Men working ...

  14. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  15. Temporal Variation in Irish Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Paul; Reilly, Marie; Salim, Agus; Brennan, Aline; Keeley, Helen S.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2004-01-01

    Using Irish suicide data for the period 1990?1998, the independent effects of month and day adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year effects and distinguishing between holiday and working Mondays were assessed. The male suicide rate was significantly higher on working Mondays (+31%) and Saturdays (+14%), and during April, June, and August…

  16. Lyrics of national anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-08-01

    The suicide rates of 18 European nations were associated with the proportion of sad words in the lyrics of their national anthems as well as the gloominess of the music. It is suggested that a possible suicide prevention tactic might involve changing the music and lyrics of national anthems. PMID:22049655

  17. Black youth suicide: literature review with a focus on prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The national rates of completed suicide in the black population between 1950 and 1981 are presented, including age-adjusted rates. Specific studies of black suicide attempters and completed suicides by blacks in several cities are discussed. Methodological problems with existing studies and national suicide statistics are presented. Proposed theories of black suicide are reviewed. Based on a summary of the characteristics of black suicide attempters reported by the literature, preventive strategies--primary, secondary, and tertiary--are presented. PMID:2204709

  18. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  19. Heart rate variability and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott T; Chesin, Megan; Fertuck, Eric; Keilp, John; Brodsky, Beth; Mann, J John; Sönmez, Cemile Ceren; Benjamin-Phillips, Christopher; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-06-30

    Identification of biological indicators of suicide risk is important given advantages of biomarker-based models. Decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) may be a biomarker of suicide risk. The aim of this research was to determine whether HF HRV differs between suicide attempters and non-attempters. Using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we compared HF HRV between females with and without a history of suicide attempt, all with a lifetime diagnosis of a mood disorder. To investigate a potential mechanism explaining association between HF HRV and suicide, we examined the association between self-reported anger and HF HRV. Results of an Area under the Curve (AUC) analysis showed attempters had a lower cumulative HF HRV during the TSST than non-attempters. In addition, while there was no difference in self-reported anger at baseline, the increase in anger was greater in attempters, and negatively associated with HF HRV. Results suggest that suicide attempters have a reduced capacity to regulate their response to stress, and that reduced capacity to regulate anger may be a mechanism through which decreased HF HRV can lead to an increase in suicide risk. Our results have implications for the prevention of suicidal behavior in at-risk populations. PMID:27124209

  20. Why Has the Continuous Decline in German Suicide Rates Stopped in 2007?

    PubMed Central

    Doganay, Gülcihan; Reschke, Konrad; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. Methods Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998–2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time (“joinpoint”) at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. Results The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides) (annual percentage change (APC) ≤ −4.33), drowning (APC ≤ −2.73), hanging (APC ≤ −2.69) and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ −1.46) in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007–2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs) and “being overrun” (APC ≥ 1.50) contributed to this trend. Limitations The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. Conclusions Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for “being overrun” and “self-poisoning”. Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend. PMID:23967225

  1. Occupational differences in US Army suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.; Stein, M. B.; Bliese, P. D.; Bromet, E. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gilman, S. E.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Millikan-Bell, A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rosellini, A. J.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Ursano, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Civilian suicide rates vary by occupation in ways related to occupational stress exposure. Comparable military research finds suicide rates elevated in combat arms occupations. However, no research has evaluated variation in this pattern by deployment history, the indicator of occupation stress widely considered responsible for the recent rise in the military suicide rate. Method The joint associations of Army occupation and deployment history in predicting suicides were analysed in an administrative dataset for the 729 337 male enlisted Regular Army soldiers in the US Army between 2004 and 2009. Results There were 496 suicides over the study period (22.4/100 000 person-years). Only two occupational categories, both in combat arms, had significantly elevated suicide rates: infantrymen (37.2/100 000 person-years) and combat engineers (38.2/100 000 person-years). However, the suicide rates in these two categories were significantly lower when currently deployed (30.6/100 000 person-years) than never deployed or previously deployed (41.2–39.1/100 000 person-years), whereas the suicide rate of other soldiers was significantly higher when currently deployed and previously deployed (20.2–22.4/100 000 person-years) than never deployed (14.5/100 000 person-years), resulting in the adjusted suicide rate of infantrymen and combat engineers being most elevated when never deployed [odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.1], less so when previously deployed (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), and not at all when currently deployed (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8–1.8). Adjustment for a differential ‘healthy warrior effect’ cannot explain this variation in the relative suicide rates of never-deployed infantrymen and combat engineers by deployment status. Conclusions Efforts are needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying this interaction to guide preventive interventions for soldiers at high suicide risk. PMID:26190760

  2. Suicide in Texas: A Cohort Analysis of Trends in Suicide Rates, 1945-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Linda; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used cohort method of analysis to examine teenage suicide in Texas. Beginning with suicide rates for white males aged 15-19 in 1945, suicide rates were calculated and plotted for five-year age cohorts entering late teenage years. Analysis confirmed rising risk factor associated with age group. Cohort patterns for suicide revealed recent…

  3. Gauging Media Influence on Adolescent Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Darren; McCabe, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" published by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that in 2004, suicide was the third leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year olds and accounted for 4,599 deaths. From 2003 to 2004, suicide rates of females age 10-14 years and 15-19 years and males age 15-19 years increased significantly.…

  4. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. Methods: In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the…

  5. Changes in Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates and Disparities for Rural Physician Shortage Areas Staffed by the National Health Service Corps: 1984-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathman, Donald E.; Fryer, George E.; Green, Larry A.; Phillips, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses whether the National Health Service Corps's legislated goals to see health improve and health disparities lessen are being met in rural health professional shortage areas for a key population health indicator: age-adjusted mortality. In a descriptive study using a pre-post design with comparison groups, the authors calculated…

  6. Characteristics of Suicide from 1998-2001 in a Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xun; Hackworth, Jodi; McCabe, Heather; Lovett, Lori; Aumage, John; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    In order to establish effective suicide preventive programs, it is important to know the etiologic factors and causal relationships between suicide and behavior. Coroner data was analyzed for the 468 suicides that occurred in Indianapolis, Indiana during 1998-2001. The age-adjusted suicide rate was 14.08 per 100,000. Almost one-half of the victims…

  7. Comparison of suicide rates among industrial groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Waterbor, J W

    1994-02-01

    Suicide rates among industrial groups were examined systematically using death certificate data from 1984 through 1989 in Alabama. Poisson log-linear modelling was used to estimate the rate ratios (RR) of industries compared to a referent and to adjust for confounding. Marked differences in suicide rates were found among industrial groups. The rates ranged from 5.31 to 62.36 per 100,000 population per year. People employed in public administration had the lowest rate. In comparison with public administration, the construction industry had the highest risk (adjusted RR = 11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.6-14.6). Employees of the mining industry experienced a similarly high risk (adjusted RR = 11.5, 95% CI: 8.2-16.3). Persons employed in farming, agriculture services, forestry, and fisheries, manufacturing, and transportation, communications, and other public utilities industries had intermediate risks. Smaller elevations of suicide rates compared to public administration were observed in the wholesale trade, retail trade, finance, insurance, and real estate, and services industries. The differences of suicide rates may be related to sociodemographic differences, self-selection for occupation, ease of access to lethal agents, or job stress. PMID:8147392

  8. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  9. Suicide epidemics: the impact of newly emerging methods on overall suicide rates - a time trends study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The impact of newly emerging, popular suicide methods on overall rates of suicide has not previously been investigated systematically. Understanding these effects may have important implications for public health surveillance. We examine the emergence of three novel methods of suicide by gassing in the 20th and 21st centuries and determine the impact of emerging methods on overall suicide rates. Methods We studied the epidemic rises in domestic coal gas (1919-1935, England and Wales), motor vehicle exhaust gas (1975-1992, England and Wales) and barbecue charcoal gas (1999-2006, Taiwan) suicide using Poisson and joinpoint regression models. Joinpoint regression uses contiguous linear segments and join points (points at which trends change) to describe trends in incidence. Results Epidemic increases in the use of new methods of suicide were generally associated with rises in overall suicide rates of between 23% and 71%. The recent epidemic of barbecue charcoal suicides in Taiwan was associated with the largest rise in overall rates (40-50% annual rise), whereas the smallest rise was seen for car exhaust gassing in England and Wales (7% annual rise). Joinpoint analyses were only feasible for car exhaust and charcoal burning suicides; these suggested an impact of the emergence of car exhaust suicides on overall suicide rates in both sexes in England and Wales. However there was no statistical evidence of a change in the already increasing overall suicide trends when charcoal burning suicides emerged in Taiwan, possibly due to the concurrent economic recession. Conclusions Rapid rises in the use of new sources of gas for suicide were generally associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Suicide prevention strategies should include strengthening local and national surveillance for early detection of novel suicide methods and implementation of effective media guidelines and other appropriate interventions to limit the spread of new methods. PMID

  10. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  11. Suicide Rates by Occupational Group - 17 States, 2012.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Wendy LiKamWa; Spies, Erica; Stone, Deborah M; Lokey, Colby N; Trudeau, Aimée-Rika T; Bartholow, Brad

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, approximately 40,000 suicides were reported in the United States, making suicide the 10th leading reported cause of death for persons aged ≥16 years (1). From 2000 to 2012, rates of suicide among persons in this age group increased 21.1%, from 13.3 per 100,000 to 16.1 (1). To inform suicide prevention efforts, CDC analyzed suicide by occupational group, by ascribing occupational codes to 12,312 suicides in 17 states in 2012 from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) (2). The frequency of suicide in different occupational groups was examined, and rates of suicide were calculated by sex and age group for these categories. Persons working in the farming, fishing, and forestry group had the highest rate of suicide overall (84.5 per 100,000 population) and among males (90.5); the highest rates of suicide among females occurred among those working in protective service occupations (14.1). Overall, the lowest rate of suicide (7.5) was found in the education, training, and library occupational group. Suicide prevention approaches directed toward persons aged ≥16 years that enhance social support, community connectedness, access to preventive services, and the reduction of stigma and barriers to help-seeking are needed. PMID:27359167

  12. Female independence in Portugal: effect on suicide rates.

    PubMed

    de Castro, E F; Pimenta, F; Martins, I

    1988-08-01

    The greater incidence of suicide among males could be ascribed to the distinct roles still attributed to each sex. Progress towards female independence could reduce this different incidence. We analysed the following in Portugal: male and female suicide rates; profiles; and male/female suicide ratio before (1955-1969) and after the development of a movement for women's independence (1970-85). Concomitant with progress towards female independence there is a significant rise in female suicide and a decrease in male/female suicide ratio. The highest rates are among professional/technical women living in urban areas. In professional groups there is significant correlation between deaths caused by suicide and by liver cirrhosis. It is concluded that alcoholism often leads to suicide; in women, taboos about alcoholism and suicide explain a higher incidence of suicide among culturally freer professional groups; female independence will catalyse a rise in alcoholism, which together with other factors resulting from that independence will lead to a predictable increase of suicide among Portuguese women and a reduced difference in rates of suicide between the sexes. PMID:3265573

  13. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-04-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates. PMID:27051245

  14. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates. PMID:27051245

  15. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2006-01-01

    Background It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Methods Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931 – 1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. Results The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15–24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25–34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. Conclusion All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the

  16. An analysis of the effects of suicide prevention facilities on suicide rates in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, H L; Coombs, D W; Leeper, J D; Barton, S N

    1984-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been a massive effort to reduce suicide mortality in the United States through prevention centers which invite suicidal persons to phone for supportive services. In spite of virtually total lack of evidence concerning the efficacy of these services, they proliferated until, by 1973, nearly every metropolitan area in the United States had at least one. Suicide rates increased slightly throughout this time. We studied 1968 through 1973, the years of greatest growth of suicide prevention facilities, comparing suicide rates in counties that added these centers with counties that did not do so. An association of centers with the reduction of suicides in young white females emerged. This finding was replicated on a different set of counties for a different time span. The results are discussed in light of the fact that this group constitutes the major clients of these centers. PMID:6703161

  17. A Re-Examination of the Suicide Rates in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hwei-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chiao

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the suicide rates of 23 cities and counties in Taiwan from 1983 to 2001. We found that a combination of economic and social variables can significantly account for the tremendous variations in suicide rates across Taiwan's cities and counties over the last two decades. The level of income per capita in a region appears as the…

  18. Suicide Rates in Aboriginal Communities in Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659

  19. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AGE-ADJUSTED MORTALITY RATES FOR WHITE MALES AND FEMALES IN THE UNITED STATES BY COUNTY, 1968-1972

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intercorrelations among county mortality rates for about 50 causes of death were investigated for white males (WM) and white females (WF) for the 5-year period between 1968 and 1972. All possible pairwise correlations (1128 for WM and 1275 for WF) were calculated; those correlati...

  20. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America.

    PubMed

    Graafsma, T; Kerkhof, A; Gibson, D; Badloe, R; van de Beek, L M

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years 2000-2004. Particularly remarkable is the high number of attempted suicides among males (49%), and the use of pesticides in both fatal (55%) and nonfatal suicidal behavior (44%). Probably this high incidence of suicidal behavior reflects the very poor economic situation of the district, poverty of most of the population, high levels of alcohol misuse, domestic violence, the rigidity of Hindustani culture regarding family traditions, the accessibility of pesticides, and the lack of future perspectives. Health care alone will not be sufficient to tackle this problem. One of the most urgent measures to prevent suicides is to stow away pesticides in locked cabinets with the key held by the proprietor. PMID:16913329

  1. Economic conditions and suicide rates in New York City.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arijit; Prescott, Marta R; Cerdá, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Galea, Sandro

    2012-03-15

    Extant analyses of the relation between economic conditions and population health were often based on annualized data and were susceptible to confounding by nonlinear time trends. In the present study, the authors used generalized additive models with nonparametric smoothing splines to examine the association between economic conditions, including levels of economic activity in New York State and the degree of volatility in the New York Stock Exchange, and monthly rates of death by suicide in New York City. The rate of suicide declined linearly from 8.1 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 4.8 per 100,000 people in 1999 and then remained stable from 1999 to 2006. In a generalized additive model in which the authors accounted for long-term and seasonal time trends, there was a negative association between monthly levels of economic activity and rates of suicide; the predicted rate of suicide was 0.12 per 100,000 persons lower when economic activity was at its peak compared with when it was at its nadir. The relation between economic activity and suicide differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Stock market volatility was not associated with suicide rates. Further work is needed to elucidate pathways that link economic conditions and suicide. PMID:22362583

  2. Economic Conditions and Suicide Rates in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arijit; Prescott, Marta R.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Extant analyses of the relation between economic conditions and population health were often based on annualized data and were susceptible to confounding by nonlinear time trends. In the present study, the authors used generalized additive models with nonparametric smoothing splines to examine the association between economic conditions, including levels of economic activity in New York State and the degree of volatility in the New York Stock Exchange, and monthly rates of death by suicide in New York City. The rate of suicide declined linearly from 8.1 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 4.8 per 100,000 people in 1999 and then remained stable from 1999 to 2006. In a generalized additive model in which the authors accounted for long-term and seasonal time trends, there was a negative association between monthly levels of economic activity and rates of suicide; the predicted rate of suicide was 0.12 per 100,000 persons lower when economic activity was at its peak compared with when it was at its nadir. The relation between economic activity and suicide differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Stock market volatility was not associated with suicide rates. Further work is needed to elucidate pathways that link economic conditions and suicide. PMID:22362583

  3. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution. PMID:23362593

  4. Altitude, Gun Ownership, Rural Areas, and Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkug; Mickelson, Jennie B.; Brenner, Barry E.; Haws, Charlotte A.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors recently observed a correlation between state altitude and suicide rate in the United States, which could be explained by higher rates of gun ownership and lower population density in the intermountain West. The present study evaluated the relationship between mean county and state altitude in the United States and total age-adjusted suicide rates, firearm-related suicide rates, and non-firearm-related suicide rates. The authors hypothesized that altitude would be significantly associated with suicide rate. Method Elevation data were calculated with an approximate spatial resolution of 0.5 km, using zonal statistics on data sets compiled from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Suicide and population density data were obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database. Gun ownership data were obtained through the CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results A significant positive correlation was observed between age-adjusted suicide rate and county elevation (r=0.51). Firearm (r=0.41) and non-firearm suicide rates (r=0.32) were also positively correlated with mean county elevation. Conclusions When altitude, gun ownership, and population density are considered as predictor variables for suicide rates on a state basis, altitude appears to be a significant independent risk factor. This association may be related to the effects of metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders. PMID:20843869

  5. Suicide rates, national intelligence estimates, and differential K theory.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2009-12-01

    In a nation sample of 75 countries around the world, higher suicide rates of the total male, and female population corresponded to higher levels on the superordinate K factor from differential K theory, thought to reflect a set of mutually interrelated life history and reproductive strategy traits. Countries ranking high on suicide rates concurrently ranked high on national intelligence estimates, longevity, and affluence, whilst low on rates of births, infant mortality, HIV/AIDS, and crimes (rape, serious assault, and homicide). These findings integrate previously reported positive population-level associations between suicide rates and cognitive ability variables into the conceptual space of differential K theory. The propensity toward suicidal behavior is a positive correlate of the K superfactor. PMID:20178273

  6. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries. PMID:25660214

  7. National intelligence, suicide rate, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Across 73 countries around the world, national intelligence estimates predicted significant increments in the variance of male and female suicide rates over and above the predictive contributions of the cognitive and hedonic facets of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, and unhappiness). This new result adds to current evidence for cognitive ability as an ecologic (aggregate-level) correlate of suicide prevalence. PMID:20178270

  8. Lethality of Suicide Attempt Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)

  9. Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

    2006-01-01

    Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

  10. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and the Internet: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Internet Web sites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. There is a paucity of studies examining the role of the Internet in general population suicide rates. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the prevalence of Internet users was…

  11. Trends in Hanging and Firearm Suicide Rates in Australia: Substitution of Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Dwyer, Jonathan; Firman, David; Neulinger, Kerryn

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the increase in the rate of suicide by hanging and an apparently simultaneous decrease in the rate of suicide by firearm as hypothetical evidence that Australian males have substituted one method of suicide for another. Individual suicide method choice may be related to independent changes in the social acceptability of each…

  12. [Effect of the summer Olympic Games on Hungarian suicide rates].

    PubMed

    Bálint, Lajos; Osváth, Péter; Bozsonyi, Károly; Fekete, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    In our study, we set out to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between the count (raw rate) of suicides committed and the summer Olympic Games in such an achievement-oriented society like the Hungarian one, where summer Olympic Games receive extremely considerable attention. For our study, we examined the suicide cases occurring over 15706 days between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 2012 (43 years), separately for each gender. Because of the age-specific characteristics of suicide, the effect of the Olympic Games was analysed for the middle-aged (30-60 year-old) and the elderly (over 60 year-old) generations, as well as for the whole gender specific population. The role of the summer Olympic Games was examined with the help of time series intervention analysis after the cyclical and seasonal components have been removed. Based on our results, the effect of the Olympic Games is significant for the middle-aged (30-60 year-old) population. Neither in the older male, nor in any of the female age groups could a relationship between suicide and this sports event be detected. In summary, the Olympic Games seem to decrease the rate of suicide among middle-aged men slightly but significantly. In the interpretation of our results we emphasise the importance of the complex approach of suicidal behavior. PMID:25569825

  13. National intelligence, suicide rate in the elderly, and a threshold intelligence for suicidality: an ecological study of 48 Eurasian countries.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2005-11-01

    Across 85 countries around the world, Voracek (2004) found a significant positive relation between estimated national intelligence (IQ) and national male and female suicide rate. The relation was not attenuated when countries' per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and type of national IQ estimation were statistically controlled. Independently, investigating the total national suicide rate only, Lester (2003) arrived at the same conclusion. These two findings are consistent with a corollary of de Catanzaro's (1981) evolutionary theory of human suicide, namely that a threshold intelligence is necessary for suicidality and that intelligence and suicide mortality should thus be positively related. Here, further evidence for this hypothesis is bolstered by focusing on suicide rates of the elderly. Across 48 Eurasian countries, estimated national IQ was significantly positively related to national suicide rates of people aged 65 years and over. This new ecological-level finding survived statistical controlling for a set of seven variables (type of national IQ estimation, national GDP, stableness and recency measures for suicide rates, and rates of adult literacy, urbanization and Roman Catholics), which thus are not confounding factors for the relation of intelligence and suicide mortality. Based on ecological data, the threshold IQ for suicidality is predicted to be 70 or slightly over, an estimate that is consistent with various suicidological observations. PMID:16221322

  14. Women Chemists Mortality Study Finds High Suicide Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A study of white women members (N=347) of the American Chemical Society who died between 1925 and 1979 finds five times the expected rate of suicide, a higher risk for some forms of cancer, and a lower rate of heart disease. These and other findings are discussed. (JN)

  15. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  16. Paraquat Prohibition and Change in the Suicide Rate and Methods in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  17. [Suicide rates and mental health services in Greece].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O; Tsouvelas, G; Kontaxakis, V

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have shown that access to mental health services can have an impact on mental health outcomes, including the suicide rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between regional and prefecture suicide rates (suicides per 100.000 residents) and both the number of primary and mental health-care service providers and the number of mental health infrastructures in Greece. Data were taken mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.) and the Ministry of Health for the period 2002-2009. Spearman correlations were used to examine the relationship between primary health-care, mental health providers and suicide rates per 100,000 residents at the prefecture, administrative region and geographical region levels. Men showed significantly higher suicide rates than women (U=-7.20, p<0.001). For the period 2002-2009, the highest suicide rate at the prefecture level were in Rethymno (6.99), Rodopi (5.62) and Zakynthos (5.28). For the same period, the highest suicide rates at the geographical level were in Peloponnisos (4.01), Ionian Islands (4.03) and Grete (3.65). Increase in suicide rates (2009 vs 2002-2009) was observed in the following geographical regions of Greece: Crete (4.76 vs 3.65), Thrace (4.45 vs 2.02) Central Greece (3.61 vs 1.39) Aegean Islands (3.03 vs 1.28). The highest correlations between suiciderutes and health services at the geographic regional level were found to be during the period 2007-2009, where suicide rates showed a significant negative correlation with privately practicing psychiatrists (rho=-0.71, p<0.05), privately practicing psychologists (rho=-0.56, p<0.05), pathologists (rho=-0.73, p<0.01), and the number of the official mental health services (psychiatric clinics, day centers, mobile mental health units etc.) (rho=-0.73, p<0.01). In conclusion it was found that at all regional levels, suicide rates were reversely related to the number of primary health-care and mental health service providers, as

  18. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  19. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century. PMID:23118313

  20. Public Policies and Suicide Rates in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Patrick; Radcliff, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in the relationship between public policies and outcomes measuring quality of life. There is no outcome more final than the ending of one's own life. Accordingly, we test the relationship between public policy regimes and suicide rates in the American states. Controlling for other relevant factors (most notably a state's stock of…

  1. Completed suicide and suicide attempts in the Arab population in Israel.

    PubMed

    Brunstein Klomek, A; Nakash, O; Goldberger, N; Haklai, Z; Geraisy, N; Yatzkar, U; Birnai, A; Levav, I

    2016-06-01

    Completed suicide and suicide attempts among four Arab groups defined by religious affiliation in Israel: Bedouins, Muslims (other than Bedouin), Christians and Druze were investigated using national databases of suicide (1999-2011), and suicide attempts (2004-2012). Age specific and age-adjusted rates and ratio of suicides to suicidal behavior were calculated, and compared with the total Israeli population rates. Age-adjusted suicide rates were lowest among the non-Bedouin Muslims, 2.5, followed in ascending order by Bedouins, 3.2, and Christian Arabs, 3.3 per 100,000 population, respectively. The highest rate was found among the Druze, 8.7, per 100,000 population, particularly for young males. The rates among the Arab groups were lower than for the total Israeli population, 7.9 per 100,000 population, except for the Druze. The pattern of suicide rates by gender, higher for males than females, was similar in all groups. The rates among the Arab Israelis were highest for the 15-24 year old age group, while in the total population the rates increased with age. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were higher amongst non-Bedouin Muslims, 84.8 per 100,000 population, followed by the Bedouin, 72.4; Druze. 64.9; and lowest among Christian Arabs, 58.6, all per 100,000 population. In the total Israeli population, the rate was even higher, 89.8 per 100,000 population. Suicide attempt rates were higher for women in all groups, except among the Druze. Rates were higher in most groups for ages 15-24. In this age group, the rates for female Muslims and Bedouins and for male Druze were higher than among the total population. Arab elderly had low rates of both suicide and suicide attempts. The ratio of suicides to suicide attempts increased with age for all groups, except for the Christian Arabs. It was markedly higher for the Druze, compared to 7.3 % for the total population for ages 15 and over. Findings highlight the importance of investigating the differential distribution

  2. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  3. Suicide among Arab-Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Background Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress—two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. Methodology/Principal Findings ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC), the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12%) and women (16%). Conclusions/Significance Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans. PMID:21379577

  4. National Suicide Rates a Century after Durkheim: Do We Know Enough to Estimate Error?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Yip, Paul S.; Corcoran, Paul; Bossarte, Robert M.; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Currier, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Durkheim's nineteenth-century analysis of national suicide rates dismissed prior concerns about mortality data fidelity. Over the intervening century, however, evidence documenting various types of error in suicide data has only mounted, and surprising levels of such error continue to be routinely uncovered. Yet the annual suicide rate remains the…

  5. Effects of media reports and the subsequent voluntary withdrawal from sale of suicide-related products on the suicide rate in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Akihito; Abe, Takeru

    2012-04-01

    Media reports of suicides have an impact on suicide rates. However, countermeasures to this media effect have not been evaluated. We examined the association between media reports of suicides accomplished with the use of hydrogen sulfide, the voluntary stoppage of sales of suicide-related products, and suicide rates for people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s in Japan. The Box-Jenkins transfer function model was applied to monthly time series data from February 2003 to December 2009 (83 months). In the male suicide time series, media reports of suicide were not related to suicide counts (ω((R)) = 8.988, P = 0.694). Similarly, stopping the sale of bath salts was not related to the number of suicides (ω((S)) = -7.344, P = 0.694). However, in the female suicide time series, media reports of suicide were related to the number of suicides (ω((R)) = 17.225, P = 0.049). Similarly, stopping the sale of bath salts was related to the number of suicides (ω((S)) = -18.545, P = 0.040). The results suggest that stopping the sale of bath salts might be effective in reducing the number of copycat suicides among the women in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. In practice, stopping the sale of suicide-related products might be a potentially effective countermeasure to prevent copycat suicides triggered by media coverage of suicides. PMID:22139523

  6. Predictors of High Rates of Suicidal Ideation Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Cottler, Linda B.; Campbell, Wilbur; Krishna, V. A. S.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Ben Abdallah, Arbi

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to understand the link among substance abuse, depression, and suicidal ideation (SI). Assessment of this link is important to develop specific interventions for persons in substance abuse treatment. This association was tested among 990 drug users in and out of treatment with significant criminal justice histories from two National Institute on Drug Abuse studies. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule and Substance Abuse Module assessed DSM-III-R depression, number of depression criteria met, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and substance use disorders. Compared with men, women were twice as likely to report depression (24% vs. 12%), whereas men were nearly twice as likely to report ASPD (42% vs. 24%). High rates of SI were found, with women more likely than men to report thoughts of death (50% vs. 31%), wanting to die (39% vs. 21%), thoughts of committing suicide (47% vs. 33%), or attempting suicide (33% vs. 11%); 63% of women and 47% of men reported at least one of these suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Male and female ideators were more likely than nonideators to report depressed mood and to meet criteria for depression, ASPD, and alcohol use disorders. Male ideators were more likely than male nonideators to meet criteria for cocaine use disorders. Using logistic regression, SI among men was predicted by alcohol use disorder (OR = 1.60), ASPD (OR = 1.59), and number of depression criteria (OR = 9.38 for five criteria). Among women, SI was predicted by older age, marital status, alcohol use disorder (OR = 2.77), and number of depression criteria (OR = 9.12 for five criteria). These original findings point out the need to discuss suicidal thoughts among depressed drug users for early treatment and prevention. PMID:15985836

  7. Predictive Value of Baseline Electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (eC–SSRS) Assessments for Identifying Risk of Prospective Reports of Suicidal Behavior During Research Participation

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, James C.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Jefferson, James W.; Posner, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine the ability of baseline electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior categories to predict prospective reports of suicidal behavior in psychiatric and non-psychiatric research participants. Design: Meta-analysis of 74,406 eC-SSRS assessments completed between September 2009 and December 2012. Setting: Thirty-three clinical research studies that used the electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to assess suicidal ideation and behavior at baseline and prospectively during follow-up visits. Participants: Records from 6,760 patients with psychiatric disorders (opioid dependence, generalized anxiety, major depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorders) and 2,077 nonpsychiatric disorder patients (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy, fibromyalgia, human immunodeficiency virus, insomnia, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, pain/back pain, Parkinson’s disease, restless leg syndrome) were analyzed. Measurements: Electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale assessment of lifetime suicidal ideation (5 severity levels) and suicidal behavior (4 types) at baseline and prospectively reported suicidal behavior during study participation. Results: Increasingly more severe lifetime suicidal ideation at baseline was associated with a progressively greater likelihood of prospectively reported suicidal behavior during study participation. Intent to act on suicidal ideation was most predictive of reports of suicidal behavior. Reports of lifetime suicidal behaviors at baseline also predicted subsequent suicidal behavior, and multiple lifetime behaviors monotonically increased prospective risk of suicidal behavior. Baseline suicidal ideation and behavior predicted future suicidal behavior in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric trials. Conclusions: Lifetime reports of suicidal ideation and/or behavior at baseline significantly increased risk of prospectively reporting suicidal behavior during

  8. Certification Change versus Actual Behavior Change in Teenage Suicide Rates, 1955-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gist, Richard; Welch, Q. B.

    1989-01-01

    Examined national data on firearm suicides and accidental deaths for 15- through 19-year-olds from 1955-1979. Considered improved accuracy in determination and certification of suicide in equivocal firearm deaths, actual increases in rate of firearm suicides, or combination. Data support hypothesis of certification changes as primary factor…

  9. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... it's related to serious depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or a major stressful event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report more suicide attempts. If someone ...

  10. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  11. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  12. Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lethality of the suicide method employed is a strong risk factor for the completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates in South Korea, the United States (US), and Finland. Methods We analyzed annual data from 2000–2011 for South Korea and Finland, and 2000–2010 for the US in order to examine trends in the rates and methods of suicide. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Results Along with an annual rapid increase in suicide rates, the incidence of hanging increased steadily while suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased in South Korea. In the US, along with an annual increase in suicide rates, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased while those committed with the use of firearms steadily decreased. In Finland, annual changes in the suicide rate and suicide method were not statistically significant during the study period. Conclusions Our present findings suggest that the increased use of specific lethal methods for suicide, namely hanging, is reflected in the increased suicide rates in the Korean and the US populations. The most effective approach for reducing overall suicide rates may be the implementation of population-based initiatives that reduce both the accessibility (e.g., access to firearms) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of lethal methods of suicide. PMID:24949083

  13. Seasonal differences in suicide birth rate in Alaska Natives compared to other populations.

    PubMed

    Kettl, P A; Collins, T; Sredy, M; Bixler, E O

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal differences in suicide birth rates among Alaska Natives and for populations at different latitudes (residents of the Yukon, Saskatchewan, Montana, Wyoming, and Pennsylvania) were investigated. Seasonal birth rates for the general population were similarly examined. Suicide birth rates showed small seasonal variations for Alaska Natives with summer births showing more suicides. However, at lower latitudes, suicide birth rates among other populations showed no seasonal differences. Hours of daily sunlight at the summer and winter solstice correlated with the proportion of suicide victims born during those seasons. Seasonal differences in birth rates of suicide victims correlated strongly with latitude and seasonal differences in daylight. General population birth rates did not show significant seasonal differences, and did not correlate with differences in latitude or sunlight length at the summer or winter solstice. PMID:9458541

  14. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  15. The Home Foreclosure Crisis and Rising Suicide Rates, 2005 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Light, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between state-level foreclosure and suicide rates from 2005 to 2010 and considered variation in the effect of foreclosure on suicide by age. Methods. We used hybrid random- and fixed-effects models to examine the relation between state foreclosure rates and total and age-specific suicide rates from 2005 to 2010 (n = 306 state-years). Results. Net of other factors, an increase in the within-state total foreclosure rate was associated with a within-state increase in the crude suicide rates (b = 0.04; P < .1), and effects were stronger for the real estate–owned foreclosure rate (b = 0.16; P < .05). Analysis of age-specific suicide rates indicated that the effects were strongest among the middle-aged (46–64 years: total foreclosure rate, b = 0.21; P < .001; real estate–owned foreclosure rate, b = 0.83; P < .001). Rising home foreclosure rates explained 18% of the variance in the middle-aged suicide rate between 2005 and 2010. Conclusions. The foreclosure crisis has likely contributed to increased suicides, independent of other economic factors associated with the recession. Rising foreclosure rates may be partially responsible for the recent uptick in suicide among middle-aged adults. PMID:24825209

  16. The Connection between Macro and Micro Levels: States' Spending for Hospitals and Their Suicide Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed states' spending for hospitals and suicide rates in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1984. Found spending was not directly related to suicide rates until 1984 when it accounted for 5 percent increase in variance. Considered effects of divorce rates, and change, density, economic level, and racial composition of population. Discusses implications of…

  17. Suicide rates in 2009. Do the economy and wars have an effect?

    PubMed

    Lineberry, Timothy W

    2009-08-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that claims the lives of approximately 1 million people around the world each year. This article describes suicide rates in the United States and Minnesota and discusses potential effects of the economy on the rate, concerns regarding suicides in the Army, and what clinicians can do to make a difference in the lives of patients who may be at risk. PMID:19772056

  18. Elevated suicide rates at high altitude: sociodemographic and health issues may be to blame.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Valley, Morgan A; Lowenstein, Steven R; Hedegaard, Holly; Thomas, Deborah; Stallones, Lorann; Honigman, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Suicide rates are higher at high altitudes; some hypothesize that hypoxia is the cause. We examined 8,871 suicides recorded in 2006 in 15 states by the National Violent Death Reporting System, with the victim's home county altitude determined from the National Elevation Dataset through FIPS code matching. We grouped cases by altitude (low<1000m; middle=1000-1999m; high≥2000m). Of reported suicides, 5% were at high and 83% at low altitude, but unadjusted suicide rates per 100,000 population were higher at high (17.7) than at low (5.7) altitude. High and low altitude victims differed with respect to race, ethnicity, rural residence, intoxication, depressed mood preceding the suicide, firearm use and recent financial, job, legal, or interpersonal problems. Even after multivariate adjustment, there were significant differences in personal, mental health, and suicide characteristics among altitude groups. Compared to low altitude victims, high altitude victims had higher odds of having family or friends report of a depressed mood preceding the suicide (OR 1.78; 95%CI:1.46-2.17) and having a crisis within 2weeks before death (OR 2.00; 95%CI:1.63-1.46). Suicide victims at high and low altitudes differ significantly by multiple demographic, psychiatric, and suicide characteristics; these factors, rather than hypoxia or altitude itself, may explain increased suicide rates at high altitude. PMID:21883411

  19. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades — A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Jill S.; van Es, Frank D.; Visser, Ellen; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S). A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973–1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years); 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years) to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis. PMID:26068417

  20. Trend of Suicide Rates According to Urbanity among Adolescents by Gender and Suicide Method in Korea, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to quantifiably evaluate the trend of the suicide rate among Korean adolescents from 1997 to 2012 according to urbanity. We used national death certificates and registration population data by administrative district for 15-19 years-old adolescents. The annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) were estimated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. The suicide rate in the rural areas was higher than that in the urban areas in both genders (males (/100,000), 12.2 vs. 8.5; females (/100,000), 10.2 vs. 7.4 in 2012). However, the trend significantly increased only in the urban area (AAPC [95% CI]: males 2.6 [0.7, 4.6], females 3.3 [1.4, 5.2]). In urban areas, the suicide rate by jumping significantly increased in both genders (AAPC [95% CI]: males, 6.7 [4.3, 9.1]; females, 4.5 [3.0, 6.1]). In rural areas, the rate by self-poisoning significantly decreased by 7.9% per year for males (95% CI: -12.5, -3.0) and the rate by hanging significantly increased by 10.1% per year for females (95% CI: 2.6, 18.2). The trend and methods of suicide differ according to urbanity; therefore, a suicide prevention policy based on urbanity needs to be established for adolescents in Korea. PMID:25985313

  1. Trend of Suicide Rates According to Urbanity among Adolescents by Gender and Suicide Method in Korea, 1997–2012

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to quantifiably evaluate the trend of the suicide rate among Korean adolescents from 1997 to 2012 according to urbanity. We used national death certificates and registration population data by administrative district for 15–19 years-old adolescents. The annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) were estimated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. The suicide rate in the rural areas was higher than that in the urban areas in both genders (males (/100,000), 12.2 vs. 8.5; females (/100,000), 10.2 vs. 7.4 in 2012). However, the trend significantly increased only in the urban area (AAPC [95% CI]: males 2.6 [0.7, 4.6], females 3.3 [1.4, 5.2]). In urban areas, the suicide rate by jumping significantly increased in both genders (AAPC [95% CI]: males, 6.7 [4.3, 9.1]; females, 4.5 [3.0, 6.1]). In rural areas, the rate by self-poisoning significantly decreased by 7.9% per year for males (95% CI: −12.5, −3.0) and the rate by hanging significantly increased by 10.1% per year for females (95% CI: 2.6, 18.2). The trend and methods of suicide differ according to urbanity; therefore, a suicide prevention policy based on urbanity needs to be established for adolescents in Korea. PMID:25985313

  2. Climate impact on suicide rates in Finland from 1971 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuhela, Reija; Hiltunen, Laura; Venäläinen, Ari; Pirinen, Pentti; Partonen, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Seasonal patterns of death from suicide are well-documented and have been attributed to climatic factors such as solar radiation and ambient temperature. However, studies on the impact of weather and climate on suicide are not consistent, and conflicting data have been reported. In this study, we performed a correlation analysis between nationwide suicide rates and weather variables in Finland during the period 1971-2003. The weather parameters studied were global solar radiation, temperature and precipitation, and a range of time spans from 1 month to 1 year were used in order to elucidate the dose-response relationship, if any, between weather variables and suicide. Single and multiple linear regression models show weak associations using 1-month and 3-month time spans, but robust associations using a 12-month time span. Cumulative global solar radiation had the best explanatory power, while average temperature and cumulative precipitation had only a minor impact on suicide rates. Our results demonstrate that winters with low global radiation may increase the risk of suicide. The best correlation found was for the 5-month period from November to March; the inter-annual variability in the cumulative global radiation for that period explained 40 % of the variation in the male suicide rate and 14 % of the variation in the female suicide rate, both at a statistically significant level. Long-term variations in global radiation may also explain, in part, the observed increasing trend in the suicide rate until 1990 and the decreasing trend since then in Finland.

  3. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  4. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  5. A Study of the Impact of Thirteen Celebrity Suicides on Subsequent Suicide Rates in South Korea from 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    A number of ecological studies have found a pattern of increasing suicide rates after suicides of several Asian entertainment celebrities. However, the finding may be subject to positive outcome bias where cases with no perceived impact may be routinely excluded. In this study, we deploy interrupted time-series analysis using ARIMA transfer function models to investigate systematically the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea. We find that three out of eleven cases were found to be followed by a significant increase in suicide rate, while controlling for seasonality, secular trends, and unemployment rates. Such significant increases could last for nine weeks. Non-significance cases may be attributable to the small amount of media coverage, the “displacement” effect of preceding case, and the negative connotation of celebrity deaths. We therefore conclude that whether or not the impacts were detected may be largely conditioned by various contextual factors. Current evidence based on ecological studies is insufficient to draw a firm conclusion. Further studies using multiple approaches should be developed. PMID:23342026

  6. A study of the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea from 2005 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, C H

    2013-01-01

    A number of ecological studies have found a pattern of increasing suicide rates after suicides of several Asian entertainment celebrities. However, the finding may be subject to positive outcome bias where cases with no perceived impact may be routinely excluded. In this study, we deploy interrupted time-series analysis using ARIMA transfer function models to investigate systematically the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea. We find that three out of eleven cases were found to be followed by a significant increase in suicide rate, while controlling for seasonality, secular trends, and unemployment rates. Such significant increases could last for nine weeks. Non-significance cases may be attributable to the small amount of media coverage, the "displacement" effect of preceding case, and the negative connotation of celebrity deaths. We therefore conclude that whether or not the impacts were detected may be largely conditioned by various contextual factors. Current evidence based on ecological studies is insufficient to draw a firm conclusion. Further studies using multiple approaches should be developed. PMID:23342026

  7. The coal gas story. United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960-71.

    PubMed Central

    Kreitman, N

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of suicide rates between 1960 and 1971 for England and Wales and for Scotland confirms that all age-sex subgroups have shown a marked decline in suicide due to domestic gas, corresponding in time to the fall in the CO content. After considering data on the effects of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Eighth Revision, accident mortality, some personal characteristics of coal gas suicides, and the use of coal gas in parasuicide it was concluded that a simple casual explantation was likely. Suicide due to non-gas methods has in general increased, markedly so in some groups. It was suggested that neither improved psychiatric services nor voluntary agencies could have produced such changes. The 'compensatory' trend of gas and non-gas suicide rates was indicated for certain age-sex subgroups. The continuing need for suicide research was pointed out, and questions were raised concerning the psychological meaning of the epidemiological data. PMID:953381

  8. Explaining Changing Suicide Rates in Norway 1948-2004: The Role of Social Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barstad, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…

  9. The relationship of suicide rates to sociodemographic factors in Canadian census divisions.

    PubMed

    Hasselback, P; Lee, K I; Mao, Y; Nichol, R; Wigle, D T

    1991-11-01

    The correlates of suicide rates were determined by conducting a multivariate study of sociodemographic indicators and suicide rates of 261 Canadian census divisions. Twenty-one sociodemographic variables were entered into a stepwise multiple linear regression to develop a model for suicide rates. The important variables were mortality rate for all causes of death, the age of the population, average family income, population density, proportion with no religious affiliation, proportion of Francophones, unemployment, immigration, proportion of Native people, a regional effect for British Columbia and the north, and growth by mobility, explaining 62% of the observed variation. This spatial ecologic analysis highlights the importance of cultural differences in explaining the variation of suicide rates. The analysis supports the previously found negative relationship between income and suicide while contrasting from previous studies in determining a inverse relationship with unemployment and an inverse relationship with the age distribution. PMID:1773401

  10. Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... mania, causes of depression, depression in elderly men, depression in boys and adolescent males, suicide, diagnosis, treatment, and how to find help and support. Men and Depression (Copyright © Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance) - This publication ...

  11. US suicide rates by age group, 1970-2002: an examination of recent trends.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Robert E; Cuffe, Steven P; Schulz, Richard M

    2006-10-01

    US suicide rates have declined in recent years, reversing earlier trends. We examined suicide rates among 4 age groups from 1970 to 2002 and the factors that may have contributed to the decline. We paid particular attention to newer anti-depressants because of recent concerns and controversy about a possible association with suicidal behaviors. These trends warrant more extensive analysis of suicide rates among specific subgroups, including consideration of additional variables that may influence rates differentially. The relative contributions of depression diagnosis and treatment, postsuicide attempt care, and other contextual factors (e.g., overall economic conditions) also deserve attention. If the decline is associated with contextual factors, clarifying these associations will better inform public policy decisions and contribute to more effective interventions for preventing suicide. PMID:17008567

  12. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  13. Computing the prevalence rate of at-risk individuals for suicide within the Army.

    PubMed

    Bah, Abdoulaye; Wilson, Ché; Fatkin, Linda; Atkisson, Curtis; Brent, Edward; Horton, Denise

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces a new theoretical concept for risk assessment using social indicators and suicide acceptability variables to determine the prevalence rate of suicidal ideation and behavior within a group. Our approach focuses on the interplay of individual, social, and structural levels as possible dimensions of risk assessment for suicidal behavior. The results from our analysis within an Army community supported our theoretical framework by producing a four-factor solution, which were then incorporated into a Life Preservation Index. Structural equation modeling was used to test our theoretical model. The Life Preservation Index can be utilized as a complimentary tool for suicide risk assessment. PMID:22128713

  14. Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Korošec Jagodič, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. Methods The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Results Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (β = 2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.87-2.54, P < 0.001). On the other hand, higher marriage/divorce ratio was negatively related to the suicide rate and an increase of one unit in marriage/divorce ratio reduced regional suicide rate by 1.16 (β = -1.16, 95% CI = -2.20 to -0.13, P < 0.031). The most influential mental health service availability parameter was higher psychiatrist availability (4 psychiatrists and more working at outpatient clinics per 100 000 inhabitants), which was negatively correlated with the suicide rate and reduced regional suicide rate by 2.95 (β = -2.95, 95% CI = -4.60 to -1.31, P = 0.002). Another negatively correlated factor was the antidepressant/anxiolytic ratio higher than 0.5, which reduced the regional suicide rate by 2.32 (β = -2.32, 95% CI = -3.75 to -0.89, P = 0.003). Among mental health disorders, only the prevalence of alcohol use disorders was significantly related to the regional suicide rates and an increase of one unit in the prevalence of alcohol use disorders per 1000 inhabitants increased the regional suicide rate by 0.02 (β = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01- 0.03, P = 0.008). Conclusions Besides unemployment, which was a very strong predictor of suicide rates, unequal availability of mental

  15. Changes in South Korean urbanicity and suicide rates, 1992 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chee Hon; Caine, Eric D; You, Sungeun; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies have highlighted the association between the degree of urbanicity and spatial disparities in suicide, but few have evaluated its changes across time. We explored the geospatial trends of suicide in South Korea from 1992 to 2012, and their relationship to the nation's evolving urbanicity. Setting South Korea. Primary outcome measures Age-sex-specific suicide rate. Results Suicide rates increased in all regions of South Korea during the study period. Controlling the effects of age and sex, there was an overall inverse relationship between the degree of urbanicity and regional suicide rates. These associations were, however, attenuated across the periods, as there were smaller increases in suicide rates in mid-sized urban regions as compared to larger cities and to rural areas. Increases over time in the suicide rates among youth and working-age adults were greater in large urban centres and in rural regions. For elders, the increase was far greater in rural regions. Conclusions The association of urbanicity and the geospatial pattern of suicide in South Korea was a dynamic process and varied by age groups across the course of two decades. Internal migration and related social processes most likely contributed to these changes. PMID:26700283

  16. The Rate and Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in the Native Hawaiian Adolescent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Noelle; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveyed native Hawaiian high school students (n=1,779) for symptoms of psychopathology and suicide attempts in the previous 6 months. Seventy-seven students reported making a suicide attempt. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates for males and females. Depression, anxiety, aggression, substance abuse symptoms, and low family…

  17. Age Appropriate No-Suicide Agreements: Professionals' Ratings of Appropriateness and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael; Range, Lillian M.

    2000-01-01

    Psychologists (N=368) who specialize in children read one of six vignettes describing a suicidal youth and a therapist who used a no-suicide agreement (NSA), then rated the appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention. Results indicated that the psychologists mildly to moderately favored written NSAs regardless of reading level of the…

  18. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2009-01-01

    Suicides are associated with both high and low levels of intelligence and educational attainment in both individual-level and aggregate-level studies. A cross-national study examining the relationship between general population suicide rates ("y") and educational attainment ("x") was undertaken with the "a priori" hypothesis that the relationship…

  19. Elevated Suicide Rates at High Altitude: Sociodemographic and Health Issues May Be to Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Marian E.; Valley, Morgan A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Hedegaard, Holly; Thomas, Deborah; Stallones, Lorann; Honigman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher at high altitudes; some hypothesize that hypoxia is the cause. We examined 8,871 suicides recorded in 2006 in 15 states by the National Violent Death Reporting System, with the victim's home county altitude determined from the National Elevation Dataset through FIPS code matching. We grouped cases by altitude (low less…

  20. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Anto P.; Senthilkumar, P.; Gayathri, K.; Shyamsundar, G.; Jacob, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Materials and Methods: Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. Results: We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. Conclusions: As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India. PMID:26664075

  1. Suicide among Hispanics--United States, 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    2004-06-11

    By 2020, Hispanics are expected to represent 17% of the U.S. population and to surpass all other racial/ethnic minority populations in size. In 1996, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established the Hispanic Agenda for Action initiative; a major goal of this initiative is to identify health problems that affect Hispanics. In 2001, although the overall age-adjusted suicide rate per 100,000 population among Hispanics was lower than the U.S. national rate (10.7), suicide was the third leading cause of death among young (i.e., aged 10-24 years) Hispanics and the seventh leading cause of years of potential life lost before age 75 years. To identify demographic groups at risk for suicide and to help guide prevention efforts, CDC analyzed mortality data for 1997-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among Hispanics, the largest proportion of suicides occurred among young persons; suicide rates were higher among males; and the most common method of suicide was by firearms. To reduce the number of suicides, additional prevention strategies are needed, including 1) improving methods for collecting data about suicides, suicide attempts, and related behaviors; 2) expanding evaluation of prevention efforts aimed at reducing suicidal behaviors; and 3) examining how effective interventions can be modified for diverse and culturally specific populations. PMID:15190244

  2. Chain of Care for Patients with Intentional Self-Harm: An Effective Strategy to Reduce Suicide Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Mehlum, Lars; Gjertsen, Finn; Moller, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Chain of care for patients with intentional self-harm was important in the Norwegian national action plan to prevent suicide. In this study there were two aims: (1) to calculate the potential effects of chain of care on reducing suicide rates, and (2) to assess whether suicide rates decreased more in areas where chain of care had been implemented…

  3. Rural-Urban Differences in Suicide Rates for Current Patients of a Public Mental Health Service in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Carter, Gregory; Lewin, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Rural versus urban rates of suicide in current patients of a large area mental health service in Australia were compared. Suicide deaths were identified from compulsory root cause analyses of deaths, 2003-2007. Age-standardized rates of suicide were calculated for rural versus urban mental health service and compared using variance of…

  4. The Politics of Hope and Despair: The Effect of Presidential Election Outcomes on Suicide Rates*

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article examines the effect of election outcomes on suicide rates by combining the theory of social integration developed by Durkheim with the models of rational choice used in economics. Methods Theory predicts that states with a greater percentage of residents who supported the losing candidate would tend to exhibit a relative increase in suicide rates. However, being around others who also supported the losing candidate may indicate a greater degree of social integration at the local level, thereby lowering relative suicide rates. We therefore use fixed-effects regression of state suicide rates from 1981 to 2005 on state election outcomes during presidential elections to determine which effect is stronger. Results We find that the local effect of social integration is dominant. The suicide rate when a state supports the losing candidate will tend to be lower than if the state had supported the winning candidate—4.6 percent lower for males and 5.3 percent lower for females. Conclusion Social integration works at many levels; it not only affects suicide risk directly, but can mediate other shocks that influence suicide risk. PMID:20645463

  5. Possible delayed effect of unemployment on suicidal rates: the case of Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last few years, many countries in Europe suffered from a severe economic crisis which resulted in high unemployment rates. In this frame, the possible relationship between unemployment rate and suicidal rates at the level of the general population has been debated recently. Material and methods The official data concerning completed suicides and unemployment rates from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office for the years 2000–2011 were used. The percentage of changes from the previous year in the unemployment rate and the suicidal rates concerning both the general and the unemployed populations was calculated. Pearson correlation coefficient between the change in suicidal rates and change in unemployment rates was calculated both for the same year as well as after 1–6 years. Results The correlations between the unemployment rate and suicide rates were strongly negative both for the general and for the unemployed populations (-0.65 and -0.55, respectively). The correlation of unemployment change with suicidality change after 1–6 years gave a peak strong positive correlation at 5 years for the general population (0.78). At 4 years after the index year, there is a peak correlation with a moderate value for the unemployed population (0.47) and a similar moderate value for the general population (0.46). Discussion The current findings from Hungary suggest that unemployment might be associated with suicidality in the general population only after 3–5 years. It is possible that the distressing environment of the economic crisis increases suicidality in the general population rather than specifically in unemployed people. PMID:24803949

  6. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0 · 437, 0 · 518 or 0 · 549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

  7. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: Who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16–64 years old) for the period 2001–2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16–34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16–24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25–34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35–44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16–34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35–44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45–64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16–34 years, may have begun

  8. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16-64 years old) for the period 2001-2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16-34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16-24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25-34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35-44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16-34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35-44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45-64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16-34 years, may have begun before the 2008

  9. Suicide surveillance in the U.S. Military--reporting and classification biases in rate calculations.

    PubMed

    Carr, Joel R; Hoge, Charles W; Gardner, John; Potter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The military has a well-defined population with suicide prevention programs that have been recognized as possible models for civilian suicide prevention efforts. Monitoring prevention programs requires accurate reporting. In civilian settings, several studies have confirmed problems in the reporting and classification of suicides. This analysis evaluated whether suicides were underreported or misclassified under accident or undetermined manner of death in the military system. We reviewed all 1998 and 1999 military deaths using official death reports and compared these data with additional sources, most importantly the DoD Medical Mortality Registry. We assessed for evidence of expressed suicidal intent and past psychiatric history among deaths classified as undetermined and accidents due to gunshot, overdose, drowning, falls, or asphyxia. Using sources other than official records, we found 17% more suicides than were reported, and an additional 4% of deaths that were suspicious for suicide. This study suggests that reporting and classification errors may account for 21% additional suicides in the military. These findings are comparable to rates seen in civilian studies and add to the literature regarding the problems inherent in using administrative death classification data for medical surveillance purposes. PMID:15385178

  10. U.S. Suicide Rate Up 24 Percent Since 1999: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... rates of mental health problems, drug abuse and gun availability may account for some of the climb. ... highest among men 75 and older. For men, guns were used in most suicide deaths (about 55 ...

  11. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  12. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years. PMID:1304550

  13. Association between the Density of Physicians and Suicide Rates in Japan: Nationwide Ecological Study Using a Spatial Bayesian Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Regional disparity in suicide rates is a serious problem worldwide. One possible cause is unequal distribution of the health workforce, especially psychiatrists. Research about the association between regional physician numbers and suicide rates is therefore important but studies are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physician numbers and suicide rates in Japan, by municipality. Methods The study included all the municipalities in Japan (n = 1,896). We estimated smoothed standardized mortality ratios of suicide rates for each municipality and evaluated the association between health workforce and suicide rates using a hierarchical Bayesian model accounting for spatially correlated random effects, a conditional autoregressive model. We assumed a Poisson distribution for the observed number of suicides and set the expected number of suicides as the offset variable. The explanatory variables were numbers of physicians, a binary variable for the presence of psychiatrists, and social covariates. Results After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in the other municipalities. There was, however, a positive and statistically significant association between the number of physicians and suicide rates. Conclusions Suicide rates in municipalities that had at least one psychiatrist were lower than those in other municipalities, but the number of physicians was positively and significantly related with suicide rates. To improve the regional disparity in suicide rates, the government should encourage psychiatrists to participate in community-based suicide prevention programs and to settle in municipalities that currently have no psychiatrists. The government and other stakeholders should also construct better networks between psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists to support sharing of information for suicide prevention. PMID:26840389

  14. High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data of completed suicides, the mean altitude of the district where each suicide took place, and the mean income of each district. We analyzed the data using regression analysis before and after adjustment for mean income. We found that there is a positive correlation between altitude and suicide rate, even after adjustment for mean income. Thus, altitude appears to be an independent risk factor for suicide. PMID:25395983

  15. Investigating the Time Lag Effect between Economic Recession and Suicide Rates in Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models to analyze trends, while a polynomial lag model was used to assess the unconstrained time lag effects of changes in GDP on suicidal rate. We found that there were significant inverse correlations between changes in GDP and suicide for a time lag of one to four months after the occurrence of economic event. Furthermore, it was evident that the overall relative risks of suicide were high enough to bring about social concern. PMID:23251845

  16. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in puerto rico: rates and correlates in clinical and community samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780

  17. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  18. Case fatality rates of different suicide methods within Ilam province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razaeian, Mohsen; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few diverse studies that have reported the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide, none of them are originated from developing countries. The aim of the present article is to report the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide in Ilam province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on 611 cases of suicide and 1807 cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) that were recorded in a comprehensive registry during 1995 through 2002 were analyzed for both genders together and for males and females, separately. Findings: For both genders together, the two most fatal methods were hanging (75.4%) and self-immolation (68.3%); for males, hanging (76.3%) and self-immolation (64.7%); and for females, firearms (75%) and hanging (73.7%), respectively. The least fatal methods for both genders together and for females and males separately were drug ingestion and cutting. Conclusion: The results of present study, which for the first time has reported the case fatality rates of suicide methods in a developing world, would not only help to better plan the local suicide prevention strategies and clinical assessment of suicidal cases but to shed light on overall understanding of this mysterious human phenomenon. PMID:23555147

  19. International correlations between gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide.

    PubMed Central

    Killias, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine international correlations between reported rates of household gun ownership and rates of homicide and suicide with a gun. DESIGN: Survey. POPULATION: People who responded to a telephone survey conducted by the 1989 International Crime Survey in 11 European countries, Australia, Canada and the United States. RESULTS: Positive correlations were obtained between the rates of household gun ownership and the national rates of homicide and suicide as well as the proportions of homicides and suicides committed with a gun. There was no negative correlation between the rates of ownership and the rates of homicide and suicide committed by other means; this indicated that the other means were not used to "compensate" for the absence of guns in countries with a lower rate of gun ownership. CONCLUSION: Larger studies are needed to examine more closely possible confounding factors such as the national tendency toward violent solutions, and more information on the type and availability of guns will be helpful in future studies. Nevertheless, the correlations detected in this study suggest that the presence of a gun in the home increases the likelihood of homicide or suicide. PMID:8485675

  20. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C–SSRS): Has the “Gold Standard” Become a Liability?

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Columbia– Suicide Severity Rating Scale has become the gold standard for the assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials. Criticism of the instrument has been mounting. We examine whether the instrument meets widely accepted psychometric standards and maps to the United States Food and Drug Administration’s most recent 2012 algorithm for assessment of suicidal phenomena. Our goal is to determine if the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale should be retained as the preferred instrument for assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior. Method: Standard psychometric criteria dictate that categorizations to avoid type I and type II errors should be comprehensive and address the full spectrum (i.e., all dimensions) of a phenomenon. The criteria should also be well defined and consistent, and the wording throughout should be unambiguous. We examine the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in terms of these criteria. Results: The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale does not address the full spectrum of suicidal ideation or behavior. As a result, it has the potential to miss many combinations of suicidal ideation and behavior that present to clinicians in practice (type II error). Potential misclassifications (type I and II errors) are compounded by flawed navigation instructions; mismatches in category titles, definitions, and probes; and wording that is susceptible to multiple interpretations. Further, the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in its current form does not map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration’s draft classification algorithm for suicidal ideation and behavior. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale is conceptually and psychometrically flawed and does not map to the Food and Drug Administration’s new standards. A new gold standard for assessment of suicidality may be warranted. PMID:25520890

  1. Are age-related trends in suicide rates associated with life expectancy and socio-economic factors?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Background. A recent cross-national study reported that suicide rates increased, decreased or remained unchanged with increasing age in individual countries. The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and child mortality rates, life expectancy and socio-economic factors was examined. Methods. Countries with an increase, decrease and no change in suicide rates with increasing age were ascertained from an earlier study (Shah, 2007a, International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 1141), which analysed data from the World Health Organisation (WHO). The relationship between age-related trends in suicide rates and (i) child mortality rates, (ii) life expectancy and (iii) markers of socio-economic status (per capita gross national domestic product (GDP) and the Gini coeffcient) was examined using data from the WHO and the United Nations. Results. The main findings were: (i) child mortality rates were significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; (ii) life expectancy was significantly higher in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change in suicide rates with increasing age in males; and (iii) the Gini coefficient was significantly lower in countries with an increase in suicide rates with increasing age when compared to countries without a change or a decline in suicide rates with increasing age in females. Conclusions. Potential explanations for these findings and the interaction of life expectancy and socio-economic factors with other factors that differentially influence suicide rates in different age and sex groups requires further examination. PMID:24946117

  2. Age and sex suicide rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on global burden of disease estimates for 2000.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, M

    2007-01-01

    Suicide was estimated to be the 25th leading cause of death in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region in the year 2000. Using data from the WHO global burden of disease project, estimated rates of suicidal deaths were plotted for different sex and age groups. Overall rates of suicide were higher in females than males in age groups 5-14 and 15-29 years. The peak age for suicides among females was 15-29 years (8.6 per 100,000) and for males 60+ years (100,000). As a proportion of all deaths due to injury, suicides were substantially higher in females than males. Females in high-income countries had the lowest rates of suicide in all age groups and males in high-income countries had a lower rate than males in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:17955778

  3. Suicide and Homicide Rates: Their Relationship to Latitude and Longitude and to the Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1986-01-01

    Explored variation of suicide and homicide rates in the major standard metropolitan statistical areas of the United States to see whether regional variations in temperature and precipitation could account for some of the variation. Only the correlation between precipitation and homicide rates survived controls for latitude and longitude.…

  4. [Prevention and interventions for suicidal youth considerations for health professionionals in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Berger, Gregor E; Della Casa, André; Pauli, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic surge in suicide rate. While worldwide age-adjusted suicides rate per 100’000 in under 14-year olds are relatively low around 0.6, a dramatic increase to 7.4 can be observed in 15 – 19 year olds with suicide being one of the three leading causes of mortality in most countries in this age group. From 2000 to 2013 the Swiss annual average of completed suicides in 15 – 19 year olds was 33.1 (minimum 24; maximum 47). This corresponds to an average age-specific death rate of 7.6, which is slightly above the global mean. Suicide prevention and treatment of suicidality in adolescents is a complex underpinning. Subjectively experienced feelings of insufficiency, hopelessness and the feeling of worthlessness combined with concrete suicidal ideations and the capacity to act out are important indicators for assessing suicidal risk. Suicide attempts as the strongest risk factor for suicide should always be taken seriously, even if they occur in the context of situational crisis. Narcissistic personality traits or increased impulsivity are further indicators of risk. The early detection and effective treatment of mental disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar-affective disorders or psychotic disorders provide a great opportunity to reduce the frequency of suicide attempts and suicide. Particular caution is required when co-morbid addictions are present. The maintenance or establishment of sustainable relationships with significant others is considered a key protecting factor. Increasing withdrawal from significant others is an important warning sign and needs urgent involvement of experts. In acute suicidality, the admission to a psychiatric hospital must be considered, if necessary against the will of affected adolescent and their relatives. Personality-related recurrent suicidal behavior requires specific treatment approaches taking into account the prevention of iatrogenic worsening of suicidal patterns. PMID

  5. Suicide rates among Turkish and American youth: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Murat; Zoroglu, Salih; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2012-01-01

    This study compares youth (<24 years) suicide rates in Turkey and the United States; a demographic and cross-cultural comparison and exploration of possible causative factors. Publicly available data were compared for children, adolescents, and young adults for years 1992-2004. The mean general population suicide rate in Turkey (per 100,000) was, male = 3.53 and female = 2.31 (for the US, males = 18.37, females = 4.31); for ages below 15 years the rate was, males = 0.28 and females = 0.39 (for the US, males = 1.09 and females = 0.38); while for aged 15-24 years the rate was, males = 4.58 and females = 5.22 (for the US, males = 18.84 and females = 3.36). The patterns for Turkey are: (a) Female youth had a higher suicide rate than male youth; this was the reverse of the U.S. pattern, (b) Youth suicide increased during the time period in Turkey, whereas it was relatively stable in the US, (c) However, suicide rates in Turkey were generally lower than the US, (d) Fifty percent of all female suicide victims in Turkey were under the age of 24 years (versus 11% in the US). Possible psychosocial causative factors may include (a) negative social status of females (forced marriage, young marriage age, low literacy, honor killings); (b) substantial rural to urban migration which disrupts ties and exposes migrants to a less traditional cultural system; (c) shortage of mental health services; (d) and possibly, reduced religious education enrollment may be an additional factor. PMID:22289028

  6. Effects of age and gender on elderly suicide rates in Catholic and Orthodox countries: an inadvertent neglect?

    PubMed

    Pritchard, C; Baldwin, D

    2000-10-01

    When compared to suicide rates in the general population, it may be expected that elderly suicide rates would be lower in Catholic and Orthodox societies than in non-Catholic or non-Orthodox countries because of religious affiliations and extended family traditions. National suicide rates in the general population were compared with rates in the sub-population of those aged over 75 years. Proportionately, there are significantly higher suicide rates in elderly men in Catholic and Orthodox countries, compared to rates in other countries, with a trend for similar findings among women. There may be important implications on health and social policy and clinical practice in the efforts to reduce suicide rates among elderly people. PMID:11044872

  7. Examining the Relationship Between Past Orientation and US Suicide Rates: An Analysis Using Big Data-Driven Google Search Queries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hojun

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet search query data reflect the attitudes of the users, using which we can measure the past orientation to commit suicide. Examinations of past orientation often highlight certain predispositions of attitude, many of which can be suicide risk factors. Objective To investigate the relationship between past orientation and suicide rate by examining Google search queries. Methods We measured the past orientation using Google search query data by comparing the search volumes of the past year and those of the future year, across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia during the period from 2004 to 2012. We constructed a panel dataset with independent variables as control variables; we then undertook an analysis using multiple ordinary least squares regression and methods that leverage the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. Results It was found that past orientation had a positive relationship with the suicide rate (P≤.001) and that it improves the goodness-of-fit of the model regarding the suicide rate. Unemployment rate (P≤.001 in Models 3 and 4), Gini coefficient (P≤.001), and population growth rate (P≤.001) had a positive relationship with the suicide rate, whereas the gross state product (P≤.001) showed a negative relationship with the suicide rate. Conclusions We empirically identified the positive relationship between the suicide rate and past orientation, which was measured by big data-driven Google search query. PMID:26868917

  8. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  9. Association of suicide rates for elderly age bands with gender equality.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-06-01

    A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation. PMID:18763461

  10. Young Peoples' Opinions about the Causes of, and Solutions to, New Zealand's High Youth Suicide Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heled, Edna; Read, John

    2005-01-01

    In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended…

  11. A Cross-National Study of the Relationship between Elderly Suicide Rates and Urbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    There is mixed evidence of a relationship between suicide rates in the general population and urbanization, and a paucity of studies examining this relationship in the elderly. A cross-national study with curve estimation regression model analysis, was undertaken to examine the a priori hypothesis that the relationship between elderly suicide…

  12. An Ecological Study of Community-Level Correlates of Suicide Mortality Rates in the Flemish Region of Belgium, 1996-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study of age-standardized suicide rates in Belgian communities (1996-2005) was conducted using spatial regression techniques. Community characteristics were significantly related to suicide rates. There was mixed support for the social integration perspective: single person households were associated with higher suicide rates, while…

  13. A Decrease in Suicide Rates in Japanese Rural Towns after Community-Based Intervention by the Health Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hisanaga

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention study for suicide prevention was conducted in six towns (total population 43,964) in Akita Prefecture of Japan according to a quasi-experimental design to reduce suicide rates in rural towns. Public awareness raising activities using a health promotion approach emphasizing the empowerment of residents and civic…

  14. Suicide rates and religious commitment in young adult males in Utah.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sterling C; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Lyon, Joseph L

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have used population data to demonstrate an inverse association between suicide rates and religious commitment. This report examines Utah suicide rates for young men aged 15-34 years, stratified by their membership in and commitment to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), the predominant religion in Utah. All state death records for males from 1991 to 1995 were obtained and linked to LDS church deceased membership records to obtain a measure of religious commitment that is not self-reported. Religious commitment for LDS church members was determined by age-appropriate priesthood office. Of the 27,738 male deaths reported, 15,555 (56%) linked to an LDS church record using a probabilistic linking program. Using active (high religious commitment) LDS as the reference group, the less-active (low religious commitment) LDS group had relative risks of suicide ranging from 3.28 (ages 15-19 years) to 7.64 (ages 25-29 years); nonmembers of the LDS church had relative risks ranging from 3.43 (ages 15-19 years) to 6.27 (ages 20-24 years). Although the mechanism of the association is unclear, higher levels of religiosity appear to be inversely associated with suicide. PMID:11867352

  15. Suicide among Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coder, Tamara L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated incidence of adolescent suicide in Kansas and assessed prevention guidelines and services dealing with adolescent suicide, and perceived needs of Kansas secondary school counselors in the area of teenage suicide. Findings from 484 school counselors indicated increase in suicide rates with age and need for suicide prevention programing…

  16. Reducing Suicide among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The suicide rate for children aged 10 to 14 has doubled over the last 10 years, making suicide the fourth leading cause of death for that age group. Offers important information on suicide prevention for educators. (ASK)

  17. Spatial Clustering Properties in the Temporal Variation of Suicide Rates/Numbers among Japanese Citizens: A Comprehensive Comparison and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Makoto; Kubota, Takafumi; Ishioka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The number of suicides in Japan has remained high for many years. To effectively resolve this problem, firm understanding of the statistical data is required. Using a large quantity of wide-ranging data on Japanese citizens, the purpose of this study was to analyze the geographical clustering properties of suicides and how suicide rates have evolved over time, and to observe detailed patterns and trends in a variety of geographic regions. Methods Using adjacency data from 2008, the spatial and temporal/spatial clustering structure of geographic statistics on suicides were clarified. Echelon scans were performed to identify regions with the highest-likelihood ratio of suicide as the most likely suicide clusters. Results In contrast to results obtained using temporal/spatial analysis, the results of a period-by-period breakdown of evolving suicide rates demonstrated that suicides among men increased particularly rapidly during 1988–1992, 1993–1997, and 1998–2002 in certain cluster regions located near major metropolitan areas. For women, results identified cluster regions near major metropolitan areas in 1993–1997, 1998–2002, and 2003–2007. Conclusions For both men and women, the cluster regions identified are located primarily near major metropolitan areas, such as greater Tokyo and Osaka. PMID:26161651

  18. Factors associated with temporal and spatial patterns in suicide rates across U.S. states, 1976-2000.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Julie A

    2013-04-01

    Using pooled cross-sectional time-series data for the 50 U.S. states over a 25-year period, this article examines how well four conceptual groups of social correlates-demographic, economic, social, and cultural factors-are associated with the 1976-2000 patterns in overall suicide rates and suicide by firearms and other means. Unlike past research that typically considers only one dimension, this analysis differentiates between spatial and temporal variation in suicide rates to determine whether and how social correlates operate differently in these two contexts. Results indicate that suicide rates correspond closely to social correlates. Within U.S. states, lower overall suicide rates between 1976 and 2000 were associated with demographic change (e.g., larger numbers of foreign-born) as well as with fewer numbers of Episcopalians. Across U.S. states, variation in overall suicide rates over the period was related to demographic (percentage male), economic (per capita income), social (percentage divorced), and cultural (alcohol consumption and gun ownership) factors. However, findings differ importantly by type of suicide, and across time and space. Reasons for these distinct patterns are discussed. PMID:23196429

  19. Ethnocultural Aspects of Suicide in Young People: A Systematic Literature Review Part 1--Rates and Methods of Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The study of ethnocultural aspects of suicidal behaviour is, at the moment, still a neglected area. The relatively few studies available are mainly on adults; young people usually are not examined separately. The authors reviewed 82 publications on youth suicide that have addressed, to different degrees, the ethnicity/culture of the population…

  20. Cyclicity of Suicides May Be Modulated by Internal or External - 11-Year Cycles: An Example of Suicide Rates in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate

  1. Geographic variation in suicide rates in Australian farmers: Why is the problem more frequent in Queensland than in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    Arnautovska, Urska; McPhedran, S; Kelly, B; Reddy, P; De Leo, D

    2016-07-01

    Research on farmer suicide is limited in explaining the variations in farmers' demographic characteristics. This study examines farmer suicides in two Australian states: Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW). Standardized suicide rates over 2000-2009 showed a 2 times higher prevalence of suicide in QLD than NSW (147 vs. 92 cases, respectively). Differences in age and suicide method were observed between states, although they do not appear to account for the sizeable intra- and interstate variations. Suicide prevention initiatives for farmers should account for different age groups and also specific place-based risk factors that may vary between and within jurisdictions. PMID:26890223

  2. Further Suicidal Behavior Among Medically Serious Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…

  3. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. PMID:25255825

  4. The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990–2001

    PubMed Central

    Mathy, Robin M.; Olsen, Jorn; Mays, Vickie M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Minority sexual orientation has been repeatedly linked to elevated rates of suicide attempts. Whether this translates into greater risk for suicide mortality is unclear. We investigated sexual orientation-related differences in suicide mortality in Denmark during the initial 12-year period following legalization of same-sex registered domestic partnerships (RDPs). Method Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Results Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married. Conclusions Suicide risk appears greatly elevated for men in same-sex partnerships in Denmark. To what extent this is true for similar gay and bisexual men who are not in such relationships is unknown, but these findings call for targeted suicide prevention programs aimed at reducing suicide risk among gay and bisexual men. PMID:20033129

  5. Trends in suicidal behaviour in Dutch general practice 1983–2013: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hooiveld, Mariette; Korevaar, Joke C; Donker, Gé A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyse trends in suicidal behaviour as reported by the Dutch sentinel general practices from 1983 to 2013. Second, to examine the relationship between suicidal behaviour and several patient characteristics. Finally, to compare the relationship between suicidal behaviour and patient characteristics before (1983–2007) and after (2008–2013) the start of the crisis. Setting 40 general practices in the Netherlands during the period 1983–2013. Participants Patients with an ICPC code of P77 (suicide attempt). Primary and secondary outcomes Primary outcomes were age-adjusted and gender-specific trends in reported suicides (342) and suicide attempts (1614). Secondary outcomes were the relationship between suicidal behaviour and age, household composition, history of depression, recognition of suicide ideation, treatment before the suicidal behaviour and contact within the past month before suicidal behaviour for the period 1983–2013. Additionally, separate frequencies for the periods 1983–2007 and 2008–2013 were presented. Results Join-point analyses revealed a significant rise in male suicides from 2008 (b=0.32, SE=0.1, p=0.008), and an increase in male suicide attempts since 2009 (b=0.19, SE=0.04, p<0.001). Female suicidal behaviour showed a steady decrease from 1989 to 2013(b=−0.03, SE=0.007, p<0.0001 for female suicide, b=−0.02, SE=0.002, p<0.001 for female attempts). Before 2007, a history of depression was reported in 65% (168/257) of the suicides. After the start of the recession, a depression was recognised in 44% (22/50) of the patients who died by suicide. Conclusions Since 2008, there was a rise in the male suicide rate while female suicide behaviour has continued to decline. General practitioners less often reported a history of depression within patients who died due to suicide after 2007 than before. Training in the early recognition of suicide ideation in depressive patients might improve suicide prevention in primary care. PMID

  6. Suicide Among Patients in the Veterans Affairs Health System: Rural–Urban Differences in Rates, Risks, and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Frederic C.; Ignacio, Rosalinda V.; Ilgen, Mark A.; Austin, Karen L.; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using national patient cohorts, we assessed rural–urban differences in suicide rates, risks, and methods in veterans. Methods. We identified all Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients in fiscal years 2003 to 2004 (FY03–04) alive at the start of FY04 (n = 5 447 257) and all patients in FY06–07 alive at the start of FY07 (n = 5 709 077). Mortality (FY04–05 and FY07–08) was assessed from National Death Index searches. Census criteria defined rurality. We used proportional hazards regressions to calculate rural–urban differences in risks, controlling for age, gender, psychiatric diagnoses, VA mental health services accessibility, and regional administrative network. Suicide method was categorized as firearms, poisoning, strangulation, or other. Results. Rural patients had higher suicide rates (38.8 vs 31.4/100 000 person-years in FY04–05; 39.6 vs 32.4/100 000 in FY07–08). Rural residence was associated with greater suicide risks (20% greater, FY04–05; 22% greater, FY07–08). Firearm deaths were more common in rural suicides (76.8% vs 61.5% in FY07–08). Conclusions. Rural residence is a suicide risk factor, even after controlling for mental health accessibility. Public health and health system suicide prevention should address risks in rural areas. PMID:22390583

  7. The media and suicide.

    PubMed

    Tor, Phern Chern; Ng, Beng Yeong; Ang, Yong Guan

    2008-09-01

    Suicide is a common and preventable event that is often reported by the media when there are sensationalistic elements or if the suicide involves a celebrity. Media reports of suicide can induce a copycat or "Werther effect". There is increasing evidence that sensationalistic reporting of suicides has a direct effect on increasing suicide rates. Responsible reporting guidelines drawn up in consultation with media professionals have been shown to improve reporting of suicides. Local reporting on suicides tends to be sensationalistic but also has a strong educational slant. The media should educate both the public and the medical professional about their role in suicide prevention. PMID:18989499

  8. Suicidal behavior: measurement and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oquendo, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527

  9. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those <40 years were twice that of those ≥40 years. Capture-recapture modeling with newspaper reports proved a reasonable method for estimating suicide rates for countries with inadequate official data. These methods are low-cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics. PMID:26969636

  10. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  11. Self-Rated Depression Severity Relative to Clinician-Rated Depression Severity: Trait Stability and Potential Role in Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    John Mann, J; Ellis, Steven P; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Birmaher, Boris; Oquendo, Maria A; Kolko, David J; Stanley, Barbara; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A

    2016-07-01

    Self-rated depression and hopelessness severity are predictors of suicide attempt in major depression. This study evaluated whether: (1) greater self-rated distress relative to severity of clinician-rated depression is a trait; (2) that trait is familial; and (3) that trait is linked to familial transmission of suicidal behavior. A total of 285 mood disorder probands and 457 offspring were assessed twice, at least 1 year apart. Family and subject intra-class correlations for self-report depression and hopelessness, controlling for clinician-rated depression severity, were computed. Mixed general linear models determined offspring-proband correlations. Within-individual intra-class correlation (ICC) for depression-hopelessness was 37.8% (bootstrap 95% CI: 31.0-46.3%). Parent-offspring ICC was 10.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 3.5-17.8%). Suicide attempt concordant parent-offspring correlation for subjective depression was positive, but negative for attempter parent and nonattempter offspring (p = .0213 for slope interaction). Pessimism was greater in proband or offspring attempters than proband or offspring nonattempters (p < .05). Self-reported hopelessness is partly trait-dependent, and there is modest familial transmission of self-reported depression linked to suicidal behavior that may partly explain familial transmission of suicidal behavior. PMID:27046009

  12. Do Generous Unemployment Benefit Programs Reduce Suicide Rates? A State Fixed-Effect Analysis Covering 1968–2008

    PubMed Central

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20–64 years) population (β = −0.57, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, −0.27; P < 0.001). The finding of a negative additive interaction was robust across multiple model specifications. Our results suggest that the impact of unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  13. Suicide among incarcerated veterans.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anderson, C Alan; Adler, Lawrence E

    2009-01-01

    Both veterans and jail/prison inmates face an increased risk of suicide. The incarcerated veteran sits at the intersection of these two groups, yet little is known about this subpopulation, particularly its risk of suicide. A Pubmed/Medline/PsycINFO search anchored to incarcerated veteran suicide, veteran suicide, suicide in jails/prisons, and veterans incarcerated from 2000 to the present was performed. The currently available literature does not reveal the suicide risk of incarcerated veterans, nor does it enable meaningful estimates. However, striking similarities and overlapping characteristics link the data on veteran suicide, inmate suicide, and incarcerated veterans, suggesting that the veteran in jail or prison faces a level of suicide risk beyond that conferred by either veteran status or incarceration alone. There is a clear need for a better characterization of the incarcerated veteran population and the suicide rate faced by this group. Implications for clinical practice and future research are offered. PMID:19297638

  14. Notes on the determinants of suicide rates in Italy's regions: a reply to Voracek (2009).

    PubMed

    Felice, Emanuele

    2010-06-01

    This article is a review of Voracek's report (2009) of aggregate intelligence and suicide rates in Italy's regions, contending some findings and proposing new evidence and suggestions for further research. Voracek did not use intelligence data, but educational attainment, which in Italy's regions is affected by sharp imbalances in the quality of public schools and may not reflect differences in intelligence. The statistical analyses were inadequate given the small number of cases; the resulting correlation could be meaningless or even misleading. The paper shows that when the analysis is extended to other variables (latitude) or historical periods (1911) the correlations reported by Voracek are not significant. This criticism is based on perspectives among different branches of psychology and cognitive sciences, economic and social history, and economic geography. PMID:20712161

  15. Period trends in rate of suicide in first 28 days after discharge from psychiatric hospital in Scotland, 1968-92.

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, J. R.; Juszczak, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine period trends in the rate of suicide in the first 28 days after discharge from psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--Cohort study of patients discharged from psychiatric hospital. SETTING--Scotland. SUBJECTS--All patients aged 15-84 who were discharged from Scottish psychiatric hospitals during 1968 to 1992. OUTCOME MEASURE--The rate of suicide (classified as codes E950-9 and E980-9 according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) within 28 days of discharge per 100,000 person years at risk for five year periods during 1968 to 1992. Crude, within cohort rates and externally standardised rates were calculated. RESULTS--Overall, 196 male patients committed suicide in 20,520 person years at risk, and 171 female patients committed suicide in 24,114 person years at risk. A significant linear trend was seen in period effect on externally standardised mortality ratios in both sexes: a decrease in male patients (P = 0.008) and an increase in female patients (P = 0.0001). The adjusted standardised mortality ratio in 1988-92 compared with 1968-72 was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.98) in male patients and 2.73 (1.64 to 4.56) in female patients. CONCLUSION--The increase in the rate of suicide in the 28 days after discharge in female psychiatric patients makes this an increasingly important period to target. The rise has occurred against the background of a reduction of 60% in the number of psychiatric beds for adults. PMID:7640540

  16. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  17. Rate, Relative Risk, and Method of Suicide by Students at 4-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States, 2004-2005 through 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 622 suicides were reported among students attending 645 distinct campuses from 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Adjusting for gender in the population at risk of 14.9 million student-years and for the source of these data, the student suicide rate of 7.0 was significantly and substantially lower than for a matched national sample. Suicide…

  18. Age-specific suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions of the former USSR during perestroika, in comparison with 22 European countries.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Dankowicz, M; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    Age-specific differences in suicide rates in the Baltic and Slavic regions of the former USSR were studied for the period 1984-1990, and were compared to those of 22 European countries. It was observed that suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the Slavic and Baltic regions increased directly with age for women, and showed a bimodal distribution with peaks for the 45-54 and > or = 75 age groups for men. In most of the 22 European countries, the suicide rates of both men and women increased directly with age. In 1990 the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions ranged from 25.1 for the 15-24 age group to 86.9 for men aged 75 or older, and from 6.0 to 29.8 for women, while the suicide rates in Europe ranged from 13.0 to 64.8 for men and from 3.6 to 18.7 for women. Decreases in the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions during perestroika were largest for the 25-54 age group, averaging at drop of 45% for men and 33% for women between 1984 and 1986-1988. The pattern of age-specific suicide rates for women in the Slavic and Baltic regions remained similar to that in Europe throughout the period studied. This was in contrast to a distinct pattern of male suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions in 1984, which converged with those found in other parts of Europe during 1986-1988. It appears that perestroika contributed to a unique pattern of male suicide mortality in the Slavic and Baltic regions, especially in the 25-54 age group. PMID:9825014

  19. Suicide: current trends.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates. PMID:21999037

  20. Youth Suicide: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Greenberg, Ted; Velting, Drew M.; Shaffer, David

    2006-01-01

    Following a comprehensive review of the research literature on youth suicide, the authors discuss the rates and patterns of completed suicides and suicide attempts. The state of research on potential risk and protective factors is also reviewed, covering personal characteristics, family characteristics, adverse life circumstances, and…

  1. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  2. U.S. Suicide Rate Up 24 Percent Since 1999: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014, with young girls and middle-aged men accounting for the largest increases, federal health officials reported ... by suffocation -- including hanging -- increased among both sexes, accounting for about one in four suicides in 2014. ...

  3. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  4. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  5. Suicide: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young adults worldwide. There is a growing recognition that prevention strategies need to be tailored to the region-specific demographics of a country and to be implemented in a culturally-sensitive manner. This review explores the historical, epidemiological and demographic factors of suicide in India and examines the strategies aimed at the prevention of suicide. There has been an increase in the rates of suicide in India over the years, although trends of both increases and decline in suicide rates have been present. Distinct from global demographic risk factors, In India, marital status is not necessarily protective and the female: male ratio in the rate of suicide is higher. The motives and modes of suicide are also distinct from western countries. Preventive strategies implemented at a community level and identifying vulnerable individuals maybe more effective than global strategies. PMID:23372232

  6. The suicide mortality rates between 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 in Nantou County of Taiwan following the earthquake of September 21 in 1999.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Yung-Po; Wang, Po-Wen; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to show the different suicide mortality rate between 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 in Nantou County of Taiwan with earthquake on September 21 (often referred to as the "9-21 earthquake") in 1999. In additional, it also identifies the preventive strategies for the high-risk suicide population. The age-standardized mortality rates for suicide in Nantou County were calculated for the years 1997-1998 and 2000-2001. The suicide standardized mortality ratio (SMR for townships in Nantou were calculated by "type of township" as the standard rate). There is a statistically significant difference in male suicide rates for the years prior to the earthquake (1997-1998) when pooled and compared to the suicide rates for the years after the earthquake (2000-2001). The rate for four age groups (under 25, 25-44, 45-64, 65 and above) all increased, yet all but one (the group of age 45-64) was not statistically significant. The male SMR has slightly increased after the 9-21 earthquake. Yet there are no statistical significances in most townships, except in Kaohsiung and Puli after the 9-21 earthquake. The Kaohsiung SMRs were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.54-2.80) before the earthquake (1997-1998) and 2.01 (95% CI: 1.04-3.52) after the earthquake (2000-2001). The SMRs before and after the earthquake in the Puli Township were 1.51 (95% CI: 0.95-2.29) to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03-2.27). This study suggests that monitoring high-risk population, especially males or 45-64 years of age who experienced the highest statistically significant suicide rate in this study. The study provides support for providing both the psychological restoration program and, to the extent feasible, financial support for the unemployed as useful public health strategies for suicide prevention in Taiwan. PMID:18005008

  7. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  8. Restrictions in Means for Suicide: An Effective Tool in Preventing Suicide: The Danish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000, overall suicide mortality and method-specific…

  9. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  10. [Suicide and suicide prevention in Vienna from 1938 to 1945].

    PubMed

    Sonneck, Gernot; Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with the inception of suicide prevention in interwar Vienna, the paper illustrates how the high number of counselling centres contrasted with a discourse of selection. Despite the fact that suicide rates proved extremely high, suicide prevention declined in importance between 1934 and 1945. Suicide was increasingly attributed to the weak and the inferior. The massive threat to Vienna's Jewish population and the high suicide rates among Viennese Jews are also outlined. The paper concludes with a synopsis of V. E. Frankl's activities in the field of suicide prevention at the Rothschild Hospital as well as the concentration camp in Theresienstadt. PMID:23055305

  11. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, B; Raphael, B; Judd, F; Perdices, M; Kernutt, G; Burnett, P; Dunne, M; Burrows, G

    1998-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation and past suicide attempt in an Australian sample of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative homosexual and bisexual men. Sixty-five HIV-negative and 164 HIV-positive men participated. A suicidal ideation score was derived from using five items selected from the Beck Depression Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version). Lifetime and current prevalence rates of psychiatric disorder were evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version-III-R. The HIV-positive (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] Stage IV) men (n = 85) had significantly higher total suicidal ideation scores than the asymptomatic HIV-positive men (CDC Stage II/III) (n = 79) and the HIV-negative men. High rates of past suicide attempt were detected in the HIV-negative (29%) and HIV-positive men (21%). Factors associated with suicidal ideation included being HIV-positive, the presence of current psychiatric disorder, higher neuroticism scores, external locus of control, and current unemployment. In the HIV-positive group analyzed separately, higher suicidal ideation was discriminated by the adjustment to HIV diagnosis (greater hopelessness and lower fighting spirit), disease factors (greater number of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related conditions), and background variables (neuroticism). Significant predictors of a past attempted suicide were a positive lifetime history of psychiatric disorder (particularly depression diagnoses), a lifetime history of infection drug use, and a family history of suicide attempts. The findings indicate increased levels of suicidal ideation in symptomatic HIV-positive men and highlight the role that multiple psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempted suicide play in this population. PMID:9775697

  12. Seasonality of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-02-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  13. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  14. Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. Methods and Findings We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996–2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997–1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998–2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999–2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999–2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006–2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide

  15. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...]. PMID:27376318

  16. Suicide terrorists: are they suicidal?

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-02-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors known to underpin suicidality, suggest that such terrorists are not truly suicidal and should not be viewed as a subgroup of the general suicide population. Nonetheless, methods developed by suicidologists, such as the psychological autopsy, will help increase our understanding of the individual and group factors that underpin suicide terrorism. PMID:17397278

  17. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Besten, Nadja I.; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-05-01

    Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers), oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without "visualising" the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage), capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks) of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low (soil) water storage

  18. Teenage Suicide in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Wilson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)

  19. Suicide in Detroit 1975: Changes and Continuities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed data on 193 cases of suicide in Detroit to assess changes and continuities in the etiology of suicide. Results showed the highest rate of suicide has shifted from the elderly to the relatively young age cohorts. Males, persons in manual occupations, Whites, and immigrants continued to have relatively high rates of suicide. (JAC)

  20. Suicide notes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention. PMID:8353698

  1. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    PubMed

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan. PMID:7233479

  2. Are Suicide Terrorists Suicidal? A Critical Assessment of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Most of the research on suicide terrorism is conducted in the political science and international relations fields. The prevailing wisdom within this literature is that suicide terrorists are not suicidal. But how good is the evidence for this assumption? Knowing whether suicide terrorists are suicidal has implications for prevention, rehabilitation, and the “softer” side of counterterrorism designed to win minds and hearts. In addition it may deepen our understanding of suicide itself. Design: This article uses a review of existing literature to examine the arguments and evidence for and against the possibility that suicide terrorists could be suicidal in the context of a broad range of explanations for suicide terrorism. Results: Much of the evidence against the possibility that suicide terrorists are suicidal is based on anecdote or faulty assumptions about suicide. Relatively few formal systematic studies of suicidality in suicide terrorists have been conducted. Nonetheless, there is emerging evidence that suicidality may play a role in a significant number of cases. Conclusion: The field needs a more multidimensional approach, more systematic data at the individual level, and greater international cross-disciplinary collaboration. Would-be suicide terrorists (intercepted and arrested on their way to an attack) should be routinely interviewed using standard internationally accepted psychiatric diagnostic interviews as well as suicidality and homicidality rating scales. Psychological autopsies should also be routinely conducted worldwide. Since no one research site can collect all of the information that is needed, the creation of an internationally shared database that focuses on suicide terrorists rather than simply incidents is encouraged. PMID:25520891

  3. Child and adolescent mental health problems in Tyva Republic, Russia, as possible risk factors for a high suicide rate.

    PubMed

    Slobodskaya, Helena R; Semenova, Nadezhda B

    2016-04-01

    High rates of child mental health problems in the Russian Federation have recently been documented; the rates of youth suicide are among the highest in the world. Across the Russian regions, Republic of Tyva has one of the highest rates of child and adolescent suicide and the lowest life expectancy at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of mental health problems in Native Tyvinian children and adolescents using internationally recognised measures and diagnoses. A two-stage, two-phase design involved selection of schools in five rural settlements in Western Tyva and two schools in the capital city followed by selection of Native Tyvinian children in grades 3-4 (ages 9-10) and 6-7 (ages 14-15). In the first phase, a screening measure of psychopathology, the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire, was obtained on 1048 children with a 97 % participation rate. In the second phase, more detailed psychiatric assessments were carried out for subgroups of screen-positive and screen-negative children. The prevalence of mental health problems was about 25 %, ranging from 40 % in adolescent boys from rural areas to 9 % in adolescent girls from the city. The patterning of disorders and risk factors were similar to those in other countries, rural areas were associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for interventions to reduce risk in this population and provide effective help for Tyvinian children and adolescents with mental health problems. PMID:26162484

  4. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment. PMID:19200631

  5. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  6. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  7. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their locker or backpack. Suicide rates differ between boys and girls. Girls think about and attempt suicide about twice ... by overdosing on drugs or cutting themselves. Yet boys die by suicide about four times as often girls, perhaps because they tend to use more lethal ...

  8. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iga, Mamoru

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the uniquely intense stress in Japan due to the "Examination Hell" which contributes to a high rate of young suicide. The social structural factors are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; lack of social resources; and views of life, death, and suicide. (Author)

  9. Fighting the Suicide Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2010-01-01

    Tribal colleges are at the forefront of a communitywide effort to combat suicide with culturally relevant methods. The Wiconi Ohitika project is one of several tribal college and mainstream university efforts to address the high rates of suicide among American Indians. According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the suicide…

  10. Prison Suicides in Austria, 1975-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick; Eher, Reinhard; Gutierrez, Karin; Ritter, Kristina

    2000-01-01

    Examines the prison suicide phenomenon by evaluating all suicides occurring in Austrian prisons between 1975 and 1997 (N=220). Results reveal suicide rates for prisoners on remand and mentally ill prisoners are 8 times higher than that of the general population. Recommends that psychologists concentrate on the suicide prevention of high-risk…

  11. Self-harm: 1. Suicide.

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, J.

    1983-01-01

    Although suicide rates have remained relatively stable, the risk of suicide has increased among 25- to 35-year-old men. Attempts to understand suicide fall into three major frameworks: sociologic theories, psychologic theories and the relation of suicide to psychiatric illness. The risk of suicide can be assessed by means of a relatively simple clinical interview. Since most suicide victims consult their family doctors within the month before their death, physicians are in a unique position to prevent suicide. Routine assessment of the risk of suicide among patients who appear depressed or are undergoing an emotional crisis can lead to accurate diagnosis and effective intervention. Similarly, the appropriate use of psychotropic medication can lead to effective treatment while minimizing the risk of a lethal overdose. PMID:6861043

  12. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... or alcohol use Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) Schizophrenia Stressful life issues, such as serious financial or ... personality disorder Drug or alcohol dependence Major depression Schizophrenia Always take suicide attempts and threats seriously. If ...

  13. How the Timing of a Patient’s Self-ratings of Suicidality and the Relationship to the Recipient Affect Patient Responses: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study explores to what extent, if any, a subject’s reporting varies depending upon whom the subject believes will view the data and the relationship the subject has with the reviewer. It also explores the variance in reporting if several days pass between the timeframe in question and the time of data collection. Method: The subject answered three suicidality-related scales (the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, the Suicidality Modifiers, and the Alphs Dichotomous Impulsivity and Hopelessness Two Questions) for 24 distinct timeframes. The scales were rated three different ways for each timeframe. The first was for only the patient. Immediately afterward, the scales were answered for the subject’s therapist. A few days later, the scales were again answered by the patient, but only for the patient. The three different interviews for the same timeframe were compared to investigate any deviations. Results: This case study found clinically relevant deviations between the three ratings completed for the same timeframe. Conclusion: This case study illustrates that a patient’s reporting of his or her symptoms of suicidality using a patient-rated scale can vary depending upon the context, distance from timeframe in question, and the patient’s relationship with the reviewer of the data. PMID:25520898

  14. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    PubMed Central

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  15. Suicide among foreign residents of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C

    2011-02-01

    The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination. PMID:21526599

  16. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  17. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  18. Parents' and Teachers' Concordance with Children's Self-Ratings of Suicidality: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana J.; Nooner, Kate B.; Wike, Traci; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Briggs, Ernestine C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined concordance between adult and child reports of child suicidality using a sample of 1,046 8-year-old children at risk for, or having experienced, maltreatment. Concordance was low with both caregivers and teachers. For children reporting no suicidality, caregiver-child agreement was associated with few transitions in caregiver…

  19. Projected rates of psychological disorders and suicidality among soldiers based on simulations of matched general population data

    PubMed Central

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Gilman, Stephen E.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available on lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of psychological disorders and suicidal behaviors among Army personnel. We used simulation methods to approximate such estimates based on analysis of data from a U.S. national general population survey with the socio-demographic profile of U.S. Army personnel. Estimated lifetime prevalence of any DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, or substance disorder in this sample was 53.1 percent (17.7 percent for mood disorders, 27.2 percent for anxiety disorders, 22.7 percent for behavior disorders, and 14.4 percent for substance disorders). The vast majority of cases had onsets prior to the expected age-of-enlistment if they were in the Army (91.6 percent). Lifetime prevalence was 14.2 percent for suicidal ideation, 5.4 percent for suicide plans, and 4.5 percent for suicide attempts. The proportion of estimated pre-enlistment onsets was between 68.4 percent (suicide plans) and 82.4 percent (suicidal ideation). Externalizing disorders with onsets prior to expected age-of-enlistment and internalizing disorders with onsets after expected age-of-enlistment significantly predicted post-enlistment suicide attempts, with population attributable risk proportions of 41.8 percent and 38.8 percent, respectively. Implications of these findings are discussed for interventions designed to screen, detect, and treat psychological disorders and suicidality in the Army. PMID:23025127

  20. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  1. Young adult follow-up of adolescent girls in juvenile justice using the Columbia suicide severity rating scale.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D; Degarmo, David S

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the reliability and validity of the Columbia Suicide Severity Scale (C-SSRS). Severely delinquent adolescent girls (n = 166) participated in a treatment trial and repeated assessments over time. Lifetime suicide attempt history was measured using the C-SSRS in early adulthood (n = 144; 7-12 years postbaseline). Nonclinician raters showed strong interrater reliability using the C-SSRS. Self-reports, caseworker reports, and caregiver reports of girls' suicide attempt histories collected at baseline correlated with adult participants' recollections of their baseline attempt histories. Suicidal ideation measured prospectively across a 7- to -12-year period was associated with retrospectively reported suicide attempt across the same period. PMID:24446880

  2. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  3. Suicide of a cyclist.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Rost, Thomas; Jungmann, Lara; Pollak, Stefan

    2011-04-15

    The rate of suicides in road traffic fatalities is estimated at 1-8% depending on the investigated study material. Especially single-car accidents, for which no technical reason or driving error is apparent, are considered suspicious. The elucidation of suicides in road traffic is difficult if there are no relevant clues such as the announcement of suicide plans shortly before the event or a suicide note. Individuals who intentionally kill themselves in road traffic often have a history of mental illness. The authors report on a suicide using a bicycle. A 71-year-old man intentionally drove into the wall of a house situated at the end of a hill road and suffered an open craniocerebral trauma and an aortic rupture. The pattern of findings and the circumstances of the case are described. PMID:21183300

  4. Youth Suicide: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined changes in the suicide rate of teenagers and young adults internationally from 1970 to 1980. Twenty-three nations experienced increases (with Norway experiencing the largest percentage increase), while six experienced decreases. Unlike general suicide rates, teenage suicide rates were not related to the quality of life in the nations…

  5. Suicide in women.

    PubMed

    Brockington, L

    2001-03-01

    This article reviews research into suicide in women during the last 25 years. National rates vary between the extremes of 19/10(5) per year in Sri Lanka and < 1/10(5) per year in the Philippines and Egypt, but almost everywhere rates for women are much lower than male rates, with a median ratio of 2.8/1. The exceptions are in India and China, which report higher rates in young married women. The reproductive process has some influence. While menstruation, hormonal treatment, pregnancy and the puerperium have no major effect, unwanted pregnancy may still lead to suicide under certain circumstances, and severe labour can occasionally do so. Having children protects, but the relative risk is no more than 2.0 in nulliparous women. Social factors also have a limited effect. There are higher rates of suicide in divorced women, but the evidence on widowhood is equivocal. Prosperity and employment have no effect. Sexual abuse, rape and domestic violence undoubtedly lead to suicide attempts, but the evidence on completed suicide is lacking. There are many unanswered questions, especially why rates of completed suicide for women (with a greater prevalence of overt depression) are lower than for men, and why Chinese and Indian women have higher rates. More research is required, especially from developing nations. PMID:11349759

  6. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership. PMID:23975641

  7. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  8. Do Geographic Regions with Higher Suicide Rates Also Have Higher Rates of Nonfatal Intentional Self-Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Carmody, Thomas; Bossarte, Robert; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Elliott, Stephen; Currier, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal intentional self-harm events in eight U.S. states were compared using emergency department, hospital, and vital statistics data. Nonfatal event rates increased by an estimated 24.20% over 6 years. Case fatality ratios varied widely, but two northeastern states' total event rates (fatal plus nonfatal) were very high (New…

  9. Suicide prevention in correctional facilities: reflections and next steps.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay M

    2013-01-01

    Data from a recent national study of inmate suicides indicates that the suicide rate in county jails throughout the United States has steadily decreased. Despite this progress, the author argues that rather than developing and maintaining comprehensive policies and practices, policymakers and correctional administrators appear preoccupied with the notion that suicides can only be prevented when inmates are on suicide precautions. Measures such as closed-circuit television monitoring, suicide-resistant jail cells, safety smocks, and new technology are popular tools to keep certain inmates safe. There is more to suicide prevention than simply observing suicidal inmates and waiting for them to attempt suicide. The author argues that suicides are prevented and suicide rates reduced when correctional facilities provide a comprehensive array of programming that identifies suicidal inmates who are otherwise difficult to identify, ensures their safety on suicide precautions, and provides a continuity of care throughout confinement. PMID:23664363

  10. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents. PMID:25248622

  11. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Results Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Conclusion Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide. PMID:25866521

  12. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse plays a diminishing role in later life suicides compared to younger suicides. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  13. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    PubMed

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing. PMID:18389641

  14. Suicide among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Cross-National Comparison of 34 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gregory R.; Krug, Etienne G.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on survey about suicide among 15- to 24-year-olds (N=15,555) in 34 of the wealthiest nations. Finland led in total and firearm-related suicides. An association was found between divorce rates and youth suicide rates, firearm-related suicide, and suicide rates among young males. An association was found between firearm availability and…

  15. Suicide and homicide in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1995-10-01

    Suicide and homicide rates are lower in Costa Rica than in the United States. Firearms are used less often for suicide and for murder in Costa Rica than in the United States; hanging is more common as a method for suicide in Costa Rica and cutting/piercing more common as a method for murder. Suicide rates do not increase with age in Costa Rica, while the chances of being murdered do increase with age, unlike the United States. PMID:7500855

  16. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea. PMID:23234093

  17. Adolescent Suicide and Intervention in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca M.

    In 1976, suicides in the 15-24 year-old group (N=4,747) made up over 17% of all suicides in all age groups (N=26,750). In 1968, adolescent suicides (N=2,591) were only 12% of the total (N=21,000). Adolescent suicide rate is alarming unless put into perspective with the accident rate and the cultural belief in individual rights, responsibility, and…

  18. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  19. THE GROWING PROBLEM OF SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Richard A.

    1953-01-01

    Informed as to the epidemiologic aspects of suicide and as to warning signs, physicians could, by appropriate action, prevent self-destruction in many cases. Not only ought each physician's office be a suicide prevention station, but all physicians ought to act in concert to gather data, to carry out a program of public instruction and to enlist the aid of the press in an effort to reduce the ever-increasing rate of suicide. PMID:13059637

  20. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  1. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  2. Suicide in the US Army.

    PubMed

    Lineberry, Timothy W; O'Connor, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Suicide in the US Army is a high-profile public health problem that is complex and poorly understood. Adding to the confusion surrounding Army suicide is the challenge of defining and understanding individuals/populations dying by suicide. Data from recent studies have led to a better understanding of risk factors for suicide that may be specifically associated with military service, including the impact of combat and deployment on increased rates of psychiatric illness in military personnel. The next steps involve applying these results to the development of empirically supported suicide prevention approaches specific to the military population. This special article provides an overview of suicide in the Army by synthesizing new information and providing clinical pearls based on research evidence. PMID:22958991

  3. Suicide in the US Army

    PubMed Central

    Lineberry, Timothy W.; O'Connor, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in the US Army is a high-profile public health problem that is complex and poorly understood. Adding to the confusion surrounding Army suicide is the challenge of defining and understanding individuals/populations dying by suicide. Data from recent studies have led to a better understanding of risk factors for suicide that may be specifically associated with military service, including the impact of combat and deployment on increased rates of psychiatric illness in military personnel. The next steps involve applying these results to the development of empirically supported suicide prevention approaches specific to the military population. This special article provides an overview of suicide in the Army by synthesizing new information and providing clinical pearls based on research evidence. PMID:22958991

  4. Types and Number of Traumas Associated With Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in PTSD: Findings From a U.S. Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; McMillan, Katherine A; Thibodeau, Michel A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, research has largely focused on specific samples and a limited range of traumas. We examined suicidal ideation and suicide attempt relating to 27 traumas within a nationally representative U.S. sample of individuals with PTSD. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Participants were assessed for lifetime PTSD and trauma history, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. We calculated the proportion of individuals reporting suicidal ideation or suicide attempt for each trauma and for the number of unique traumas experienced. Most traumas were associated with greater suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in individuals with PTSD compared to individuals with no lifetime trauma or with lifetime trauma but no PTSD. Childhood maltreatment, assaultive violence, and peacekeeping traumas had the highest rates of suicidal ideation (49.1% to 51.9%) and suicide attempt (22.8% to 36.9%). There was substantial variation in rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for war and terrorism-related traumas. Multiple traumas increased suicidality, such that each additional trauma was associated with an increase of 20.1% in rate of suicidal ideation and 38.9% in rate of suicide attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied markedly by trauma type and number of traumas, and these factors may be important in assessing and managing suicidality in individuals with PTSD. PMID:25990916

  5. How many suicide terrorists are suicidal?

    PubMed

    McCauley, Clark

    2014-08-01

    Suicide terrorists in recent decades total approximately 3,500. Lankford finds risk factors for suicide for about 40 of these cases. Given that many with risk factors for suicide never attempt suicide, a reasonable estimate might be that one percent of suicide terrorists are suicidal. PMID:25162852

  6. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes

    PubMed Central

    Namratha, P.; Kishor, M.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. Objective: The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. Results: A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16–40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. Conclusion: The majority of suicidal note contained “guilt” which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world. PMID:26816426

  7. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  8. Suicidality in a Sample of Arctic Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggarty, John M.; Cernovsky, Zack; Bedard, Michel; Merskey, Harold

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association of suicidal ideation and behavior with depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Canadian Arctic Inuit community. Inuit (N = 111) from a random sample of households completed assessments of anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, and suicidality. High rates of suicidal ideation within the past week (43.6%), and…

  9. Suicide and Elderly People: Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Sharon M.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that people over age 60 have highest suicide rates and comprise one-fourth of all suicides. Presents case study illustrating risk assessment and intervention with elderly woman. Examines clinical issues related to recognition of suicidal elderly patients and presents practical approach to early detection, evaluation, and management of…

  10. Prospective Cohort Study of Stress, Life Satisfaction, Self-Rated Health, Insomnia, and Suicide Death in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2005-01-01

    The association between many psychosocial factors and risk of suicide was examined. A cohort was conducted over 14 years of follow up among the general population (15,597 people) in Japan. A baseline survey of psychosocial characteristics was conducted by self-administrated questionnaire. The relative risks of occasional emotional stress,…

  11. An availability-acceptability theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1987-09-01

    A theory was proposed to account for the appearance of suicide. The lack of immediate availability of the preferred means for killing oneself and the religious belief that suicide is an unacceptable action both serve to reduce the likelihood of suicide. This theory was tested and confirmed using an ecological analysis of the continental states of the USA. The two variables together accounted for 46 percent of the variation of the suicide rates of the states. PMID:3425207

  12. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas. PMID:25765170

  13. [Suicides in Austria: update on present state and recent trends].

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Nestor; Sonneck, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rates exceed fatal traffic accidents two-fold in Austria but have been decreasing since 1987. Against common perceptions, approximately 75 % of all suicides in Austria are commited by men each year and while suicide attempts are more common in adolescents, completed suicides increase with age. Studies show that suicide rates are more common in rural than in urban areas and are associated with socio-economic factors. Nationwide prevention efforts should keep these epidemiological aspects in mind. PMID:23055303

  14. Suicide Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David H.

    1975-01-01

    Interviews with seven of ten known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay bridges showed a unique association between the Golden Gate Bridge and suicide. The study went beyond exploring the nature of suicidal jumps and shed new light on the experience of nearly dying. All the survivors described this experience as tranquil and peaceful. None of them experienced life events or distant memories passing through their minds or before their eyes. However, all of them experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. Suggestions for preventing suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge are discussed, including the construction of a suicide barrier. PMID:1171558

  15. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  16. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African…

  17. Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

  18. Songs of Despair: A Case Study of Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.

    This report outlines the extent of the problem of adolescent suicide in the United States, noting that suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in this country and that the rate of suicide by adolescents is expected to continue to increase in the future. It examines one adolescent suicide, using the case study method, to…

  19. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  20. Farewell to the World: Suicide Notes from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Birol; Akar, Taner; Sayin, Aslihan; Candansayar, Selcuk; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of suicide in Islamic countries. This paper marks the first study of suicide notes in Turkey, an Islamic country. Using a classification scheme, 49 suicide notes (a rate of 34.5%) were studied. The results show that note writers do not differ greatly from other suicides. Further analysis of younger (less than 40) and…

  1. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  2. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  3. Musical creativity and suicide.

    PubMed

    Preti, A; De Biasi, F; Miotto, P

    2001-12-01

    The different abilities involved in artistic creativity may be mirrored by differences among mental disorders prevalent in each artistic profession, taking poets, painters, and composers as examples. Using suicide rates as a proxy for the prevalence of mental disorders in groups of artists, we investigated the percentage of deaths by suicide in a sample of 4,564 eminent artists who died in the 19th and 20th centuries. Of the sample, 2,259 were primarily involved in activities of a linguistic nature, e.g., poets and writers; 834 were primarily visual artists, such as painters and sculptors; and 1,471 were musicians (composers and instrumentalists). There were 63 suicides in the sample (1.3% of total deaths). Musicians as a group had lower suicide rates than literary and visual artists. Beyond socioeconomic reasons, which might favour interpretations based on effects of health selection, the lower rate of suicides among musicians may reflect some protective effect arising from music. PMID:11824743

  4. Adolescent suicide: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sudak, H S; Ford, A B; Rushforth, N B

    1984-07-01

    Etiological theories of suicide are reviewed from epidemiological, individual (both biological and psychological), and psychosocial perspectives. Cohort and population-model approaches as explanations for the two- to three-fold increase in completed suicide rates observed in adolescents and young adults over the past 25 years are presented. The results of the authors' study of suicides in adolescents and young adults in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to test these hypotheses are summarized. This study revealed marked cohort differences in suicide rates and provided partial support for the "population-model" approach. Differences between suicide rates in adolescents and other age groups are discussed, as are data from some minority groups. The role of depression in adolescents and various studies of diagnostic approaches (e.g., structured diagnostic assessments, biological markers, clues during intensive psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, studies of high-risk diagnostic groups) are reviewed. Lastly, treatment employing individual, family, and group approaches to classical psychoanalytic or cognitive psychotherapy as well as the role of pharmacological treatments are considered. PMID:6385734

  5. Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Lynda Y.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Explores the causes and symptoms of adolescent suicide including depression, loss of parent, alienation from family, and a mystical concept of death. Treatment procedures with unsuccessful suicide attempters and their parents are described and prevention strategies are discussed which involve teachers and counselors as well as parents. (JAC)

  6. Suicide Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Researchers say the best way to prevent suicide is to find and treat kids with depression and substance-abuse problems. Schools should also develop a suicide-prevention policy, make curriculum decisions wisely, train staff as detectives, notify parents, make sure affected children get help, and attend to survivors. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  7. Suicide Risk in Primary Care: Identification and Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raue, Patrick J.; Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2014-01-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:25030971

  8. Suicide Risk Assessments: Which Suicide Risk Factors Psychiatric Residents Consider Significant?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Hwang, Sunyoung; Yeon, Bora; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients visiting the emergency department (ED) after a suicide attempt are generally assessed for suicide risk by psychiatric residents. Psychiatric residents' competence in evaluating the risk posed by the patients who attempted suicide is critical to preventing suicide. Methods We investigated factors considered important by psychiatric residents when evaluating suicide risk. This study included 140 patients admitted to the ED after attempting suicide. Psychiatric residents rated patients' severity of current and future suicide risk as low/moderate/high using the Brief Emergency Room Suicide Risk Assessment (BESRA). The association between each BESRA variable and level of suicide risk was analyzed. Results Many factors were commonly considered important in evaluating the severity of current and future suicide risk. However, the following factors were only associated with future suicide risk: female gender, having no religion, family psychiatric history, history of axis I disorders, having a will, harboring no regrets, and social isolation. Conclusion Psychiatric residents use diverse factors when assessing suicide risk. Psychiatric residents might put more emphasis on non-modifiable demographic and clinical factors, concrete evidence showing suicide determination, and social isolation to assess the risk of future suicide. PMID:26207124

  9. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  10. Educating Students about Suicide: A Framework for the Use of "Fotonovelas" on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Satya P.; Taani, Murad; Lozano, Valerie; Kennedy, Elizabeth England

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 1,000 suicides on college campuses every year, with rates of completed suicide ranging between 0.5-7.5 per 100,000 among students. In addition to the prevalence of suicide ideation, attempts, and completions, students at high risk of suicide often do not seek help. As a major public health problem, suicide prevalence has not…

  11. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  12. Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Young People. Report on a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Suicide and attempted suicide are problems which continue to occupy the world-wide attention of both health service administrators and research workers. National statistics of completed suicides have shown an increase in rates among people aged 15-24 years and even among children below the age of 15. Conference discussions were based on working…

  13. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  14. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  15. Among U.S. Military, Army Members Face Highest Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... investigation comes amid a rising suicide rate among military personnel throughout the last 15 years of continual war. ... at suicides among all active-duty enlisted U.S. military personnel as recorded by the "Suicide Data Repository." This ...

  16. Gun control, gun ownership, and suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States was explored. Gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was found to be the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. Regions with a higher extent of gun ownership had higher rates of suicide and homicide by firearms. PMID:3262246

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Related Hospitalizations in the United States (2002-2011): Rates, Co-Occurring Illnesses, Suicidal Ideation/Self-Harm, and Hospital Charges.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Mark G; Banta, Jim E; Sonne, Janet L; Przekop, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related hospitalizations in the United States (2002-2011). Over this period, there were an estimated 1,477,944 hospitalizations (915,591 women) with either a primary (reason for hospitalization) or secondary PTSD diagnosis. Population-based hospitalization rates rose from 2002 to 2011; women in the age range of 20 to 44 years had the highest rates and the steepest rise. Most of the hospitalizations for men and women younger than 45 years had been assigned a primary diagnosis of mental illness (including PTSD). Mood and substance use disorders were among the most commonly co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses with PTSD. Suicidal ideation/suicide attempts declined with increasing age. The strongest predictor of this criterion was mood disorder, and its importance as a predictor increased as people aged. Total inflation-adjusted charges for all PTSD-related hospitalizations were $34.9 billion, with 36% being for hospitalizations where a mental illness (including PTSD) was the primary diagnosis. PMID:26588079

  18. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents. Some Facts about the Rising Rate of Suicide among American Indian Adolescents; Information on Causes and Warning Signs; and Examples of Effective Efforts and Prevention Resources. Linkages for Indian Child Welfare Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Irving N.

    Suicide among American Indian adolescents has increased by almost 1000% over the past 20 years to become, as in Anglo society, the second most frequent cause of death in the 10 to 20 year old age group. The two major causes of adolescent suicide are acute stress and chronic depression. Environmental factors contributing to American Indian suicides…

  19. Life Cycle and Suicidal Behavior among Women

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Bustos, Pablo; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Baca-García, Enrique; Ceverino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    It is nowadays accepted that, independently of methodological issues, women commit fewer suicides than men but make more frequent attempts. Yet, female suicidal risk varies greatly along the lifetime and is linked to the most significant moments in it. A wide analysis of the existing literature was performed to provide a narrative description on the evolution of female suicidal rates from childhood to old age, considering the milestones in their life history. A detailed analysis of gender differences in suicidal behavior is key to establish preventive measures and priorities. More specific studies are needed to adapt future interventions on female suicide. PMID:23533350

  20. [Economic recession, unemployment and suicide].

    PubMed

    Duleba, Timea; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Dome, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Considering the ongoing global economic crisis which began in 2007 it is reasonable to discuss its possible and expectable effects on mental health. In our narrative review we have summarized the scientific literature on the relationship between economic downturns, unemployment and suicide rate. In addition, we have summarized the theories about the background of this relationship as well. Suicide is an extremely complex phenomenon since it is influenced by several environmental and genetic factors. Furthermore, some of these factors are mutually interrelated, so the independent effect of these frequently remains elusive and hard to investigate from a methodological point of view. Although results are somewhat contradictory, it seems that unemployment is an independent risk factor for both suicide and depression. The first papers about the effect of the current economic crisis on suicide rates have been published and their results confirmed the association between the rise of unemployment rate and the increase of suicide rate in both old and new members of the European Union. Although psychiatric, and primarily depressive illness is a major risk factor for suicide, understanding the contributing role of other etiologic factors in their complex relationship may be an important task in predicting and preventing suicide both at the level of at risk individuals and the whole population. PMID:22427469

  1. Proximal risk factors and suicide methods among suicide completers from national suicide mortality data 2004-2006 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. PMID:21497215

  2. Relationships between suicide and three economic factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken; Nishimura, Yukika; Nishida, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Masaki, Mina; Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Nata, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2010-03-01

    The number of suicides in South Korea totaled 4840 in 1995 and 8569 in 1998; in Japan, suicides totaled 21,420 in 1995 and 31,755 in 1998. Suicide prevention is an important issue for both South Korea and Japan. In South Korea, factors related to the increase in suicides must be clarified, and specific suicide prevention measures must be promptly discussed in order to decrease the number of suicides. Therefore, this report examined suicide and unemployment rates and increased rates of mining and industrial production and of money supply in South Korea from 1990 to 2002. This report also discusses the relationships between suicide and unemployment rates and increased rates of mining and industrial production and increased rates of money supply during the same period. During the period studied, annual suicide rates ranged from 7.1 to 18.3 per 100,000 populations. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the suicide rate was clearly related to the unemployment rate, but the suicide rate was not related to increased rates of mining and industrial production and increased rates of money supply. Thus, when unemployment rates increase, relevant organizations and the community should pay close attention to the increase in suicide rates. PMID:20116322

  3. Reflections on suicide among soldiers.

    PubMed

    Jobes, David A

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers the Nock et al. review article (this issue) and provides additional perspectives pertaining to current concerns about Soldier suicides. The review article is relevant to the current Army STARRS research project, which is one of the most significant scientific undertakings in the history of suicide research. The review is an outstanding and thorough consideration of psychosocial risk and protective factors that may be related to Soldier suicide. While Army STARRS is a landmark effort, the author does note the need for innovation and alternative approaches to addressing alarming increases in Soldier suicides. Indeed, the dramatic increase seen in Soldier suicides over the past several years poses one of the more vexing challenges that the field of suicidology has faced to date. To this end, the author explores some alternative considerations that were not particularly featured in the review article. Some of these considerations include perspectives on military culture in relation to conventional suicide prevention as well as exciting developments emerging from clinical trial treatment research using suicidal military samples. It is argued that the magnitude of the current problem requires both innovative approaches and a sound scientific foundation to meaningfully impact and reduce the unprecedentedly high rates of Soldier suicide. PMID:23631543

  4. Gun ownership and suicide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-05-01

    The circulation of firearm magazines was used as an index of gun ownership in the states of the USA. States with a higher per capita circulation of firearm magazines had higher suicide rates by gun and higher overall suicide rates. Homicide rates were unrelated to this measure of gun availability. Implications for the prevention of suicide are discussed. PMID:2788293

  5. A Study on Correlation between Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Yeon; Yun, Kyu Wol; Kim, Young Chul; Lim, Weon-Jeong; Kim, Eui-Jung; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective In South Korea, the number of deaths from suicide has increased in the last two decades, and suicide has become both a social and political problem. In this study, after controlling the variables influencing suicidal ideation, it was expected that it would be determined if anxiety symptoms are independently related to suicidal ideation. Methods Data were obtained from 327 psychiatric outpatients accomplished a self-reported questionnaire that included sociodemographic characteristics and clinical variables as well as self-rating scales for measuring the severity of one's anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Logistic-regression analyses were used to determine the correlation between anxiety symptoms and significant suicidal ideation, adjusting for covariates. Results The patients with significant suicidal ideation were shown to be less educated, unemployed, never married, divorced, or separated by death, or living alone, and were shown to have a lower income, a drinking habit, a higher number of past suicide attempts, and more family members who committed suicide, than the patients without significant suicidal ideation. After adjusting the covariates influencing significant suicidal ideation, anxiety symptoms were associated with significant suicidal ideation. However, after adjusting for depressive symptoms, only the trait anxiety was associated with significant suicidal ideation. Conclusion These findings suggest that anxiety symptoms are an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Clinicians may thus use anxiety symptoms for the screening examination when evaluating suicidal ideation and risk, and will have to actively evaluate and treat the anxiety symptoms of patients with suicidal tendencies. PMID:22216041

  6. Characteristics of young rural Chinese suicides: a psychological autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Wieczorek, W.; Conwell, Y.; Tu, X.-M.; Wu, B. Y.-W.; Xiao, S.; Jia, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of suicide rates in China differ in many ways from those in the West. This study aimed to identify the risk factors characteristic for young rural Chinese suicides. Method This was a case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study. The samples were suicides and living controls (both aged 15–34 years) from 16 rural counties of China. We interviewed two informants for each suicide and each control with pretested and validated instruments to estimate psychosocial, psychiatric and other risk factors for suicides. Results The prevalence of mental disorders was higher among the young Chinese who died by suicide than among the living controls, but was lower than among suicides in the West. Marriage was not a protecting factor for suicide among young rural Chinese women, and never-married women who were involved in relationships were about three times more likely to commit suicide than single women who were unattached. Religion/religiosity was not a protecting factor in Chinese suicide, as it tended to be stronger for suicides than for controls. Impulsivity was significantly higher for suicides than for controls. Psychological strain, resulting from conflicting social values between communist gender equalitarianism and Confucian gender discrimination, was associated significantly with suicide in young rural Chinese women, even after accounting for the role of psychiatric illness. Conclusions Risk factors for suicide in rural China are different from those in the West. Psychological strain plays a role in suicide. Suicide prevention programs in China should incorporate culture-specific considerations. PMID:19656428

  7. Suicide protective factors among trans adults.

    PubMed

    Moody, Chérie; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2013-07-01

    A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41 % among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide resilience, which are known to protect cis (non-trans) individuals, also protect trans individuals. A sample of self-identified trans Canadian adults (N = 133) was recruited from LGBT and trans LISTSERVs. Data were collected online using a secure survey platform. A three block hierarchical multiple regression model was used to predict suicidal behavior from protective factors. Social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism significantly and negatively predicted 33 % of variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age. Reasons for living and suicide resilience accounted for an additional 19 % of the variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age, social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism. Of the factors mentioned above, perceived social support from family, one of three suicide resilience factors (emotional stability), and one of six reasons for living (child-related concerns) significantly and negatively predicted participants' suicidal behavior. Overall, these findings can be used to inform the practices of mental health workers, medical doctors, and suicide prevention workers working with trans clients. PMID:23613139

  8. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18–61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Results Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Conclusions Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay. PMID:24106884

  9. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. Objective To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Design Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970–2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993–1994 and 2005–2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Results Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Conclusion Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention. PMID:25701279

  10. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  11. Suicide pacts.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, L; Thilothammal, N

    1993-01-01

    Suicide pacts in an Indian population were studied through police records of the state of Tamul Nadu. A total of 148 suicide pacts, involving 324 persons, were identified. More women died in them than might be expected from general population figures. Social stressors like financial problems and marriage-related issues were the principal causes. The results and their implications are discussed and compared with those obtained in Western and other Eastern countries. PMID:8504674

  12. Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (Sheehan-STS)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and prospective assessments of treatment-emergent suicidal thoughts and behaviors are essential to both clinical care and randomized clinical trials. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale is a prospective, patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks both treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was incorporated into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and active comparator study examining the efficacy of an experimental corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (BMS-562086) for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Method: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was administered to subjects at baseline, Week 2, Week 4, and Week 8 or early termination. Subjects completed theSheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale by self report. The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale was designated as an exploratory outcome measure in the study protocol, and post-hoc analyses were performed to examine the performance of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. Results: A total of 82 subjects completed the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale during the course of the study. Altogether, these subjects provided 297 completed Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale ratings across the study time points. Sixty-one subjects (n=25 placebo, n=24 BMS-562086, and n=12 escitalopram) had a baseline and at least one post-baseline Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale measurement. The mean change from baseline at Week 8 in the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale total score was -0.10, -0.02, and -0.06 for escitalopram, placebo, and BMS-562086 groups, respectively. The sensitivity of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale and HAM-D Item #3 (suicide) for identifying subjects with suicidal thoughts or behaviors was 100 percent and 63 percent, respectively. Conclusions: The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale may be a sensitive psychometric tool to prospectively assess for treatment

  13. An Assessment of Community Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGrove, William

    1977-01-01

    The contributions of several core variables to the white suicide rates in 24 Florida counties were examined. A prediction equation including age, crime rate, insanity, and alcoholism was found that accounted for 79 percent of the variation in the suicide rates across counties. (Author)

  14. Long‐term impact of celebrity suicide on suicidal ideation: results from a population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, King‐wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2007-01-01

    Background The short‐term effect of celebrity suicide on the overall suicide rate is widely known, but long‐term effects remain unclear. Objective To examine whether celebrity suicide is associated with suicidal ideation over a longer period. Design This is a study on the effect of the suicide of a famous Hong Kong entertainment celebrity, who committed suicide on 1 April 2003, on suicide thoughts of the community. A population‐based survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Respondents were asked about their suicidal ideation, psychological well‐being, life events, and whether or not they had been affected by celebrity suicide. Setting Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the People's Republic of China. Participants 2016 respondents aged between 20 and 59 years. Results After controlling for some known suicide risk factors, celebrity suicide was shown to be independently associated with suicidal ideation. People who had indicated to have been affected by celebrity suicide were 5.93 times (95% CI 2.56% to 13.72%, p = 0) more likely to have severe level of suicidal ideation (Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire score ≧31) than people who had not been affected. Respondents having greater anxiety symptoms, less reason for living and more focus on irrational values were also found to have had their suicide ideation affected by celebrity suicide. Conclusions Celebrity suicide is a risk factor for suicidal ideation over a short term as well as over a long term. Raising awareness of the possible negative effect of celebrity suicide through suicide prevention programmes in the community is needed. PMID:17496264

  15. Critical Components of Suicide Prevention Programs for Colleges and Universities: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…

  16. Suicides in Active-Duty Enlisted Navy Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Yoshito; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    Compared completed suicides among U.S. Navy enlisted personnel from 1974-85 to suicides in U.S. general population and in U.S. Army. Navy suicide rate, lowest of three groups, increased between 1976 and 1983, in contrast to national and Army rates. Young white males in apprentice/recruit and blue-collar occupations had highest rates of suicide in…

  17. The newsworthiness of suicide.

    PubMed

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-06-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered news-worthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those involving dramatic methods. Reported suicides fell into three groups: suicides reported in a broader context; suicides by celebrities; and suicides involving unusual circumstances/methods. The data suggest a need for media professionals and suicide experts to work together to balance newsworthiness against the risk of copycat behavior. PMID:17579540

  18. Suicide Mortality among Kentucky Farmers, 1979-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallones, Lorann

    1990-01-01

    Compared age-specific suicide rates for Kentucky White farmers, Kentucky White males, and United States White males. Found suicide rates highest for farmers, followed by Kentucky males, and the United States males. All males were most likely to use firearms to commit suicide, but farmers and other Kentucky males used firearms significantly more…

  19. Suicide in Juveniles and Adolescents in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windfuhr, Kirsten; While, David; Hunt, Isabelle; Turnbull, Pauline; Lowe, Rebecca; Burns, Jimmy; Swinson, Nicola; Shaw, Jenny; Appleby, Louis; Kapur, Navneet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youths. Comparatively few studies have studied recent trends over time, or examined rates and characteristics of service contact in well-defined national samples. Methods: Data on general population suicides and mid-year population estimates were used to calculate suicide rates (per…

  20. The Evolution of Epidemic Suicide on Guam: Context and Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of suicide rates for Guam were analyzed by age, sex, period, and cohort. Youth suicide increased rapidly in the 1990s; certain cohorts have higher rates. Four explanatory factors are discussed, including ecological factors and migration from the Federated States of Micronesia. Direct and indirect suicide contagion followed the death…

  1. Variability in College Student Suicide: Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, J. Hugh; Belesis, Maria P.; Balliet, Wendy E.

    2005-01-01

    The research on college student suicide is discussed, with emphasis on variability in base rates, the operating assumptions regarding reported base rates, and methodological difficulties in studying suicide. Variability in suicide among schools and among different types of students is examined, and the effects of changing demographics and cultural…

  2. Firearms and suicide in US cities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Warren, Molly; Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    On an average day in the USA more than 100 Americans die by suicide-half use firearms. Suicide rates overall and by firearms are higher, on average, in states where household firearm ownership is more common. In general this means in states where a greater proportion of the population lives in rural areas. The current ecological study focuses on the relation between measures of household firearm prevalence and suicide mortality in urban areas (metropolitan statistical areas and divisions) using survey-based measures of firearm ownership. Suicide rates (1999-2010) for metropolitan statistical areas that are comprised of large US cities come from death certificate records; rates of household firearm ownership come from the 2002 and 2004 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System. Higher rates of firearm ownership are strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with non-firearm suicide. Stratification by gender, age and race did not materially affect the association between firearms and suicide. This study provides evidence consistent with previous case-control work and extends evidence from previous state- and region-level ecological studies that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond baseline. PMID:24302479

  3. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  4. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A.; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. PMID:26690227

  5. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans' attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. PMID:26690227

  6. "Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seko, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing cyberspace…

  7. National police suicide estimates: web surveillance study III.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Andrew F; Violanti, John M; Levenson, Richard L; Clark, Ronald G

    2013-01-01

    The present study is the third in a series of web surveillance of police suicides (prior analyses conducted in 2008 and 2009). In this age of world web communications, a police suicide in even the smallest and most remote community is generally transmitted nationally and through police websites, forums, and blogs. 55,000 police suicide specific web articles were reviewed over the entire year 2012 data was then compared with 2008 and 2009 police suicide data. There were 141 police suicides in 2008. Suicides declined from 143 in 2009 to 126 in 2012 (an 11.9% decrease). Across the three time periods, male and female suicides appeared to occur at a similar rate, averaging 92% and 6% respectively. In 2012, (1) suicides appeared to cluster more in the 40-44 year age group more than in previous years among officers of lower rank; (2) an increase in suicide was seen among officers with 15-19 years of service; (3) gunshots remained the most prevalent means of suicide across all three years (91.5%), and (4) personal problems appeared to be prevalent (83%) with work associated legal problems ranking second (13%). Approximately 11% of suicides were military veterans. California (n = 10) and New York (n = 12) had the highest police suicide rates. Four murder-suicides were noted over the entire year. Suggestions for suicide preventive policies, improving police mental health, and future research are discussed. PMID:24187885

  8. Characterization of the gunshot suicides.

    PubMed

    Balci, Y; Canogullari, G; Ulupinar, E

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study is to present the characteristics of gunshot suicides by highlighting the ones with multiple entrance wounds. The criminal investigation reports of suicides (n=318) during the period 1991-2000, in the central judicial district of Eskisehir were investigated. 20.4% of all suicide cases (n=65) used firearms. Firearm suicides were more common in males and their frequency decreased as age increased. The usage of long-barrelled weapons was 47.7%. Among the long-barrelled gunshots, twelve were shotguns and the remaining were military riffles. Forty-five weapons were legal. Thirty-four out of 45 gunshot suicide victims had licensed weapons because of their occupations. In the majority of cases, (72.3%) the shooting distance was contact or near contact. Most of the entrance wounds (75.0%) were located in the head and neck region and the direction of the bullet path was upward and front-to-back. Of all the gunshot suicides, 6.1% (n=4) had multiple entrance and exit wounds. All of the victims were soldiers. In suicide cases using long-barrelled weapons (3/4), military rifles were set on automatic mode. In our study, at least eight of the victims survived for a period. To be able to increase the survival rate of the victims or improve the outcomes, intensive pre- and post-operative care is critical. PMID:17321192

  9. Preventing Suicide through Improved Training in Suicide Risk Assessment and Care: An American Association of Suicidology Task Force Report Addressing Serious Gaps in U.S. Mental Health Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, William M., Jr.; Allen, Michael H.; Feldman, Barry N.; Gutin, Nina J.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Kleespies, Phillip M.; Quinnett, Paul; Simpson, Skip

    2012-01-01

    There are twice as many suicides as homicides in the United States, and the suicide rate is rising. Suicides increased 12% between 1999 and 2009. Mental health professionals often treat suicidal patients, and suicide occurs even among patients who are seeking treatment or are currently in treatment. Despite these facts, training of most mental…

  10. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  11. Suicide mortality of suicide attempt patients discharged from emergency room, nonsuicidal psychiatric patients discharged from emergency room, admitted suicide attempt patients, and admitted nonsuicidal psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae W; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K; Hong, Jin P

    2012-06-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide attempt, and psychiatric inpatients admitted for other reasons were examined. The records of 3,897 patients who were treated at a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, from July 2003 to December 2006 were reviewed. Forty-three of the 3,897 subjects died by suicide during the 2.5-year observation period. Compared to the general Korean population, the suicide mortality rate was 82-fold higher for suicide attempt patients, admitted; 54-fold higher for suicide attempt patients, discharged; 21-fold higher for nonsuicidal patients, admitted; and 11-fold higher for nonsuicidal patients, discharged. In all four groups, diagnosis of a depressive disorder and suicide attempt at presentation were each significant independent risk factors for suicide completion. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention strategies for depressed patients who present to the ER or are admitted to a psychiatric ward after a suicide attempt. PMID:22380459

  12. Divorce, Suicide, and the Mass Media: An Analysis of Differential Identification, 1948-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Examined the triggering effect of maritally related suicide stories in the mass media on monthly suicide rates of those involved in divorce or in marital distress. Support was found for this effect, independent of season and of changes in unemployment, but the unemployment rate was more closely associated with suicide than suicide stories in the…

  13. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  14. An Open Letter to School Administrators and Mental Health Professionals about School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grazman, Harriet B.

    In response to the increasing rate of adolescent suicide, many school and mental health professionals have implemented school-based suicide prevention programs to address the issue of adolescent suicide. Most suicide prevention programs cover similar topics. However, the perspectives from which they approach suicide may vary. The majority of…

  15. Qualitative content analysis of suicidal ideation in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong Ju; Sohn, Ki-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate for ages 15-24 increased recently in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicidal ideation using the qualitative content analysis in South Korean college students. The data were collected with non-structured open questions in 134 college students and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified 2 categories, 6 themes, and 21 theme clusters. Two categories are emerged: (1) facilitators of suicidal ideation, and (2) inhibitors of suicidal ideation. This study identified that the facilitators of suicidal ideation are physical, psychological and societal concerns, and suggested that the inhibitors of suicidal ideation are influenced by religious and cultural context. These results presented that Buddhism and Confucianism had influence on reasons to not attempting suicide behavior as the inhibitor of suicidal ideation. In conclusion, cultural context should be considered to develop strategies for the suicide prevention in South Korean college student. PMID:21706996

  16. FAMILIAL SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Unni, K.E. Sadanaandan

    1996-01-01

    Seven completed suicides in a family of lower socioeconomic status and suburban domicile in Pondicherry are reported. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the family members and the absence of exogenous factors are illustrated by utilising both family history method and family study method. The details collected formed the basis for the terminology ‘familial suicide’. The management of the index case, one of the only three surviving male members of the family, who presented with suicidal ruminations and depressive features, is described. PMID:21584122

  17. Suicidality in eating disorders: occurrence, correlates, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Keel, Pamela K

    2006-10-01

    This review summarizes the published studies on suicide and suicide attempts in individuals with eating disorders, highlighting rates of occurrence, clinical correlates, and implications for practitioners. Multiple studies find high rates of suicide in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) [Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for suicide range from 1.0 to 5.3], whereas suicide rates do not appear to be elevated in bulimia nervosa (BN). In contrast, suicide attempts occur in approximately 3-20% of patients with anorexia nervosa and in 25-35% of patients with bulimia nervosa. Clinical correlates of suicidality in eating disorders include purging behaviors, depression, substance abuse, and a history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse. Patients with eating disorders, particularly those with comorbid disorders, should be assessed routinely for suicidal ideation, regardless of the severity of eating disorder or depressive symptoms. PMID:16875766

  18. The Newsworthiness of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R. Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered newsworthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those…

  19. Suicide Risk of Heroin Dependent Subjects in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kazour, François; Soufia, Michel; Rohayem, Jihane; Richa, Sami

    2016-07-01

    The aim is to determine the frequency of suicidal behavior and associated factors among heroin dependent inpatients. 61 heroin dependent inpatients (vs. 61 controls) were assessed on their pattern of substance use, impulsivity, depression and suicidal behavior. 37.7 % of patients had a personal history of suicidal attempt (SA), 14.8 % had current suicidal ideation. SA was associated to younger age at first substance use and to higher rates of depression and impulsivity. IV heroin overdose was the most frequent mode of SA (47.8 %). Long duration, multiple drug use, and family history of suicide were associated with higher risk of suicide among lebanese patients. PMID:26424734

  20. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media.

    PubMed

    Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F 1 = 0.48; t2: F 1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F 1 = 0.41; t2: F 1 = 0.48) on different

  1. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F1 = 0.48; t2: F1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F1 = 0.41; t2: F1 = 0.48) on different

  2. Veteran-specific suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    York, Janet A; Lamis, Dorian A; Pope, Charlene A; Egede, Leonard E

    2013-06-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in some subgroups of Veteran populations, such as those who have experienced combat. Several initiatives are addressing this critical need and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been recognized for its leadership. This integrative review adopts the Research Impact Framework (RIM) to address suicide-specific prevention activities targeting Veterans. The RIM is a standardized approach for developing issue narratives using four broad areas: societal-related impacts, research-related impacts, policy-related impacts, and service-related impacts. The questions addressed in this review are: (1) What are the major initiatives in Veteran-specific suicide prevention in four areas of impact-society, research, policy, and services? (2) Are there gaps related in each impact area? and (3) What are the implications of this narrative for other strategies to address suicide prevention targeting Veterans? Systematic application of the RIM identifies exemplars, milestones, gaps, and health disparity issues. PMID:23011459

  3. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM) rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires) had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years), ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research. PMID:21138551

  4. Suicide in China: unique demographic patterns and relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Law, Samuel; Liu, Pozi

    2008-02-01

    Recent research on suicide in China reveals several unique findings: 1) female suicides outnumber male suicides by a 3:1 ratio; 2) rural suicides outnumber urban suicides by a 3:1 ratio; 3) a large upsurge of young adult and older adult suicides has occurred; 4) a comparatively high national suicide rate two to three times the global average is evident; and, most startlingly, 5) a low rate of psychiatric illness, particularly depression, exists in suicide victims. The strongest empirical data suggest that these trends result from a high number of rural, young females who experience acute interpersonal or financial crises and then impulsively attempt suicide using lethal pesticides or poisons. Other suicide risk factors in China are similar to those that are well known internationally. Interactive sociological, cultural, and economic hypotheses unique to China provide further insight. Among those, the cultural-socioeconomic disadvantages of the Chinese rural female and cultural attitudes toward suicide are particularly noteworthy. PMID:18269899

  5. Suicide among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fürst, Carl Johan; Hultman, Christina; Fall, Katja; Sparén, Pär; Ye, Weimin

    2008-10-01

    Studies on the suicide risk among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in countries without legalized euthanasia or assisted suicide are important additions to data on the wish to die of these patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden between 1965 and 2004, which comprised of 6,642 patients with incident ALS identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register. We calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide among the patients using the suicide rates of the general Swedish population as a reference. In total, 21 patients committed suicide during follow-up, compared to the predicted 3.6 suicides. Thus, we noted an almost 6-fold increased risk for suicide among ALS patients [SMR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-8.8]. Patients who committed suicide were, on average, around 7 years younger at the time of their first period of hospitalization than patients who did not commit suicide. The highest relative risk for suicide was observed within the first year after the patient's first period of hospitalization (SMR 11.2, 95% CI 5.8-19.6). After that, the relative risks decreased with time after hospitalization (P-value for trend = 0.006), but remained elevated 3 years later. The relative risks of suicide among ALS patients did not show a clear trend over time in contrast to the decreasing trend of relative risks for suicide among patients with cancer during the same period. Patients with ALS are at excess risk of suicide in Sweden and the relative risk is higher during the earlier stage of the disease. PMID:18669498

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in suicidal ideation, parasuicides, and completed suicides in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Jun, Hee-Jin; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-04-01

    As a result of unprecedented increase in suicides over the last decade, Korea now ranks at the top of OECD countries in suicide statistics (26.1 deaths per 100,000 population in 2005). Our study sought to document socioeconomic inequalities in self-destructive behaviors including suicidal ideation, parasuicide, and completed suicide. For prevalence of suicidal ideation and parasuicide, we used four waves of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1995, 1998, 2001, and 2005). For suicide mortality, we abstracted suicide cases from the National Death Registration records, and linked them with population denominators from the national census in 1995, 2000, and 2005. We examined variation in self-destructive behaviors according to level of educational attainment (at the individual level), as well as area-level characteristics including level of deprivation and degree of urbanicity. Age-standardized rates were calculated through direct standardization using the 2005 census population as the standard. Inequalities were measured by the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality. The age-standardized prevalence of suicidal ideation decreased across consecutive surveys in both genders (18.0-13.5% for men, 27.5-22.9% for women). Parasuicides similarly decreased over time. By contrast, completed suicides increased over time (20.9-42.8 per 100,000 for men and 8.9-20.9 for women). The most prominent increases in completed suicides were observed among the elderly in both genders. Lower education, rural residence, and area deprivation was each associated with higher suicide rates. Both absolute as well as relative inequalities in suicide by socioeconomic position widened over time. Our findings suggest that the current suicide epidemic in Korea has social origins. In addition to clinical approaches targeted to the prevention of suicides in high risk individuals, social policies are needed to protect disadvantaged populations at

  7. Suicidal behavior in Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those <30 years old. The methods most commonly used to commit suicide in India include the ingestion of poison (often pesticides), hanging, burning, and drowning. When immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319

  8. Suicide in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant. PMID:25517290

  9. Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Kral, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Indigenous youth suicide incidence is high globally, and mostly involves young males. However, the Inuit of Arctic Canada have a suicide rate that is among the highest in the world (and ten times that for the rest of Canada). The author suggests that suicide increase has emerged because of changes stemming in part from the Canadian government era in the Arctic in the 1950s and 1960s. The effects of government intervention dramatically affected kin relations, roles, and responsibilities, and affinal/romantic relationships. Suicide is embedded in these relationships. The author also discusses the polarization between psychiatric and indigenous/community methods of healing, demonstrating that government-based intervention approaches to mental health are not working well, and traditional cultural healing practices often take place outside of the mainstream clinics in these communities. The main questions of the paper are: Who should control suicide prevention? What is the best knowledge base for suicide prevention? PMID:22392639

  10. Suicidal behaviour and intensity of psychiatric care in a region at high risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Pier Luigi; Orbitello, Barbara; Ciano, Rossana P; Angarano, Alberto; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Suicidal behaviour represents a social and health-related issue of prime importance in both the general and psychiatric population. People with mental illness are at great risk of suicide, but indirect evidence suggests that the treatment of psychiatric disorders may prevent suicide. The aim of our study was to compare the risk of suicide in the population of psychiatric patients with that of the general population in Friuli Venezia-Giulia (FVG). METHOD We analyzed the suicide rates, based on the official statistical database, relating to the resident population in FVG during the years 1998-1999. The sucide rates (per 100 000 subjects) were standardised by sex and age. The characteristics of suicidal behaviour in subjects who had been in contact with (Community Mental Health Centres) CMHC (n=65) were compared with that of suicidal subjects not in contact (n=237). RESULTS There was an increase in the suicide phenomenon in the elderly population in FVG over the tested period. The rates were three times higher in males than in females. The rates of patients in contact with CMHC in 1998 and in 1999 were, respectively, 14 and 20 times higher than that of the general population. Most suicidal schizophrenics and 37% of the depressed patients have been previously hospitalised. CONCLUSION The population of north-eastern Italy is at high risk of suicide compared to other regions. The mortality ratio of psychiatric subjects who commit suicide in our sample is elevated. Since Italian community-oriented services rely less on hospitalisation than in other countries, the fact that about 50% of suicidal psychiatric patients have been previously admitted in a psychiatric ward may indicate that previous hospitalisation is a hierarchic factor related to suicide. PMID:24941205

  11. Suicide and Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: Implications for Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Linda L.; L'Heureux, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the research indicating the incidence rates and specific suicide risks for suicide in the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (GLBQ) adolescent population. Presents an ecological model of suicide risk assessment for GLBQ youth. The model is based on Bronfenbrenner's model of human development and argues for individual, micro, and macro…

  12. Suicidal Behavior: A Survey of Oregon High School Students, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 10- to 19-year-old population in Oregon. The suicide rate has increased more than five-fold in the last three and one-half decades. This trend can be reversed by developing an understanding of the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with suicide in at-risk youth. The Youth Risk…

  13. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  14. Gender and Suicide Risk: The Role of Wound Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2009-01-01

    That males have higher suicide rates than females is one of the most empirically documented social facts in suicidology, but the reasons for this continue to be debated. For the present paper, we tested a neglected contributing factor to the gender suicide ratio: wound site or the area of the body that is wounded in firearm suicides. Males may…

  15. Suicide Prevention in Adults (Age 30-65).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores some of the possible distinctive traits of midlife suicides, which include: loss of spouse, years of heavy drinking, reaching the age of high depression risk, and occupational problems. Midlife suicides tend to be highest among white males, although female suicide rates peak in midlife. The paper concludes with a review of assessment and…

  16. A Factorial Representation of Suicidal Ideation among Academically Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal ideation assessment has been employed as an early screening method for identifying adolescents who are at risk for engaging in suicidal behaviors. While recent evidence has emerged that gifted adolescents do not have a higher rate of suicidal ideation, research on the psychological and personality characteristics of gifted youth have…

  17. On Chinese College Students' Suicide: Characteristics, Prevention and Crisis Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, some characteristics have been detected among Chinese students' suicide including an increasing rate, obvious differences in different grades and genders, relatively integrated suicide methods and a regular time pattern for suicide as well. The principle of selection at registration, dynamic renewal and classified precaution should be…

  18. Changing Patterns in Methods of Suicide by Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    Suicide rates vary greatly by sex and race, but the methods employed by these groups have not been studied closely and across time. Annual official national statistics for specific methods of suicide by sex and specific racial group were examined from 1923 to 1978. During this time period, shifts occurred in the proportions of suicides by method,…

  19. Suicide in women.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  20. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training & Events Online Training Courses Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk (AMSR) News & Highlights SPARK Talks Organizations States National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention National ...

  1. Suicide in women

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Asia accounts for 60% of the world's suicides, so at least 60 million people are affected by suicide or attempted suicide in Asia each year. The burden of female suicidal behavior, in terms of total burden of morbidity and mortality combined, is more in women than in men. Women's greater vulnerability to suicidal behavior is likely to be due to gender related vulnerability to psychopathology and to psychosocial stressors. Suicide prevention programmes should incorporate woman specific strategies. More research on suicidal behavior in women particularly in developing countries is needed. PMID:26330640

  2. Coming out to talk about suicide: gay men and suicidality.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Sue; Warne, Tony

    2010-04-01

    International studies report increased rates of mental health problems and subsequent suicidality among homosexual populations. While international health-care policy is concerned with reducing suicide among young people, important research findings relating to gay people and suicidality remain unacknowledged in the Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. This qualitative study, utilizing single case studies, was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the life experiences contributing to the suicidality of four gay men. The methodology was psychoanalytically informed, using free association narrative interviewing. The initial data analysis involved interpretation of each of the case studies and a subsequent analysis exploring the shared experiences found in each of the individual narratives. Thematically, these are described as 'knowing and not knowing', 'the centrality of the father-son relationship', 'the loneliness of outsiderness', 'leading a double life', and 'crime and punishment'. The significance of the life experiences these themes illustrate reveal why some gay men might not only experience long-term mental health problems, but also engage in suicidality. Individually and collectively, the analyses provide important insights for mental health nurses becoming more attuned to provide sensitive mental health care to those who have a gay sexual orientation. PMID:20367646

  3. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  4. Firearm availability and the incidence of suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1988-01-01

    The present studied explored the validity of several indirect measures of firearm ownership in the states of the USA: the percentage of homicides and suicides committed with firearms, the accidental death rate from firearms, the strictness of state handgun control laws, and subscription rates to firearm magazines. These measures were then correlated with rates of suicide and homicide, and it was found that states with a greater availability of firearms had higher firearm suicide rates and higher firearm homicide rates. PMID:3274888

  5. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  6. Aboriginal Language Knowledge and Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Darcy; Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    This brief report details a preliminary investigation into how community-level variability in knowledge of Aboriginal languages relate to "band"-level measures of youth suicide. In Canada, and, more specifically, in the province of British Columbia (BC), Aboriginal youth suicide rates vary substantially from one community to another. The results…

  7. The Impact of Epidemic, War, Prohibition and Media on Suicide: United States, 1910-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Ira M.

    1992-01-01

    Estimated impact of exogenous social and political events on suicide behavior in the United States between 1910 and 1920. Concluded that World War I did not influence suicide; Great Influenza Epidemic caused suicide to increase; and continuing decline in alcohol consumption from 1910 to 1920 depressed national suicide rates. (Author/NB)

  8. Black Suicide in the Seventies: Current Trends and Perspectives. Discussion Papers No. 483-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert

    In the past decade, the suicide rate among young blacks has risen to the point where it is nearly as high as that of their white peers. There is, however, a striking contrast in age distribution in the suicide patterns of whites and blacks. Whereas white suicide increases in direct relation with advancing chronological age, suicide among black…

  9. The Unequal Burden of Suicide among Minnesotans: Three Strategies for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nate; Roesler, Jon; Heinen, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Minnesota's suicide rate has been increasing for more than 10 years. This article describes the demographic groups at highest risk for suicide and suicide attempts in the state. It also highlights prevention strategies outlined in the Minnesota State Suicide Prevention Plan 2015-2020. PMID:26596078

  10. Suicidal Behavior Among Inpatients with Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders in Chengdu, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…

  11. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  12. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life". PMID:26417780

  13. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  14. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  15. Accounts of suicidality in the Huntington disease community.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Health professionals, researchers, and philosophers have debated extensively about suicide. Some believe suicides result from mental pathology, whereas others argue that individuals are capable of rational suicide. This debate is particularly poignant within illness communities, where individuals may be suffering from chronic and incurable conditions. This article engages with these issues by presenting the accounts of 20 individuals with Huntington disease (HD), a fatal degenerative condition, and 10 informal caregivers (e.g., spouses). Suicide is a leading cause of death amongst people with HD, with an incidence rate many times higher than the general population. In contrast to the majority of the academic literature on HD suicidality, study participants did not connect suicide with mental pathology. Instead, they perceived suicide as a response to the realities of living with HD, such as prolonged physiological degeneration and the need for long-term intensive health care. These findings are subsequently discussed in relation to the rational-pathological suicide binary. PMID:23115895

  16. National study of jail suicide: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay M

    2012-07-01

    Findings from a national study of jail suicide are provided, including the extent and distribution of suicides in holding and detention facilities, and descriptive data on demographic characteristics of each victim, incident, and facility. Among significant findings are that suicides were evenly distributed from first few days of confinement to over several months of confinement, many suicides occurred during waking hours, most inmates were not under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of death, and many suicides occurred in close proximity to a court hearing. Suicide prevention programming was found to be uneven in most facilities that experienced suicides. There has been a significant decrease in the rate of suicide in detention facilities. PMID:22569904

  17. Friendships and suicidality among Mexican American adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2010-08-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied, vulnerable group in terms of suicidality. Three hundred thirty-eight community adolescents, two-thirds of whom were educationally at-risk, participated in the study. Suicidal ideation and behavior rates were high, particularly among girls. Friends' school disconnectedness increased girls' odds for suicidal ideation by 13%. This association was even greater for girls in good academic standing. Friendship problems were not associated with suicidality in boys. Ethnic identity was a minor factor in suicidal ideation, and only for girls. These findings confirm, among Mexican American adolescents, the role of gender in the relationship between friendship and suicidality. PMID:21151742

  18. Student assistance program outcomes for students at risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Virginia Sue; Kern, John; Brent, David A; Thurkettle, Mary Ann; Puskar, Kathryn R; Sekula, L Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Pennsylvania's response to adolescent suicide is its Student Assistance Program (SAP). SAP has been funded for 27 years although no statewide outcome studies using case-level data have been conducted. This study used logistic regression to examine drug-/alcohol-related behaviors and suspensions of suicidal students who participated in SAP. Of the 46 services, 10 best predicted (p<.01) that these undesirable outcomes would cease. Although no study subjects died by suicide, 42 of 374,626 referred students did die by suicide. Suicidal students who did not participate had double the rate of suicide of suicidal participants of SAP. Students referred for other reasons also killed themselves. Further work must be done to assess all referred students for suicide risk, examine educational outcomes, monitor substance-related crimes and overdoses, and examine school-related factors postmortem. Evidence from this study can be used by researchers to plan future studies and by Pennsylvania's school nurses when planning services. PMID:24643756

  19. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. PMID:27269026

  20. Suicidal ideation in Pakistani college students.

    PubMed

    Khokher, Sehar; Khan, Murad M

    2005-01-01

    Suicidal behavior includes ideation, attempts and completed suicides. Information on suicidal behavior from Pakistan, a conservative South Asian Islamic country, is lacking. To address the issue, a pilot study was carried out to assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Pakistani college students. Suicidal ideation was assessed on the basis of responses to four questions contained in the depression subscale of the General Health Questionnaire-28. Of the total 217 completed questionnaires, the overall rate of suicidal ideation was 31.4%. While there was no significant difference between genders, more females (33%) than males (29.2%) responded positively. Respondents belonging to single parent families and those living at home, compared to those using hostel facilities, reported higher rates. The reported rate in our sample is higher than similar studies conducted elsewhere. There is the need for more information in this important area of suicidal behavior, including studying such feelings in school going children as well as in a larger community sample. The findings of such studies can contribute to our understanding of the suicidal process in the Pakistani population and to address it at various levels. PMID:16276755

  1. Differences in Poisoning Mortality in the United States, 2003–2007: Epidemiology of Poisoning Deaths Classified as Unintentional, Suicide or Homicide

    PubMed Central

    Muazzam, Sana; Swahn, Monica H.; Alamgir, Hasanat; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Poisoning, specifically unintentional poisoning, is a major public health problem in the United States (U.S.). Published literature that presents epidemiology of all forms of poisoning mortalities (i.e., unintentional, suicide, homicide) together is limited. This report presents data and summarizes the evidence on poisoning mortality by demographic and geographic characteristics to describe the burden of poisoning mortality and the differences among sub-populations in the U.S. for a 5-year period. Methods Using mortality data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, we presented the age-specific and age-adjusted unintentional and intentional (suicide, homicide) poisoning mortality rates by sex, age, race, and state of residence for the most recent years (2003–2007) of available data. Annual percentage changes in deaths and rates were calculated, and linear regression using natural log were used for time-trend analysis. Results There were 121,367 (rate=8.18 per 100,000) unintentional poisoning deaths. Overall, the unintentional poisoning mortality rate increased by 46.9%, from 6.7 per 100,000 in 2003 to 9.8 per100.000 in 2007, with the highest mortality rate among those aged 40–59 (rate=15.36), males (rate=11.02) and whites (rate=8.68). New Mexico (rate=18.2) had the highest rate. Unintentional poisoning mortality rate increased significantly among both sexes, and all racial groups except blacks (p<0.05 time-related trend for rate). Among a total of 29,469 (rate=1.97) suicidal poisoning deaths, the rate increased by 9.9%, from 1.9 per 100,000 in 2003 to 2.1 per 100,000 in 2007, with the highest rate among those aged 40–59 (rate=3.92), males (rate=2.20) and whites (rate=2.24). Nevada (rate=3.9) had the highest rate. Mortality rate increased significantly among females and whites only (p<0.05 time-related trend for rate). There were 463 (rate=0.03) homicidal poisoning deaths and the

  2. The Ethics of Suicide and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1996-01-01

    Debates the question of suicide as a defensible choice, particularly for the terminally ill, examining the relevance of such issues as the mortality, rationality, and dynamics of the suicidal act, and the legitimacy of physician-assisted suicide. Contrasting perspectives are articulated by two prominent suicidologists as a spur to the reader's…

  3. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate. PMID:23850339

  4. Suicidal Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols

    This paper reviews studies of childhood suicide and reports findings which suggest that the incidence of suicide under the age of 14 is greatly underreported. It notes that the incidence of non-fatal suicide attempts in children is even harder to determine than is the incidence of suicide. Studies are cited which suggest that, while preadolescent…

  5. Relationships among dispositional coping strategies, suicidal ideation, and protective factors against suicide in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marty, Meghan A; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2010-11-01

    Older adults have a disproportionally high rate of completed suicide as compared to the general population. Whereas a large literature has focused on risk factors related to elder suicide, limited research exists on relationships between coping strategies with protective factors against suicide and suicidal ideation in this population. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 108, mean age = 71.5 years, age range = 60-95 years) completed the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale, Reasons for Living inventory, and Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS). Problem- and emotion-focused coping were associated positively with reasons for living and negatively with suicide ideation. Dysfunctional coping was associated positively with suicide ideation, but results did not support the hypothesized negative relationship with reasons for living. Thus, problem- and emotion-focused coping appear to be adaptive, whereas dysfunctional coping appears to be somewhat less related to resilience to suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults. Implications of the study are that some coping strategies may serve as protective factors against suicide and that coping strategies should be evaluated as part of a thorough assessment of suicidal risk among older adults. The results also provide some evidence of convergent validity for the recently developed GSIS. PMID:21069608

  6. Predictive value of the age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index on perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Rudy S.; Leitao, Mario M.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Long Roche, Kara C.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Jewell, Elizabeth L.; Brown, Carol L.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Charlson, Mary E.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity index (ACCI) to predict perioperative complications and survival in patients undergoing primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Data were analyzed for all patients with stage IIIB-IV EOC who underwent primary cytoreduction from 1/2001–1/2010 at our institution. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4. Clinical and survival outcomes were assessed and compared. Results We identified 567 patients; 199 (35%) had an ACCI of 0–1, 271 (48%) had an ACCI of 2–3, and 97 (17%) had an ACCI of ≥4. The ACCI was significantly associated with the rate of complete gross resection (0–1=44%, 2–3=32%, and ≥4=32%; p=0.02), but was not associated with the rate of minor (47% vs 47% vs 43%, p=0.84) or major (18% vs 19% vs 16%, p=0.8) complications. The ACCI was also significantly associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 20.3, 16, and 15.4 months, respectively (p=0.02). Median OS for patients with an ACCI of 0–1, 2–3, and ≥4 was 65.3, 49.9, and 42.3 months, respectively (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the ACCI remained a significant prognostic factor for both PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p<0.001). Conclusions The ACCI was not associated with perioperative complications in patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for advanced EOC, but was a significant predictor of PFS and OS. Prospective clinical trials in ovarian cancer should consider stratifying for an age-comorbidity covariate. PMID:26037900

  7. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  8. Women and suicidal behavior: a cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2008-04-01

    Around the world girls and women have higher rates of suicidal ideation and behavior but lower rates of suicide than boys and men. There is, however, significant variability in gender patterns and meanings suicidal behavior within and across cultures. For example, in the United States, suicide is most common among older "White" men, and is typically considered masculine behavior. Women who kill themselves are viewed as acting like men, and therefore deviant. By contrast, in other societies, including China, suicide is viewed as an act of the powerless, and is most frequent in young women. In these societies, men who kill themselves are considered weak and effeminate. The cultural diversity in gender patterns and interpretations of suicidal behavior challenges essentialist perspectives on gender and suicidal behavior. It also challenges the assumption, common in industrialized countries, that women are protected from suicide as long as they stay "feminine" and subsumed within the family. This cultural diversity also points to the pitfalls of theorizing about clinical phenomena as if they were culture-free, and calls for culturally grounded theory, research, and practice. PMID:18954189

  9. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  10. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  11. Suicide and attempted suicide among South Asians in England: who is at risk?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from both large-scale and small-scale studies suggests differences and similarities in patterns of suicide and attempted suicide between South Asians and the total population in England. Among South Asians, the excess of females among both suicides and attempted suicides is even more marked; the traditional view of a strong family structure among Asians is confirmed, although cultural conflict between generations is apparent. The technique of suicide by burning among Asians appears to be waning. Asians who attempt or complete suicide are more likely to be suffering from stress, but less likely to have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Their psychological problems appear to have been frequently overlooked by general practitioners, or not presented to them. Differences in religion, with Hindus producing higher rates than Muslims, and demographic, geographical, financial and cultural differences, contribute to the need for disaggregation and up-to-date research. PMID:22477861

  12. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities. PMID:26864223

  13. Comparing the Risk of Suicide of College Students with Nonstudents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide rates for college students were compared with rates for nonstudents using two definitions of students: full-time enrollment at 4-year institutions, and all-inclusive postsecondary enrollment. For traditionally aged females, comparing the suicide rate of students (3.0 per 100,000) to the rate for same-age nonstudents rather than the…

  14. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Suicide in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and its rate has been increasing. Factors that contribute to rate of, risks for, or protection against depression and suicide may be different for people from cultures with different values and health beliefs. Although typically seen as affecting Caucasians more than other groups in the U.S., the rates of suicide among African Americans, Latinos, and others have been increasing. 87 studies were reviewed looking at rates for suicide/suicidal ideation, risk factors for suicide, protective factors/coping mechanisms, service delivery/barriers to care, and specific treatment or management of suicidal thoughts for adolescents from different ethnic groups in the U.S. The following ethnic groups in the U.S. were compared: African American, Latino, Asian American, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Hawaiian American. Although studies report conflicting rates, most studies still show an overall higher risk for suicidal behavior among Caucasian youth than any other group. Rates for suicidal behavior are growing for African American teens (perhaps more in boys), Latino teens (especially Latina girls), Asian American youth, Native American youth, Alaskan Native youth, and Hawaiian American youth. Details about these differences are discussed along with recommendations for clinicians working with youth at risk for suicide from minority cultures in the U.S. PMID:20352033

  15. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Suicide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and its rate has been increasing. Factors that contribute to rate of, risks for, or protection against depression and suicide may be different for people from cultures with different values and health beliefs. Although typically seen as affecting Caucasians more than other groups in the U.S., the rates of suicide among African Americans, Latinos, and others have been increasing. 87 studies were reviewed looking at rates for suicide/suicidal ideation, risk factors for suicide, protective factors/coping mechanisms, service delivery/barriers to care, and specific treatment or management of suicidal thoughts for adolescents from different ethnic groups in the U.S. The following ethnic groups in the U.S. were compared: African American, Latino, Asian American, Native American/Alaskan Native, and Hawaiian American. Although studies report conflicting rates, most studies still show an overall higher risk for suicidal behavior among Caucasian youth than any other group. Rates for suicidal behavior are growing for African American teens (perhaps more in boys), Latino teens (especially Latina girls), Asian American youth, Native American youth, Alaskan Native youth, and Hawaiian American youth. Details about these differences are discussed along with recommendations for clinicians working with youth at risk for suicide from minority cultures in the U.S. PMID:20352033

  16. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p < .001); in 13 probands, the attempt occurred before PG onset. Lifetime suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p < .001). Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring. PMID:25845522

  17. Connecting inflammation with glutamate agonism in suicidality.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Sophie; Lim, Chai K; Linderholm, Klas R; Janelidze, Shorena; Lindqvist, Daniel; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Postolache, Teodor T; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brundin, Lena

    2013-04-01

    The NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine has proven efficient in reducing symptoms of suicidality, although the mechanisms explaining this effect have not been detailed in psychiatric patients. Recent evidence points towards a low-grade inflammation in brains of suicide victims. Inflammation leads to production of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA), an agonist and antagonist of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, respectively. We here measured QUIN and KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 64 medication-free suicide attempters and 36 controls, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. We assessed the patients clinically using the Suicide Intent Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We found that QUIN, but not KYNA, was significantly elevated in the CSF of suicide attempters (P<0.001). As predicted, the increase in QUIN was associated with higher levels of CSF interleukin-6. Moreover, QUIN levels correlated with the total scores on Suicide Intent Scale. There was a significant decrease of QUIN in patients who came for follow-up lumbar punctures within 6 months after the suicide attempt. In summary, we here present clinical evidence of increased QUIN in the CSF of suicide attempters. An increased QUIN/KYNA quotient speaks in favor of an overall NMDA-receptor stimulation. The correlation between QUIN and the Suicide Intent Scale indicates that changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission could be specifically linked to suicidality. Our findings have important implications for the detection and specific treatment of suicidal patients, and might explain the observed remedial effects of ketamine. PMID:23299933

  18. Suicidal ideation in Huntington disease: The role of comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Heather H.; Gehl, Carissa R.; Dellefave, Lisa; Schiffman, Judith F.; Shannon, Kathleen M.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by cognitive impairments, motor abnormalities, and psychiatric disturbance. An increased risk for suicide has been documented. The majority of HD research has focused on cognitive and motor features of HD; the implications of psychiatric manifestations have received less consideration. Recent studies have sought to identify the stages of HD in which patients are at increased risk to experience suicidal ideation, though no study has examined possible risk factors for suicidality. The current study examines the presence of psychiatric comorbidity and its involvement in suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was examined in 1,941 HD patients enrolled in the Huntington Study Group. Of those, 19% (N = 369) reported suicidal ideation. Logistic regression analyses indicated that depression/anxiety and aggression/irritability are significant predictors of suicidal ideation (p < 0.01). In a subsample with the greatest suicidal ideation, alcohol and drug abuse were also predictive. Findings suggest that suicide in HD may be more distinct as compared to suicide in the general population. It is recommended that all individuals with HD (specifically those with features of depression, aggression, substance abuse) have routine suicide assessment; further research is needed to understand the high rate of suicide in HD. PMID:21605914

  19. Preventing Suicides in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Suicides Preventing Suicides in the Military Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Family Hotline 1-800-984-8523 Read More "Preventing Suicides" Articles Preventing Suicides in the Military / Who's ...

  20. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy. Spring peaks of suicide are highly replicated, but their origin is poorly understood. Preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that seasonal spring peaks in aeroallergens are associated with seasonal spring peaks in suicide. Our research in Brown Norway rats demonstrates that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens induces anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors as well as allergy-related helper T-cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, it is possible that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens, which peak in spring, may be conducive to seasonal exacerbation of suicide risk factors such as anxiety, depression, hostility/ aggression, and sleep disturbance. Connecting allergy with suicide and suicide risk factors adds to previous neurologic literature connecting allergy with migraines and seizure disorders. Our recent report of Th2 (allergy-mediating) cytokine expression in the orbito-frontal cortex of suicide victims should lead to future studies to test the hypothesis that mediators of allergic inflammation in the nasal cavities may result in Th2 cytokine expression in the brain, influencing affect and behavioral modulation. Certain medications used to treat allergy can exacerbate suicide risk factors, potentially worsening suicide risk and even triggering suicide. Systemic (but not topical) corticosteroids have been associated with manic and depressive episodes and mixed mood states. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration started investigating the

  1. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  2. Comparative Validation of the S-STS, the ISST-Plus, and the C–SSRS for Assessing the Suicidal Thinking and Behavior FDA 2012 Suicidality Categories

    PubMed Central

    Alphs, Larry D.; Mao, Lian; Li, Qin; May, Roberta S.; Bruer, Emily H.; Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Gray, Christopher R.; Li, Xiaohua; Williamson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study examines the concurrent validity for mapping symptoms of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicidal behavior as recorded on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (clinician- and patient-rated and reconciled patient/clinician versions), and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to the 11 United States Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (September 2012) categories. Method: Forty subjects with varying degrees of suicidal ideation and behavior severity (from not present to extremely severe) were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room settings. Each patient was interviewed using all three scales (InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale) on the same day. The scales were administered in a random sequence by three independent raters who were blind to the ratings on the other scales. Results: The Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus show acceptable agreement with the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in detecting the presence or absence of the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories 1, 5, 6, 10, and 11 (passive ideation; active ideation with method, intent, and plan; completed suicide; preparatory actions; and self-injurious behavior) but not of categories 2, 3, and 4 (3 other active suicidal ideation combination categories) or to 8 and 9 (aborted and interrupted attempt). Despite the significant disagreement between the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale on the one side and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus and the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale on the other in the ability to accurately map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories on some items

  3. Suicide in U.S. Workplaces, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan; Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. Methods Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65–74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). Conclusions The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace. PMID:25794471

  4. Perceived Racism, Discrimination, and Acculturation in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn; Conner, Kenneth; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Tu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    During young adulthood the suicide rate among Blacks rises dramatically and approaches that of the U.S. general population, requiring that prevention efforts include a focus on Black young adults. Although most research on suicidality among Blacks has focused on risk factors observed in the dominant culture, in this study the authors examined…

  5. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: Enhancing Mental Health Care for Suicidal Individuals and Other People in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie L. H.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lake, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Linking at-risk callers to ongoing mental health care is a key goal of crisis hotline interventions that has not often been addressed in evaluations of hotlines' effectiveness. We conducted telephone interviews with 376 suicidal and 278 nonsuicidal crisis callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) to assess rates of mental…

  6. Efavirenz and the Risk for Suicidal Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suicidal thoughts. Study records that indicated suicide, suicide attempts, or suicidal thoughts were examined. All of these ... as likely to experience suicidal thoughts or to attempt or actually commit suicide as those not receiving efavirenz. Adverse events were ...

  7. Dynamic pattern of suicide in Australia, 1986–2005: a descriptive-analytic study

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Hu, Wenbiao; Page, Andrew; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the spatiotemporal variations of suicide across Australia from 1986 to 2005, discusses the reasons for dynamic changes, and considers future suicide research and prevention strategies. Design Suicide (1986–2005) and population data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the suicide pattern by sex, method and age group over time and geography. Results Differences in suicide rates across sex, age groups and suicide methods were found across geographical areas. Male suicides were mainly completed by hanging, firearms, gases and self-poisoning. Female suicides were primarily completed by hanging and self-poisoning. Suicide rates were higher in rural areas than in urban areas (capital cities and regional centres). Suicide rates by firearms were higher in rural areas than in urban areas, while the pattern for self-poisoning showed the reverse trend. Suicide rates had relatively stable trend for the total population and those aged between 15 and 54, while suicide decreased among 55 years and over during the study period. There was a decrease in suicides by firearms during the study period especially after 1996 when a new firearm control law was implemented, while suicide by hanging continued to increase. Areas with a high proportion of indigenous population (eg, northwest of Queensland and top north of the Northern Territory) had shown a substantial increase in suicide incidence after 1995. Conclusions Suicide rates varied over time and space and across sexes, age groups and suicide methods. This study provides detailed patterns of suicide to inform suicide control and prevention strategies for specific subgroups and areas of high and increased risk. PMID:25079935

  8. [The national strategies for suicide prevention by the United Nation/World Health Organization and the present situation of suicide in the East Asia].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Sho; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Rira

    2014-01-01

    We discussed "Prevention of suicide: Guidelines for the formulation and implementation of national strategies" formulated by the United Nations and the World Health Organization in 1996 and the present situation of suicide in the East Asia. Although much public attention has been paid to a high suicide rate of Japan in the world, the increasing tendency of suicide rates have been found in other East Asian countries as well. For example the Republic of Korea shows a recent suicide rate higher than 30 per 100,000, which surpasses the suicide rate of Japan. Facing the fact, various measures for suicide prevention have been conducted. The UN guidelines for suicide prevention point out that these strategies should be discussed to meet each country's need for more appropriate suicide prevention. The Japanese government had the Basic Law on Suicide Prevention enforced in 2006 to implement measures that society must tackle because various social factors are behind suicides. In recent years, some countries in the East Asia also show increasing suicide rates, which attract the society's serious concern. The rapid economic growth and globalization have led to personnel cut, performance-based compensation, and the widening gap between the rich and the poor and the society cannot maintain the conventional employment system. In addition, socio-economic changes have brought collapse of the original societal and familial system, which might have existed behind the increase of suicide in this region. PMID:25244733

  9. Preventing recurrent suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Links, P. S.; Balchand, K.; Dawe, I.; Watson, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight recent empirical evidence for effective interventions that can guide family physicians in managing patients after suicide attempts. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Randomized control trials of psychosocial interventions for people after suicide attempts have provided some evidence for effective interventions. MAIN MESSAGE: Suicide attempts are more common than suicides; the number of attempts seen in a family practice is estimated to be 10 to 15 yearly. Up to two thirds of patients who take their lives by suicide have seen a family physician in the month before their death. Principles of care after a suicide attempt include actively engaging the patient, involving the family, restricting access to means of suicide, and developing intervention plans to deal with the psychopathology that has placed the patient at risk. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have a crucial role in preventing suicide through aftercare and ongoing monitoring of patients who have attempted suicide. PMID:10587773

  10. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    PubMed Central

    Khanipour, Hamid; Hakim shooshtari, Mitra; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1) to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2) to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Patients and Methods Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI) checklist were used for assessment. Results Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P < 0.05). Feelings of inadequacy, self-hatred, difficulty with impulse control, and frequency of NSSI can predict 50% variance of suicide probability (P < 0.001). Conclusions Adolescents with histories of suicidal attempts and NSSI, compared with adolescents with NSSI-only, were more prone to suicide. Self-criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. PMID:27622166

  11. Insomnia and suicidal behaviour in prisoners.

    PubMed

    Carli, Vladimir; Roy, Alec; Bevilacqua, Laura; Maggi, Stefania; Cesaro, Caterina; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2011-01-30

    Insomnia has been associated with suicidality. Prisoners have an increased risk of both insomnia and suicidal behaviour. Therefore, it was decided to examine for a relationship between insomnia and suicidal behaviour in a large group of 1420 prisoners. Prisoners had a semi-structured psychiatric interview, which included the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Spielberg Anger Expression Inventory and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. It was found that 568 (61.2%) of the prisoners scored in the insomnia cluster of the HDRS and that 183 (12.8%) had attempted suicide. Regression analyses showed that insomnia was significantly and independently associated with a lifetime history of attempting suicide. Insomnia was also significantly related to actual suicidality. After controlling for confounders, axis 1 psychiatric disorder, childhood trauma, neuroticism, low resilience, and anger were significantly associated with insomnia in male prisoners. These data suggest the possibility of a relationship between insomnia and suicidality in prisoners. Assessing insomnia may be helpful when evaluating the risk of suicidality in prisoners. PMID:20510461

  12. IMF-lending programs and suicide mortality.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Eleftherios; Zervoyianni, Athina

    2016-03-01

    While the economic consequences of IMF programs have been extensively analyzed in the literature, much less is known about how key welfare indicators, including suicide-mortality rates, correlate with countries' participation in such programs. This paper examines the impact of IMF lending on suicide mortality, using data from 30 developing and transition countries that received non-concessionary IMF loans during 1991-2008. Our results support the hypothesis of a positive causal relationship between suicide mortality and participation in IMF programs but reveal no systematic suicide-increasing effect from the size of IMF loans. This holds after accounting for self-selection into programs, resulting from the endogeneity of a country's decision to resort to the IMF for funding, and after controlling for standard socio-economic influences on suicidal behaviour. In particular, we find a positive aggregate suicide-mortality differential due to IMF-program participation of between 4 and 14 percentage points. We also find that the positive association between suicides and program participation is stronger and more robust among males. Comparing age groups, individuals belonging to the age group 45-to-64 exhibit the highest increase in suicide due to program-participation, which amounts to over 18 percentage points. Overall, our results imply that when countries are exposed to IMF programs in an attempt to resolve their economic problems, social-safety nets need to be designed to protect the adversely-affected part of the population. PMID:26874823

  13. Suicide in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, David W.; Hodges, Debra K.; Kohler, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of adult suicide in the United States and Alabama. This includes the latest available information on the prevalence of suicide in the US and Alabama, demographic characteristics of suicide victims, trends in suicide, and known reasons behind adult suicide. With respect to adult suicide in Alabama, it focuses on…

  14. Social and Psychiatric Influences on Urban-Rural Differentials in Australian Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard; Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Harrison, James; Carter, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate urban-rural differentials in Australian suicide rates, and to examine influences that previously have remained largely speculative. Suicide rates for males (all ages and young adults) were significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. Urban-rural suicide rate differences in males were…

  15. The Epidemiology of Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Systematic and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, Matthew; Smith, Glen; Nielssen, Olav

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review of population based studies of homicide followed by suicide was conducted to examine the associations between rates of homicide-suicide, rates of other homicides and rates of suicide. The review analysed 64 samples, including the case of an outlier (Greenland) that were reported in 49 studies. There was a significant…

  16. National total survey of German adolescent suicide in prison.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, D; Lempp, T; Herrmann, E; Kettner, M; Bennefeld-Kersten, K; Freitag, C M

    2015-02-01

    Incarcerated adolescents are a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour, but data on completed suicide are scarce in this population. The present study aimed at calculating relative risks (RR) of suicide in detention and identifying age-related risk factors. We compared data of a German national total survey of completed suicide of young detainees (14 to <21 years, N = 79) during the years 2000-2010 with age- and gender-adjusted suicide deaths in non-incarcerated adolescents (N = 3,484) and incarcerated adults (N = 781). Prison suicide accounted for 2.3% of all suicide deaths in adolescents, but only 0.1% of this age group was detained. The RR = 23.0 for adolescent suicide in detention exceeded the RR = 7.7 of adults by far. In adults, suicide rates in pre-trial detention was fivefold higher than in criminal detention; suicide rates were more balanced in adolescent detainees. Our results underline the need for age-specific suicide prevention strategies in detention. PMID:24952897

  17. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon. PMID:25739108

  18. Suicide in Hungary-epidemiological and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Annual suicide rates of Hungary were unexpectedly high in the previous century. In our narrative review, we try to depict, with presentation of the raw data, the main descriptive epidemiological features of the Hungarian suicide scene of the past decades. Accordingly, we present the annual suicide rates of the period mentioned and also data on how they varied by gender, age, urban vs. rural living, seasons, marital status, etc. Furthermore, the overview of trends of other factors that may have influenced suicidal behavior (e.g., alcohol and tobacco consumption, antidepressant prescription, unemployment rate) in the past decades is appended as well. Based on raw data and also on results of the relevant papers of Hungarian suicidology we tried to explain the observable trends of the Hungarian suicide rate. Eventually, we discuss the results, the possibilities, and the future tasks of suicide prevention in Hungary. PMID:23803500

  19. [Suicide in Bavarian prisons (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Spann, W; Liebhardt, E; Seifert, S

    1979-03-01

    The rate of suicides of prisoners in Bavaria from 1945-1974 was investigated. It was shown that only for prisoners awaiting trial was the rate higher than in the normal population or of soldiers of the Bundeswehr. A much higher risk of suicide was found for the first day of imprisonment. The most common method was by hanging in solitary confinement. A sure prevention by confinement with more prisoners is not possible. PMID:106262

  20. Personal suicidality in reception and identification with suicidal film characters.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality (n = 150) watched either It's My Party or The Fire Within, censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with questionnaires before the movie. Identity work and identification with the protagonist were measured after the movie. Suicidality was directly associated with identity work during film dramas depicting suicide methods. The reception of suicide-related media content seems to partially depend on personal suicidality. Potential implications for suicide prevention are discussed. PMID:24520893

  1. Adolescent suicide in New York City: plenty of room for new research.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Debora; Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The act of adolescent suicide continues to threaten adolescent populations in New York City (NYC). Consistent positive correlations have been found between a plethora of risk factors present in NYC adolescent populations and suicidal ideations and behaviors. Psychiatric conditions that may contribute to the rate of adolescent suicide in NYC include depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and schizophrenia. Unique factors that have been found to contribute to increased rates of completed suicides in NYC include the phenomena of railway suicides and suicide tourism. Homelessness and income inequality in NYC have also been consistently correlated with increased suicidality; with one study finding suicide attempts reported by a significant percentage of new admissions to homeless shelters. Adolescent populations in NYC that have been identified as particularly vulnerable to suicidality include runaway youth, homosexual youth, victimized adolescents and adolescents with a recent history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies in NYC have found that physical and sexual abuse is highly predictive of adolescent suicidality, with variations by ethnic group. Currently, there is a disturbing lack of sufficient research on adolescent suicide in NYC, specifically regarding causal factors, the effects of television on suicide, comorbid suicidality and drug abuse, and cultural factors contributing to suicide. This dearth of literature may be related to the ethical problems inherent in suicide research, self reports and/or post mortem analyses. PMID:22909918

  2. Suicide and suicide attempts in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shain, Benjamin N

    2007-09-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. Pediatricians can take steps to help reduce the incidence of adolescent suicide by screening for depression and suicidal ideation and behavior. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist the pediatrician in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk of suicide. The extent to which pediatricians provide appropriate care for suicidal adolescents depends on their knowledge, skill, comfort with the topic, and ready access to appropriate community resources. All teenagers with suicidal thoughts or behaviors should know that their pleas for assistance are heard and that pediatricians are willing to serve as advocates to help resolve the crisis. PMID:17766542

  3. Suicide prevention program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Gordana; Gordana, Dedic J; Panic, Milivoje; Milivoje, Panic

    2007-05-01

    Suicide, as one of the greatest problems of maladjustment to the military environment, has been a subject of investigation in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslav Army) for more than six decades. The Suicide Prevention Program was implemented in December 2003. The aim of the study was to follow-up the application of the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro and its effect on the suicide rate and to compare its incidence in civilians. Results of the program application showed that the number of suicides in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro was constantly reducing over the period 2004 to 2005. For soldiers, it was even four times less than in the civilian male population, particularly in the period of adaptation to the military environment. Since the Suicide Prevention Program in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro proved to be successful in decreasing the suicide number, it should be further improved and routinely applied. PMID:17521110

  4. Patterns of Comorbidity of Suicide Attempters: An Update.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Rodrigo-Yanguas, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Lobato-Rodriguez, Maria Jose; de Leon, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Between 10 and 20 million people attempt suicide every year worldwide, and suicide attempts represent a major economic burden. Suicide attempters suffer from high rates of comorbidity, and comorbidity is the rule in suicide re-attempters. Comorbidity complicates treatment and prognosis and causes a more protracted course. In the present narrative review, we included these patterns of comorbidity: intra-Axis I disorders, intra-Axis II disorders, Axis I with Axis II disorders, and psychiatric with physical illnesses. We also briefly reviewed the patterns of comorbidity in suicide re-attempters. We concluded that comorbidity at different levels appears to be the rule in suicide attempters, particularly in those who re-attempt. However, several issues deserve further research regarding the patterns of comorbidity in suicide attempters. PMID:27595859

  5. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. PMID:27354459

  6. Living Circumstances of Suicide Mortality in a South African City: An Ecological Study of Differences across Race Groups and Sexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the importance of living area circumstances for suicide mortality was explored. Suicide mortality was assessed across race and sex groups in a South African city and the influence of area-based compositional and sociophysical characteristics on suicide risk was considered. Suicide mortality rates are highest among Whites, in…

  7. Youth Perceptions of Suicide and Help-Seeking: "They'd Think I Was Weak or "Mental""

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Cate

    2010-01-01

    Youth suicide is an issue of international concern and the college population may have a considerably higher rate of suicidal behaviour than the general population, yet seeking help for suicidality is uncommon. This research sought to understand college students' knowledge of suicidal behaviour and attitudes to help-seeking, in a New Zealand…

  8. [Suicide in psychiatric hospitals : Results, risk factors and therapeutic measures].

    PubMed

    Wolfersdorf, M; Vogel, R; Vogl, R; Grebner, M; Keller, F; Purucker, M; Wurst, F M

    2016-05-01

    Suicide prevention is a core responsibility of psychiatry and psychotherapy. Periods of change in psychiatric inpatient treatment concepts are usually also accompanied by an increase in psychopathological behavior and with increased suicide rates in psychiatric hospitals, as seen in the 1970s and 1980s in Germany. That this represented a real increase of inpatient suicides during those years was confirmed and subsequently the number and rate of inpatient suicides has decreased from approximately 280 out of 100,000 admissions of patients in 1980 to approximately 50 in 2014. Death can also occur in psychiatric hospitals and an absolute prevention is not possible even under optimal conditions of therapy and nursing, communication and security. The suicide rate has clearly decreased over the last two decades in relation to admissions. The group of young male schizophrenic patients newly identified as having a high clinical suicide risk has decreased among the suicide victims whereas the percentage of severely depressed patients with delusions has increased. This reduction could be associated with the comprehensive improvements in educational and training programs in the field of suicide and suicide prevention, objectification of coping methods, development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, improvements in therapy and relationship possibilities and a general reduction in the number of suicides in Germany. PMID:27090898

  9. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family and school connectedness iii ... Reduced access to firearms vii Academic achievement ix Self-esteem xi Talking to teens about suicide does not ...

  10. African American Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... accounted for 83.8% of Caucasian elderly suicides. • Firearms were the predominant method of suicide among African ... per 100,000 annually. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  11. Subintentional Suicide among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Subintentional suicide is a classification that refers to ill-defined deaths and practices that lead toward death. Types of subintentional suicide among adolescents include drug abuse and risk taking when driving automobiles. (JN)

  12. Suicide by Jumping.

    PubMed

    Beautrais, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Research on suicide by jumping is summarized. The incidence of suicide by this method varies but tends to be higher in cities, city states, or countries that have extensive high-rise housing. Most suicides by jumping occur from high-rise residential housing units. However, our knowledge about suicide by jumping tends to be limited to a small number of reports from sites, often bridges, which become well-known as places from which to take one's life. Media reports of newsworthy suicides from these sites appear to encourage imitative behavior. Prevention strategies have focused upon limiting suicides from iconic sites by surveillance, barriers, muted media reporting, and signage offering help and telephone hotlines. A small number of studies provides evidence that installing barriers at popular jumping sites reduces suicides from those sites. There are few reports of efforts to reduce suicides from high-rise residential buildings. PMID:26212196

  13. Suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts in substance and gambling disorders.

    PubMed

    Manning, Victoria; Koh, Puay Kee; Yang, Yi; Ng, Andrew; Guo, Song; Kandasami, Gomathinayagam; Wong, Kim Eng

    2015-02-28

    Suicidality is more commonly reported among individuals with addictions relative to the general population, though data from Asian countries remain scarce. The medical records of 2187 Singaporean patients with drug (n=879), alcohol (n=754) or gambling (n=554) disorders entering an outpatient treatment service were examined to explore differences in suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts between substance and gambling addictions. The relationship between suicidality, co-morbidity and addiction severity were also examined. 25.0% reported thoughts of suicide in the past month, 11.8% had a suicide plan and 12.2% reported lifetime attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation (thoughts, and plan) but not lifetime attempts were significantly higher among gambling than substance use patients. Co-morbid (DSM-IV axis-1) disorders were found among 32.5%, 38% and 40% of those reporting thoughts, plan and lifetime attempts respectively. Addiction severity was higher and quality of life lower among those reporting suicidal behaviors. Logistic regression revealed co-morbidity, debt, gender (being female) and being a gambling patient as significant predictors of suicidal behaviors. The findings highlight the importance of screening for suicidality, even in the absence of co-morbidity, particularly among gambling disorder patients with debts. Suicide risk should be assessed periodically and referral to suicidal prevention interventions routinely offered to this vulnerable population. PMID:25555417

  14. Male suicides and alcohol consumption in the former USSR.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Värnik, A; Eklund, G

    1994-05-01

    A significant decline (34.5%) in the suicide rate occurred in 1984-1988 throughout the USSR. The decline was observed shortly after the introduction of strict restrictions on the sale of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that the restrictive alcohol policy in the first years of perestroika (June 1985) caused the fall in suicide rates in the former USSR. Data on alcohol consumption, violent death caused by external injury and poisoning (n = 916,315), death due to accidental alcohol poisoning (n = 77,837), suicide (n = 192,305) and death undetermined whether accidentally or purposely (n = 54,253) were analyzed for all former Soviet republics for 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1990. Men were chosen for the analysis, since men are more prone to abuse alcohol than women. Regression analysis with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and suicide rates and violent death rates as dependent variables shows that suicide and alcohol consumption were positively correlated as were violet death and alcohol consumption. In the republics with high alcohol consumption (Slavic and Baltic), suicide rates were also high. In the Caucasian republics, low alcohol consumption was associated with low suicide rates. For most republics, alcohol seems to explain more than 50% of suicides. Alcohol also has considerable explanatory value for violent death. Thus, a restrictive alcohol policy might be a way to reduce suicide and violent death. PMID:8067268

  15. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  16. Suicide ideation and acceptability among females aged 15 to 34 years in rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long

    2014-02-01

    The suicide rate of females is very close to that of males in China, in contrast to Western societies, in which the rates of male suicide outnumber those of females by three to four times. This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation and prosuicide attitude (acceptability) among females of childbearing age. With the Chinese version of the Scale for Suicide Ideation and the General Social Survey questionnaire, we examined the demographic and psychological risk factors of suicide among Chinese rural young females aged 15 to 34 years. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the factors related to suicidal ideation and suicide acceptability. The prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and suicide acceptability among the sampled females are 22.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Education, depression, social support, hopelessness, and negative life events were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Ethnicity, education, abortion, and depression were significantly associated with suicide acceptability. There is statistical difference between suicide ideation and acceptability. The results indicate that mental disorder remains a major risk factor of suicidal ideation. Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics are associated with suicide acceptability. PMID:24469529

  17. Suicides in the military: 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C

    1995-02-01

    Data abstracted from the Report of Casualty (DD 1300) is used to describe suicides of active duty personnel for the period 1980 through 1992. The Marine Corps had the fewest suicides (345), but the highest rate (13.65 per 100,000) compared to the other services: Army (1,205/12.38), Air Force (828/11.31), and the Navy (800/11.01). Personnel 17 to 24 years of age accounted for 48% of the suicides and had the highest age group-specific rate, 12.34. White males accounted for 79% of all suicides and had the highest rates across all age groups. Males had significantly higher rates than females in the Air Force, Army, and Navy. The risk of suicide among all active duty males was over two times that of all active duty females and about half that of males in the general population. Active duty females had a risk slightly lower than females in the total population. Enlisted personnel had rates two times higher than officers. Firearms were used in 61% of the male and 55% of the female suicides. PMID:7783916

  18. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents. PMID:27320365

  19. IS SUICIDE PREVENTABLE?

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ralph B.

    1959-01-01

    Among 500 cases of suicide analyzed in Stockholm, fewer than a third were associated with depression. Most forms of psychiatric disease were represented. Nevertheless, most persons give some warning before attempting suicide, and these warnings should be the signal for preventive action. Centers with trained personnel could prevent many suicides, if the potential victims were recognized and referred early enough. Laymen too should be educated to recognize potential suicide and help avert it. PMID:13629348

  20. Late onset suicide: distinction between "young-old" vs. "old-old" suicide victims. How different populations are they?

    PubMed

    Paraschakis, Antonios; Douzenis, Athanassios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Vassilopoulou, Konstantina; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2012-01-01

    Elderly suicide rates are the highest of any age group. Greece is among the countries with the highest proportion of elderly people in the European Union (EU). Elderly suicide victims seem to possess different characteristics. Aim of our study was to elucidate the different characteristics of elderly suicide victims. Data was collected from a two-year psychological autopsy study, conducted at the Athens' Department of Forensic Medicine, the largest in Greece. Elderly suicide victims represented 35% of total suicides. The majority (69.5%) were males. Only 12.4% had previous psychiatric hospitalization but more than half (65.2%) had psychiatric history (81% of them had history of depression). As expected, there was a high incidence of physical illness (81.6%). The majority (82%) of the elderly suicide victims made a suicide attempt for the first time and it was unfortunately successful. When the elderly suicide victims were divided in two categories ("young-old" and "old-old") the differences between the two groups were: elderly over 75 years had more physical problems and more frequently positive psychiatric history without ever been hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Late life suicides seem to encapsulate population groups with different characteristics. Their differences can be a useful guide aiming to formulate specific suicide prevention strategies. This is of great importance, given the very high frequency of completed suicides in this age group. PMID:21397344

  1. School and Teenage Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraj, Liba

    1984-01-01

    Reports figures indicating a rise in teenage suicide in Canada. Shows how the problem is compounded by silence resulting from official and parent reactions and social taboo. Discusses some of the causes of teenage suicide and explains the role of the school and family in suicide intervention and prevention. (SB)

  2. Suicidal Ideation across Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Bruce E.; And Others

    Suicide is one of the least understood of human behaviors, especially the causes and factors associated with suicide in young children. To replicate and clarify an earlier study, which used a methodology for determining suicidal ideation in different groups of people by examining the thoughts and ideas they projected onto another, 2,386 subjects…

  3. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  4. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  5. The Media and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Howard S.; Sudak, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to inform readers of the theory that when newspapers, film, and television describe suicidal deaths, additional suicides may result by virtue of contagion or copy-cat effects; to review data that support and refute this theory; to present some promising and recommended ways to prevent copy-cat suicide; and to cite…

  6. Suicide. Useful Information on...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pamela S.; Lewis, Dorothy B., Ed.

    This booklet was written to provide information on suicide. It begins with a brief explanation of the role of suicide in history. A section describing those who commit suicide looks at various populations: elderly persons, children, adolescents and young adults, males, females, blacks, and persons of different marital status. The next section…

  7. Suicide. Useful Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pamela S.

    This document presents information on suicide intended for a general audience who want to understand and prevent suicide. The history of suicide in ancient cultures and its incidence in industrialized countries is discussed first. Especially concerned people, i.e, survivors, families at risk, individuals at risk, and caregivers, are defined.…

  8. Suicide Clusters and Contagion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Youth suicide is one of the most serious preventable health problems in the United States. It is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. According to a recent national survey of students in grades 9-12, nearly 15% of respondents had seriously considered suicide and 7% actually had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Moreover,…

  9. College Student Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…

  10. Suicide: The Psychosocial Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    Explores relationships among culture, character, and suicide, drawing on author's research in Scandinavia and his studies of suicide among United States urban blacks and college students. Varying psychodynamic ways suicidal individuals in differing cultures and subcultures conceive of, use, and absorb death tell us much about how we live. (Author)

  11. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  12. Epidemiologic Characteristics and Trends of Fatal Suicides among the Elderly in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among its elderly. The epidemiologic characteristics and trends of the surging elderly suicide rates from 1993 to 2003 are described, with a special emphasis on the risk groups, the methods used in suicide, and their geographical variations. Data on annual mortality for persons…

  13. Suicide Attempts in Israel: Age by Gender Analysis of a National Emergency Departments Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Daphna; Haklai, Ziona; Stein, Nechama; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of all emergency department admissions in Israel classified as an attempted suicide in the years 1996-2002 was done to examine attempted suicide rates by age and gender with particular attention to adolescents and young adults. Gender differences in attempted suicide rates were significant only during adolescence and young adulthood,…

  14. College Student Suicide in the United States: 1990-1991 through 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2006-01-01

    Suggestions that there is a growing epidemic of suicide among college students in the United States are false. The National Survey of Counseling Center Directors reports 1,404 student suicides over a 14-year period and an adjusted suicide rate of 6.5, half the rate of the general US population (12.6 for all races) during this period when matched…

  15. Study: Ex-NFL Players Aren't At Greater Risk for Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Professional football players aren't at greater risk of suicide ... suicide death rate for 3,439 retired National Football League players who played for at least five ...

  16. Study: Ex-NFL Players Aren't At Greater Risk for Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... NFL Players Aren't at Greater Risk for Suicide Rate was lower than would be expected among ... football players aren't at greater risk of suicide than the general U.S. population, federal health officials ...

  17. Suicidal Feelings Interferes with Help-Seeking in Bullied Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Fumiharu; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Being bullied is associated with the manifestation of suicidal feelings, which sharply increase in middle(-late) adolescence. Whether or not bullied middle(-late) adolescents with suicidal feelings seek help is therefore a critical issue, given that help-seeking plays a key role in the prevention of suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of bullying, suicidal feelings and the interaction between these two factors on help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Methods Japanese middle(-late) adolescents (aged 15–18 years; n = 9484) were studied using self-report questionnaires. The rate of adolescents who actually sought help was examined for bullying status and suicidal feelings. Results The rate of adolescents who sought help was significantly higher when they were bullied (p<0.001) and also when they had mild suicidal feelings (p<0.001), but not when they displayed serious suicidal feelings. In the case of adolescents who were bullied, however, having suicidal feelings significantly decreased the rate of help-seeking (OR = 0.47, p<0.05 and OR = 0.32, p = 0.002 for having mild and serious suicidal feelings, respectively). The decrease was remarkable when suicidal feelings were serious. Specifically, the decrease was significant in seeking help from peers and family members, who are the most frequent source of the help for adolescents, when they had serious suicidal feelings (OR = 0.21, p<0.01 and OR = 0.13, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Suicidal feelings may interfere with help-seeking behavior, which could be critical in suicide prevention in bullied middle(-late) adolescents. PMID:25188324

  18. Suicide among US veterans: A prospective study of 500,000 middle-aged and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; Azrael, Deborah; Calle, Eugenia E; Lawler, Elizabeth; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2009-08-15

    Expert opinion is divided about whether US military veterans, the vast majority of whom are middle-aged or older, are at increased risk of suicide. To assess the risk of suicide associated with veteran status, the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 499,356 male participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II. Participants reported their veteran status and other characteristics in 1982 and were followed for mortality through 2004. The relative risk of mortality from suicide according to veteran status at baseline was estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 1,248 veterans and 614 nonveterans died by suicide. In age-adjusted analyses, the risk of suicide did not differ by veteran status. Additional adjustment for several sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors had little effect on hazard ratios. The authors concluded that the risk of death from suicide among middle-aged and older US males is independent of veteran status and suggest that policies to prevent veteran suicide should focus on factors that may heighten suicide risk rather than on veteran status per se. PMID:19584133

  19. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries. PMID:26110126

  20. The effect of sex ratios on suicide.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    Whereas sex ratios are likely to affect the likelihood of marriage, how sex ratios affect health and survival is underexplored. This study uses suicide as a measure of mental health and examines how suicides are affected by sex ratios. As women tend to marry men older than themselves, shrinking populations will lead to higher sex ratios (i.e., higher proportions of men) in the marriage market. Using data from Japan, I find that high sex ratios, both early-life and current, are correlated with higher male suicide rates, whereas female suicide rates are generally not affected. The results of this study have important implications for public health in countries where imbalanced sex ratios are a concern. PMID:23943552

  1. Do the Five Combinations of Suicidal Ideation in the FDA 2012 Draft Guidance Document and the C–SSRS Adequately Cover All Suicidal Ideation Combinations in Practice? A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale accommodate six combinations. We use a case study to explore the impact of possible type II errors on suicidality classification posed by not including remaining 26 possible categories. Methods: A suicidal subject kept detailed daily records of her experience of suicidality over two separate intervals of eight-months’ and nine-months’ duration. These records permitted classification of individual events into each of the possible 32 suicidal ideation combinations. Results: Although only a small percentage of all events of suicidality from either collection period fell outside of the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and the Columbia –Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories, those that were not so categorized constituted a large percentage of the time this subject experienced suicidality. When these two timeframes were aggregated, more than half of the subject’s time spent experiencing suicidality fell into the suicidal ideation combinations not captured by the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories. Conclusion: This case study suggests that type II errors in the Food and Drug Administration’s classification system and in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale categories for suicidal ideation may represent important omissions. PMID:25520895

  2. Predicting National Suicide Numbers with Social Media Data

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hong-Hee; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors – consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention. PMID:23630615

  3. Predicting national suicide numbers with social media data.

    PubMed

    Won, Hong-Hee; Myung, Woojae; Song, Gil-Young; Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is not only an individual phenomenon, but it is also influenced by social and environmental factors. With the high suicide rate and the abundance of social media data in South Korea, we have studied the potential of this new medium for predicting completed suicide at the population level. We tested two social media variables (suicide-related and dysphoria-related weblog entries) along with classical social, economic and meteorological variables as predictors of suicide over 3 years (2008 through 2010). Both social media variables were powerfully associated with suicide frequency. The suicide variable displayed high variability and was reactive to celebrity suicide events, while the dysphoria variable showed longer secular trends, with lower variability. We interpret these as reflections of social affect and social mood, respectively. In the final multivariate model, the two social media variables, especially the dysphoria variable, displaced two classical economic predictors - consumer price index and unemployment rate. The prediction model developed with the 2-year training data set (2008 through 2009) was validated in the data for 2010 and was robust in a sensitivity analysis controlling for celebrity suicide effects. These results indicate that social media data may be of value in national suicide forecasting and prevention. PMID:23630615

  4. Personal Suicidality in Reception and Identification with Suicidal Film Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality ("n" = 150) watched either "It's My Party" or "The Fire Within," censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with…

  5. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  6. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  7. Suicide risk characteristics among aborted, interrupted, and actual suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Ammerman, Brooke A; Stange, Jonathan P; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-30

    Few studies have investigated suicide risk characteristics associated with interrupted and aborted suicide attempts. The present study aimed to empirically examine whether assessing a history of interrupted and aborted suicide attempts is valuable when assessing suicide risk, given the relative lack of literature in this area to date. To inform this question, the current study examined differences in risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals who have carried out a suicide attempt, individuals who report having a history of only interrupted and/or aborted suicide attempts, and non-attempter controls. Approximately 447 undergraduates (M=21.10 years; SD=4.16; 77.6% female) completed measures of carried out suicide attempts, interrupted suicide attempts, aborted suicide attempts, acquired capability for suicide, suicide likelihood, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and non-suicidal self-injury. Results suggest that a faction of individuals endorse interrupted and/or aborted suicide attempts (8.7%), but do not endorse carried out suicide attempts, even in non-clinical samples. Furthermore, results suggest that there are few clinically meaningful differences between those with a history of carried out suicide attempts and interrupted/aborted suicide attempts, suggesting that individuals with a history of these lesser studied suicidal behaviors are an important group to target for suicide risk intervention. PMID:27344029

  8. A Review of "Suicidal Intent" within the Existing Suicide Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasley, Joseph P.; Ghosh, Biswadip; Huggins, Joseph; Bell, Missy R.; Adler, Lawrence E.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a systematic literature review that investigated suicide intent are presented. Of the 44 relevant articles identified, 17 investigated the relationships between various suicide risk factors and suicide intent and 25 publications investigated the relationships between suicide intent and various suicide outcomes. Despite recent…

  9. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  10. Is Suicide Ideation a Surrogate Endpoint for Geriatric Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Links, Paul S.; Heisel, Marnin J.; Quastel, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored the validity of treating suicide ideation as a surrogate endpoint that can serve as a proxy for suicide in clinical intervention research with suicidal seniors. Two criteria; that suicide ideation is modulated by the proposed intervention and that modulation of suicide ideation leads to a quantitative reduction in…

  11. The effect of cancer on suicide in ethnic groups with a differential suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Nakash, Ora; Barchana, Micha; Liphshitz, Irena; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levav, Itzhak

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the suicide risk among persons with cancer in ethnic groups with differential suicide mortality in the general population. We calculated the suicide standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) among Europe-America and Asia-North Africa-born Israelis with cancer, relative to the respective rates in the general population. The SIRs were higher in the European-American group [men: 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.30; women: 2.03, 95% CI 1.51-2.56], but not significantly different in the Asian-North African group (men: 0.86, 95% CI 0.52-1.20; women: 0.80, 95% CI 0.10-1.50). Assessment of suicide risk must consider the 'suicide culture' of the person with cancer. PMID:22539628

  12. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. Methods We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960–2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. Results The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. PMID:25339416

  13. Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: Are Youth Disproportionately Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Hemenway, David

    2001-01-01

    The effect of firearm availability on suicide may differ among age groups. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between suicide rates and household firearm ownership for four age groups in the nine census regions from 1979 to 1994, adjusting for regional divorce rates, education, unemployment, and urbanity. (BF)

  14. Male depression and suicide: What NPs should know.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Melissa; Oliffe, John L

    2015-11-15

    The discordant relationship between men's low rates of diagnosed depression and high male suicide rates continues to prevail in North America. NPs are in a unique position to prevent suicide through recognizing and addressing the gendered nature of men's depression. PMID:26474205

  15. Suicide among Native Americans: A Compilation of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1980-01-01

    Undue emphasis upon Indian tribes having high suicide rates has created the impression that all Indian groups have high rates. The wide variations that exist among the tribes are often ignored. Results of the available studies of suicide among the various Indian tribal groups are presented. (Author)

  16. Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide to Inform Interpersonal Psychotherapy with a Suicidal Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Talbot, Nancy; King, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Older adults in the U.S. and many countries around the world die by suicide at elevated rates compared to younger adults. However, relatively little is known about psychotherapeutic approaches to managing and treating suicide risk among older adults. The patient in this case presented with elevated suicide risk and was treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) informed by the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. This theoretical model proposes that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are causes of suicide ideation. IPT guides therapists to look for one of four interpersonal stressors that may be present in a client’s life – grief, role transitions, interpersonal disputes, and interpersonal sensitivity (i.e., skills deficits). The Interpersonal Theory provides a rationale for choosing one problem focus over another. Specifically, the problem area that allows the therapist and patient to target and ameliorate thwarted belongingness and/or perceived burdensomeness is selected. The positive outcome of reduced suicide risk in this case illustrates how targeting the constructs of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness with Interpersonal Psychotherapy may help older adults resolve suicide ideation and prevent recurrences of suicidal crises. PMID:27087791

  17. Suicide Risk in Homebound Elderly Individuals What Home Care Clinicians Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Tony

    2015-10-01

    Suicide rates and risk increase with age. Older people are heavy users of in-home services. Many of the reasons that older adults need home care are serious risk factors for suicide. These include disability, physical illness, and other conditions that affect self-sufficiency. Home care providers are well positioned to identify elder suicide risk. This requires some understanding of suicidal behavior, the key risk factors for suicide in elders, the warning signs, and what to do if suicidality is encountered. The suicide prevention field has not recognized home care as a means of reaching suicidal elders. It is critical that this be corrected as elder suicides stand to rise as the elder population increases. PMID:26418106

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Geersing, G J; Koek, H L; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Janssen, Kristel J M; Douma, Renée A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer testing in older patients (>50 years) with suspected venous thromboembolism, using conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values. Design Systematic review and bivariate random effects meta-analysis. Data sources We searched Medline and Embase for studies published before 21 June 2012 and we contacted the authors of primary studies. Study selection Primary studies that enrolled older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism in whom D-dimer testing, using both conventional (500 µg/L) and age adjusted (age×10 µg/L) cut-off values, and reference testing were performed. For patients with a non-high clinical probability, 2×2 tables were reconstructed and stratified by age category and applied D-dimer cut-off level. Results 13 cohorts including 12 497 patients with a non-high clinical probability were included in the meta-analysis. The specificity of the conventional cut-off value decreased with increasing age, from 57.6% (95% confidence interval 51.4% to 63.6%) in patients aged 51-60 years to 39.4% (33.5% to 45.6%) in those aged 61-70, 24.5% (20.0% to 29.7% in those aged 71-80, and 14.7% (11.3% to 18.6%) in those aged >80. Age adjusted cut-off values revealed higher specificities over all age categories: 62.3% (56.2% to 68.0%), 49.5% (43.2% to 55.8%), 44.2% (38.0% to 50.5%), and 35.2% (29.4% to 41.5%), respectively. Sensitivities of the age adjusted cut-off remained above 97% in all age categories. Conclusions The application of age adjusted cut-off values for D-dimer tests substantially increases specificity without modifying sensitivity, thereby improving the clinical utility of D-dimer testing in patients aged 50 or more with a non-high clinical probability. PMID:23645857

  19. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  20. Clinical decision making regarding suicide risk: Effect of patient and clinician age.

    PubMed

    Berman, Noah Chase; Tung, Esther S; Matheny, Natalie; Cohen, I Glenn; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-05-27

    To ascertain how patient age influences suicide risk assessment, clinicians (N = 262) read an ambiguous vignette about Bill (aged either 39 or 79 years old) and subsequently rated Bill's suicide risk and hospitalization needs. Suicide-risk ratings varied greatly and young clinicians rated Bill's suicide risk and hospitalization needs higher when he was elderly (79 years old); whereas, older clinicians rated Bill's suicide risk and need for hospitalization higher when he was younger (39 years old). The interaction between patient and clinician age may reflect a "similarity" bias, such that clinicians perceive those who are different (i.e., younger or older) to be at elevated risk. PMID:26677913

  1. Analysis of NTSB Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides: 1982-2014.

    PubMed

    Politano, P Michael; Walton, Robert O

    2016-04-01

    On March 24, 2015, a Germanwings aircraft crashed in the Alps. The suicidal copilot killed himself and 150 others. Pilot suicide is rare, but does happen. This research analyzed the National Transportation Safety Board's accident database (eADMS) looking for pilots who died by suicide in flight. Fifty-one suicides were identified. Gender, age, and other characteristics were examined. Average age of suicidal pilots was 38, significantly different from the average age of 45 for all male pilots involved in aircraft accidents. A discriminant function accurately identified suicidal incidents at 96%. There was a high false-positive rate limiting the usefulness of the discriminant function. PMID:27094027

  2. Analysis of suicide in the elderly in Italy. Risk factors and prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Cardin, Fabrizio; Bruttocao, Andrea; Militello, Carmelo

    2012-06-01

    The authors describe the nationwide scale of suicides among the elderly in Italy for the period 1993-2010. The data are derived from the Italian Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The elderly turned out to represent the highest risk category for suicide, with risk increasing with age (suicide rates, per 100,000, in men aged 75 or over and aged 65-74 were respectively 28.3 and 15.7 in 2007). The rates for men were three times higher than those for women. The north-east and north-west regions of Italy had the highest rates of suicide in the elderly. Education was inversely related to the risk of suicide. Hanging was the most frequent method of suicide in men, and precipitation in women. The reasons for suicide, as inferred from available data, were predominantly mental-physical illnesses. The risk factors emerging from our analysis are discussed from the preventive point of view, in relation to the Italian situation and a review of the literature. PMID:23160501

  3. Suicidality and Hostility following Involuntary Hospital Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Domenico; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychiatric patients showing risk to themselves or others can be involuntarily hospitalised. No data is available on whether following hospitalisation there is a reduction in psychopathological indicators of risk such as suicidality and hostility. This study aimed to assess changes in suicidality and hostility levels following involuntary admission and their patient-level predictors. Methods A pooled analysis of studies on involuntary treatment, including 11 countries and 2790 patients was carried out. Suicidality and hostility were measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results 2790 patients were included; 2129 followed-up after one month and 1864 after three months. 387 (13.9%) patients showed at least moderate suicidality when involuntarily admitted, 107 (5.0%) after one month and 97 (5.2%) after three months. Moderate or higher hostility was found in 1287 (46.1%) patients after admission, 307 (14.5%) after one month, and 172 (9.2%) after three months. Twenty-three (1.2%) patients showed suicidality, and 53 (2.8%) patients hostility at all time-points. Predictors of suicidality three months after admission were: suicidality at baseline, not having a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being unemployed. Predictors of hostility were: hostility at baseline, not having a psychotic disorder, living alone, and having been hospitalized previously. Conclusions After involuntary hospital admission, the number of patients with significant levels of suicidality and hostility decreases substantially over time, and very few patients show consistently moderate or higher levels of these symptoms. In patients with psychotic disorders these symptoms are more likely to improve. Social factors such as unemployment and isolation could hamper suicidality and hostility reduction and may be targeted in interventions to reduce risk in involuntarily admitted patients. PMID:27171229

  4. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224). PMID:22617088

  5. Police Suicide in Small Departments: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of police suicide research has focused on larger police departments. Very little research has been done within small departments. The present study compared suicide rates between small and larger police departments. Two Hundred ninty-eight departments were drawn from the U.S. Public Safety Officer Benefits database totaling 119,624 officers. Annual suicide rates were calculated per 100,000 for each of four category (by size of department) and p-values from Chi-square tests were employed to assess differences in rates across categories. The annual suicide rate varied significantly across departments. Smaller police departments had a significantly higher suicide rate than large departments. Possible reasons include lack of availability for mental health assistance, increased workload and danger, and community visibility. PMID:23894796

  6. Adolescent and pre-adolescent suicide in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, D; St John, K

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated suicides by people aged ten to 19 in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1977 to 1988. It is the first study of suicide in the province to use the records of death from all eight hospital pathology departments in the province and from the office of the Chief Forensic Pathologist. Cases were selected for the study using standardized criteria, independent of the manner of death recorded on the death certificate. A suicide rate of 4.37 per 100,000 was found. This rate and the age- and sex-specific suicide rates are lower than the official figures for Canada but higher than those reported in earlier Newfoundland studies. The rate for males was nearly five times the female rate, and the rate for people aged 15 to 19 was nearly six times that of people aged ten to 14. Suicide rates for Labrador were higher than for the island portion of the province for both Native and for non Native adolescents. Extremely high rates of suicide were found only among the Native population living in Northern Labrador, while none were recorded for Native people elsewhere. Firearms accounted for 54% and hanging for 33% of all suicides. Thirty percent of suicides occurred on a Saturday. Only 36 of the 63 deaths included in this study were designated as suicide on death certificates. The higher rate of under-reporting of suicide than in other jurisdictions suggests that official rates may not be useful for comparisons. The reasons for the high rate of under-reporting are discussed. PMID:1933747

  7. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788

  8. Suicidal behavior and attitudes in Slovak and Turkish high school students: a cross-cultural investigation.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet; Palova, Eva; Krokavcova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and its variation across social contexts are of importance for the science of suicidology. Due to its special character controlled experimental studies on suicide are ruled out for ethical reasons. Cross-cultural studies may throw light on the etiology of both suicidal behavior and its cross-cultural variation. The present study compared suicidal behavior and attitudes in 423 Slovak and 541 Turkish high school students by means of a self-report questionnaire. The two groups reported similar percentages (Slovak = 36.4%; Turkish = 33.8%) of lifetime, past 12-months or current suicidal ideation but significantly more Turkish (12.2%) than Slovak (4.8%) students reported lifetime or past 12-months suicide attempts. Slovak adolescents displayed more liberal and permissive attitudes toward suicide, while those of Turkish adolescents were more rejecting. Turkish students rated themselves to be more religious and hence they believed to a greater extent that suicidal persons would be punished in a life after death than their Slovak peers. However, attitudes of Turkish students toward an imagined suicidal close friend were more accepting than the attitudes of Slovak students. Comparison of suicidal and nonsuicidal students revealed that those reporting suicidal ideation or attempts were more accepting of suicide and viewed suicide as a solution to a greater extent than the nonsuicidal ones. The results from this study suggest that cultural factors play a role in suicidal behavior, attitudes and reactions in a predicted direction. PMID:24350593

  9. Geography of suicide in Taiwan: spatial patterning and socioeconomic correlates.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Wheeler, Benedict W; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2011-03-01

    In industrialised Western nations suicide rates tend to be high in inner city areas and socially fragmented neighbourhoods. Few studies have investigated spatial variations in suicide in non-Western settings. We estimated smoothed standardised mortality ratios (1999-2007) for suicide for each of the 358 Taiwanese districts (median population aged 15+: 27,000) and investigated their associations with area characteristics using Bayesian hierarchical models. The geographic distribution of suicide was similar in men and women; young people showed the greatest spatial variation in rates. Rates were highest in East Taiwan, a mostly mountainous rural area. There was no evidence of above average rates in large cities. Spatial patterns of method-specific suicide rates varied markedly, with solids/liquids poisonings showing the greatest geographic variation and hangings the least. Factors most strongly associated with area suicide rates were median household income, population density and lone-parent households. Spatial patterning of suicide in Taiwan differed from that observed in Western nations. Suicide prevention strategies should take into account unique local patterns. PMID:21292534

  10. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  11. Suicide in response to changing societies.

    PubMed

    Chan, K P; Hung, S F; Yip, P S

    2001-10-01

    The "medical model" is an insufficient explanation for the high suicide rates, but it does not mean that suicide is a different phenomenon in China. A multidimensional model (Fig. 6) is proposed to appreciate better the complexity of the problem, which can be applied to other countries. As in Figure 6, suicide and suicide attempts are conceptualized as a continuum of behaviors. The suicide method may modify the boundaries (i.e., the availability and choice of a lethal method may expand the size of completed suicides and vice versa). The spectrum of behaviors is also under the influence of individual factors, such as psychiatric disorders and personality, and local factors, such as local cultural norms, resources, and familial problems. All of these factors are subject to the influence of greater social forces. For example, psychiatric disorder increases the risk of suicide but is shaped by global forces. In the case of China, the importing of Western values influences the way Chinese people present their idioms of distress. Chinese people who tend to somatize start to psychologize more, [figure: see text] which in turn affects the rates of depression and subsequently the risk of suicide. The various factors also interact with one another. The diagnosis of disruptive and antisocial disorder illustrates how local factors modulate that of the individual. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, conduct disorder is defined by a series of "socially unacceptable behaviors," including aggression, destruction of property, theft, and violation of rules. Because biologic validity is lacking, the diagnosis (an individual factor) may vary widely in different cultural settings (a local factor). In China, conformity, self-control, and discipline are emphasized; subthreshold cases in the West already may be unacceptable in the Chinese setting and be labeled "disruptive." On the other hand, the cultural emphasis on conformity in the upbringing may reduce the

  12. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  13. Regional Variation in Suicide and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1985-01-01

    Violence in American cities was examined by classifying each city as high versus low in its economic rate and high versus low in its suicide rate. Differences were found in crime rates, poverty, population density, racial composition, latitude, and longitude. The implications of the results were examined. (Author/BL)

  14. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Player, Michael J; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  15. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  16. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. Results: The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. Conclusions: It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation. PMID:26841887

  17. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  18. Clinical characteristics of depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts: results from the CRESCEND study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Tae-Suk; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2010-10-01

    South Korea is a country with one of the highest suicide rates in the world, and the suicide rate is still on the rise. The purpose of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempts and risk factors related to suicide attempts among depressed patients in South Korea. Among the 1183 participants, 21.4% had a history of a suicide attempt. When the severity of depression was controlled, the risk factors for patients who attempted suicide included younger age, experienced significant life events before 12 years of age, psychotic symptoms, and previous depressive episodes. The characteristics of attempted suicide in depressed patients in South Korea can be summarized as a high suicide attempt rate with no difference in the number of suicide attempts and lethality between males and females. This unique tendency is probably related to the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of South Korea. PMID:20921866

  19. Gender and suicide in India: a multiperspective approach.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, M; Seshadri, S; Raj, A

    1998-01-01

    The gap between male and female suicide rates in India is relatively small. However, society's views on female and male motives are quite different. In order to investigate the perceptions of male and female suicide, we interviewed a focus group of university professors as well as police inspectors, crime reporters, and hospital nurses in Bangalore. We also obtained four narratives of suicide. Women tended to be blamed for their own or their husband's suicide, although they were also viewed more often as victims of life adversities than men. A historical review illustrates that both men and women have been associated with culturally sanctioned suicides. One known form is sati, and we discuss the recent case of sati-murder of Roop Kanwar in 1987. The social sciences and the media also pay a lot of attention to the typical female suicides, symbolizing their role as martyrs of society, which seems to compensate for attribution of blame. PMID:9560166

  20. Suicide: a 15-year review of the sociological literature. Part I: cultural and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Cultural and economic patterns from 130 sociological works on suicide from 1981 to 1995 are reviewed in this article. The traditional Durkheimian perspective on suicide was often questioned by research on the impact of the mass media, alcohol, class, modernization, religion, and politics. Major theoretical developments included the application of differential identification theory to Phillips's model of copycat suicide, the application of criminology's opportunity theory to suicide, and new explanations for the link between alcohol and the social suicide rate. Explanations are reviewed for the major new suicide trend: after half a century of convergence, male and female suicide rates are diverging. Finally, the review notes patterns of continued stability in suicide research findings in areas such as racial differences and economic strain. PMID:10888055

  1. Indo-Canadian Collaboration for Suicide Prevention: Training Needs Assessment for Healthcare Professionals in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel; Srivastava, Amresh; Reiss, Leanna; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Parkar, Shubhangi; Dutt, Lakshman; Kadam, Kranti; Links, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of the study was to conduct a comprehensive needs assessment of primary healthcare professionals in order to develop a training program aimed at enhancing competencies in suicide risk assessment and management. A total of 144 primary healthcare professionals (physicians = 46; primary care workers = 98) completed the needs assessment questionnaire. The majority of healthcare professionals rated their level of comfort and competence in assessing, treating, and referring suicidal patients as medium or high. However, their knowledge about suicide, risk factors for suicide, asking about suicidal behaviour, and helping a suicidal patient was rated low or medium. Overall, the scarcity of qualified healthcare professionals and the existing gaps in core competencies for suicide risk assessment and management was identified. Development of innovative and effective competencies-based suicide specific training for primary care providers in India is urgently required. PMID:26007647

  2. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  3. Suicides in commuting railway systems: The case of Stockholm county, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Vania; Uittenbogaard, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of suicides in commuting railway environments. Data on suicides in Stockholm commuting railway from 2006 to 2013 was analysed. The study sets out to identify significant clusters in suicides then evaluate whether commuting railway environments affect variations in suicide rates. Fieldwork inspection, spatial cluster techniques (NNHC and Getis-Ord statistics) and regression models underlie the methodology of study. Findings show no seasonality was observed in suicide cases, but winter months concentrate a larger share of events. Suicides do not occur evenly throughout the day but tend to take place more often in weekdays. Modelling findings shows that suicide rates increase with speed trains and decrease where barriers along tracks are installed. Although high speed trains are still a motive of concern for suicide prevention, findings call for a whole railway-approach to safety - one that extends maintenance beyond the platforms and stations' vicinities. PMID:27018939

  4. Further considerations on suicides among union forces during the U.S. Civil War.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey A; Frueh, B Christopher

    2013-06-01

    In their thoughtful commentary McCutcheon et al. (2013) remind us that caution is warranted in interpreting military suicide data, in part due to the possible political, leadership, and morale pressures to disguise suicides that may have existed during the U.S. Civil War. While we agree generally, we offer further considerations on suicides among Union forces during the war. We discuss the integrity of the data source, the ratio of homicides to suicides, contemporaneous journalistic accounts regarding cultural acceptance of suicide, seasonal variations in suicides, and Dyer's Compendium. All of these points suggest support for our initial argument that suicide rates during the U.S. Civil War were much lower than modern U.S. military suicide rates. We agree with McCutcheon et al. that geography and history remind us there is good reasons to be optimistic that the psychological consequences of war are not inevitably devastating to all those who serve. PMID:23489966

  5. Women's fatalistic suicide in Iran: a partial test of Durkheim in an Islamic Republic.

    PubMed

    Aliverdinia, Akbar; Pridemore, William Alex

    2009-03-01

    Durkheim's theory of fatalistic suicide, or suicide resulting from overregulation of behavior, has been neglected empirically. The authors test this hypothesis in Iran by examining the geographic distribution of female suicide. Employing the province as the unit of analysis, they examine the association between female suicide rates and multiple measures of social control of women, with rates expected to be higher in areas with greater social regulation of the lives of women and stronger traditional tribal cultures. Results show that provinces with lower levels of female education, female labor force participation, and urbanization have higher female suicide rates. Thus, whereas social deregulation is often associated with higher suicide rates in the West, the authors' findings reveal that hyperregulation is associated with higher suicide rates in Iran, at least for women. PMID:19139492

  6. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  7. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  8. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Oliver; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Kapur, Navneet

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives of the review were to establish the incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe risk factors for suicidal behaviour in deaf populations; describe approaches to intervention and suicide prevention that have been used in deaf populations. Methods A number of electronic databases (e.g. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International, Web of Science, ComDisDome, ASSIA, Education Sage Full Text, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases FADE and SIGLE) were explored using a combination of key words and medical subject headings as search terms. Reference lists of papers were also searched. The Science and Social Sciences Citation Index electronic databases were used to identify studies that had cited key papers. We also contacted experts and organisations with an interest in the field. Results Very few studies focussed specifically on suicide in deaf populations. Those studies that were included (n = 13) generally involved small and unrepresentative samples. There were limited data on the rate of suicidal behaviour in deaf people. One study reported evidence of hearing impairment in 0.2% of all suicide deaths. Another found that individuals with tinnitus seen in specialist clinics had an elevated rate of suicide compared to the general population. The rates of attempted suicide in deaf school and college students during the previous year ranged from 1.7% to 18%, with lifetime rates as high as 30%. Little evidence was found to

  9. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Okan Ibiloglu, Aslihan; Atli, Abdullah; Demir, Suleyman; Gunes, Mehmet; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bulut, Mahmut; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of suicide in the family, history of stressful life events in the previous 6 months, poor income, unemployment, sleep disturbances, severe hopelessness with depression, and coexisting symptoms of anxiety as risk factors

  10. Campus Suicide: The Role of College Personnel from Intervention to Postvention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Carlette J.; Weast, Philip G.

    Suicide is a personal act with a high degree of interpersonal effects and outcomes. The student contemplating or attempting suicide has reached a turning point in his life and is searching for a way out. Suicide rates among college-age students have tripled over the past 25 years. While national attention has been drawn to the problem of teenage…

  11. The Impact of Fictional Television Films on Teenage Suicide, 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Examining National Center for Health statistics, questions whether fictional television accounts of teenage suicide affect the teenage suicide rate. Assesses four films about teenage suicide, nationally televised in 1984 and 1985. Accounts for holiday and temporal effects, television new stories, and large city influences. Finds that the films did…

  12. The Effect of Suicide Stories on Various Demographic Groups, 1968-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David P.; Carstensen, Lundie L.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed the effects of suicide stories in television news programs from 1968 to 1985, on the suicide rates of various social groups. For 43 televised stories, suicides increased 7% in California. Contagion, or the "Werther effect" was significantly larger for teenagers. Also significant were age, race, sex, and day of the week. (Author/KS)

  13. Recent Suicidal Ideation among Patients in an Inner City Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Walton, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Barry, Kristen L.; Chermack, Steve T.; De Chavez, Peter; Blow, Frederic C.

    2009-01-01

    The rates and associated features of suicidal ideation among 5,641 patients seeking routine, nonsuicide related care in an inner-city emergency department were examined. Approximately 8% of patients seeking routine care in the emergency department reported some form of suicidal ideation within the past 2 weeks. Suicidal ideation was common in…

  14. High School Youth and Suicide Risk: Exploring Protection Afforded through Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…

  15. Screening for Depression and Thoughts of Suicide: A Tool for Use in Alaska's Village Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    Depression occurs at a significant rate in the U.S. population. Untreated depressive symptoms are a primary risk factor for suicide. Studies show that a significant percentage of individuals who commit suicide had visited their health care providers in the months before their deaths. Alaska ranks number one in the nation for suicide. Routine…

  16. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  17. Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

  18. Factors Associated with Suicide Ideation in Severely Obese Bariatric Surgery-Seeking Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Eunice Y.; Fettich, Karla C.; Tierney, Megan; Cummings, Hakeemah; Berona, Johnny; Weissman, Jessica; Ward, Amanda; Christensen, Kara; Southward, Matthew; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Mitchell, James; Coccaro, Emil

    2012-01-01

    There are high rates of suicide ideation and/or behavior in severely obese individuals. The potential contributors to suicide ideation in a sample of 334 severely obese bariatric surgery candidates was explored. Lack of college education, a history of suicide ideation and/or behavior, psychological distress, hopelessness, loneliness, history of…

  19. The Missing Piece: A Sociological Autopsy of Firearm Suicide in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Greta Yoder

    2011-01-01

    Social, economic, violence, political, and gun access predictors of suicide and gun suicide were examined via sociological autopsy. The model predicting suicide rates overall had the best results, X[superscript 2](9, N = 50) = 5.279 (CMIN, the goodness of fit statistic that represents the minimum discrepancy between the unrestricted sample…

  20. Suicide among American Indian Youth: The Role of the Schools in Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, L. Dean; Metha, Arlene

    1996-01-01

    Compares suicide rates among American Indian youth with those for other racial groups and discusses suicide risk factors for the general youth population and for American Indian youth. Describes school-based programs in terms of suicide prevention, intervention, and "postvention" strategies, with emphasis on adaptation to specific cultures.…

  1. Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Despair: Identifying the Precursors to Indian Youth Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Troy; Tomren, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Discusses suicide among American Indian youth. Examines Indian youth suicide rates, general characteristics of Indian suicides, behavioral characteristics and environmental stresses, guidelines for planning interventions, the use of American Indian culture to engage at-risk youth, and the high risk status of Indian foster children in non-Indian…

  2. Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

  3. Young Male Prisoners in a Young Offenders' Institution: Their Contact with Suicidal Behaviour by Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, H.; Davison, S.; Misch, P.; Taylor, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Prison suicide rates are increasing. The impact of witnessing a suicide or how many people do so is unknown. The aim of this study was to find how many young people detained in a Young Offenders' Institution (YOI) have had contact with another's suicide attempt and to test for association between this and own self-harming behaviour. A…

  4. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  5. Suicide in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania, 2005.

    PubMed

    Mgaya, Edward; Kazaura, Method R; Outwater, Anne; Kinabo, Lina

    2008-04-01

    Suicide surveillance was launched at the Muhimbili National Hospital mortuary in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania from 1st January to 31st December, 2005 to determine its magnitude and characteristics. Following the WHO guidelines with minor modifications, information on sex, dates of birth and death, places of residence and death, occupation, reasons and means of suicide were collected. There were 65 (2.3 per 100,000 population) suicides recorded in 2005. The suicide rate for males was 3.4/100,000 and for females was 1.2/100,000 which maybe some of the lowest rates ever reported in the world. The mean age at suicide was 32.9 (SD=13.1) years. Males were about three times more likely to commit suicide as females. The main motive behind suicide was recorded for 26 (40%) victims as family-related and for 11 (17%) as health related. Although there was a wide range of ages at which people committed suicide, the average age seems to be very low. Since reasons for suicide are coated with family problems, strategies to improve awareness of psychological and mental health services and to provide alternative economic and social support networks are advocated. PMID:18313013

  6. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  7. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  8. Psychological models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena. PMID:24568371

  9. Antidepressants and Suicidality.

    PubMed

    Brent, David A

    2016-09-01

    We review the evidence that antidepressants either increase or decrease the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescents. Meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate a small increased risk for suicidal events in adolescents and young adults, but a protective effect in older adults. In contrast, pharmacoepidemiologic studies show a protective effect across the life span. Explanations for occurrence of suicidal events in younger patients and for the apparent contradiction between RCT and pharmacoepidemiologic studies are offered. Guidance for clinicians is provided on explaining the risk-benefit ratio of antidepressants and how to monitor and attenuate for suicidal risk. PMID:27514302

  10. Prevention of suicide.

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, J E; Offord, D R

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiologic features of suicide in Canada and evaluated suicide prevention programs. Three groups were found to be at increased risk for suicide: men aged 70 years or more, women aged 65 to 69 and men aged 20 to 24. The other groups, in decreasing order of risk, were the mentally ill, people who have attempted suicide, those with a life-threatening illness, native people, people with a family history of suicide and prisoners. Studies that evaluated suicide prevention programs showed that none significantly reduced the incidence of suicide; however, the studies were found to be methodologically inadequate or used noncomparable systems of data collection. On the basis of our findings we recommend that primary care physicians routinely evaluate suicide risk among patients in high-risk groups and that intervention include counselling, follow-up and, if necessary, referral to a psychiatrist. Close follow-up is recommended for newly discharged psychiatric patients and those who recently attempted suicide. PMID:2134157

  11. Preventing Suicide Among Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inpatient suicide comprises a proportionately small but clinically important fraction of suicide. This study is intended as a qualitative analysis of the comprehensive English literature, highlighting what is known and what can be done to prevent inpatient suicide. Method: A systematic search was conducted on the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and a personal database for articles on cohort series, preferably controlled, of inpatient suicide (not deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide, unless they also dealt specifically with suicide data). Results: A qualitative discussion is presented, based on the findings of the literature searched. Conclusions: The bulk of inpatient suicides actually occur not on the ward but off premises, when the patient was on leave or had absconded. Peaks occur shortly after admission and discharge. It is possible to reduce suicide risk on the ward by having a safe environment, optimizing patient visibility, supervising patients appropriately, careful assessment, awareness of and respect for suicide risk, good teamwork and communication, and adequate clinical treatment. PMID:24881161

  12. Suicides in northern India: causes, methods used and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R; Sharma, Vivek; Harish, Dasari; Vij, Krishan

    2003-07-01

    Suicide patterns and rates differ in various populations and cultures. It has been reported that developing countries have lower suicide rates, possibly because of a lower level of environmental stress but the Indians have a very high suicide rate (Elfawal, 1999). The choice of method used to commit suicide depends on availability of means, knowledge about lethal effectiveness, and the victim's motivation and intent. The present work was designed to investigate the different methods of self-destruction, the age and gender susceptibility to suicide, the groups particularly affected and the underlying motivating factor for such an extreme step among the North Indians. Various suggestions relating to decreasing the tensions of the modern mechanical life-style, educating the public in general and the availability, use and storage of agrochemicals have been put forward. Marriage counselling and the concept of family planning are also advocated. PMID:12899427

  13. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  14. Suicide Intervention in the Schools. The Guilford School Practitioners Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poland, Scott

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for teenagers. The rate has increased by 300% since the 1950s. By establishing a comprehensive, well-organized crisis intervention program, schools can do a great deal to prevent teenage suicide, and to help the school community survive if a tragedy cannot be averted. This book provides professionals…

  15. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  16. Curbing Adolescent Suicide: Conditions, Symptomatic Behaviors, and Intervention Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Mary Nan

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are experiencing deep depression and instances of adolescent suicide are increasing at a rate 10 times faster than for adults. Predisposition to suicide can be classified into three categories: biophysical, situational, and syndromatic. Adolescents suffering biophysical disorders are most easily identified by…

  17. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  18. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  19. Impact of Death by Suicide of Patients on Thai Psychiatrists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomyangkoon, Prakarn; Leenaars, Antoon

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the impact of a patient's suicide on psychiatrists in Thailand. A confidential coded postal questionnaire survey was sent to 320 eligible psychiatrists; with a response rate of 52.18%. The results showed that 94 (56.28%) of responding psychiatrists had a patient die by suicide, consistent with high rates…

  20. Religion and Suicide in Patients with Mental Illness or Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Spoerri, Adrian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Egger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In Switzerland, the highest rates of suicide are observed in persons without religious affiliation and the lowest in Catholics, with Protestants in an intermediate position. We examined whether this association was modified by concomitant psychiatric diagnoses or malignancies, based on 6,909 suicides (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) recorded in 3.69 million…